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03 2011

PERFORMANCES COMPARISON OF DELTA-CONVERSION AND DOUBLE-CONVERSION UPS

ANGELO BAGGINI,
Lecturer at the Engineering Faculty, University of Bergamo

MATTEO GRANZIERO,
Technical Communication Specialist, SOCOMEC UPS

INDEX
1. INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................... 3 2. UPS TOPOLOGIES ................................................................................................................................................ 3 2.1. Line-interactive UPS topology .............................................................................................................................. 3 2.2. Delta-conversion topology .................................................................................................................................... 4 2.3. Double-conversion UPS topology (online UPS) ................................................................................................... 5 3. COMPARISON ........................................................................................................................................................ 6 4. APPLICATIONS ...................................................................................................................................................... 8 4.1. IT Equipment and control systems ....................................................................................................................... 8 4.2. Variable speed drives ........................................................................................................................................... 9 4.3 Electrical Motors .................................................................................................................................................... 9 4.4 High-pressure discharge lamps ............................................................................................................................. 9 5. CONCLUSION ...................................................................................................................................................... 10 REFERENCES .......................................................................................................................................................... 11


Performances comparison of delta-conversion and double- conversion ups

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1. INTRODUCTION
On the market, from many years delta conversion UPSs are present without imposing their peculiar technology. But does this technology guarantee comparable performances to the ones of double-conversion? Or reduced costs are hiding limited performances? This paper has the aim to compare the double-conversion technology with the delta-conversion one, trying to highlight its limits. The main limitations of the delta-conversion topology are the impossibility of regulating frequency variations from power supply, the limited possibility of regulation voltage variation (for example voltage dip) on the load and the non zero transfer time. From the technical point of view the double-conversion technology is still the most reliable solution and the less vulnerable to disturbances coming from the power supply.

2. UPS TOPOLOGIES
UPSs can be classified into 3 main categories or topologies: Offline ; Line-interactive of which Delta-conversion can be considered as a sub-class; On-line or double conversion.

The three categories are completely different and guarantee completely different performances. In the following paragraphs the last 2 topologies are described, whereas the first is not subject of this paper.

2.1. Line-interactive UPS topology


Delta Conversion UPSs are a special type included in the more general class of line-interactive UPS topology. So-called line-interactive UPSs are able to provide improved conditioning to utility power by interacting with the incoming electricity. They achieve this by placing inverter/battery charging circuitry or transformers in parallel with the AC utility supply. The line-interactive topology is illustrated in Figure 1.

Figure 1 Line-interactive topology.


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As with a standby UPS, a line-interactive UPS allows utility power to flow to the connected load in normal mode, but because of the parallel configuration of the inverter/battery charger in this topology, the UPS can condition incoming utility power for over - or under - voltages by interacting with the AC main. Small perturbations in frequency and common mode noise usually cannot be filtered out. The battery is continuously trickle charged during normal operation through the inverter/battery charger similar to the standby UPS topology. This voltage regulation is accomplished through the use of either a tap-switching transformer, a ferroresonant transformer, or inverter magnetic components. UPS output is dependent of input supply frequency variations. When utility power is unavailable or reaches unacceptable limits, a line-interactive UPS, like a standby UPS, will enter stored energy mode. The UPS disconnects the load from utility power and reroutes this load with a static switch to backup AC power, provided by the battery through the inverter.

2.2. Delta-conversion topology


The delta-conversion configuration consists of two bidirectional converters, a battery bank, a static switch and a series transformer. The delta-conversion topology is illustrated in Figure 2.

