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MECH103 Mechanisms and Dynamics of Machinery

Mechanisms: Introduction to Gear Trains

Jaguar 3.8 Litre, 6 cylinder


Textbook: Chap 9
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Spur Gear
Axis of the gear

Spur gear: gear with radial teeth parallel to its axis


Backlash: the amount of "play" or clearance between two parts. For gears, it refers to how much one gear can be moved back and forth without moving the gear into which it is meshed

Rack & Pinion, Bevel Gear

Pinion

Rack
A mechanism in which a toothed wheel (pinion) engages a notched bar (rack) to convert rotary motion into linear motion
-Allow bi-directional drive - rack-and-pinion steering in cars

Either of a pair of toothed wheels whose working surfaces are inclined to nonparallel axes. Example: differential in automobile

Differential: a device that allows a difference in velocity (and displacement) between two elements

Helical Gears

Helical gear: a gear that has the teeth cut at an angle to the center line of the gear. This kind of gear is useful because there is no chance of intermittent tooth-to-tooth operation because there are at least two teeth engaged at any time. It can operate quieter than spur gear. Helical gears are either right- or left-handed.

Worm Gear & Harmonic Gearing


Worm wheel (worm gear)

Worm
A coarse, spiral shaped gear cut on a shaft. It is used to engage with and drive another gear or portion of a gear. As used in the steering gearbox, it often engages the cross shaft via a roller or by a tapered pin. Very high gear ratio is possible in small package
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Ultra low backlash gear technology with medium-high reduction ratios for accurate bi-directional repeatability, high efficiency and power to weight. Good for motion control: robotics

Allow one directional drive: worm worm wheel

Herringhbone Gear & Gear Train

Herringbone Gears (double helical gears): two helical gears operating together and so placed that the angle of the teeth form a "V" shape; cancel out end-thrust forces. no thrust bearing is needed
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http://content.scvs.tpc.edu.tw/top1/chap10/htm/chap10-12.htm

Differential Gear & Planetary Gear Train

Kinematics of Gears

v A = v O + v A / O = 0 + 1 rA / O = 1k r1i = 1 r1 j v A = v P + v A / P = 0 + 2 rA / P = 2k ( r2 i ) = 2 r2 j

1r1 = 2 r2 or
Fundamental law of gearing: Angular vel. Ratio = constant throughout the mesh
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2 r1 = 1 r2

How can the radii r1 and r2 be related to the number of teeth on each gear? Assume that the gears must have the same circular pitch n1 = teeth on gear 1 n2 = teeth on gear 2

Pitch: the distance between a point on one gear tooth and the same point on the next gear tooth
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Simple gear set I/P O/P

Here, gears 3 & 4 are rigidly connect, as are gears 5 & 6 5 n4 3 n2 7 n6 = = = 4 n5 2 n3 n


6 7

Clearly 4 = 3 and 6 = 5

7 3 5 7 n2 n 4 n6 = = 2 2 4 6 n3 n 5 n 7
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The sign is necessary to take into account the change in direction of rotation.

Reverted gear train

Used in automotive transmission: - compact, save space


Revert = go back to a previous state
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Compare:

Internal gear

3 r2 n2 = = 2 r3 n3

The + sign is used here to take into account the direction of rotation.
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Example: Find the speed reductions possible for the transmission


the power is transmitted through gears 0456 1012.

If gear 34 slides to the left (disengaging 4 from 5) and gear 12 to the left (engaging 1 and 9), then power is transmitted through 01961012
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Example: Find the speed reductions possible for the transmission


If gear 34 slides to the left (disengaging 4 from 5) and gear 12 to the left (engaging 1 and 9), then power is transmitted through 0196 1012

Note: There are 8 possible speed reductions.


