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CONTROL VALVES

THE PROCESS CONTROL LOOP


Disturbance

MV

PV

Process

Final Control Element


SP

Measuring Element

CO

PV

Receiving Element (Controller)

TYPICAL PROCESS

30% OPEN

55 C

What is a Control Valve?


A Control Valve is a final control element that manipulates a flowing fluid, such as a liquid, gas, steam, or chemical compounds, in response to a controller signal, to keep the process variable as close as possible to the desired set-point.

Control valve: A power operated device which modifies the fluid flow rate in a process control system. It consists of a valve connected to an actuator mechanism that is capable of changing the position of a flow controlling element in the valve in response to a signal from the controlling system.

Valve: A valve is a device used for the control of fluid flow. It consists of a fluid retaining assembly, one or more ports between end openings and a movable closure member which opens, restricts or closes the port(s).
Actuator: An actuator is a fluid powered or electrically powered device which supplies force and motion to a valve closure member.

TYPES OF CONTROL VALVES


Linear Motion Control Valves Rotary Motion Control Valves

Linear motion control valve types Types of valves with a closure member that moves with a linear motion to modify the rate of flow through the valve.

Globe valve
A valve with a linear motion closure member, one or more ports and a body distinguished by a globular shaped cavity around the port region. Typical globe valve types are illustrated below. Flow arrows shown indicate a commonly, used flow direction.
Major parts of globe valves are: -The body, -The bonnet, -The valve seat and valve plug , or trim, -The valve spindle (which connects to the actuator), -The sealing arrangement between the valve stem and the bonnet.

Single-Ported Globe-Style Valve Body

Flow through a double seat, two-port valve

Angle body

THREE-WAY BODIES

Diverging

Converging

Globe type three-port valves (also called lift and lay)

Valves and their applications

Mixing and diverting valves

Heating and cooling control systems require different valve styles. Globe valves control one flow to adjust the desired temperature. Three-way valves, on the other hand, mix or divert two heat flows.

Three-way valves have three ports (A, B, AB), while globe valves have two. When no actuating force is exerted on the valve, a return spring ensures that the double plug is firmly placed on one of the two seats. In mixing valves (figure a), the heating medium enters at port B via the seat/plug assembly and leaves through port AB. Port A is closed. When an actuating force acts on the plug stem, the valve moves towards its other end position, reducing the flow through the inlet port B and opening the inlet port A.

Figure a: Three-way mixing valve

The flow through diverting valves (figure b) is quite different. Here, the cooling medium enters at port AB. The streams are diverted according to the valve position and finally leave through the ports A and B.

Figure b:

Three-way diverting valve

The valve, as shown below, is designed as a mixing valve as it has two inlets and one outlet. However, when placed in the return pipework from the load, it actually performs a diverting function, as it diverts hot water away from the heat exchanger.
Mixing valve installed on the return pipework

The same effect can be achieved by installing a diverting valve in the flow pipework, as shown below.

Diverting valve installed on the flow pipework

Types of Valve Flow Characteristics

Gate valve: A valve with a linear motion closure member that is a flat or wedge shaped gate which may be moved in or out of the flow stream. It has a straight-through flow path.

Wedge gate valve and parallel slide valve (manual operation)

Diaphragm valve and Pinch or clamp valve

Diaphragm valve: A valve with a flexible linear motion closure member that is forced into the internal flow passageway of the body by the actuator.

Pinch or clamp valve: A valve consisting of a flexible elastomeric tubular member connected to two rigid flow path ends whereby modulation and/or shut off of flow is accomplished by squeezing the flexible member into eventual tight sealing contact. The flexible member may or may not be reinforced. The flexible member may or may not be surrounded by a pressure retaining boundary consisting of a metal housing with stem packing box. Squeezing of the flexible member may be accomplished by:

Rotary motion control valve types Types of valves with a closure member that moves with a rotary motion to modify the rate of flow through the valve.

Ball valve: A valve which modifies flow rates with rotary motion of the closure member, which is either a sphere with an internal passage or a segment of a spherical surface.

Typical ball types

Segmented ball: A closure member that is a segment of a spherical surface which may have one edge contoured to yield a desired flow characteristic.

Rotary-Shaft Control Valve with V-Notch Ball

Butterfly valve: A valve with a circular body and a rotary motion disk closure member, pivotally supported by its stem.

Butterfly valve (shown in its open position)

CONVENTIONAL DISK BUTTERFLY VALVE

CONTOURED DISK BUTTERFLY VALVE

Control Valve P&ID Symbols


Valve Body Actuators or Operators Manual Pneumatic Diaphragm Cylinder Electric (Motorized or Solenoid)
M