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A monthly newsletter of

Indian Association of Energy Management Professionals

THE URJA WATCH


May 2009, Vol. II/Issue 11

It is about “Conscience Keeping on Energy Matters”

FOCUS ON

LIGHTING
The Urja Watch May 2009 Vol. II/Issue 11

FOCUS ON

LIGHTING
What’s inside…

 From the Editor:


Bright Ideas in Lighting 2

 Be Smart with T5 Energy Saver 4

 Energy Audit in Lighting Systems 10


1

 Light Pollution And Its Impact On Energy, Safety,


Health And Environment 20

 Debate of feasibility of LEDs for Street Lighting 24

 Lighting Quiz 35

 IAEMP News 37

 Upcoming Events 38
Editorial Board
S. Subramanian, S.K. Sood, Amit Gupta, R.V. Ramana Rao
Reporters: Vikas Apte – Regulatory affairs, D.K. Agrawal, Jaipur
Website: www.iaemp.org Editor Contact: tellsubi@gmail.com
Contributing Authors for this issue:
T.P. Sadananda Pai, N. Ravishankar, R,P. Rammohan

1
From the Editor’s Desk…

Bright Ideas in Lighting


Ever since the invention of the carbon filament electric
lamp by Thomas Alva Edison in 1879, bright ideas
continue to work on making lamps more efficient.
From the age of kerosene-powered lanterns, India has
progressed to producing the most modern electric
lighting systems. At many of the street-side markets,
electric lamps have now replaced traditional petromax
lanterns. The bright lamps not only help businesses
but also light up smiles on the faces of vendors.

Globally, advancements in lighting technology have made the day much


longer leading to more human output. Gone are the days when outdoor
games were played only when daylight was available.

Lighting accounts for 15-20% of total electrical consumption in India. It


offers great opportunities to improve energy efficiency and environment
as more efficient lighting systems are now available in the market.

India’s lighting industry is estimated at around Rs.50 Billion. The


industry produces a variety of lighting products including incandescent
lamps, fluorescent tubes, vapour lamps and others. The market for
Compact Fluorescent lamps (CFL) is the fastest growing segment,
growing at an estimated 25 percent annually.

The market for high intensity discharge lamps such as sodium vapour
lamps is also growing rapidly at around 15 percent. Alongside, there is a
huge and latent market for lighting fixtures and support systems.

Energy efficiency is taking center stage in almost every product category.


It's not just the technology that affects the efficiency of light, it's the
application of the light source. All light sources can be used in more
efficient ways.

Light-emitting diodes or LEDs offer by far the most efficient and longest
lasting form of electric supplied light. While the LED lamps save energy
and last longer, their initial pricetag is much higher. However, LEDs
generally require little maintenance over the life of the fixture because no
relamping is required. Cool and energy-efficient lighting by the LEDs is
important option to consider for a rapidly growing India.

2
When we talk of lighting a home, generally the idea that enters our
minds is - electric lighting. While there are many options in electric
lighting applications, natures way of lighting our way is obviously the
most effective and efficient means to brighten our lives. Few people
realize how many different ways natural light can be best used. The use
of natural light has a positive effect on our wallets and our environment,
besides producing an extremely positive effect on our psychology.

Market Trends

Lighting sets the mood. A change that is observed in our conception of


good lighting is the quantity and intensity of the light we expect. To meet
varying consumer expectations, control networking will play an
increasingly significant role in lighting products.

As LED manufacturing techniques are improving and new materials are


being developed, there have been breakthroughs in ultra-bright LED with
various colours. As a result, the application of LED lighting instruments
in professional lighting industry will most likely expand, from the present
decorative devices to comprehensive lighting equipment.

The use of computer technology in professional lighting control systems


has significantly improved. As computer technologies continue upgrading
and progressing, professional lighting control systems are gradually
evolving from analogue to digital stage and networking stage.

An issue that grows more prominent as development expands is the


pollution caused by lighting. Light pollution is the accumulated effect of
the excessive artificial lighting, needlessly wasting energy. In future,
regulation may become necessary to minimize light pollution.

Energy Efficiency

In an effort to cut down wastages and improve energy efficiency, many


municipalities in India are partnering with Energy Service Companies
(ESCOs). With average per capita energy consumption growing at around
8 per cent per year, lighting offers a significant opportunity for India to
manage the growth of the residential sector electricity.

Let us hope more bright ideas continue to make the lighting systems not
just more efficient but more cost-effective.

Energetically,

S. Subramanian
Editor

3
Be Smart With T5 Energy Saver
By T.P. Sadananda Pai

T5 Lamps – An Overview

T5 lamps are fluorescent lamps that are 5/8" of an inch in diameter. The
"T" in lamp nomenclature represents the shape of the lamp-tubular. The
number following the "T" usually represents the diameter of the lamp in
eighths of an inch (1 inch equals 2.5 centimeters). T5 lamps have a
diameter equal to 5 times an eighth of an inch, or 5/8".

T5 lamps are available for standard output and high output. The
wattages for standard T5 lamps are 14, 21, 28, and 35 watts. The high-
output T5 (T5 HO) lamps are available in 24, 39, 54, and 80 watts (49-
watt T5 HO lamps are also available from GE Lighting). A four-foot long,
54-watt version that delivers 5,000 lumens is popular in the United
States. The high light output allows fewer luminaries to achieve the same
luminance levels as when using other fluorescent lamps.

"HO" stands for high output. T5 HO lamps deliver more light than
standard T5 lamps and are available in higher wattages. HO lamps have
the same diameter and length as standard T5 lamps. T5 lamps operate at
frequencies greater than 20 kilohertz. Instant start, rapid start, and
programmed start electronic ballasts are available for T5 lamp operation.

Ballasts for T5 lamps are available for 120-, 277-, 240-, and 347-volt
operations. Most T5 ballasts are more compact than T8 ballasts,
although the dimensions vary depending on manufacturer and lamp
type. For instance, the height, width, and length of a T5 ballast are 2.5,
3.00, and 36.20 centimeters (1.0, 1.18, and 14.25 inches) or 3.18, 3.18,
and 48 centimeters (1.25, 1.25, and 19 inches). These small cross-
section sizes allow luminaries designers to create thinner luminaires.
Most manufacturers claim that their T5 ballasts have total harmonic
distortion (THD) of less than 15%. This small amount of THD avoids
potential imbalances in electrical lines that would damage wiring,
transformers, or other equipment. Manufacturers claim these ballasts
have highly efficient power factor values of more than 0.95. Most T5
ballasts carry class "A" sound ratings, so they are very quiet. The small
diameter of the T5 lamp bulbs results in an increase in temperature,
leading to cracks in the bulb. New ballasts for T5 lamps, therefore, are
required to have "end of life" circuitry that ensures that power is shut off
to the lamp when its functioning becomes impaired.

4
It is possible to dim T5 lamps with dimming ballasts. In the United
States, several dimming ballasts for T5 high output (T5 HO) lamps are
available.

At least two ballast manufacturers—OSRAM SYLVANIA and Energy


Savings produce analog dimming ballasts for T5 HO lamps, and at least
one manufacturer—TRIDONIC provides digital dimming ballasts for T5
HO lamps. Few dimming ballasts for standard T5 lamps are available.
However, analog dimming ballasts use a standard 0- to 10-volt direct-
current (VDC) dimming control signal. Digital dimming ballasts use
digital communication technology that is controllable through switch
DIM®, Digital Serial Interface (DSI), or Digital Addressable Lighting
Interface (DALI). The manufacturers claim that these ballasts can dim
from 100% to 1% of full light output.

