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Optical Properties of Silicon

Michael H. Jones, Stephen H. Jones


Virginia Semiconductor, Inc.
1501 Powhatan Street, Fredericksburg, Va 22401
(540) 373-2900, FAX (540) 371-0371
www.vriginiasemi.com, shjones@virginiasemi.com

A Introduction
This article contains a table and graphs on the optical properties of silicon. The table
contains information about the dielectric constant, index of refraction, and absorption
coefficient of silicon for different photon energies and wavelengths. It also contains
information on the reflection, transmission, and absorption percentages at different
thickness. The graphs relate wavelength to the absorption coefficient and to the
percentages of reflection, transmission, and absorption.
B Optical Properties
This table outlines some basic optical properties of silicon. For all calculations and data
values given in this paper it is assumed that the wafers are double side polished and there
are no reflective or absorptive phenomena associated with surface roughness, damage, or
anomalies. Normal incident radiation is assumed for all reflection and transmission
calculations. The following variables, and units are included in the table: E(eV)- energy,
- wavelength (um), E1 - real part of the dielectric constant, E2 - imaginary part of the
dielectric constant, - imaginary part of index of refraction, n- real part of index of
refraction, R600 - percent reflected at 600um, (cm-1 )- absorption coefficient, A600 - percent
absorbed at 600 um, and T600 - percent transmitted at 600 um.
E(eV)
0.000
0.020
0.040
0.060
0.080
0.100
0.120
0.140
0.160
0.180
0.200
0.220
0.240
0.260
0.280
0.300
0.320

E1

61.982
30.991
20.661
15.496
12.396
10.330
8.855
7.748
6.887
6.198
5.635
5.165
4.768
4.427
4.132
3.874

11.69640
11.69298
11.69640
11.69913
11.70119
11.70324
11.70597
11.70940
11.71350
11.71830
11.72309
11.72103
11.72691
11.73330
11.74021
11.74765
11.75561

E2
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00171
0.00109
0.00116
0.00068
0.00048
0.00016
0.00015
0.00001
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000

3.420
3.419
3.420
3.420
3.421
3.421
3.421
3.422
3.422
3.423
3.424
3.424
3.424
3.425
3.426
3.427
3.429

0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

(cm-1 )
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
1.52E+00
1.30E+00
1.72E+00
1.22E+00
9.94E-01
3.73E-01
4.01E-01
1.50E-02
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00

R(600)

T(600)
46.00%
45.98%
46.00%
43.14%
43.53%
42.82%
43.67%
44.09%
45.27%
45.22%
46.02%
46.05%
46.05%
46.06%
46.07%
46.09%
46.11%

A(600)
53.44%
53.45%
53.44%
48.11%
48.83%
47.44%
49.10%
49.85%
52.04%
51.93%
53.33%
53.38%
53.38%
53.37%
53.36%
53.34%
53.31%

0.340
0.360
0.380
0.400
0.420
0.440
0.460
0.480
0.500
0.520
0.540
0.560
0.580
0.600
0.620
0.640
0.660
0.680
0.700
0.720
0.740
0.760
0.780
0.800
0.820
0.840
0.860
0.880
0.900
0.920
0.940
0.960
0.980
1.000
1.020
1.040
1.060
1.080
1.100
1.120
1.140
1.160
1.180
1.200
1.220
1.240
1.260
1.280
1.300
1.320

3.646
3.443
3.262
3.099
2.952
2.817
2.695
2.583
2.479
2.384
2.296
2.214
2.137
2.066
1.999
1.937
1.878
1.823
1.771
1.722
1.675
1.631
1.589
1.550
1.512
1.476
1.441
1.409
1.377
1.347
1.319
1.291
1.265
1.240
1.215
1.192
1.169
1.148
1.127
1.107
1.087
1.069
1.051
1.033
1.016
1.000
0.984
0.968
0.954
0.939

11.76411
11.77313
11.78269
11.79279
11.80343
11.81462
11.82636
11.83865
11.85150
11.86491
11.87889
11.89344
11.90857
11.92429
11.94059
11.95750
11.97500
11.99311
12.01185
12.03120
12.05119
12.07181
12.09308
12.11502
12.13761
12.16089
12.18484
12.20950
12.23486
12.26095
12.28776
12.31533
12.34365
12.37275
12.40265
12.43336
12.46490
12.49731
12.53059
12.56479
12.59991
12.63595
12.67294
12.71086
12.74972
12.78952
12.83026
12.87196
12.91463
12.95828