Figure 2 Delta-conversion UPS

Delta-conversion UPSs use a special transformer configuration to interface between the load utility power, with a delta inverter in the transformer secondary to regulate input current and power. With this configuration, the UPS can regulate the magnitude, wave shape, and power factor of the current supplied at the UPS input, while till controlling the Voltage at the load. This results in effective power factor at the UPS input. UPS output is dependent of input supply frequency variations. Under normal conditions, the Delta inverter and the Main inverter are both on, so that the delta inverter controls the transformer secondary current, including its magnitude, phase and wave shape. Based on the turns ratio, the primary current, (which feeds the load), is controlled and maintained. In the event the utility is removed, the delta inverter turns off, forcing the primary current to zero, and the battery discharges through the main inverter to support the load. The main inverter is the usual inverter of the line interactive UPS. It is full rated and connected in parallel with the load. It uses PWM control to regulate the output voltage. On the other hand, the delta inverter is connected with the normal supply by a series transformer and is rated at 20% of the ups power. Its function is to compensate for any voltage difference between the input and the output. Furthermore, it controls the charging of the batteries and the input power factor. The load is fed by the normal supply whenever it is within the preset values. The power conditioning is limited to 15% of the total power to make the input power factor unitary. Figure describes different situations of the power flow in front of normal power supply deviations. As the figure illustrates, control is rather complex and the load is not electrically isolated from the normal supply.


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Figure 3 - Delta-conversion UPS power flow

2.3. Double-conversion UPS topology (online UPS)


Online or double-conversion UPSs are the most commonly used static UPSs because they are capable of completely isolating sensitive IT loads from unconditioned utility power. They receive their name because they convert unconditioned utility power two times under normal operating conditions: first from AC to DC electricity and then back again from DC electricity into a highly conditioned AC.

Figure 4 - Double-conversion topology

Double-conversion UPSs always provide the load with a high quality, conditioned AC signal, even during normal operation when utility power is available. For this reason, double-conversion UPSs are more common in highavailability, high-power mission critical applications such as industrial facilities, data centers and medical applications. Typical output power ratings for these types of UPSs range from 10 to over 1.000 kVA. The double-conversion topology is illustrated in Fig. 5.


Performances comparison of delta-conversion and double- conversion ups

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Fig. 5 - Double-conversion UPS

During normal mode, utility AC power is converted into DC power and is then converted back to a conditioned AC output for critical loads. During this phase of operation, the battery receives a continuous trickle charge to keep it at maximum charge. When utility power goes beyond acceptable limits, the double-conversion UPS enters stored energy mode. The inverter draws DC power from the battery and continues to put out a conditioned AC power to critical loads. In other words, the output of a double-conversion UPS is always conditioned. This makes double-conversion UPSs the best topology for highly sensitive loads in mission critical applications.

3. COMPARISON
Both technologies are now a day commercially available from watts to hundreds of kilowatts, and even megawatts if some units operate in parallel. However, their performance and structure, as well as costs, determine the choice. The main differences between delta and double conversion UPSs can be summarized as follow: According with the classification code provided by IEC 62040-3 in order to describe the quality of output voltages under the different operation modes conditions according to load point of view, delta-conversion UPS have to be classified as VI (Voltage Independent) while Double Conversion UPS are VFI (Voltage and Frequency independent); Output voltage can be fully regulated in Double Conversion UPS while a Delta UPS does not guarantee a complete regulation, e.g. frequency. A synthesis of performance comparison between double-conversion versus delta-conversion UPS technologies is given in
Table 1.


Performances comparison of delta-conversion and double- conversion ups

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UPS technology Classification Voltage regulation Frequency regulation Transfer time Efficiency Cost
Table 1 - Comparison between UPS technologies

Doubleconversion VFI Yes Yes 0 ms 92-96% High

Delta-conversion VI Limited No <16 ms Less than 96%1 Medium

Table 2 shows the relation between power disturbances and the static UPS technologies.

Voltage Phenomenon 1. Outage blackouts

Time > 10 ms

e.g.

IEC 62040-3
VFD Voltage Frequency dependent

UPS-Solution Offline

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Sags / brownouts Dynamic overvoltage Undervoltage Overvoltage Lightning Transients (Surge) Frequency variations Voltage distortion Hf (Burst) Voltage harmonics

< 16 ms < 16 ms Continuous Continuous Sporadic < 4 ms Sporadic Periodically Continuous

VI
Voltage indipendent

Line Interactive

VFI
Voltage frequency indipendent

Double Conversion

Table 2 - Normal supply disturbance and UPS solutions

The 96 % declared efficiency is the maximum reachable not conditioning the Energy. Compensations of voltage related disturbances considerable reduces the efficiency.


