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Ancient Indian Science

Ancient Indian Science

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A List of Topics

Medical Sciences. Science in the Vedic Period. Jaina Mathematics. Classical Period. Kerala Mathematics. Early Indian contribution to astronomy has been briey mentioned earlier. Source: Wikipedia.

2 / 19

A List of Topics

Medical Sciences. Science in the Vedic Period. Jaina Mathematics. Classical Period. Kerala Mathematics. Early Indian contribution to astronomy has been briey mentioned earlier. Source: Wikipedia.

2 / 19

Contains 114 hymns for the treatment of diseases. Legend: Dhanvantari obtained this knowledge from Brahma.

Fundamental and applied principles were organised around 1500 BC. Texts.

Sushruta Samhita attributed to Sushruta. Charaka Samhita attributed to Charaka.

3 / 19

The book as it survives dates to 3rd or 4th century AD. It was composed sometime in the rst millennium BC. 184 chapters, descriptions of 1120 illnesses, 700 medicinal plants, 64 preparations from mineral sources and 57 preparations based on animal sources. Plastic and cataract surgery and other surgical procedures. Anaesthetic methods. Other specialities: medicine; pediatrics; geriatrics; diseases of the ear, nose, throat and eye; toxicology; aphrodisiacs; and psychiatry.

4 / 19

Work of several authors. Charaka: wandering religious student or ascetic.

A rational approach to the causation and cure of disease. Introduction of objective methods of clinical examination.

5 / 19

Use of large numbers: numbers as high as 1012 appear in Yajurveda (1200-900 BCE). Sulba sutras.

Rules for the construction of sacricial re altars. Altar: ve layers of burnt brick; each layer consists of 200 bricks; no two adjacent layers have congruent arrangements of bricks.

Statements of the Pythgorean theorem and examples of simple pythagorean triplets. A formula for the square root of two (accurate up to 5 decimal places). 1 1 1 2=1+ + . 3 3 4 3 4 34 Statements suggesting procedures for squaring the circle and circling the square.

Manava Sulba Sutra (c. 750-650 BC) and the Apastamba Sulba Sutra (c. 600 BC).

Contains results similar to those in Baudhayana Sulba Sutra.

Palash Sarkar (ISI, Kolkata) Indian Science in Brief 6 / 19

Use of large numbers: numbers as high as 1012 appear in Yajurveda (1200-900 BCE). Sulba sutras.

Rules for the construction of sacricial re altars. Altar: ve layers of burnt brick; each layer consists of 200 bricks; no two adjacent layers have congruent arrangements of bricks.

Statements of the Pythgorean theorem and examples of simple pythagorean triplets. A formula for the square root of two (accurate up to 5 decimal places). 1 1 1 2=1+ + . 3 3 4 3 4 34 Statements suggesting procedures for squaring the circle and circling the square.

Manava Sulba Sutra (c. 750-650 BC) and the Apastamba Sulba Sutra (c. 600 BC).

Contains results similar to those in Baudhayana Sulba Sutra.

Palash Sarkar (ISI, Kolkata) Indian Science in Brief 6 / 19

Use of large numbers: numbers as high as 1012 appear in Yajurveda (1200-900 BCE). Sulba sutras.

Rules for the construction of sacricial re altars. Altar: ve layers of burnt brick; each layer consists of 200 bricks; no two adjacent layers have congruent arrangements of bricks.

Statements of the Pythgorean theorem and examples of simple pythagorean triplets. A formula for the square root of two (accurate up to 5 decimal places). 1 1 1 2=1+ + . 3 3 4 3 4 34 Statements suggesting procedures for squaring the circle and circling the square.

Manava Sulba Sutra (c. 750-650 BC) and the Apastamba Sulba Sutra (c. 600 BC).

Contains results similar to those in Baudhayana Sulba Sutra.

Palash Sarkar (ISI, Kolkata) Indian Science in Brief 6 / 19

Use of large numbers: numbers as high as 1012 appear in Yajurveda (1200-900 BCE). Sulba sutras.

Rules for the construction of sacricial re altars. Altar: ve layers of burnt brick; each layer consists of 200 bricks; no two adjacent layers have congruent arrangements of bricks.

Statements of the Pythgorean theorem and examples of simple pythagorean triplets. A formula for the square root of two (accurate up to 5 decimal places). 1 1 1 2=1+ + . 3 3 4 3 4 34 Statements suggesting procedures for squaring the circle and circling the square.

Contains results similar to those in Baudhayana Sulba Sutra.