0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00001
0.00002
0.00004
0.00008
0.00017
0.00033
0.00057
0.00091
0.00136
0.00194
0.00265
0.00348
0.00443
0.00552
0.00673

3.430
3.431
3.433
3.434
3.436
3.437
3.439
3.441
3.443
3.445
3.447
3.449
3.451
3.453
3.456
3.458
3.460
3.463
3.466
3.469
3.471
3.474
3.478
3.481
3.484
3.487
3.491
3.494
3.498
3.502
3.505
3.509
3.513
3.517
3.522
3.526
3.531
3.535
3.540
3.545
3.550
3.555
3.560
3.565
3.571
3.576
3.582
3.588
3.594
3.600

0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.001
0.001
0.001

0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
1.23E-07
2.98E-02
8.54E-02
2.32E-01
5.81E-01
1.33E+00
2.78E+00
5.32E+00
9.35E+00
1.52E+01
2.33E+01
3.36E+01
4.65E+01
6.20E+01
8.02E+01
1.01E+02
1.25E+02

46.13%
46.14%
46.17%
46.18%
46.20%
46.22%
46.24%
46.27%
46.29%
46.32%
46.35%
46.37%
46.40%
46.42%
46.46%
46.49%
46.51%
46.55%
46.59%
46.63%
46.65%
46.69%
46.74%
46.78%
46.82%
46.86%
46.91%
46.95%
47.00%
47.05%
47.08%
47.13%
47.19%
47.24%
47.23%
47.17%
46.93%
46.28%
44.95%
42.68%
39.62%
36.43%
33.94%
32.48%
31.90%
31.75%
31.76%
31.82%
31.88%
31.95%

53.30%
53.29%
53.26%
53.25%
53.22%
53.20%
53.18%
53.15%
53.12%
53.09%
53.07%
53.04%
53.01%
52.99%
52.94%
52.92%
52.89%
52.85%
52.81%
52.77%
52.74%
52.70%
52.65%
52.61%
52.57%
52.53%
52.47%
52.43%
52.38%
52.32%
52.28%
52.23%
52.18%
52.12%
51.95%
51.69%
51.10%
49.81%
47.22%
42.69%
35.97%
27.67%
19.14%
11.64%
6.24%
2.87%
1.13%
0.38%
0.11%
0.03%

1.340
1.360
1.380
1.400
1.420
1.440
1.460
1.480
1.500
1.520
1.540
1.560
1.580
1.600
1.620
1.640
1.660
1.680
1.700
1.720
1.740
1.760
1.780
1.800
1.820
1.840
1.860
1.880
1.900
1.920
1.940
1.960
1.980
2.000
2.020
2.040
2.060
2.080
2.100
2.120
2.140
2.160
2.180
2.200
2.220
2.240
2.260
2.280
2.300
2.320

0.925
0.912
0.898
0.885
0.873
0.861
0.849
0.838
0.826
0.816
0.805
0.795
0.785
0.775
0.765
0.756
0.747
0.738
0.729
0.721
0.712
0.704
0.696
0.689
0.681
0.674
0.666
0.659
0.652
0.646
0.639
0.632
0.626
0.620
0.614
0.608
0.602
0.596
0.590
0.585
0.579
0.574
0.569
0.563
0.558
0.553
0.549
0.544
0.539
0.534

13.00292
13.04857
13.09524
13.14295
13.19172
13.24157
13.29251
13.34457
13.39777
13.45214
13.50770
13.56447
13.62248
13.68177
13.74235
13.80427
13.86756
13.93224
13.99836
14.06597
14.13509
14.20577
14.27805
14.35198
14.42761
14.50499
14.58417
14.66521
14.74816
14.83308
14.92004
15.00910
15.10034
15.19384
15.28968
15.38794
15.48873
15.59212
15.69824
15.80718
15.91908
16.03405
16.15224
16.27378
16.39887
16.52765
16.66031
16.79708
16.93813
17.08365

