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CHAPTER 9.

AGITATION AND MIXING


ABRAHAM ROGELIO MARTIN GARCIA

PRESENTATION OUTLINE
-Definitions -Purposes of agitation -Devices to produce agitation -Power consumption of agitators -Blending and Mixing -Suspension of solid particles -Dispersion Operations -Agitator selection and Scale up

Copyright 2003 A. R. Martin

DEFINITIONS Agitation: It refers to the induced motion of a homogenous material in a specified way Mixing: It is the random distribution, into and through one another, of two or more initially separate phases PURPOSES OF AGITATION Suspending solid particles Blending miscible liquids Dispersing a gas through the liquid Dispersing a second liquid to form an emulsion or suspension Promoting heat transfer

Copyright 2003 A. R. Martin

DEVICES TO PRODUCE AGITATION


IMPELLERS Propellers (high-speed, low viscosity) Turbines (Moderate viscosity) High-efficiency impellers

Three-blade marine propeller

Straight-blade turbine

Disk turbine

Pitched-blade turbine Concave-blade CD-6 impeller

Source: McCabe et al. 2001


Copyright 2003 A. R. Martin

DESIGN OF TURBINES

Da Dt E Dt H Dt W Da J Dt L Da

1 3 1 3 1 1 5 1 12 1 4

S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6

Source: McCabe et al. 2001


Copyright 2003 A. R. Martin

POWER CONSUMPTION OF AGITATORS It is a function of the volumetric flow rate and the kinetic energy
Values of NQ NQ q K > SDa n 1  k tan E SDaW @ q (Flow number) 3 nDa Impeller Marine propellers (square pitch) Four-blade 45q turbine (W/Da)=1/6 Disk turbine HE-3 high-efficiency impeller 0.5 0.87 1.3 0.47
3 q v nDa

NQ

Ek P P

U Vt 2
2 q Ek

U
2

DSnDa 2
NQ

Un 3 Da5

D 2S 2
2 2


Np P

P Un 3 Da5

D 2S 2

NQ

Un 3 Da5

(Power number)

Copyright 2003 A. R. Martin

Np

\ Re, Fr, S1 , S 2 ,..., S n

Source: McCabe et al. 2001


Copyright 2003 A. R. Martin

P P P

5 U N p n 3 Da

For Re  10
3 P K L n 2 Da

For Re ! 10000
5 K T n 3 Da U

Source: McCabe et al. 2001


Copyright 2003 A. R. Martin

BLENDING AND MIXING

Source: McCabe et al. 2001


Copyright 2003 A. R. Martin

Source: McCabe et al. 2001


Copyright 2003 A. R. Martin

SUSPENSION OF SOLID PARTICLES


0.85 n c Da 0.2 g SQ 0.1 D p

'U U

0.45

B 0.13

Shape factor S Dt/D Impeller type Six-blade turbine Da/W=5 Np=6.2 Two-blade paddle Da/W=4 Np=2.5 Three-blade propeller Np=0.5
a

Dt/ E 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2.5

S 4.1 7.5 11.5 4.8 8 12.5 6.5 8.5 9.5

2 3 4 2 3 4 3 4 4

Copyright 2003 A. R. Martin

DISPERSION OPERATIONS
DS Da


0.058 1  5.4\

U C n 2 Da3 V

0.6

Source: McCabe et al. 2001


Copyright 2003 A. R. Martin

AGITATOR SELECTION AND SCALE UP AGITATOR SELECTION Depends on the viscosity of the liquid For specific time of mixing, the best mixer is the one that mixes in the required time with the smallest amount of power SCALE UP Maintaining constant power per unit volume and geometric similarity
n2 n1

Da1 3 D a2

Copyright 2003 A. R. Martin