Palash Sarkar (ISI, Kolkata) Indian Science in Brief 6 / 19

Panini (c. 4th century BC). Ashtadhyayi: 3959 rules (and 8 chapters) of Sanskrit morphology, syntax and semantics.

Comprehensive and scientic theory of grammar. Earliest known work on descriptive linguistics and generative linguistics. Describes algorithms to be applied to lexical lists (Dhatupatha, Ganapatha) to form well-formed words. Generative approach: concepts of the phoneme, the morpheme and the root. Focus on brevity gives a highly unintuitive structure. Use of sophisticated logical rules and techniques.

7 / 19

Panini (c. 4th century BC). Ashtadhyayi: 3959 rules (and 8 chapters) of Sanskrit morphology, syntax and semantics.

Comprehensive and scientic theory of grammar. Earliest known work on descriptive linguistics and generative linguistics. Describes algorithms to be applied to lexical lists (Dhatupatha, Ganapatha) to form well-formed words. Generative approach: concepts of the phoneme, the morpheme and the root. Focus on brevity gives a highly unintuitive structure. Use of sophisticated logical rules and techniques.

7 / 19

Panini (c. 4th century BC). Ashtadhyayi: 3959 rules (and 8 chapters) of Sanskrit morphology, syntax and semantics.

Comprehensive and scientic theory of grammar. Earliest known work on descriptive linguistics and generative linguistics. Describes algorithms to be applied to lexical lists (Dhatupatha, Ganapatha) to form well-formed words. Generative approach: concepts of the phoneme, the morpheme and the root. Focus on brevity gives a highly unintuitive structure. Use of sophisticated logical rules and techniques.

7 / 19

Relation to modern linguistics.

Inuenced works of many eminent modern linguistics. Paninis grammar can be considered to be the worlds rst formal system. Notion of context-sensitive grammars and the ability to solve complex generative processes. Use of auxiliary symbols to mark syntactic categories and control grammatical derivations.

Used in formal grammar to describe computer languages.

The rst generative grammar in the modern sense was Paninis grammar. Noam Chomsky (Kolkata, November 22, 2001)

8 / 19

Relation to modern linguistics.

Inuenced works of many eminent modern linguistics. Paninis grammar can be considered to be the worlds rst formal system. Notion of context-sensitive grammars and the ability to solve complex generative processes. Use of auxiliary symbols to mark syntactic categories and control grammatical derivations.

Used in formal grammar to describe computer languages.

The rst generative grammar in the modern sense was Paninis grammar. Noam Chomsky (Kolkata, November 22, 2001)

8 / 19

Relation to modern linguistics.

Inuenced works of many eminent modern linguistics. Paninis grammar can be considered to be the worlds rst formal system. Notion of context-sensitive grammars and the ability to solve complex generative processes. Use of auxiliary symbols to mark syntactic categories and control grammatical derivations.

Used in formal grammar to describe computer languages.

The rst generative grammar in the modern sense was Paninis grammar. Noam Chomsky (Kolkata, November 22, 2001)

8 / 19

Freed Indian mathematics from religious and ritualistic constraints. Enumeration and classication of very large numbers.

Enumerable, innumerable and innite.

innite in one direction, innite in two directions, innite in area, innite everywhere, and the innite perpetually.

Notations for simple powers (and exponents) of numbers like squares and cubes.

9 / 19

Freed Indian mathematics from religious and ritualistic constraints. Enumeration and classication of very large numbers.

Enumerable, innumerable and innite.

innite in one direction, innite in two directions, innite in area, innite everywhere, and the innite perpetually.

Notations for simple powers (and exponents) of numbers like squares and cubes.

9 / 19

Freed Indian mathematics from religious and ritualistic constraints. Enumeration and classication of very large numbers.

Enumerable, innumerable and innite.

innite in one direction, innite in two directions, innite in area, innite everywhere, and the innite perpetually.

Notations for simple powers (and exponents) of numbers like squares and cubes.

9 / 19

Beezganit samikaran: simple algebraic equations. Were the rst to use the word shunya. Pingala (c. 300-200 BC) composed Chandah-shastra:

A treatise on prosody. Developed mathematical concepts for describing prosody. Credited with developing the rst known description of a binary number system. Evidence of Binomial coefcients and Pascals triangle in his work. Basic ideas of Fibonacci numbers.