0.00808
0.00954
0.01114
0.01287
0.01427
0.01670
0.01881
0.02104
0.02340
0.02590
0.02851
0.03126
0.03413
0.03714
0.04027
0.04352
0.04691
0.05042
0.05406
0.05783
0.06173
0.06575
0.06990
0.07418
0.07859
0.08312
0.08778
0.09257
0.09749
0.10254
0.10771
0.11301
0.11844
0.12400
0.12968
0.13549
0.14143
0.14750
0.15370
0.16002
0.16647
0.17305
0.17976
0.18659
0.19355
0.20064
0.20787
0.21525
0.22272
0.23038

3.606
3.612
3.619
3.625
3.632
3.639
3.646
3.653
3.660
3.668
3.675
3.683
3.691
3.699
3.707
3.715
3.724
3.733
3.741
3.750
3.760
3.769
3.779
3.788
3.798
3.809
3.819
3.830
3.840
3.851
3.863
3.874
3.886
3.898
3.910
3.923
3.936
3.949
3.962
3.976
3.990
4.004
4.019
4.034
4.050
4.065
4.082
4.099
4.116
4.133

0.001
0.001
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.006
0.006
0.007
0.007
0.008
0.008
0.009
0.009
0.010
0.010
0.011
0.011
0.012
0.013
0.013
0.014
0.015
0.015
0.016
0.017
0.017
0.018
0.019
0.019
0.020
0.021
0.022
0.022
0.023
0.024
0.025
0.025
0.026
0.027
0.028

1.52E+02
1.82E+02
2.15E+02
2.52E+02
2.92E+02
3.35E+02
3.82E+02
4.32E+02
4.86E+02
5.44E+02
6.06E+02
6.71E+02
7.41E+02
8.14E+02
8.92E+02
9.74E+02
1.06E+03
1.15E+03
1.25E+03
1.34E+03
1.45E+03
1.56E+03
1.67E+03
1.79E+03
1.91E+03
2.04E+03
2.17E+03
2.30E+03
2.45E+03
2.59E+03
2.74E+03
2.90E+03
3.06E+03
3.23E+03
3.40E+03
3.57E+03
3.75E+03
3.94E+03
4.13E+03
4.33E+03
4.53E+03
4.73E+03
4.94E+03
5.16E+03
5.38E+03
5.60E+03
5.83E+03
6.07E+03
6.31E+03
6.55E+03

32.01%
32.08%
32.15%
32.21%
32.29%
32.36%
32.44%
32.51%
32.58%
32.67%
32.74%
32.82%
32.91%
32.99%
33.07%
33.16%
33.25%
33.34%
33.43%
33.52%
33.62%
33.71%
33.81%
33.91%
34.01%
34.12%
34.22%
34.33%
34.43%
34.54%
34.66%
34.77%
34.89%
35.01%
35.13%
35.25%
35.38%
35.51%
35.63%
35.77%
35.91%
36.04%
36.18%
36.33%
36.48%
36.62%
36.78%
36.94%
37.10%
37.26%

0.01%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%

2.340
2.360
2.380
2.400
2.420
2.440
2.460
2.480
2.500
2.520
2.540
2.560
2.580
2.600
2.620
2.640
2.660
2.680
2.700
2.720
2.740
2.760
2.780
2.800
2.820
2.840
2.860
2.880
2.900
2.920
2.940
2.960
2.980
3.000
3.020
3.040
3.060
3.080
3.100
3.120
3.140
3.160
3.180
3.200
3.220
3.240
3.260
3.280
3.300
3.320

0.530
0.525
0.521
0.517
0.512
0.508
0.504
0.500
0.496
0.492
0.488
0.484
0.480
0.477
0.473
0.470
0.466
0.463
0.459
0.456
0.452
0.449
0.446
0.443
0.440
0.436
0.433
0.430
0.427
0.425
0.422
0.419
0.416
0.413
0.410
0.408
0.405
0.402
0.400
0.397
0.395
0.392
0.390
0.387
0.385
0.383
0.380
0.378
0.376
0.373