Wiring for instant start ballasts differs from that for rapid start ballasts
and programmed start ballasts. In addition, the rapid and programmed
start ballasts have two options for wiring when being connected with
more than two T5 lamps. In series wiring, electrodes of two lamps are
connected in series, while electrodes are connected in parallel in the
other method. Energy Savings' ballasts can be wired by either way.
Incorrectly wiring any ballast may hasten end darkening of lamps and/or
shorten lamp life.

Lamp manufacturers claim that T5 and T5 high output (T5 HO) lamps
last 20,000 hours. This average rated lamp life is measured at
temperatures between 15°C (59°F) and 50°C (122°F) when operated on
electronic programmed start ballasts on a three-hour switching cycle—3
hours on and 20 minutes off—and designated as the number of hours
after which 50% of the lamps fail. The 20,000-hour lamp life of T5 lamps
is the same as the lamp life of most T8 lamps, although newly developed
prolonged-life T8 lamps have lives of 4,000 or 10,000 hours longer than
T5 lamps. Lamps operated on longer burning cycles will have longer life
spans. Shorter burning cycles (frequent switching on and off) reduce
lamp life. Use of ballasts that do not meet lamp requirements set forth by
the lamp manufacturers may also result in reduced lamp life.

T5 and T5 high output (T5 HO) lamps are designed to produce maximum
light output at 35°C (95°F). The compact size of T5 lamps reduces the
amount of materials used in their manufacture, the potential for toxic
substance contamination, and packaging materials needed for shipment
and sale. T5 lamps can, therefore, have less impact on the global
environment than T8 lamps.

5
In addition to their smaller dimensions, T5 lamps have an improved
phosphor coating that prevents mercury from being absorbed into the
phosphor and the bulb glass. This technology allows for reduced mercury
content in the lamp, as well as higher lumen maintenance. A T5 lamp
includes less than 3 milligrams (0.0001 ounces) or 5 milligrams (0.0002
ounces) of mercury.

T5 lamps save material. The reduced surface area allows manufacturers


to use nearly 60% less glass and phosphor material when
manufacturing.

Energy Saved is Energy Produced

One should begin the energy conservation from the point of installation
itself. A simple way is to use energy efficient T5 lamps with efficacy
(lumen/watt) >100 and lamp life >10000 hours which is higher than the
normal fluorescent tube-light. Mercury content in T5 lamps are less.

A lot of electrical energy is wasted in the present street lighting system.


We use sodium vapour (SV) lamps, 40w tube lights, CFL (compact
fluorescent lamp), etc. Ideal replacement for all these lighting systems is
T5 lamp with total harmonic distortion (THD)THD<10%.

Roadside street lighting is very important. In earlier days for street


lighting, ordinary bulbs were used, and then came the tube light, SV,
CFL, Metal Halide, and other lamps.

If we use CFL in place of bulb, it uses only 25% energy originally used. It
reduces pollution level by the same amount. For CFLs, power factor is
less and THD is high .Hence it creates disturbance in supply and it adds
up to E-waste. Bulb gives 5% light and 95% heat and in MH and SV,
they are 85% and 77% respectively.

Street lights in Kerala need to be improved. Safety and comfort are the
prime necessities of any street lighting. Street lights should be bright
enough to enable driver’s visibility to see the road and its edges clearly
without the use of dipper or headlights to locate any obstacles, traffic
signals, etc. The lights should also help pedestrians to see the edges of
the footpath, obstacles, signals, oncoming vehicles, etc.

Street lighting loads are generally estimated based on number of fittings,


irrespective of choke losses. Hence there won’t be any loss to the supply
party or the users but loss is to the Government and the people.

6
Comparison with 250w SV Lamp

A good quality 250w SV lamp will consume 272w in which 22w is choke
loss creating heat .A 4X24w T5 IP65 street light is an ideal replacement
for this which consumes only 100w power by giving enough light. Thus it
saves electricity by 63%. For a 12 hour street lighting it saves
172x12=2.064 units/day which can electrify 2 houses which consume
one unit/day so that the thought of RECI can be fulfilled.

In Kerala we can save lot of electricity by replacing SV lamps. But even at


this juncture of shortage of power and global warming every municipality
and corporations are running behind SV lamps .Nobody can stop them.
Proposal forwarded by EMC to some corporations are still kept in cold
storage. Since ambient temperature here does not go beyond 30*C street
lights with T5 lamps are best suited for Kerala.

Comparison with 1x40w Street light

If we replace 1x40w tube light with 1x28w T5 lamp we can save


25w/lamp as T5 lamp streetlight fitting will consume only 30w compared
to 55w by normal tube Light, which means each light can save more than
45% of electricity consumption.

Comparison with CFL

Studies reveal that a 2x11w CFL will consume 50w power after making
current impure due to low pf & high THD value. Ideal replacement for
this is 1x28w T5 street light which gives more lighting level also.

4X24W T5 IP65 Street light is an ideal replacement for metal halide on


high mast in almost 95% cases. High mast system is an energy eating
system. Most of the high masts in Kerala do not need such an intensive
lighting. In such cases a typical high mast with 12 Nos. 2x250w metal
halide can be replaced with 6 Nos. 4x24w T5 street light and we can save
5400w i.e. nearly 65 units/day with a payback period of just 4 months.

Power of T5 lamps

A 250w SV lamp can be installed at a height of 9.5m. Whereas, a 4x24w


T5 street light can be installed at a height of 25m. In certain cases it can
be used instead of 400w SV lamp. Also 1x28w T5 is an ideal replacement
for 2x40w tube light, thus, saving 50w. One 1x28w T5 can save 45%
energy compared to normal tube light. It starts instantly and it can work
even at 90V.

7
Efficacy is 100 lm/w compared to 70 lm/w of ordinary tube. These HF
tubes works at 28000Hz compared to the mains 50Hz. This increases
light output, reduces running costs, starting currents and ballast losses.
Other benefits are fast starting with no reduction in lamp life (starts at
90V), elimination of flicker, and elimination of strobe effect and varying
light output. Power factor is .96 compared to .85 of ordinary tube light.
This gives the same light output as that of 40w tube with a 14%
reduction in consumption size is 5/8 of an inch. CRI is >80. Lamp life
>100000 compared to 4000 of ordinary tube. Colour temp 4000.

CASE STUDY 1 - Street lighting from main junction of Payyanur


Municipality to Payyanur Railway Station.

Payyanur Municipality in Kannur District had planned to provide SV


lamps on octagonal poles. When they were made aware of energy saving
T5 street light they have requested to provide T5 street light. Hence 55
Nos. of 4X24 T5 street lights were provided on 7m octagonal poles.

If 250w SV lamps were used, consumption for 12hr=272x55x12=179.52


unit
If T5 were used, consumption =100x55x12=66 unit. Savings =113.52
unit/day

If rate is Rs. 6 per unit then savings per year=113.52x365x6=248608.8


which means about 40 Nos. fittings cost is reimbursed. On the other
hand government is benefited with the energy saved and this surplus
energy can be used for 113 families with consumption of 1 unit/day
stipulated by RECI. Think about the enormous saving if we replace the
SV lamps.

CASE STUDY 2 - Thalassery Municipality in Kannur District.

On the ROB in Thalassery about 22 Nos. of 250w SV lamps were


provided (11 Nos. on both sides). When municipal authorities after seeing
the power of T5, requested to provide T5 street light on ROB.
Accordingly, 15 Nos. of T5 street lights were provided. The Savings were
45.408 units/day. Pay back was
1 year and energy saved can feed 45 families.