10 / 19

Beezganit samikaran: simple algebraic equations. Were the rst to use the word shunya. Pingala (c. 300-200 BC) composed Chandah-shastra:

A treatise on prosody. Developed mathematical concepts for describing prosody. Credited with developing the rst known description of a binary number system. Evidence of Binomial coefcients and Pascals triangle in his work. Basic ideas of Fibonacci numbers.

10 / 19

Golden age of Indian mathematics. Major mathematicians: Aryabhata, Varahamihira, Brahmagupta, Bhaskara-I, Mahavira, and Bhaskara-II. Broader and clearer shape to many branches of mathematics. Contributions spread to Asia, the Middle East, and eventually to Europe. Tripartite division of astronomy: mathematics, horoscope and divination. Mathematics was included as part of astronomy.

Unlike Vedic times.

11 / 19

Golden age of Indian mathematics. Major mathematicians: Aryabhata, Varahamihira, Brahmagupta, Bhaskara-I, Mahavira, and Bhaskara-II. Broader and clearer shape to many branches of mathematics. Contributions spread to Asia, the Middle East, and eventually to Europe. Tripartite division of astronomy: mathematics, horoscope and divination. Mathematics was included as part of astronomy.

Unlike Vedic times.

11 / 19

Golden age of Indian mathematics. Major mathematicians: Aryabhata, Varahamihira, Brahmagupta, Bhaskara-I, Mahavira, and Bhaskara-II. Broader and clearer shape to many branches of mathematics. Contributions spread to Asia, the Middle East, and eventually to Europe. Tripartite division of astronomy: mathematics, horoscope and divination. Mathematics was included as part of astronomy.

Unlike Vedic times.

11 / 19

Surya Siddhanta (c. 400 AD): authorship unknown.

Roots of modern trigonometry: Sine (Jya), Cosine (Kojya), Inverse Sine (Otkram jya); earliest uses of Tangent and Secant.

Earliest known use of the modern, i.e., base 10, place-value numeral system.

In a legal document dated 594 AD (Chhedi calendar: 346). Arose due to fascination of Indians with large numbers. Transmitted to the Arabs and thence to Europe. (Babylonians (19th century BC) had a place-value system (in base 60).)

The ingenious method of expressing every possible number using a set of ten symbols (each symbol having a place value and an absolute value) emerged in India. The idea seems so simple nowadays that its signicance and profound importance is no longer appreciated. Laplace

Palash Sarkar (ISI, Kolkata) Indian Science in Brief 12 / 19

Surya Siddhanta (c. 400 AD): authorship unknown.

Roots of modern trigonometry: Sine (Jya), Cosine (Kojya), Inverse Sine (Otkram jya); earliest uses of Tangent and Secant.

Earliest known use of the modern, i.e., base 10, place-value numeral system.

In a legal document dated 594 AD (Chhedi calendar: 346). Arose due to fascination of Indians with large numbers. Transmitted to the Arabs and thence to Europe. (Babylonians (19th century BC) had a place-value system (in base 60).)

The ingenious method of expressing every possible number using a set of ten symbols (each symbol having a place value and an absolute value) emerged in India. The idea seems so simple nowadays that its signicance and profound importance is no longer appreciated. Laplace

Palash Sarkar (ISI, Kolkata) Indian Science in Brief 12 / 19

Aryabhata (476-550 AD): composed Aryabhatiya (and Arya Siddhanta now lost).

Denition of sine, cosine, ...; calculation of approximate numerical values and tables; a trigonometric identity; the value of correct to 4 decimal places. Continued fractions; simultaneous quadratic equations; solutions of linear equations; formula for sum of cubes. Calculations pertaining to solar and lunar eclipses.

Contributions to trigonometry: obtained certain identities.

13 / 19

Aryabhata (476-550 AD): composed Aryabhatiya (and Arya Siddhanta now lost).

Denition of sine, cosine, ...; calculation of approximate numerical values and tables; a trigonometric identity; the value of correct to 4 decimal places. Continued fractions; simultaneous quadratic equations; solutions of linear equations; formula for sum of cubes. Calculations pertaining to solar and lunar eclipses.

Contributions to trigonometry: obtained certain identities.

13 / 19

Pati-ganit and Bija-ganit: separation of mathematics into two branches. Brahmagupta: Brahma Sphuta Siddhanta (628 AD).

Two chapters (12 and 18) on mathematics. Basic operations: cube roots, fractions, ratio and proportion. Theorem on cyclic quadrilaterals; formula for area of a cyclic quadrilateral (generalization of Herons formula); complete description of rational triangles, i.e., triangles with rational sides and areas. Rules for arithmetic operations involving zero and negative numbers.