Performances comparison of delta-conversion and double- conversion ups

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Double Conversion is the best UPS technology in terms of performance, power conditioning and load protection, despite some minor disadvantages like efficiency. To solve this limit of efficiency, modern double conversion UPS have usually the possibility to be set also in off line service if necessary and possible. These are the reasons why double-conversion is broadly installed in high-power applications.

4. APPLICATIONS
In this paragraph for different applications the delta-conversion UPS limits are analysed. The most important of them is probably the non zero transfer time causing practically a voltage dip. Voltage dips cause the power needed for normal operation not be supplied to the equipment. This leads to degradation in the performance of the equipment and in extreme cases to a complete process interruption. Protective system are often implemented for the purpose of disconnecting the supply in the event of the voltage falling below a set level. Such protection can have the effect of converting a voltage dip into a long supply interruption. This long interruption is not caused by the voltage dip, but is the intended result of a protective devices response to the reduced voltage. If the voltage attains too low a value, or the duration of a dip is excessively long, the equipment may be disconnected by a protective system or may operate in an improper manner. The economic consequences of such an event can be of considerable significance. They include loss of production, costs of restarting the technological process, damaged equipment and materials, delayed delivery, reduced customer satisfaction, decrease in the power delivered to the user, etc.

4.1. IT Equipment and control systems


Immunity levels of IT equipment (computers, components of computer networks, PLC, etc.) to changes in r.m.s. voltage value is provided by the so-called ITIC (Information Technology Industry Council) curve, shown in Figure 6.

Figure 6 - ITIC (Information Technology Industry Council) curve

As shown by the curve, the immunity of equipment (guaranteed for disturbance within the curve branches) is strongly dependent on the duration of the dip. According to these characteristic, the IT equipment should obviously withstand steady-state voltage changes within 90-110% of the nominal value. For example, considering the transfer time of delta-converter UPS, an overvoltage between 150 and 200% of the rated value of the duration at least 1 ms, would turn out in the prohibited region for the IT equipment, with relative failure of the same and probable loss of production or processes.


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4.2. Variable speed drives


Variable speed drives produce one of the most serious problems associated with voltages dips and short supply interruptions. Unlike other disturbances, such as harmonics, unbalance, etc., the effect of dips and short interruptions is instantaneous. DC and AC drives differ in the topology of their power part and control system (both in hardware and software) and therefore they respond to voltage dips in different ways. There are three main reasons for their susceptibility to voltage dips: The power supply of the control system. If the power supply cannot maintain the supply voltage at sufficient level, the drive must be switched off for fear of loss of control; Possible irregular operation or failure of the power part of the drive resulting in the disturbance (e.g. commutation failure in a DC drive); In many processes the loss of precise speed or torque control is not tolerated for technological reasons, even for a very short time. The drives response to a voltage dip is a function of the drive parameters and type of load, as well as the quantities which define the disturbance. Some loads (fans, blowers, etc.) can tolerate significant reduction of speed and torque, others do not allow such changes. A precise control of parameters, like pressure, temperature, flow, is required in many industrial processes. As most of these processes employ electric drives, the motor torque and speed directly influence the process variables. Dips introduced by delta-conversion UPSs in case of transfer from the network operation to battery operation make the adoption of delta-conversion topology absolutely inadequate.

4.3 Electrical Motors


Induction Motors Induction Motors are very robust and reliable electrical machines. They are designed to resist to supply interruption with energy restoration in phase opposition. The problems arise when the motors slow down during the supply outage. This is typical when the motors shaft or the load has not enough inertia to keep the speed almost constant. If the motors slow down and this happens often it is like having repetitive startings: a critical phase for the motor that could drive to an over-heating and a subsequent burning of the machine. Therefore Delta Conversion UPSs are not indicated especially when the outages could be frequent. Synchronous Motors The most diffused Synchronous Motors are brushless and Variable Speed Drive fed. Refer, therefore, to the previous paragraph.