High Mast

There is a 25m high mast in main bus stand Thalassery with 12 Nos. of
2x250w metal halides. It was not working for months. 5 Nos. of 4x24w
T5 street lights were fixed on high mast which give enough light. Energy
saved is 5500x12=66 units/day which can feed 66 families and pay back
is just 4 months.

8
The main issues involved in the design of street lighting system are 1.
Scope for selection of Energy Efficient Equipment/System 2. Use of
better design practices

Technology has developed a number of energy efficient lighting


equipments, such as, Low-loss chokes; High lumen tubes; Low wattage
lamps for same lox levels and Energy-efficient luminaries.

Now-a-days people have started using T5 lights in houses, residential


complexes to save energy and reduce current bill. It is good but what
about THD value. Who cares? The Government has to be concerned. So
the limit should be specified.

An example of bright illumination by T5 tube light

The above photograph shows drawing-cum dining hall measuring 20’X12’ in my rented house at
Ranchi. I have provided Philips make T5 tube light ( Philips Vector neo TCH 204) on the TV side
wall. The lux measurements at 7pm were recorded as follows;
1. On the top of the Sofa 6 feet below the tube: 122 lux
2. On floor diagonally opposite at a distance of 15 feet : 26lux
3. On the top of the dining table at a distance of 10 feet :50 lux
4. On the top of the inverter at a height of 2 feet on opposite side : 48 lux
I could not check the consumption but it consumes 28 watts at rated voltage. It cost me Rs.
550/- only including fitting charges. It works between 170-250V without flickering.
- Sunil Sood
sunilsolar@yahoo.co.in

9
ENERGY AUDIT IN LIGHTING SYSTEMS
By N. Ravishankar

BACKGROUND

The major objectives of energy audit in lighting systems include:

 Measurement and comparison of illumination levels at various


locations and ensure that those are as per required standards.
 Measurement of actual power consumption of all lighting feeders.
 Calculate the installed load efficacy in terms of lux/watt/m²
(Existing vs Design) for general lighting installation.
 Compare calculated value with the standard norms applicable.
 To suggest ways and means to optimise the illumination levels and
to optimise the power consumption at different locations with clear
bankable proposals.
 To identify energy saving measures and quantify the energy as well
as cost savings.

STEPS IN CONDUCTING LIGHTING SYSTEMS ENERGY AUDIT

The steps involved in conducting energy audit of lighting plant are:

 Data collection.
 Observations, measurement and Analysis.
 Proposal for energy conservation measures with detailed techno-
economic calculations.
 Report preparation as per standards laid by BEE.

DATA COLLECTION

 Collect the single line diagram of electrical drawing pertaining to


lighting ( Cell wise, Building wise as appropriate ).
 Obtain the lighting fixture details for each section.
 Typical format for data collection of lighting details is given.

10
Table 1: Typical Data Collection Parameters

Fixture Other
Watts Total
Section Type & No of Feeder energy Room Lumens Rema
of each connected
/ Dept. ballast fixtures details consumer size required rks
fitting watts
type details

Example:

By changing from standard fluorescent lamps with magnetic ballasts to


energy efficient T8 fluorescent lamps with electronic ballasts, the energy
consumption can be reduced by approximately 50 percent, while still
maintaining the same light level.

Look for or Ask Questions

 Are lights on in unoccupied areas?

 Is the exterior lighting on during the day?

 Do operators manually turn off lights?

Because there is no investment, some opportunities can be the simplest


and most cost effective to save on lighting energy.

Create awareness of such opportunities and fix responsibility by


implementing monitoring and targeting. Reward employees on
performance in energy saving.

Install occupancy sensor or photo electric sensors. This offers a more


reliable method to obtain savings as it is not operator dependant. Typical
applications are pump houses, meeting rooms, bathrooms, warehouse,
or storage areas. (one photo sensor can operate multiple light fixtures).

Replace high pressure sodium (HPS) lights in low use areas with
fluorescent lights for quick on and off control.

Although HPS lights can operate more efficiently, their long re-strike
times can make them a poor choice for low use areas. Because they take
so long to warm up, they are frequently left on continuously.

11
Replace or maintain faulty photo controls.

Often when lights are on during the day it turns out that photo controls
are already installed but have become inoperative.

Are existing lighting levels higher than the recommended levels?

This can be accessed through your Energy Auditor .

Use a hand held calibrated light meter to measure the amount of light
available in work areas.

Hold the meter at work level. Refer to the table appropriate for
recommended lighting levels. ( Check with your Energy Auditor )

In case the details are not available it is suggested to conduct a survey


and obtain the above details. Also check and create a column marked as
―other energy consumers‖ column and incorporate the details of fans, air
conditioners, computers, photocopiers, and others which are connected
to lighting circuit.

For illumination levels required, refer to standard practices where


recommended illumination values as per IS: 3646 (Part-1)–1992 for
various areas are available.

 If the plant has separate transformers for lighting circuit, provide


details of the transformer.

 Details of energy saving retrofits installed in the plant (such as


voltage controllers, sensors, controllers, timers and others).

 Details of on & off mechanism of lighting circuits

 Details of energy meters provided in the lighting circuit and


sections served by these meters.

 Details of energy consumption monitoring of lighting systems.

 Energy consumption of lighting circuits.

12
INSTRUMENTS REQUIRED

The following calibrated instruments are required for conducting the


energy audit of lighting system

 Power Analyzer: Used for measuring electrical parameters such as


kW, kVA, pf, V, A and Hz of class 0.5 accuracy
 Lux meters
 Measuring tape ( to measure room size , fitting height etc )
 On line energy meter instruments – (calibrated)

MEASUREMENTS & OBSERVATION TO BE MADE

While conducting the audit carryout a detailed survey/study for the


following

 Monitor the condition of lighting fixtures

 Lux measurements at various places (Number of measurement to


be carried out is as per Industry standard )

 Measurement of power parameters kW, kVA, Current, Voltage,


power factor, harmonics, frequency of all feeders
 Room dimensions / Room Index
 Counting of installed fixtures Vs number of fixtures in operation
 Maintenance practices – for cleaning, replacement, life etc

OBSERVATIONS AND ANALYSIS

System familiarisation and operational details

Collect the single line diagram of electrical drawing pertaining to lighting


(Cell wise, Building wise as appropriate) and visit to the plant can be
made to ensure correctness of the same .

Measurements & Evaluation

The summary of lighting measurements and calculations are shown


And the more content of details/data will ensure more precise study on
the systems and identify savings potential.

13
Table 2: Summary of lighting measurements and calculations

Measured Standard
Location / Type of Measured
Average Lux level
Room No lamps Power (kW
Lux level (as per I S 3646)

Observations on house keeping and maintenance practices

Interactions and surveys to be carried out on:

 House keeping measures in up keeping of luminaries


 Failure rate of lamps and ballasts and compare with Mfg standards
 Replacement procedure of failed lamps and data’s ( Check with
stores on FIFO / FILO material management practises )
 Procurement options , stock options
 Maintenance practices
 Operational practices (on / off controls , purpose , )
 If any energy saving retrofits are installed in the plant then the
operational status of the retrofits can be assessed
 Identify the areas where poor illumination and excess illumination
is provided
 Assess the various alternate lamps / luminaries applicable for
various sections
 Type of panel lamps or sign lamps used – to explore possibility of
using LED lamps
 Observations on other loads which are connected to the lighting
circuit and their energy consumption

Exploration of energy conservation possibilities

While conducting the energy audit explore for various energy


conservation measures such as:

 Look for natural lighting opportunities through windows and other


openings. Derive way to improve natural lighting during the day
time.