17.23393
17.38925
17.54991
17.71621
17.88853
18.06721
18.25261
18.44514
18.64519
18.85316
19.06947
19.29454
19.52880
19.77257
20.02687
20.29165
20.56762
20.85532
21.15532
21.46823
21.79470
22.13544
22.49115
22.86266
23.25086
23.65679
24.08159
24.52659
24.99333
25.48364
25.99970
26.54423
27.12064
27.73337
28.38838
29.09379
29.86039
30.70195
31.63452
32.67491
33.83825
35.13510
36.56792
38.12726
39.78669
41.49542
43.16604
44.65250
47.71726
46.01252

0.23822
0.24628
0.25462
0.26331
0.27244
0.28215
0.29257
0.30386
0.31623
0.32989
0.34509
0.36208
0.38115
0.40264
0.42686
0.45420
0.48502
0.51976
0.55885
0.60275
0.65194
0.70694
0.76829
0.83654
0.91228
0.99612
1.08869
1.19066
1.30270
1.42552
1.55986
1.70647
1.86617
2.03987
2.22883
2.43518
2.66298
2.91991
3.21932
3.58228
4.03910
4.63036
5.40737
6.43242
7.77882
9.53092
11.78282
14.63067
18.14163
22.27232

4.151
4.170
4.189
4.209
4.230
4.251
4.272
4.295
4.318
4.342
4.367
4.393
4.419
4.447
4.475
4.505
4.535
4.567
4.600
4.634
4.669
4.705
4.743
4.782
4.823
4.865
4.909
4.954
5.001
5.050
5.101
5.155
5.211
5.270
5.332
5.399
5.470
5.547
5.632
5.725
5.827
5.940
6.064
6.197
6.337
6.483
6.630
6.769
6.888
6.969

0.029
0.030
0.030
0.031
0.032
0.033
0.034
0.035
0.037
0.038
0.040
0.041
0.043
0.045
0.048
0.050
0.053
0.057
0.061
0.065
0.070
0.075
0.081
0.087
0.095
0.102
0.111
0.120
0.130
0.141
0.153
0.166
0.179
0.194
0.209
0.226
0.243
0.263
0.286
0.313
0.347
0.390
0.446
0.519
0.614
0.735
0.889
1.081
1.317
1.598

6.81E+03
7.07E+03
7.33E+03
7.61E+03
7.90E+03
8.21E+03
8.54E+03
8.89E+03
9.28E+03
9.71E+03
1.02E+04
1.07E+04
1.13E+04
1.19E+04
1.27E+04
1.35E+04
1.44E+04
1.55E+04
1.66E+04
1.79E+04
1.94E+04
2.10E+04
2.28E+04
2.48E+04
2.70E+04
2.95E+04
3.22E+04
3.51E+04
3.83E+04
4.18E+04
4.56E+04
4.97E+04
5.41E+04
5.89E+04
6.40E+04
6.95E+04
7.55E+04
8.22E+04
8.98E+04
9.90E+04
1.10E+05
1.25E+05
1.44E+05
1.68E+05
2.00E+05
2.41E+05
2.94E+05
3.59E+05
4.41E+05
5.38E+05

37.42%
37.60%
37.77%
37.95%
38.14%
38.33%
38.52%
38.73%
38.93%
39.14%
39.36%
39.59%
39.81%
40.05%
40.29%
40.54%
40.79%
41.06%
41.33%
41.61%
41.90%
42.19%
42.49%
42.80%
43.12%
43.44%
43.78%
44.12%
44.48%
44.84%
45.22%
45.61%
46.01%
46.43%
46.86%
47.32%
47.81%
48.32%
48.88%
49.47%
50.12%
50.82%
51.58%
52.39%
53.24%
54.13%
55.06%
55.99%
56.92%
57.80%

0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%

3.340
3.360
3.380
3.400
3.420
3.440
3.460
3.480
3.500
3.520
3.540
3.560
3.580
3.600
3.620
3.640
3.660
3.680
3.700
3.720
3.740
3.760
3.780
3.800
3.820
3.840
3.860
3.880
3.900
3.920

0.371
0.369
0.367
0.365
0.362
0.360
0.358
0.356
0.354
0.352
0.350
0.348
0.346
0.344
0.342
0.341
0.339
0.337
0.335
0.333
0.331
0.330
0.328
0.326
0.325
0.323
0.321
0.319
0.318
0.316