4.4 High-pressure discharge lamps


High-pressure sodium lamps, actually the most popular, are extinguished by a supply interruption of about two cycles duration, or by a voltage dip that reduces the voltage to less than 45% of the nominal value. The lamp requires time, from one to several minutes, for cooling and restart. In the case of wear-out lamps a voltage dip of much lesser depth (residual voltage of about 85% of UN) is sufficient to extinguish the lamp. Dips introduced by delta-conversion UPSs in case of transfer from the network operation to battery operation or persistent voltage reduction can cause in some cases the switching off of the lamps. Because of the working principle they can not be switched on immediately after.


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4.5 Electronic equipments in general


Electronic equipments in general are very sensitive to voltage spikes and overvoltages. Overvoltages can manifest in various waveforms. It is not possible describe and standardize all the waveforms, therefore standard IEC 60071-1 define three type of overvoltages: Standard short-duration power frequency voltage: a sinusoidal voltage with a frequency between 48 and 62 Hz and duration of 60 s; Standard switching impulse: an impulse voltage having a time to peak of 250 s and a time to half value of 2500 s; Standard lighting impulse: an impulse voltage having a front time 1.2 s and a time to half value of 50 s. On the basis of the characteristics of wave shape, overvoltage can be classified in Table 3 with reference to shape and duration; and cause.

Classification

Overvoltage type (cause) At power frequency (insulation fault) Switching (short-circuit disconnection)

MV-HV overvoltage coefficient 3

Term

Steepness of frequency front Power frequency

Damping

Internal*

Long > 1 s

Low

2 to 4 >4

Short < 1 s Very short, 1 to 10 ms

Medium, 1 to 200 kHz Very high, 1000 kV/ms

Medium High

External

Atmospheric (direct lightning stroke)

Table 3 - Characteristics of the various overvoltages types

Note: * Negligible in LV application Delta-conversion UPSs are not able to filter to the load the major part of these kind of disturbs. The voltage spike reach the load with subsequent fault.

5. CONCLUSION
Delta-conversion UPS introduces three remarkable limits: the impossibility of regulating the output frequency at loads, generating problems for all those loads that need of constant feeding frequency and the limited possibility of regulation output voltage; unforeseeable and impulsive voltage as the spike coming from the feeding line, they cannot be in some way limited or cancelled from the system delta-conversion. Electronic equipment presents in the data center or the PLC, is strongly susceptible to spike, being some often the root cause of fault; the non zero transfer time in case of transition from network operation to battery operation can creates problem to all the equipments sensitive to voltage dips. To be noted that often protection systems can have the effect of converting a voltage dip into a long supply interruption. The full decoupling between feeding and loads, guaranteed from the double-conversion UPS, allows a full filtering from the mains to the load and viceversa.


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REFERENCES
A. Baggini: Handbook of Power Quality. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Chichester 2008 Emiliano Cevenini: UPS Architectures for Power Quality improvement. A. Sudri, E. Jaureguialzo, A. Sumper, R. Villaffila and J. Rull: High Power Ups Selection Methodology and Installation Guideline for High Reliability Power Supply. Brian Fortenbury: High Performance Buildings: Data Centers - Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS). APC Legendary Reliability: The Ideal Green UPS. Angelo Baggini, Franco Bua: Convegno Istituzionale Comitato Elettrotecnico Italiano 2008: Impianti di Emergenza - Scelta delle Apparecchiature, Milano. ______________________________________________________________________________________


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White Paper 03/2011 PERFORMANCES COMPARISON OF DELTA-CONVERSION AND DOUBLE-CONVERSION UPS Authors: ANGELO BAGGINI, Lecturer at the Engineering Faculty, University of Bergamo MATTEO GRANZIERO, Technical Communication Specialist, SOCOMEC UPS

Media & Marketing Department SOCOMEC UPS Via Sila, 1/3 36033 Isola Vicentina (VI) Italy Media Marketing Coordinator: juri.romito@socomec.com Head Offices SOCOMEC UPS 11, route de Strasbourg B.P. 10050 F-67235 Huttenheim Cedex France

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