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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology- Volume4Issue3- 2013

Experimental study & Analysis of solar dryer using of PV Cell & electric fan.
KAMLESH KUMAR TEKAM ME IVth Semester student Jabalpur engg. College, Jabalpur Dr. Bhupendra Gupta Assistant Prof. Jabalpur engg.college, Jabalpur. ABSTRACT The mostly requirement of solar dryer in small scale agricultural equipment to expand the productivity and fulfill the quality control demand. As a response for this demand. As a modular solar dryer was developed and mostly required the quality saving with renewable energy. The quality saving with renewable energy. Consuming power of electric fan are obtain by the PV cell .some measuring result are presented for drying of apple. This paper gives the various range and parameter like. Air Collector size, material, glass wide, inlet pipe, outlet pipe, electric fan DC exhaust fan, PV panel, Aux transformer, battery, dry chamber this paper also give the experimental approach of model. Key word- Solar energy , Air Collector electric fan DC exhaust fan, PV panel Introduction- Sun drying of fruits or crops is most wide spread of food preservation. They have same drawbacks relating to the traditional method of drying ie. Spreading the crop in thin layers on mats. The solar radiation intercity outside the atmosphere is in average 1360 W/m2 ( solar Constant) when the solar radiation penetrates through the atmospheres same of the radiation is last so that on a clear sky sunny day in summer between 800 to 1000w/m2 . Processes during solar dryer During solar dryer heat is transferred by convection from the surrounding air and by absorption of direct and diffuse radiation on the surface of the foods. The convert heat is portly conducted to the interior increasing the temp. of the foods and portly used for effecting migration of water and vapor from the enterer to the surface. under ambient condition, these processes continue until the vapor pressure of the moisture hold in the product equal that held in the atmosphere. thus the rate of moisture desorption from the product to the environment and absorption from the environment are in equilibrium moisture content. under ambient conditions the drying process is slow, and in environments of the relative humidity, the equilibrium moisture content is insufficient low for safe storages. Classification of solar dryers To classified the various type of solar dryers, It is necessary to simply the complex constructions and various modes of operation to the basic principles, solar dryers can be classified based on the following criteria. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Mode of air movement. Exposure to insulation. Direction of air flow Arrangement of the dryer. Status of solar contribution.

Experimental setup The force convection indirect solar drying has been designed and fabricated which is shown in fig. The system has two main parts as heat collector unit and food dryer chamber. The food dryer chamber made of the aluminum pipe and closed fitted by round pipe and aluminum pipe and aluminum plate which was point with black color sealed well by using silicone sealant A pipe is connected the two major port as solar dryer and food drying chamber with the help of Electric motor, which is run by the directly from PV cell .It was used to let the smoother air flow in/out of the food drying chamber. The heat collator unit is constructing with the help of glass cover, Tin box with block painted and glass thickness has 5mm. a PV module with the maximum power of 2x20 W and an electrical fan for artificial air circulation. The PV panel is installed in the front side of the dryer with changeable elevation angle. suitable to the different angle of the sunshine in the different periods of the year. Two switches make possible that the fan use the half or the whole power of the PV panel.

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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology- Volume4Issue3- 2013


For the better energy reception a perforated plastic absorber plate was installed on the half height of the collector body. Because of the modular construction of the dryer it can be operated in different modes: - artificial ventilation of ambient air when the PV module is applied; - artificial ventilation of the drying air preheated by a solar air collector; Table 1 -Using component in a solar dryer system with dimension. Sr. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Name of component with size Glass cover L = 2m , T=5mm W=0.5m Air solar collector L=2m W= 0.5m T=0.2m Inlet pipe size in air solar collector D=25.5m L=155mm Out let pipe size in air solar collector D=35mm L=170mm PV cell for electric fan 2x20w v=12v DC Food Dryer Chamber L=200mm W=200mm H=2x90mm Fig .2.of dryer chamber

Fig.3. of solar dryer system Result and DiscussionFig. 1. of pv cell First step the natural convection was investigated due to the incoming solar radiation. In the applied model the collector was considered as a simple tube and in case of the low air speed of the natural convection the air flow is considered to be stationer. For the j = pv mass current density, for the p + jv impulse current density and for the = w +0.5v^2 (1) energy current density the next equations has to be true:

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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology- Volume4Issue3- 2013


where a and b are the width and height of the collector, p is the air density and v is the inlet air speed. The heat absorbed by the air can be calculated for the mass as