Considered to be the rst systematic treatment of the subject.

Palash Sarkar (ISI, Kolkata) Indian Science in Brief 14 / 19

Pati-ganit and Bija-ganit: separation of mathematics into two branches. Brahmagupta: Brahma Sphuta Siddhanta (628 AD).

Two chapters (12 and 18) on mathematics. Basic operations: cube roots, fractions, ratio and proportion. Theorem on cyclic quadrilaterals; formula for area of a cyclic quadrilateral (generalization of Herons formula); complete description of rational triangles, i.e., triangles with rational sides and areas. Rules for arithmetic operations involving zero and negative numbers.

Considered to be the rst systematic treatment of the subject.

Palash Sarkar (ISI, Kolkata) Indian Science in Brief 14 / 19

Pati-ganit and Bija-ganit: separation of mathematics into two branches. Brahmagupta: Brahma Sphuta Siddhanta (628 AD).

Two chapters (12 and 18) on mathematics. Basic operations: cube roots, fractions, ratio and proportion. Theorem on cyclic quadrilaterals; formula for area of a cyclic quadrilateral (generalization of Herons formula); complete description of rational triangles, i.e., triangles with rational sides and areas. Rules for arithmetic operations involving zero and negative numbers.

Considered to be the rst systematic treatment of the subject.

Palash Sarkar (ISI, Kolkata) Indian Science in Brief 14 / 19

Virasena (9th century): Jain mathematician composed Dhavala.

Ardhaccheda: number of times a number can be halved log to base 2 and related rules. Trakacheda, Caturthacheda: log to bases 3 and 4.

Numerical mathematics, area of ellipse and quadrilateral inside a circle; empirical rules for area and perimeter of an ellipse. Algebra: non-existence of the square-root of a negative number; solution of cubic and quartic equations; solutions of some quintic equations and higher-order polynomials.

Shridhara Acharya (c. 870-930 AD): wrote Nav Shatika, Tri Shatika and Pati Ganita.

Volume of a sphere; solution of quadratic equations. Pati Ganita: extracting square and cube roots; fractions; eight rules given for operations involving zero; methods of summation of different arithmetic and geometric series.

Palash Sarkar (ISI, Kolkata) Indian Science in Brief 15 / 19

Virasena (9th century): Jain mathematician composed Dhavala.

Ardhaccheda: number of times a number can be halved log to base 2 and related rules. Trakacheda, Caturthacheda: log to bases 3 and 4.

Numerical mathematics, area of ellipse and quadrilateral inside a circle; empirical rules for area and perimeter of an ellipse. Algebra: non-existence of the square-root of a negative number; solution of cubic and quartic equations; solutions of some quintic equations and higher-order polynomials.

Shridhara Acharya (c. 870-930 AD): wrote Nav Shatika, Tri Shatika and Pati Ganita.

Volume of a sphere; solution of quadratic equations. Pati Ganita: extracting square and cube roots; fractions; eight rules given for operations involving zero; methods of summation of different arithmetic and geometric series.

Palash Sarkar (ISI, Kolkata) Indian Science in Brief 15 / 19

Virasena (9th century): Jain mathematician composed Dhavala.

Ardhaccheda: number of times a number can be halved log to base 2 and related rules. Trakacheda, Caturthacheda: log to bases 3 and 4.

Numerical mathematics, area of ellipse and quadrilateral inside a circle; empirical rules for area and perimeter of an ellipse. Algebra: non-existence of the square-root of a negative number; solution of cubic and quartic equations; solutions of some quintic equations and higher-order polynomials.

Shridhara Acharya (c. 870-930 AD): wrote Nav Shatika, Tri Shatika and Pati Ganita.

Volume of a sphere; solution of quadratic equations. Pati Ganita: extracting square and cube roots; fractions; eight rules given for operations involving zero; methods of summation of different arithmetic and geometric series.

Palash Sarkar (ISI, Kolkata) Indian Science in Brief 15 / 19

Elaboration of Aryabhatas differential equations.

Aryabhata-II (c. 920-1000 AD): Maha-Siddhanta which discusses numerical mathematics, algebra and solutions of indeterminate equations. Shripati Mishra (1019-1066 AD): Siddhanta Shekhara, Ganit Tilaka

Permutations and combinations; general solution of the simultaneous indeterminate linear equation. Wrote other works on astronomy: solar and lunar eclipse; planetary longitudes; planetary transits.