14
 In the case of industrial lighting, explore the scope for introducing
translucent sheets.
 Use of energy efficient lighting methods / products / equipments /
retrofits.
 Maximize sunlight use through use of transparent roof sheets,
north light roof, and other roofing.
 Examine scope for replacements of lamps by more energy efficient
lamps, with due consideration to luminaries, colour rendering
index, lux level as well as expected life comparison. Performance of
luminaries which are commonly used are given in the Replace
conventional magnetic ballasts by more energy efficient ballasts,
with due consideration to life and power factor apart from watt
loss.
 Select interior colours for light reflection.
 Assess scope for re-arrangement of lighting fixtures
 Modify layout for optimum lighting.
 Providing individual / group controls for lighting for energy
efficiency such as:
 On / off type voltage regulation type (for illuminance control)
 Group control switches / units
 Occupancy sensors
 Photocell controls
 Timer operated controls
 Modify switches / electrical circuit
 Install input voltage regulators / controllers for energy efficiency as
well as longer life expectancy for lamps where higher voltages,
fluctuations are expected.
 Replace energy efficient displays like LED's in place of lamp type
displays in control panels / instrumentation areas, etc.
 Opt for better reflector in lighting
 Cleaning of reflector at regular interval
 In power plant, locations like HT/LT switchgear rooms, cable
galleries etc which sites / locations are rarely visited, lighting
circuits may be modified in such a way that keeping 25% to 30%
lights always ―ON‖ and remaining lights controlled by simple ON
/OFF switch provided at the entrance of the room / hall
 Opportunities to reduce the power consumption/ improve the
energy efficiency of other loads which are connected to the lighting
circuit

15
Reduce lighting levels where appropriate

It is common for some areas to have excessive lighting; particularly


warehouse space, walk-in freezers, and hallways.

There are a number of strategies for reducing lighting: lamps can be


removed (for fluorescent fixtures the ballast will
still consume some energy), fixtures can be rewired to allow partial
to full lighting, or new efficient fixtures can be installed with a
reduced design point for the lighting level.

Lighting level may be perceived as a ―health and happiness‖ issue.


Even if an area may have higher lighting levels than recommended
by Illuminating Engineering Society of North America it may go
against the local culture to reduce lighting.

Reduce overall lighting and install task lighting.

This approach can provide better lighting at the point of use, while
reducing the overall lighting in an area.

Unless task lighting is installed to be easily modified, an excellent


task lighting layout can quickly become obsolete as manufacturing
operations and layouts change.

Are incandescent lights installed?

Replace incandescent lights with T8 Fluorescent lamps and matched


electronic ballasts.

The fluorescent fixtures of today are extremely rugged and versatile.


These fixtures can operate in ambient temperatures down to 0° F,
can be operated as BI-level lighting or dimmed without reducing the
rated lamp life.

These fluorescent fixtures provide flicker-free operation and can


operate with Total Harmonic Distortion of less than 5 % and Power
Factor greater than 90%.Energy consumption can be reduced by
whopping / unbelievable 50 %.

Replace incandescent lamps with compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs).


Compact fluorescent lamps offer a quick and simple opportunity to
retrofit to more efficient lighting.

16
Estimate 80 percent increase in efficiency.

For persistence of savings, fixtures that can only accept CFL’s


should be installed.

Replace high bay incandescent fixtures with high pressure sodium


(HPS) lamps in areas where the colour of the light is not important.
Some might not like the yellow orange light. It may also be
unacceptable where good colour recognition is required (Example: a
product inspection/grading area).
HPS lamps take time to restrike and then come up to full output
when first turned on.

Replace incandescent fixtures with higher efficiency metal halide


(MH) fixtures in areas where colour is important such as product
grading areas.
MH lamps offer a ―white‖ light preferred by some. Generally they are
not as efficient as HPS lights.
MH lamps also take time to restrike and come up to full light output
when first turned on.

Are standard fluorescent lamps installed?


Replace standard fluorescent and magnetic ballasts with T8’s and
matched electronic ballasts.

35-45 percent increase in efficiency

It can be problematic to have T8 and standard fluorescent fixture at


the same facility. Although standard fluorescent lamps fit in T8
fixtures, the ballasts are not matched and may create problems.
Replace fluorescent fixtures with low bay MH fixtures.

MH lights are more commonly chosen for their white light than their
efficiency.

Savings will only be available for specific selections of MH fixtures.


For some combinations of existing fluorescent fixtures replaced with
metal halide fixtures, energy use could increase.

Are magnetic ballasts installed on the existing fluorescent lights?


Install electronic ballasts.

17
Estimate: 10-25 percent increase in efficiency

It can be difficult to determine the type of ballast installed without a


visual inspection.

Are Mercury Vapor lights installed?


In the past, Mercury Vapor lights were selected because of their long
lamp life.
These lamps are not energy efficient because as they age, their
lumen output decreases but they continue to consume the same
amount of energy.

Efficiency increase estimates assume maintaining same lighting


level.

Replace Mercury Vapor fixtures with higher efficiency metal halide


(MH) fixtures in areas where color is important such as product
inspection areas.

MH lamps offer a ―white‖ light preferred by some. Generally they are


not as efficient as HPS lights.

Estimate: 80 percent increase in efficiency


MH lamps take time to re-strike and come up to full light output
when first turned on.
Replace Mercury Vapor fixtures with T8 Fluorescent lamps and
matched electronic ballasts.
Again, the fluorescent fixtures of today can handle temperatures
down to 0 F, can be operated as BI-level lighting or dimmed without
reducing the rated lamp life. These fixtures can provide excellent
color rendering for areas that require this, such as inspection areas.
The mounting height for these fixtures may have to be lowered in
order to achieve adequate light distribution. This could create
interference problems with overhead cranes.

Some good practices in lighting are:

 Installation of energy efficient fluorescent lamps in place of


"Conventional" fluorescent lamps.
 Installation of Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL's) in place of
incandescent lamps.
 Installation of metal halide lamps in place of mercury / sodium
vapour lamps.
 Installation of High Pressure Sodium Vapour (HPSV) lamps for
applications where colour rendering is not critical

18
 Installation of LED panel indicator lamps in place of filament
lamps.
 Light Control
 Grouping of lighting system, to provide greater flexibility
in lighting control
 Installation of microprocessor based controllers
 Optimum usage of day lighting
 Installation of "exclusive" transformer for lighting
 Installation of servo stabilizer for lighting feeder
 Installation of high frequency (HF) electronic ballasts
in place of conventional ballasts

Recommendations
Each energy conservation measure should discuss:

 The back ground


 Analysis and suggestion
 Energy savings evaluation (Estimated – before and after)
 Impact on energy consumption after implementation
 Economic feasibility
 Investment required and payback period
 Monitoring and verification of energy savings
after implementation
 Efforts and resources required for sustainability of
energy savings
 The vendors/ suppliers/ manufactures details

Courtesy: www.energymanagertraining.com

About the contributor:

Mr. N. Ravishankar is a BEE Certified Energy Auditor having vast


experience in machine maintenance, utilities O & M, machine
reconditioning and Training & Development. He can be reached at
ravishankar_nagarajan@yahoo.com or
ravishankar_energyauditor@yahoo.co.in

19
LIGHT POLLUTION AND ITS IMPACT
ON ENERGY, SAFETY, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT

By R.P. Rammohan

WHAT IS LIGHT POLLUTION

Light Pollution affects everyone's quality of life and many of us do not


even realize it.

Light pollution is wasted artificial light; light that shines where it is


neither needed nor wanted.

Light pollution, a phenomenon that is created because of inefficient,


excessive and poor lighting.