45.14623
42.89018
39.43012
35.39683
31.56288
28.44932
26.17564
24.58865
23.46292
22.61654
21.93482
21.25398
20.84009
20.37421
19.94437
19.54175
19.15935
18.79160
18.43413
18.08364
17.73778
17.39488
17.05380
16.71375
16.37410
16.03423
15.69330
15.35015
15.00304
14.64947

26.74359
30.97944
34.27005
36.13890
36.61217
36.13536
35.24919
34.33495
33.56477
32.97390
32.54051
32.23106
32.01732
31.87942
31.80412
31.78222
31.80682
31.87234
31.97408
32.10813
32.27137
32.46141
32.67671
32.91648
33.18077
33.47041
33.78708
34.13324
34.51213
34.92782

6.986
6.921
6.770
6.557
6.321
6.101
5.919
5.780
5.675
5.595
5.531
5.478
5.433
5.395
5.361
5.332
5.305
5.282
5.260
5.241
5.223
5.207
5.192
5.178
5.166
5.155
5.145
5.137
5.130
5.125

1.914
2.238
2.531
2.756
2.896
2.962
2.977
2.970
2.957
2.947
2.942
2.942
2.946
2.955
2.966
2.981
2.998
3.107
3.039
3.063
3.098
3.117
3.147
3.178
3.211
3.246
3.283
3.322
3.364
3.408

6.48E+05
7.62E+05
8.67E+05
9.50E+05
1.00E+06
1.03E+06
1.04E+06
1.05E+06
1.05E+06
1.05E+06
1.06E+06
1.06E+06
1.07E+06
1.08E+06
1.09E+06
1.10E+06
1.11E+06
1.13E+06
1.14E+06
1.16E+06
1.17E+06
1.19E+06
1.21E+06
1.22E+06
1.24E+06
1.26E+06
1.28E+06
1.31E+06
1.33E+06
1.35E+06

58.56%
59.14%
59.45%
59.46%
59.21%
58.78%
58.27%
57.80%
57.41%
57.11%
56.88%
56.71%
56.59%
56.52%
56.47%
56.46%
56.46%
56.98%
56.55%
56.63%
56.77%
56.83%
56.95%
57.09%
57.24%
57.41%
57.60%
57.81%
58.03%
58.27%

Table 1- Optical Properties of Silicon.[1][2][3][4][5][6]


The values for the wavelength were calculated using the following equation (where h
represents Planks constant and c is the speed of light):
=

hc / E(eV)

(1)

and the photon energy is given in Table 1. The values for the percentage of light
reflected were calculated using the following equation where R1 is the light reflected at an
air-silicon interface with the air and silicon layers being infinitely thick:
R1 = ((n-1) 2 + 2 ) / ((n+1) 2 +2 )
(2)[6]

0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%

For absorption coefficient values greater than zero, the percentage of total light reflected
can be determined using equation (3):
- 2t

R1 + (1- R1 )R1 e

- 2t

- (1- R1 )R1 2 e

- 4t

+ (1- R1 )R1 3 e
(3)

- 4t

- (1- R1 )R1 4 e

+.

Each term in the infinite series is associated with the successive reflections as the light
bounces between the surfaces of the silicon wafer. Similarly, the percent transmission
can be determined using equation (4):
T

- t

(1- R1 )e

- t

- (1- R1 )R1 e

- 3t

+ (1- R1 )R1 2 e

- 3t

- (1- R1 )R1 3 e

+.

where the percent absorbed light is given by equation (5):


A

1- (R + T).

(5)

When the absorption coefficient equals zero, equation (3) can be simplified to the
following equation (6):
R

2R1 / (R1 +1)

(6)

The geometric series has been factored from equation (3) for this condition.
For the analysis and approximations given above a truncation error of about +0.6%
results for the calculated value of the absorption. For example, an artificial absorption of
about 0.6% occurs when the absorption coefficient is exactly equal to zero (see Table 1).
C Graphs
Figure 1 is a graph of the absorption coefficient verses photon energy from 0eV-1.5eV.
Figure 2 is a graph of the real part of the index of refraction verses photon energy from
0eV-4eV. There are essentially 2 regions of strong optical absorption in Silicon. Figures
3 and 4 show the absorption coefficient verses photon wavelenght for the visible-FIR and
IR regions respectively. For photon energies equal-to-or-greater-than the energy gap,
normal optical absorption with the generation of free carriers occurs. In the FIR region of
about 8um-20um absorption is associated with oxygen and carbon impurtiy complexes.