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Example: Find the gear reductions in the automotive transmission


Low gear: gear 3 meshes with gear 6, power flows 1463. Second gear: gear 2 meshes with gear 5, power flows 14 52. High gear: gear 2 is shifted so that the clutch teeth on the end of gear 2 mesh with the clutch teeth of gear 1. (Direct drive results.) Reverse gear: gear 3 is shifted to mesh with gear 8, power flows 14783.

http://auto.howstuffworks.com/transmission.htm http://auto.howstuffworks.com/sequential-gearbox.htm
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Example: Find the gear reductions in the automotive transmission


power flows 1463

out 3 = in low 1 =

4 6 3 1 4 6

out in 2nd

power flows 1452. = 2 1


=

n1 n6 = n (1) n 4 3 14 18 = = 0.301 31 27

4 5 2 1 4 5

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n1 n5 = n (1) n 4 2 14 25 = = 0.564 31 20

Example: Find the gear reductions in the automotive transmission


power flows 14783.

out 3 = in rev 1 =

4 7 8 3 1 4 7 8

n1 n7 n8 = n (1) n n 4 8 3 14 14 = = 0.234 31 27

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Planetary gear train


Example: Find the output angular velocity 2 for the planetary gear train shown when the input angular velocity is 4 = 50 rad/sec counterclockwise.

annulus

Note that gear 2 and arm 4 are not joined.

sun

planet

arm

Program: 9-33.wm2d
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n2 = 40 n3 = 20

using the tooth relationship to replace the radii,

Substituting back into the other equation gives

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Example: Find the gear ratios for the model T Ford gearbox
P2 P1 2: On

I/P

O/P

Gearbox : Integral with the engine. Foot operated 2 speed and reverse epicyclic transmission foot-brake, 1908 for 19 yrs
S2 S1

9 million were made! http://www.t-ford.co.uk/car.htm

Textbook p.507
20

Low gear for the model T Ford

in

out

Replacing the radii by the number of teeth on the appropriate gears

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Example: Reversed Gear case


P2 P1 1:On

I/P

O/P

Gearbox : Integral with the engine. Foot operated 2 speed and reverse epicyclic transmission foot-brake, 1908 for 19 yrs
S2 S1

9 million were made! http://www.t-ford.co.uk/car.htm

Textbook p.507
22

Reverse gear for the model T Ford

in

out

Note the negative sign indicating a change in direction


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Reverse on a Car

http://www.innerauto.com/innerauto/anim/trans.html
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Model T Ford, 1912 Landaulette

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Towards the Involute Profile


A belt connecting the two cylinders

The involute is a curve traced by a point on a taut, inextensible string as it unwinds from a circle.
http://www.ies.co.jp/math/java/calc/en-circum/en-circum.html

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The Involute Profile

Involute curve: created by tying a pencil to the end of a string and wrapping the string around a cylinder. Hold tension in the string as you unwind it from the cylinder. The curve drawn by the pencil as it moves out from the cylinder is an involute curve.
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Profile of the Involute Profile


Pressure angle = the angle between Line of Action (common normal) and the direction of velocity at the pitch point (has been standardized: 14.5, 20, 25)

Line of action: A line normal to a pair of mating tooth profiles at their point of contact
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Involute in Action

Pitch circle=rolling cylinder circle Addendum: the amount of tooth that sticks out above the pitch circle video from http://www.howstuffworks.com

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Nomenclature

pc =

d
N

Figure 11-8
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Pitches, Etc.
d
N

circular pitch (mm, in.) base pitch (mm, in.)

pc =

pb = pc cos pd = d N N d

diametral pitch (teeth/in.) module (mm/teeth) m=

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Minimum # of Teeth
minimum # of teeth to avoid undercutting with gear and rack

N min

2 = 2 sin

= pressure angle

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Cycloid curve for cycloidal gear

Commonly used in watches and clocks

x = a a sin y = a a cos
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Cycloid.html
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Antons Calculus (7th): p.93

Involute curve for involute gear

x = a(cos + sin ) y = a(sin cos )

Commonly used in all kinds of power transmission systems

http://mathworld.wolfram.com/CircleInvolute.html

Antons Calculus (7th): p.782

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Origin of involute curve

x = a (cos + sin ) y = a (sin cos )


