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# ESc201:IntroductiontoElectronics

BasicCircuitAnalysis y

## Dr. K D K. V V. S Srivastava i t Dept. of Electrical Engineering IIT Kanpur

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Objectives
1. Solve circuits (i.e., find currents and voltages of interest) by y combining g resistances in series and p parallel 2. 3. 4. Apply the voltage-division and current-division principles Solve circuits by the node-voltage technique S Solve circuits by the mesh-current technique

5. Find Thvenin and Norton equivalents q and apply pp y source transformations 6 6. Apply the superposition principle
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Simplification Techniques
As engineers we like to be efficient : achieve the objective with minimum effort.

is

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Concept of equivalent circuits Two circuits are equivalent if they have the same currentvoltage behavior
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## Analysis using REUSE methodology

D not Do t carry out t analysis l i f from scratch t h! Analyze, Remember and Reuse

Example: p we do not carry y out multiplication p from scratch using repeated addition !

3 4 x 3

3 x 4 = 12
4x1=4 Memorize multiplication 4x2=8 table and use it again and 4 x 3 = 12 again 4 x 4 = 16 .................... 4

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You cannot carry out complex multiplication with ease using the first principle

Creative Reuse !

Develop D l equivalent i l t circuits i it by b combining bi i several l resistors into a single equivalent resistor

Series Resistances

## 7 Both circuits are equivalent as far as v vs. i relation is concerned.

Parallel Resistances

Example
Use concept p of series and p parallel resistances to simplify p y

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Example

## Use concept of series and parallel resistances to simplify

R eq 2 =

R 2 R eq1 R 2 + R eq 1

R e q = { ( R 4 + R 3 ) R 2 } + R1
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## Circuit Analysis Using Series/Parallel Equivalents

1. Begin by locating a combination of resistances that are in series i or parallel. ll l Of Often the h place l to start with ih i is the h f farthest h from the source. 2. Redraw the circuit with the equivalent resistance for the combination found in step 1. 3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 until the circuit is reduced as far as possible. Often (but not always) we end up with a single source and d a single i l resistance. i t 4. Solve for the currents and voltages g in the final equivalent q circuit. Then go back one step and solve for unknown voltages and current. 5. Repeat step 4 until the required current or voltage in the original 12 circuit is found.

Example
Find Fi d current t in R3 + 60V 1A

+ 3A 60V 3A -

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+ V2 -

## Solve for i2, i3 and i4

+ V2 -

R eq1 = R 2 R 3 R 4
S l f Solve for V2

R e q 2 = R1 + R e q 1
S l f Solve for i1
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Voltage division
A voltage g applied pp to resistors connected in series will be divided among them

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Example

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Potential Divider

R2 V1 R1 + R 2
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Current Division
The total current flowing g into a p parallel combination of resistors will be divided among them

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Example
Find vx using g voltage g division and then find is and use it to find i3 using current division

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## Suppose we want to find i2 also ieq

i2

ie q

R1 = is R1 + R e q

R3 i2 = ie q R 2 + R 3 21