(4)

Figure 1
1.00E+01
9.00E+00
8.00E+00
7.00E+00
6.00E+00
5.00E+00

absorption coefficient (cm-1)

4.00E+00
3.00E+00
2.00E+00
1.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

photon energy (E(ev))

Figure 2
8.00
7.00
6.00
5.00
real part of the
index of refraction

4.00
3.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
0

2
photon energy (E(ev))

Figure 3
1.60E+06
1.40E+06
1.20E+06
1.00E+06
8.00E+05

absorption coefficient (cm-1)

6.00E+05
4.00E+05
2.00E+05
0.00E+00
0.3

0.5

0.7

0.9

1.1

1.3

1.5

photon wavelength (um)

Figure 4
2.00E+00
1.80E+00
1.60E+00
1.40E+00
1.20E+00
1.00E+00
8.00E-01
6.00E-01
4.00E-01
2.00E-01
0.00E+00

absorption coefficient (cm-1)

11

21

31

41

51

photon wavelength (um)

As described above, the % reflectance, % transmission, and % absorption of photons


incident on double side polished Si can be calculated for different wavelengths and

thicknesses of Si. Figure 5 shows these properties for 0.3um to 1.5um wavelength
radiation and wafer thickness of 600um. Figure 6 shows these properties for 1.5um to 30
um wavelength radiation. Figure 7 plots the % transmission for 0.3 um to 1.5 um
radiations and different thickness double side polished wafers. Figure 8 plots this
information for 1.5 um to 30 um radiations.

Figure 5
80.00%
70.00%
60.00%
50.00%
40.00%
30.00%
20.00%
10.00%
0.00%

% Reflected at 600um
% Absorbed at 600um
% Transmitted at 600um

0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
wavelength (um)

Figure 6
80.00%
70.00%
60.00%
50.00%
40.00%
30.00%
20.00%

% Reflected at 600um
% Absorbed at 600um
% Transmitted at 600um

10.00%
0.00%
1.5

6.5

11.5

16.5
wavelength (um)

21.5

26.5

Figure7
60.00%
50.00%
% Transmission at 1000 um

40.00%

% Transmission at 600 um

30.00%

% Transmission at 200um

20.00%
10.00%
0.00%
0.3

0.5

0.7

0.9

1.1

1.3

1.5

wavelength (um)

Figure 8
60.00%
55.00%

% Transmission at 10

% Transmission at 60

50.00%

% Transmission at 20

45.00%
40.00%
1.5

6.5

11.5

16.5

21.5

26.5

wavelength (um)

D Conclusion
This article contains general information on the optical properties of silicon and displays
this information in several tables and graphs. The information was taken from references
and derived from equations as described.
E References

[1]

Robert Hull, Editor, Properties of Crystalline Silicon, emis DataReviews Series


No 20, INSPEC, IEE, London, UK, 1999, ISBN 0 85296 933 3, see D.E. Aspnes,
Chapter Editor, Optical Properties of Si, pg 677

[2]

Tatiana Globus, Stephen H. Jones, Thomas Digges, Jr.,Analysis of Refractive


Index and Absorption Coefficient of Silicon Membranes, Proceedings of the
1997 International Semiconductor Device Research Symposium, Charlottesville,
VA, ISBN1-880920-05-0

[3]

D.E. Aspens [ in Properties of Silicon (INSPEC, IEE ,London, UK, 1988)


ch.2 p.59-80

[4]

C.M. Herzinger, B. Johs, W.A. McGahan, J.A. Woollam, W. Paulson [ J. Appl.


Phys. (USA) vol. 83 (1998) p. 3323-36]

[5]

E.V. Loewenstein, D.R. Smith, R.L. Morgan [ Appl. Opt. (USA) vol. 12 (1973) p.
398-406]

[6]

E. Hecht [ in Optics (Adison-Wesley, Reading Mass, 1987) p. 113]