Light pollution is wasted illumination needlessly spilled to the sky from


poorly shielded and improperly installed outdoor light fixtures.

Wasted electricity from excess illumination spilling into the sky and
across property lines wastes an enormous amount of energy needlessly,
serving no useful purpose whatsoever. In areas where electricity is
generated by burning coal, this needless waste contributes to additional
greenhouse gases in our atmosphere, contributing to global warming.

Light pollution caused by luminaires that are not properly adjusted and
shielded needlessly robs everyone of their inalienable right to view the
stars.

Light beamed into the sky is squandered, since it's not illuminating any
target.

Most light fittings waste a large fraction of the light they produce. If you
fly into a city at night and you can see the streetlights from the airplane,
that light is counterproductive.

LIGHT POLLUTION KILLS SAFETY

Light Pollution occurs when unmanaged glare emitting from improperly


aimed and unshielded light fixtures causes uninvited illumination to
cross property lines or shine bright light into drivers' eyes.

When this happens, the safety of pedestrians is often placed in jeopardy.

20
In Oxfordshire, a man was killed when a pub floodlight blinded a car
driver. In Australia, ill-directed lighting surrounding an airport caused a
fatal air crash.

Responsible nighttime illumination makes roads and parking lots much


safer for both drivers and pedestrians.

Glare from a car's high beams, a poorly aimed porch light, or even an
unshielded window inhibits night vision, paradoxically making it harder
to see. That can endanger drivers, not to mention hapless deer.

LIGHT POLLUTION KILLS HUMAN HEALTH

Intrusive nuisance lighting can cause stress, leading to deterioration in


health, heart attacks, and even thoughts of suicide.

Light Pollution also robs us of our right to a good sound night's sleep
when artificial illumination coming from poorly aimed and unshielded
light fixtures shines glare into our windows at night.

Occasionally, poorly aimed lighting gets so bad that even the best blinds
and drapes cannot end the spill of light into a room. Controlling outdoor
illumination prevents eye abuse

Artificially generated light at night affects the pineal gland's ability to


produce melatonin (the sleep hormone).

Light and cancer may be even more fundamentally linked. 73 percent


more breast cancers occur in US’s brightest communities than in its
darkest.

Too much artificially generated light at night can have very adverse
affects on our health by disrupting natural hormone production that our
bodies require! Research in this area is indicating more links to some
very interesting medical questions about how natural circadian rhythms,
when disrupted, can increase the risk of certain types of cancer.

HOW TO COMBAT LIGHT POLLUTION

Use outdoor nighttime lighting only for as long as and as bright as it is


absolutely necessary.

Make sure your home or business lighting only shines where it is needed
and with appropriate power, without wasting light upwards into the sky,
or outwards into neighbouring homes.

21
Well designed outdoor light fixtures do not show the source of
illumination when they are properly shielded and installed so no light
shines above the horizontal plane.

Municipalities can fix light pollution problem by instituting


comprehensive outdoor lighting ordinances that require shielded lighting
that does not shine illumination above the horizontal plane.

In the interest of reducing glare to improve safety, security, and visual


acuity after dark, the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America
recently dramatically lowered their recommended illumination levels for
the nighttime environment.

LIGHT POLLUTION – LEGAL ASPECTS

Light Pollution robs us of our right to privacy and fair legal use of our
land when glaring unshielded lights shine artificial illumination onto our
property at night. It is an unwelcome violation of our space and is
known as Light Trespass. Many communities have nuisance laws that
prevent this abuse in US.

These conditions are commonly known as Light Trespass. It should be


one of your rights not to be forced to suffer this kind of abuse..

LIGHT POLLUTION – SOME STATISTICS

An estimated 30 percent of outdoor lighting is wasted in USA. Each year


an estimated 10 billion dollars worth of electricity is being wasted due to
light pollution by the United States alone. The majority of this electricity
is generated by burning fossil fuels.

They have documented light from distant cities traveling roughly 200
miles into national parks in USA

In dark US rural areas about 2,000 stars are typically visible at night,
compared with "maybe five" in a bright city square—and about 5,000 in
centuries past.

More than 300 megawatts worth of light is wasted skywards from UK


streetlights alone, at an annual cost of about £100m ($190m).

Even the most modern streetlights in UK divert light away from the
street, and shine light directly into the sky. Light pollution in the UK
increased by a staggering 24% between 1993 and 2000, making Britain
the third most light-polluted country in Europe.

22
In 2008 Hong Kong's environmental protection department received some
50 complaints about light pollution, up from the 40 cases received in
2007, with neon advertisement signs posing a growing nuisance for the
public.

CONCLUSION

Putting an end to light pollution is a responsible and ethical thing to do,


and it will enhance the quality of life for nearly every citizen in the
process.It only makes sense to conserve electricity where possible, and
turning the night into daytime conditions is neither prudent nor
necessary.

About the contributor: Mr. R P Rammohan is an independent energy


management consultant with extensive experience in energy audits. He
has a special interest in lighting pollution and lighting related energy
conservation. He is based in Hyderabad and may be reached at Email:
rammohanrp@yahoo.com
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

30 % of world
population
without access
to electricity
lives in India!
And on the
other hand
some people
are suffering
from light
pollution!

What an irony!

Photos by:
Sunil Sood

23
Debate on feasibility of LED Street lighting
An interesting debate took place in iaemp yahoo group. Here are some of
the unedited messages!- Editor
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----

Lumens - Unit of energy for light, which is produced by any light source. The efficacy is lumens
per watt. For monochromatic light of mid spectrum

(maximum spectral luminous efficiency) is 683 lm/W at 555nm - which corresponds to peak of
visible spectrum , and green.

For multi spectrum light would be lesser, as different frequencies have different energy.

Lux is the lumens per sq.m in a plane.

Thus product of lux over an area and the area in Sq meters would give the lumens.

All lights give off light in 360 degree direction, atleast in one axis . Thus, for getting light for
working area, we need lumnairs or reflectors.

Thus, the final area covered by the total unit (lumnaire +lamp) is more a function of the lumniaire
than the light. Since no luminaire can reflect 100% of the light, the amount of lumens falling over
an area would be less than that produced by the lamp. The lamp itself would absorb a
considerable portion of the light reflected onto itself.

For HPSV, a net reflection of 70% is considered as good.

The LED lights give off light in a specified direction, and the efficacy (lumens per watt) is the net
light output in that direction. Thus there is no loss of light.

It is due to this reason LEDs can produce more lux than conventional light.

Further, most lumniares cover more area due to wider angles, as reducing the dispersion below
certain value reduces the luminaire efficiency. LED lights can e designed for the exact
requirement of dispersion angle, without loss of efficiency.

HPSV and night lighting

The human eye perceives the objects differently during the night and the day. The day vision is
called the Photopic vision and the night vision is called Scotopic. A search in the net would give
many details on the above.

Venture lighting gives the complete detail of how metal halide (whose S/P ratio is similar to that of
white LED with colour temperature of 6500 deg K) is much better than HPSV.

(I can give links to the different sites, once I am a bit free)

Fog visibility

The idea that yellow light penetrates fog is due to the higher diffraction of the shorter wavelengths
of light in a spectrum. This is the reason for the red colour of the sun during the evening and
morning.

24
However, during the fog, the visibility becomes poor in general - and the fog is a phenomenon at
sunrise or essentially day time.

The street lights are meant for providing light at the night.

A search in the IESNA site for street lighting ( none can say that IESNA knows less about
lighting) will give all the relevant details, and how the S/P ratio is becoming a very important tool
for comparing the lux levels of different different lights for street lighting and why metal halides /
LEDs will become more preferred lights in the future.