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Rack & Pinion

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Bevel Gear

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Worm Gear

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Gear Train

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Automotive Differential Gear

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Manual Transmission
Low gear High gear

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Gear Types Grouped According to Shaft Arrangement

Straight bevel: These are like spur gears, the teeth have no helix angle Spiral bevel gears: Teeth have a spiral angle which gives performance improvements much like helical gears Zerol bevel gears: Teeth are crowned, so that tooth contact takes place first at the tooth center. (Zerol Bevel Gears are Spiral Bevel Gears with a spiral angle of zero) Hypoid gears: Similar to spiral bevel gears, but connect non-parallel shafts. The pitch surface of this gear is a hyperboloid of revolution (rather than a cone, the pitch surface in bevel gears). It is stronger, operate quietly, used for higher reduction ratios. Hypoid gears are found in auto differentials.
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Herringbone gears examples

from D.O. James Gear Manufacturing Co.

http://www.linngear.com/products/highlights/infosheets/g-3.html
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Comparision between Helical Gear and Herringbone Gear

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Bevel Gear: based on rolling cones

Apices must be conincident

Incorrect arrangement

Correct arrangements

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Spiral bevel Gear & Hypoid Gear

Spiral bevel Gears

Hypoid Gears are similar in their general form to bevel gears. However, Hypoid Gears operate on non-intersecting axes. (Hypoid = a contradiction of hyperboloid)

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Hypoid Gear: based on hyperboloids of revolution

Rolling hyperboloids of revolution


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Automotive hypoid final drive gears (General Motors, Detroit, MI)

Hyperboloids: quadric surface generated by rotating a hyperbola around its main axis (http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Hyperboloid.html)

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Example: Automotive steering

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http://auto.howstuffworks.com/automatic-transmission6.htm 50

Example:Cordless Screw Driver

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Example:Cordless Screw Driver

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Cordless Screw Driver Gear Trains

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Planetary gear train


Example: Find the output angular velocity 2 for the planetary gear train shown when the input angular velocity is 4 = 50 rad/sec counterclockwise.

annulus

Note that gear 2 and arm 4 are not joined.

sun

planet

arm

rs s = ( rs + r p ) arm r p p
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ns s = ( ns + n p ) arm n p p
0 = ( rs + rp ) arm + rp p
n2 = 40 n3 = 20

0 = ( ns + n p ) arm + n p p

using the tooth relationship to replace the radii,

Substituting back into the other equation gives

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Mechanism in Cars

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How Automatic Transmissions Work


http://auto.howstuffworks.com/automatic-transmission.htm http://auto.howstuffworks.com/automatic-transmission18.htm

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How Automatic Transmissions Work

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How Automatic Transmissions Work

Planetary Gear Sets Hydraulic System: transmission fluid via Oil Pump through the Valve
Body to control the Clutches and the Bands in order to control the planetary gear sets.

Seals and Gaskets are used to keep the oil where it is supposed to be
and prevent it from leaking out.

The Torque Converter which acts like a clutch to allow the vehicle to
come to a stop in gear while the engine is still running.

The Governor and the Modulator or Throttle Cable that monitor


speed and throttle position in order to determine when to shift.

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How Automatic Transmissions Work

1. Provides automated control of vehicle launch (starting the vehicle from a stop) 2. Selects the desired gear ratio 3. Shifts to the desired gear ratio 4. Modifies the engine's speed/torque 5. Transmits power efficiently (helps provide good fuel economy)

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Harmonic Gearing

Wave Generator: The wave generator is an oval-shaped cam. It is mounted onto the motor shaft Flex Spline: The flex spline is a thin, cup-shaped component made of elastic metal, with teeth formed along the outer circumference of the cup's opening. The gear's output shaft is attached to the bottom of the flex spline. Circular Spline: The circular spline is a rigid internal gear with teeth formed along its inner circumference.
http://www.hds.co.jp/HDS_hp_english/english/products/index.html http://www.harmonicdrive.net/reference/operatingprinciples/ 61