16 / 19

Bhaskara II (1114-1185 AD): Siddhanta Shiromani, Lilavati, Bijaganita, Gola Addhaya, Griha Ganitam and Karan Kautoohal.

His contributions were later transmitted to the Middle East and Europe. Interest computation; arithmetical and geometrical progressions; plane geometry; solid geometry; a proof for division by zero being innity. The recognition of a positive number having two square roots; surds; solutions of multi-variate quadratic equations; chakravala method for solving general form of Pells equations; A proof of the Pythagorean theorem. Discovered the derivative; derived the differential of the sine function; stated Rolles theorem; computed , correct to 5 decimal places; calculated length of Earths revolution to 9 decimal places. Development of different trigonometric formulae.

17 / 19

Bhaskara II (1114-1185 AD): Siddhanta Shiromani, Lilavati, Bijaganita, Gola Addhaya, Griha Ganitam and Karan Kautoohal.

His contributions were later transmitted to the Middle East and Europe. Interest computation; arithmetical and geometrical progressions; plane geometry; solid geometry; a proof for division by zero being innity. The recognition of a positive number having two square roots; surds; solutions of multi-variate quadratic equations; chakravala method for solving general form of Pells equations; A proof of the Pythagorean theorem. Discovered the derivative; derived the differential of the sine function; stated Rolles theorem; computed , correct to 5 decimal places; calculated length of Earths revolution to 9 decimal places. Development of different trigonometric formulae.

17 / 19

Bhaskara II (1114-1185 AD): Siddhanta Shiromani, Lilavati, Bijaganita, Gola Addhaya, Griha Ganitam and Karan Kautoohal.

His contributions were later transmitted to the Middle East and Europe. Interest computation; arithmetical and geometrical progressions; plane geometry; solid geometry; a proof for division by zero being innity. The recognition of a positive number having two square roots; surds; solutions of multi-variate quadratic equations; chakravala method for solving general form of Pells equations; A proof of the Pythagorean theorem. Discovered the derivative; derived the differential of the sine function; stated Rolles theorem; computed , correct to 5 decimal places; calculated length of Earths revolution to 9 decimal places. Development of different trigonometric formulae.

17 / 19

History.

Founded by Madhava of Sangamagrama. Tantrasangraha by Neelakanta and a commentary on it of unknown authorship.

Several centuries before calculus was developed. Cannot be said to have invented calculus; did not develop a theory of differentiation or integration.

No proper use of the inductive hypothesis in proofs.

Theorems were stated without proofs. Proofs for the series for sine, cosine and inverse tangent were provided by Jyesthadeva (c. 1500-1610 AD).

Palash Sarkar (ISI, Kolkata) Indian Science in Brief 18 / 19

History.

Founded by Madhava of Sangamagrama. Tantrasangraha by Neelakanta and a commentary on it of unknown authorship.

Several centuries before calculus was developed. Cannot be said to have invented calculus; did not develop a theory of differentiation or integration.

No proper use of the inductive hypothesis in proofs.

Theorems were stated without proofs. Proofs for the series for sine, cosine and inverse tangent were provided by Jyesthadeva (c. 1500-1610 AD).

Palash Sarkar (ISI, Kolkata) Indian Science in Brief 18 / 19

History.

Founded by Madhava of Sangamagrama. Tantrasangraha by Neelakanta and a commentary on it of unknown authorship.

Several centuries before calculus was developed. Cannot be said to have invented calculus; did not develop a theory of differentiation or integration.

No proper use of the inductive hypothesis in proofs.

Theorems were stated without proofs. Proofs for the series for sine, cosine and inverse tangent were provided by Jyesthadeva (c. 1500-1610 AD).

Palash Sarkar (ISI, Kolkata) Indian Science in Brief 18 / 19

History.

Founded by Madhava of Sangamagrama. Tantrasangraha by Neelakanta and a commentary on it of unknown authorship.

Several centuries before calculus was developed. Cannot be said to have invented calculus; did not develop a theory of differentiation or integration.

No proper use of the inductive hypothesis in proofs.

Palash Sarkar (ISI, Kolkata) Indian Science in Brief 18 / 19

History.

Founded by Madhava of Sangamagrama. Tantrasangraha by Neelakanta and a commentary on it of unknown authorship.

Several centuries before calculus was developed. Cannot be said to have invented calculus; did not develop a theory of differentiation or integration.

No proper use of the inductive hypothesis in proofs.

Palash Sarkar (ISI, Kolkata) Indian Science in Brief 18 / 19

19 / 19

19 / 19

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