My recommendation is that anyone wanting to question a posting or pass adverse comment,


should first do a simple net search, understand and pass comments with reference, than just
state what they "believe" to be true - without any further basis.

teejay

Dear Mr. Sood,

As per my experience in lighting, only lumen to lumen comparison should be right thing.

Lumen to lux comparison is technically not correct because 01 lux is 01 lumen per sq. mt.

Colour rendering of HPSV is less but it gives maximum illumination level if installed properly. For
street light application CRI does not matter because objective of street light is to improve visibility.

Subodh Shah
Executive Engineer (electrical)
Vadodara Municipal Corporation
Vadodara

Mobile: 09825801936

Dear Mr Shah,

I am reproducing your mail

Quote

Dear Mr. S. Khandekar,

I agree with you, 100% lumen can not be converted in to lux. Even though as of now there is no
replacement of HPSV SON T PIA lamps. In Future LED may replace all conventional lighting
source.
Subodh Shah
unquote.

25
I agree with you that one unit cannot be and should not be compared with other units in
engineering.

the point is if you compare lumen to lumen, and find it unfavourable, but lux to lux i the required
area is favourable, which one should you take?

It is a comparison of lux to lux, and that is the final requirement for any lighting application.

regards

teejay

Dear Group members,

In lighting, lamp is the source of light output, which is measured in lumen, if any light source
is emitting less lumens, more lux (illumination) is just not possible.

CRI is related to quality of light, it can not be compared in terms of lux. Low CRI of HPSV does
not mean that lower conversion of lumen to lux.

In street light CRI is not important, as it will help in identifying the colour of the object.

I am not against any product, I am trying to put technical data to the benefit of the group
members.

I also request to Mr. Teejay to surf the net and find out the right thing.

I do not have any vested interest. I am largest user of lighting products hence I need to check all
the products technically.

Subodh Shah

Re: “In lighting, lamp is the source of light output, which is measured in lumen, if any
light source is emitting less lumens, more lux (illumination) is just not possible.”
I am a bit of a rookie on this topic, but I am presuming that not just Lumens, but
directionality matters and that is what makes LED really neat. It doesn’t make sense if a
lamp is generating a lot of light (lumens), but headed in the wrong direction or wasted
(like they are in down-lighters in offices and corridors). Lux is really what the experience
of lighting is about and I am presuming that even though certain light sources have higher
lumens, the lux levels at the places that matter don’t add up due to the lack of proper
directionality.
Did I get that right ?
K.R.Harinarayan

26
Mr. Hari,

Luminary & reflector is giving direction to the light output (lumen) towards the object to be
illuminated.

We have achieved 35lux level for 250 w HPSV lamps (33200 lumen ouput).
We have installed poles at 45 meter span. Mounting height is 10 M.

We are the only Municipal Corporation in the country to have this type of installation with effective
service delivery.

Ihave already uploaded picture galary, pl. look at it.

Subodh Shah

Dear Mr Datar and Mr Subodh,

Please find attached, two pdf files, which should give relevant data.

Mr Datar is absolutely right - When using LEDs, the biggest advantage is the LUX where you
want - thus, when a streetlight requires only about 120 degrees of dispersion along the road, and
less than 60 degrees (mostly around 30-45 degree) of dispersion across the road - most HPSV
lamps give about 160 degree or more of dispersion . Thus, even with the assumption of 100%
reflection (which is impossible as the lamp itself would absorb the light reflected onto it) the
effective lux from properly designed LED lamps outweigh the advantages of the higher (say 15-
20%) of HPSV.

Also, SECO's design ensures more that 96% efficiency to the LEDs compared to the normal
HPSV lamps ( or most of the other LED design)

Also, the lumen loss is spread over a longer time compared to the HPSV.

When You compare the metal halide lamps, LED would not have the advantage of the S/P ratio -
which is available when compared with HPSV.

One should also remember that HPSV has mercury, while LEDs have none.

For those who are interested in the quantification of mercury due to lamps (cfl at home was taken
as example), I can send a paper written by my daughter Vaishnavi Jayaraman, and her friend
Divya, who are second year students of chemical engineering at SSN college of engineering,
Chennai.

Dear Mr. T.jayaraman & Mr. Datar,

Light distribution of HPSV is depending on the design of reflector not on lamp.

Very good quality LED give lumen efficacy of around 80 lumen/watt.

27
At present LED lamps are costly compared to sodium for equivalent lumen package.

Subodh Shah

Dear Mr Subodh,

It is possible to have LED lights with equivalent LUX on the roads ( not lumens, as it does not
matter if we produce more lumens or less lumens, but what is required is lux in the roads) with
less than 3 year payback and 30,000 hours of life (70% lux retention). - if the unit cost is taken at
Rs 5 and light hours per day as 12.

During that time, at least three HPSV lamps would have been changed and no mercury would
have been added to poison the earth.

For energy conservation and not having mercury, three year payback is not too high.

T.Jayaraman.

Dear Mr. Subodh,


HPSV is not a point source of light. That is why it is extremely difficult to design an exact reflector
which will ensure that light spreads only in the required area. More over, there is some loss in the
reflector too. If you see the soft ware of Crompton Greaves, you will find that light output ratio of
street light fittings varies from 70 to 89%.
Regards
S. khandekar

Dear Mr. Jayraman,

LED is definately not for streetlight application.

Please compare LED & HPSV for on kilometer road length by following points.

Road Length: 01 KM

Road width: 42 M,

Installation: Central

Carriage width: 8.5M X 2

Mounting Height of HPSV Luminary: 10 M

Span Between Poles: 42 M

Average Illumination Level: 35 lux (By considering factor .8 for IP 66 luminary)

28
Total Load: 13.44 KW for 01 Km length (40% energy saving after dimming)
Note:- Abovedata is measured at Vadodara Municipl Corporation's insatalltions.

Lumen out otput of 250 w HPSV PIA Lamp: 32000 lumen

Life of Lamp: 32000 burning Hours.

I request u to calculate load & energy consumption of LED for getting illumination level of 35 lux.
As 01 lux is 01 lumen per sq. mt. pl. compare for equivalent lumen output.
Pl. do not adjust illumination level with respect to CRI.

Subodh Shah

Dear Mr subodh shah,

Could you please send me the lux mapping of two to three lights for my reference please?

Once i get that data, i hope to be in a position to answer your query.

Please note that i am not using this forum for "selling”. hence, it is for you to take the S/P
correction or not. All the information I give can be cross verified in the web or books - except
about our LEDs.

I stand for the correctness of information about our products.

Hope to get the required information from you at the earliest.

regards

teejay

Dear Mr. S. khandekar,

I agree with you, 100% lumen can not be converted in to lux. Even though as of now there is no
replacement of HPSV SON T PIA lamps. In Future LED may replace all conventional lighting
source.

Subodh Shah

Dear Mr. T. Jayraman,

There is international nine point method (between two poles) of lux measurment.

Take three points below each poles at equidistance on carriage width (06 points)
and three points between the two poles. there is a formula to calculate average lux level, for A1 &
A2 category of road uniformity should be 40%. (This is as required in IS 1944).
We have considered maintenance factor also.

29
I am herewith attaching a file which shows details of lux measurments.

Please feel free to contact me on the issue.

Subodh Shah

Hi Mr Subodh Shah and Jayaraman and others.