(2)

(p+jv) = 0,
(3)

Q
(10)

where cp is the isobar specific heat of the air. Putting back these quantities to the term of the heat, the power of the collector can be calculated as (4) From these equations using the term of (11)

P= P=

w=
(5) for the enthalpy the following results can be achieved for the velocity, pressure and temperature change of the air flow in the solar heated collector:

Calculating P with the known value of cr, p and the measured value of a = 0.5 m, b = 0.2 m, Before change in parameter and equipment in solar dryer system v = 5 cm/s T1= 22Degree C. , T2= 40Degree C. , T1= 295K , T2= 313K Difference in Temperatures = 18K P= 115W On the other hand using the specific energy income as Pspec = 300 W/m2 in the time of the measurement the income power of the collector is Pin = Pspec A = 324 W. ,Where A= 1.08 So, the efficiency of the collector during the measurement was = P/Pin =115/324 = 35.5 % After change in parameter and equipment in solar dryer system v = 5.8 cm/s T1= 22Degree C. , T2= 41Degree C. T1= 295K , T2= 314K Difference in Temperatures = 19K P= 140.81W On the other hand using the specific energy income as Pspec = 300 W/m2 in the time of the measurement the income power of the collector is Pin = Pspec A = 324 W. ,Where A= 1.08 So, the efficiency of the collector during the measurement was = P/Pin =140.81/324 = 43.46 %

(6), (7) ,(8) The values of inlet heat can be calculated from the solar radiation. In a typical summer day when the inlet air speed is about 5 cm/s due to the natural ventilation Av= 4 cm/s and AT = 18 K, Pressure difference is negligible. The effrciencv of the solar collector The efficiency of the solar radiation-heat conversion was calculated based on the measured data. The mass of the flowing air into the drier during a time period f can be calculated as:

m= a b v t,

(9)

ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.internationaljournalssrg.org

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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology- Volume4Issue3- 2013

Fig.4.Relative airflow distribution at the inlet of the dryer Before change in parameter and equipment in solar dryer system Table. 2

Fig. 5

Sr.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Time in H 0 5 9 20 30 40 50 Table. 3

Temp. in Degree C 40 38 34 31 28 25 22

Fig 6 After change in parameter and equipment in solar dryer system

Sr.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Time in H 0 5 9 20 30 40 50

Moisture in % 59 50 49 42 40 35 30

Table. 4

Sr.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Time in H 0 5 9 20 30 40 50

Moisture in % 59 51 48 43 42 32 15

ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.internationaljournalssrg.org

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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology- Volume4Issue3- 2013


solar dryer system is capable of dehydration of the apples as well as most of the agricultural products. The moisture content was reduced from 59 to 15% in50 h for the open sun drying, whereas the solar tunnel dryer took only 50h. Depending on weather conditions, solar dryer system resulted in a reduction in the drying time to an extent of 43.46% in comparison to open sun drying. In addition, the samples of solar tunnel dryer were completely protected from insects, birds, rain and dusts.

Fig . 7

References

Table. 5 Sr.No. Time in H Temp. in Degree C

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

0 5 9 20 30 40 50

41 38 34 32 29 24 21

1-EXPERIMENTS ON A NEW SMALL-SCALE SOLARDRYER, Cigdem Tiris, Etl , 4pplied Thermal EngineeringVol. 16, No. 2, pp. 183-187, 1996 2-Drying of hot chilli using solar tunnel drier M.A. Hossain a Etl , science direct Solar Energy 81 (2007) 8592 3- Performance of a solar dryer with limited sun tracking capability Gikuru Mwithiga Etl , science direct Journal of Food Engineering 74 (2006) 247 252 4-Experimental study of regenerative desiccant integrated solar dryer with and without reflective mirror V. Shanmugam Etl , science direct Applied Thermal Engineering 27 (2007) 15431551 5-ANALYTICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF A MODULAR SOLAR DRYER I. FARKAS. Etl , Renewable Energy 16 (1999) 773778 6- Non Conventional Energy Source by G.D.Rai 7- Thermal engineering by MAHESH M ROTHORE 8-Heat and mass transfer by ER. R.K. RAJPUT 9- Thermal engineering by . R.K. RAJPUT

Fig . 8 Conclusions This proper is present summery of the experimental study & Analysis of solar dryer using of PV cell & electric fan and also the summery of various range parameter like air size, material, glass wide, inlet pipe ,electric fan, DC exhaust form. The developed

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