1. This is Vijay Gupta ( MD , Kwality Photonics P ltd, manufacturers of Power LEDs(


100LPW currently). Though I am joining in discussion a bit late, I’ll offer comments in random
chronological order. ( I’ve also edited the mails in the chain for ease of cross-reference and for
new participants).
2. Congrats, Mr Shah, for the meticulous work done on Streetlight measurement method (
9point system).Thanks for your simple and clear explanation of the same.
3. Very good quality LED give lumen efficacy of around 80 lumen/watt. At present
LED lamps are costly compared to sodium for equivalent lumen package
There are few makers like Kwality, Seoul, Cree that offer 100LPW commercially now.
Prices: are poised to fall steeply with excellent variable-cost breakthroughs happening recently.
Yet, We have to recover our development costs. So prices don’t fall in the general market for
some more time.
Yet we are willing to offer the cost saving realised by us for large projects on one-one basis , and
rather are looking out for such partners who can work with us on longterm business.
4. It does not matter if we produce more lumens or less lumens, but what is required is
Lux in the road(TJ)
Lux on the road is indeed directly proportional to Source Lumens. But with right
geometry/optics one can eliminate the light going into unwanted places( Skylight, Glare etc). For
HPSV its too complicated to achieve( really?) , but with LEDs , same Lux distribution can be
achieved with lesser lumens/power( as propounded by Mr T Jayaraman). Further, the eye
response for low light levels ( mesopic) , such as in the nights, is better for Blue dominant LEDs
than the Yellow dominant HPSV ( Yes Mr Datar !), allowing further reduction in LED Lumen or
given Lux target.
5. Efficacy of LED is much less compared to HPSV lamps. Lumen output of LED
may reach up to 200 lumen/watt in future, Now a days techno-economics of LED do not
allow LED to be used in street light applications. In the same way solar lighting also
cannot be implemented for street light service.( SubodhShah)
You may be right that SOLAR lighting is not competitive, naturally when grid power is available
on demand(?) @Rs7, and no hassles of maintaining the battery( a major pain and need
replacement every 500 days) and need for security against pilferage. Yet Mumbai (MCGM) has
installed 1000 nos of 12W streetlights in adivasi-pada’s( Jogeswari forest) and slums in northern
Mumbai, for calls that go beyond economics.
LED cost effectiveness has seen swift changes, of recent, as the outcome of R&D by Chip
produces have begun trickling down to us now. If you can share you calculations and
assumptions with the forum, we can try to bring it update with present or near-future-certainty-
figures.
6. Also, SECO's design ensures more that 96% efficiency to the LEDs compared to the
normal HPSV lamps
Mr Jayaraman must be using source voltage close to combined Vf of the string of LEDs. Yet the
220V SMPS which is employed to get to this voltage has a 80~90% efficiency. May be it needs
to be counted too.
Mr. Subodh Shah,
This is most interesting… a couple of questions:
- Is the distance A1-B1 about 22m (1/2 the distance between the poles)
- What is the distance A1-B2 and B2-A4 ? (is it 8.5 / 2 = 4.2 m ?)
- How does one define the IP class for a luminary ? What it would be for an LED streetlight ?
K.R.Harinarayan

Dear Mr Subodh,

Could you please send the file as .DOC (word 2000 or lower) as my open office does not open
the higher versions.

However, i am giving below the results of the testing of SECO's street light by one of the BEE
approved consultant.

The payback would be about three years for 12 hours burning and for unit cost of Rs 5.

The lumen maintenance would be 70% at 30,000 hours, thus justifying the investment.

-------------

Comparison of 250 W HPSV lamp and SECO's 70 W LED light , on behalf of Energy
management Centre (EMC) Thiruvnanthapuram, by a BEE approved consultant

Ratio of Lux/W between SECO's LED lamps and HPSV = 4.82

Ratio of average Lux between SECO's LED lamps and HPSV = 1.3

Ratio of Power consumption between SECO's LED lamps and HPSV = 0.24

31
--------------------End of the extract

While I agree that the LED light was compared with a old HPSV, SECO did not choose the light
for comparison. This also should give you an idea of the design of LED which could result in
higher lux, though the lumens from LED lamp was not higher - even if the deterioration of th
HPSV was 50%.

I am willing to send a street light on a trial basis, matching LUX to LUX , after I study your
data. However, I would need to be paid if the results match. I am also willing to guarantee the
performance for 6 months over and above the payback period. Please let me know your unit
charges to calculate the payback.

I do think that this is a fair offer, though it might be difficult for a municipal body.

teejay

Dear Mr. Hari

You are right, all distance r correct.

While procuring, buyer should specify IP of luminary. Higher is the IP better is tightness.
Higher IP luminary requires lower cleaning frequency, hence it has higher maintenance factor.

So far I have not used LED luminary for street light application. I do not have its specifications, if
anybody from the group send me detailed specifications of LED luminary I will be able to
comment.

Subodh Shah

Dear Mr. Jayraman,

I am out of city, I can send u the file in .doc format after a week time, in the meantime u can get
the same converted in to .doc.

Average street light "ON" time in Gujarat is 11 hours. per unit kwh charge is Rs. 04.25

. We are using dimming technology, which saves 40% electricity.

Most important features of my project are:

 IP 66 luminary ensures light output up to end of life of luminary


 32000 burning hours of life of lamp ensures 8 years of operation without lamp
replacement (Based on my 18 years of experience in lighting I am assuming HPSV SON
PIA lamp life of more than 12 years)
 Lumen maintenance is 90% at the end of life
 Average 35 lux level is achieved by considering 80% maintenance factor, which means
actual illumination level measured is 20% more at 42 meters span between poles.
 We r dimming street lighting during off peak hours which gives savings of 40%

32
 Annual Electrical consumption for a 250 W HPSV lamp including ballast loss of 30 watt
per year is: 11 X 365 X 0.280 = 1124 KWH, after dimming consumption will be 675 KWH.
 The most important factor is life cycle cost of entire project.

From where u get this data "deterioration of th HPSV was 50%. " I do not agree with this. I
request you to refer manufacturer's catalogue. It is my humble request not to quote any data
which is technically base less.

When we r comparing LED with HPSV, it should be compared with latest and new HPSV lamp.
Compare apple with apple.

Service delivery I.e. illumination level is most important than the data of lamp & luminary. Service
delivery depends on which type of luminary we r using and how it has been installed.

According to you data of lux measurment, if it is nine point method than, average lux level is 12.5
(After considering maintenance factor ilumination level will further reduce either 0.7 or 0.8) at a
span between poles of 30 meters, road width is 6.0 meters.

In case of Vadodara we have span btn poles is 42 meters road width is 8.5 meters and
installation of 250 W HPSV lamps on central divider, illumination level is 35

I request u to calculatetotal load for one K.M road length & electric consumption.

I will install LED lamp if I will satisfy technically.

Subodh Shah

Dear Mr Shah,

I would be working on the data provided by you, for my own knowledge, if not for selling the LED
lights.
There are but two points.

1. Regarding deterioration of HPSV, I had mentioned "even if the deterioration had been 50%"
with specific reference to the case study i had used. This is based on measured data and not with
out a base. - And the data was taken by a third party and not by SECO.

2. The phillips data sheet i could get hold of in the net for HPS-son-PIA talks about 12000 hours
of life - could you please send me the data sheet with 32000 hours of life.

3. If you are buying the luminnaires also from phillips, could you please send me the link which
gives data on luminnaire efficiency and the optical characteristics etc., One of the sites did talk
about luminnaire with 80% efficiency - but i could not get the angle of dispersion.

4. Please bear with me for the delay in studying your data - but i would like o make a single
report, after i get the above data also - either from the net or from you.

5. While I do see your commitment, the data on HPS lighting I have recd from various parts of the
country do not match with your claim of average 35 lux for 42 m * 8.5 * 2 - it might take me a

33
while for compiling the data - i would also have to check the confidentiality.

Please do note that i do not sell - I want the customers to buy after they are convinced - thus I
state the facts available with me .

My writing

quote
This also should give you an idea of the design of LED which could result in higher lux,
though the lumens from LED lamp was not higher - even if the deterioration of the HPSV
was 50%.
unquote
Your comment
quote
From where u get this data "deterioration of th HPSV was 50%. " I do not agree with this. I
request you to refer manufacturer's catalogue. It is my humble request not to quote any
data which is technically base less.
unquote

Quoting anything out of context would confuse many and would not result in healthy debate.

I will wait till i get the data from you - please do give me some time for collating the answer.

teejay

Dear Mr Shah,

sorry about the point 2 - i did get the son-tia plus data sheet - the interesting fact is that only 50%
survive at the end of 32000 hours.

I have also got a nice article by Dr Biswas, who has analysed and found that while the life of the
HPS lamp averages 20,000 in advanced countries, in India the life averages 8000.

I would welcome your comments on Dr Biswas's article.

He has also recorded that the HPSV lumen maintenance has come down by 40%.

The data and info is by

Author:Dhananjoy Biswas
Inventor Dragon Kink Effect –HID lamp
Scientist E ; Electronics Regional Test Laboratory (East)
Sector –V: Block-DN: Salt Lake City: Kolkata-700091
India
Email: dnbiswas@yahoo.co.uk/dnb@ertleast.org

I am attaching the pdf.

Pl do send me the data on the luminnaire being used by you.

teejay

34
LIGHTING QUIZ
Enjoy this lighting quiz compiled by the editor. Answers are at the end.

1. Which is the most basic source of light:

a. lightbulb
b. stars
c. moon
d. sun

2. Lighting is an intrinsic component of:

a. landscaping
b. coloring
c. dancing
d. singing

3. The most concentrated form of lighting is:

a. decorative
b. task lighting
c. purpose lighting
d. design lighting

4. This type of lighting is mainly decorative:

a. purpose lighting
b. design lighting
c. style lighting
d. accent lighting

5. The life of a 32 watt linear T8 fluorescent light bulb is ___ times the life
of a 60 watt incandescent.

a. 2 times
b. 12 times
c. 18 times
d. 24 times

35
6. Ambient lighting refers to:

a. focusing on an object
b. creating a mood
c. illuminates an area to create comfortable brightness
d. lighting for distant objects

7. The color rendering index (CRI) is measured in the scale of

a. 1 – 100
b. 1 – 100 % ¨
c. 100 – 1000
d. none of the above

8. A device that distributes and filters the light emitted from one or more
lamps is:

a. control gear
b. lamp
c. luminaire
d. starter

9. Ignitors are used for starting:

a. fluorescent tube lights


b. compact fluorescent lights
c. sodium vapor lamps
d. none of the above

10. This type of lighting is popular with mounted fixtures

a. recessed
b. accessed
c. stressed
d. backlighting

Answers:

1. d, 2. a, 3. b, 4. d, 5. d, 6. c, 7. a, 8. c, 9. c, 10. a

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IAEMP NEWS

The following are the new office bearers of the INDIAN ASSOCIATION OF
ENERGY MANAGEMENT PROFESSIONALS (IAEMP) having the
administrative office at: 102, Eden Park, 20, Vittal Mallaya Road,
Bangalore-560001. Phone: 09818527944, +91 120 6512372.
Web Site: www.iaemp.org

President: Bhupal Singh, Ghaziabad


Vice President: S. Khandekar, Nagpur
Secretary: Sunil Biswal, Bhubaneswar
Treasurer: Prakash Magal, Banglore
Dy. Secretary: F T Kanpurwala, Ahmedabad
Jt. Secretary: Nitin Sharma, Mathura
Jt. Secretary: N.Ravishankar, Chennai

Central Council Members

Sunil Sood, Ranchi


G.G.Dalal, Mumbai
Prof. Ajay Chandak, Dhulia
Ravindra Datar, Mumbai
Pradeep Kumar, New Delhi
Kuntal K Mitra, West Bengal
Paritosh Awasthi, Bhopal
Rakesh Sahay, Bangalore
G.H.Iyer, Bhubaneswar
K.D.Bairagi, Bhopal
Prof K R Ramana, Hyderabad
Krishnamurthy, Vizayangar
Mahadevan, Chennai
P A Johny, Kerala
A K Verma, Raipur
T. Srinivas, Vizag

State Coordinators

KD Bairagi, MP
D.Agaarwal,Rajasthan
Amit Gupta, Karnataka
S C Sabat, Orissa
N.Ravishankar, Tamilnadu

The Urja Watch congratulates all of them and hopes their efforts will
further strengthen IAEMP.

37
UPCOMING EVENTS

World Renewable Energy Congress Bangkok, May19-22, 2009


WREC 2009 Asia, Thailand.
www.thai-exhibition.com/wrec2009asia/

PV America Conference & Exhibition, Philadelphia, USA June 8-10, 2009


Pennsylvania Convention Center,
www.seia.org

1-day Training Session (organized by Technology Training Group-TTG) on


―UNDERSTANDING DATA CENTRES - FAST TRACK MANAGEMENT
PROGRAMME‖

Sponsored by Pacific Research and Analysis, Singapore, June 11, 2009


Email: marine.noel@ psholdings. com

Workshop on "Adoption of Energy efficient process technologies &


practices and implementation of Energy Conservation Act 2001 in
Buildings.‖

Organized by the Bureau of Energy Efficiency, Bangalore, June 12, 2009

www.energymanagertraining.com

17th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition


Conference Centre, Hamburg, Germany June 29-July 2, 2009
www.conference-biomass.com

3rd Renewable Energy India 2009 Expo, New Delhi. August 10-12, 2009
Pragati Maidan, New Delhi.

Organized by Exhibitions India Pvt. Ltd.


Supported by Ministry of New & Renewable Energy, Government of India

www.renewableenergyindiaexpo.com

38
We Need Your Active Participation…
Do you have an area of expertise in energy management? Have you solved a
difficult problem or have an interesting case study? Do you want to share a
joke with others? Or just have a word of appreciation for this issue. Share
your knowledge with others and promote yourself too, by writing to The Urja
Watch.

You may also tell us about upcoming energy-related events in your area. Be
sure to mention the title of the event, organizers, dates, venue, city, and
contact information to get more details of the event.

Please note the following points while making your submissions:

 Articles must be original, in electronic version, 500 words or less. If you


are using material from external sources, please acknowledge them.

 Please include contact information (full name, title/organization, phone


numbers, and email ID) with your submission.

 Articles should be in MS word, single spaced, with easily readable font,


preferably Arial size 12. Photos should be of high resolution.

 Please e-mail your submissions to The Editor, ―The Urja Watch‖ at


tellsubi@gmail.com

 There are no deadlines for submissions. You may submit articles


anytime.

 We reserve the right to edit, rewrite or reject any article.

We Need Your Feedback Too!

Please write your views and suggestions to the editor at: tellsubi@gmail.com
Letters must include the writer’s name, address, phone and email ID.

We appreciate your feedback and thank you for your support.

Disclaimer: This newsletter is published by the Indian Association of Energy Management Professionals
(IAEMP). It is intended for IAEMP’s existing and potential members who are interested in energy
management and IAEMP's activities. It does not imply endorsement of the activities, individuals or
organizations listed within. Views expressed in this newsletter are entirely those of the authors and not
necessarily that of IAEMP or the editorial board.
IAEMP NEWS

39