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Cursul de sintax urmrete nelegerea principiilor majore care stau la baza structurii propoziiei engleze.

Abordarea analizei sintactice in prima parte a cursului predat studenilor, se axeaz pe sintaxa transformaional, n care fenomenele sintactice sunt descrise pornind de la regulile de structurare a locuiunilor verbale, substantivale, adjectivale, prepoziionale, adverbiale (Phrase Structure Rules), respectiv a propoziiilor (Sentence Rules). Aceste structuri de adncime (D-Structures) sunt secondate de structuri de suprafa (Inversion, Wh-Movement). Aspectele teoretice abordate n cadrul cursului sunt urmate de exerciii aplicative, care constituie un suport real n contientizarea analizei sintactice la nivel de locuiune i propoziie realizat prin construirea arborescente (branching trees). Cursul cuprinde i o terminologie de specialitate pentru a facilita accesul studenilor la nelegerea att de complexei analize sintactice abordat n stil modern, din perspectiva sintaxei transformaionale. de structuri

PART ONE

PART ONE: SYNTAX MOTTO: Before we take to sea we walk on land Before we create we must understand.

LINGUISTICS is the discipline that studies the nature and use of language, i.e. its

system of rules and categories. BRANCHES OF LINGUISTICS:

1. PHONETICS studies the sounds of language 2. PHONOLOGY studies the function and patterning of sounds 3. MORPHOLOGY deals with the analysis of word structure. 4. SYNTAX deals with the analysis of sentence structure. 5. SEMANTICS deals with the analysis of meaning. SYNTAX is a component of grammar that deals with the system of rules and

categories that underlies sentence formation in human language, i.e. with the manner in which words are combined to form various types of sentences. The precise rules for sentence formation differ from language to language.

However, the same general types of devices are used in the analysis of sentence formation. They are: syntactic categories phrase structure rules transformations

Transformational syntax is an approach to syntactic analysis in which syntactic

phenomena are described in terms of phrase structure rules and transformations.

SYNTACTIC CATEGORIES show how words are grouped together into a

relatively small number of classes (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions,

numerals, pronouns, interjections, and conjunctions). A words syntactic category can be determined according to: a) the type of meaning the word expresses; b) the type of affixes that it takes, i.e. inflection; c) the type of structures in which it can occur, also called distribution. A potential source of confusion stems from the fact that some items can belong to

more than one syntactic category: e.g. The child stood near the fence. (preposition) The runners neared the finishing line. (verb) The end is nearer than you might think. (adjective) a) according to meaning, a word is a: noun: when it denotes entities and objects, e.g. Mark, desk *abstract nouns, e.g. happiness, truth verb: when it designates: - actions, e.g. run, jump - sensations, e.g. feel, hurt - states, e.g. have, remain adjective: when it designates properties and attributes of the entities denoted by

nouns, e.g. a high mountain adverb: when it denotes properties and attributes of the actions, sensations and

states denoted by verbs, e.g. Tom walked slowly. b) according to affixes, i.e. inflection: nouns: plural s, e.g. teacher-teachers *knowledge, news, advice, money, luggage, etc. verbs: -ed, e.g. start-started -ing, e.g. feel-feeling adjectives: comparative/superlative forms, e.g. taller, tallest

adverbs: -ly, e.g. happily, slowly *hardly

c) according to structures, i.e. distribution: nouns can typically appear with a determiner: a clerk verbs can typically appear with an auxiliary: has left adjectives can typically appear with a degree word: very rich

PHRASE STRUCTURE RULES: Sentences are not formed by simply stringing words together like beads on a necklace. Rather, sentences have a hierarchical design in which words are grouped together into successively larger structural units. Such syntactic units can be built around nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs and prepositions. They are called phrases. Consequently, there are: Noun Phrases (NP) Verb Phrases (VP) Adjective Phrases (AP) Adverb Phrases (AdvP) Prepositional Phrases (PP) Phrases are built around a Head, which is at the word level: A noun for a NP A verb for a VP An adjective for an AP An adverb for an AdvP A preposition for a PP Phrases can consist of just one word, i.e. the head of the phrase:

E.g. (he likes) cats

NP

(all cats) eat VP

(she is) sure

AP A

(he went) in PP P

(he left) early

Adv Adv

In addition to the head of the phrase, phrases can also include a second word,

which is called specifier. Specifiers are placed before the head of the phrase. The syntactic category of specifiers ( determiner, qualifier, degree word) differs depending on the category of the head of the phrase. Thus: a) determiners are specifiers of nouns, e.g. a/an, the, this that, these, those, no, his, her, my, your, their, etc. b) qualifiers are specifiers of verbs, e.g. never, ever, always, perhaps, also, etc. c) degree words are specifiers of adjectives and some prepositions, e.g. very, quite, more, almost. In more complex phrases the head of the phrase can be preceded by specifiers and followed by a third word, which is called complement. Complements are placed after the head of the phrase. They provide information about entities and locations whose existence is implied by the meaning of the head. They are also phrases. A verb can have one, two or more complements. E.g. NP the books about the war VP never leave a friend AP quite certain about Mary PP almost in the house AdvP early towards home

Complement options. The term subcategorization is used to refer to

information about a words complement options ( See Appendix) Thanks to subcategorization information, heads occur only in tree structures where they have compatible complement phrases. a) Transitive verbs must be followed by an object. The object is usually the thing or person affected by the action. We can use intransitive verbs without an object: E.g. Dominic kicked the ball. When he fell flat on his back, I laughed. b) We can use some verbs both transitively and intransitively, sometimes with different meanings: E.g. After the match, he went home and walked the dog. He walked back from the penalty spot looking sheepish. c) After transitive verbs we can use noun phrases or clauses: E.g. I like the topic. S = NP + Infl + VP (V + NP) I like what he is talking about. S = NP + Infl + VP (V + CP) d) Some transitive verbs can have two objects (complements), the first of which is usually a personal object: E.g. Harry gave me a call. S = NP + Infl + VP (NP + NP)

e) With some verbs, we can use either two objects (i.e. complements) or an object + prepositional phrase: E.g. I sent you the package. I sent the package to you. S = NP + Infl + NP (NP + NP) S = NP + Infl + NP (NP + PP)

f) We can follow some intransitive verbs with prepositional phrases or words referring to place or time:

E.g. It occurs to me that my licence is due for renewal soon. S = NP +Infl + VP (V + PP) They are coming tomorrow. S = NP + Infl + VP (V + QUAL) g) We can follow link verbs, e.g. seem, sound, be, with adjectives and noun phrases: E.g. I am a little nervous about the concert. S = NP + Infl + VP (V + AP + PP) The whole thing seems a waste of time to me. S = NP + Infl + VP (V + NP +PP) h) E.g. I arrived at the checkout out of breath. S = NP + Infl + VP (V + PP + PP) I find his arrogance beyond belief. S = NP + Infl + VP (V NP + PP) i) After some verbs we use as + NP: E.g. He is going to stand down as President at the next election. S = NP + Infl + VP (V + NP + PP) To sum up what has been said so far, the phrase structure template shows as XP X = N, V, A, Adv, P. Prepositional phrases usually begin with a preposition which may not be

connected with the preceding noun, verb or adjective:

follows:

Specifier

Complement

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X Head We can see from the template above that the five different phrase types share structural properties. THE SENTENCE (S) is the largest unit of syntactic analysis. Sentences are

formed by combining a NP (often called the subject) with a VP (often called the predicate). So the S RULE is: S = NP+VP

If we compare the structure of a phrase with the structure of a sentence we can conclude the following: The two structures (phrase and sentence) are similar in form: NP = Specifier VP = Complement Head = Inflection (past or non-past) The Head position being obligatory is taken at the level of the sentence by an

abstract category, INFL (Inflection) which accounts for the fact that all sentences of English have tense (past /non-past). Auxiliaries (e.g. will, can, may), when present are used instead of the Infl category. So the sentence can be shown like that : InflP = S S = NP + Infl + VP Whole sentence-like constructions can function as complements:

E.g. The doctor knows that his patient will recover. S = NP + VP (V + S) Words such as that, if, whether are known as complementizers (Cs). They

introduce an S complement forming the CP (complemetizer phrase). In a CP, the complementizer (C) functions as the head, while the sentence (S) functions as the complement of the CP. E.g.

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that his patient will recover: S = CP = C + S The doctor knows that his patient will recover: S = NP + VP (V + CP) In conclusion, the phrase structure rule (XP rule) determines the

architecture of a sentences DEEP STRUCTURE. This structure can be visualised by assigning to sentences an appropriate tree structure. E.g. The man repaired the car. S NP Det The N man Infl Pst V repaired NP the car VP

According to the syntactic analysis presented here the words that make up a sentence form intermediate structural units called phrases. Words are grouped together into phrases, called syntactic units or constituents (the man, repaired, the car). The existence of constituents within sentences can be verified with the help of 3 (three) special tests: 1. The substitution test: NPs are syntactic units or constituents because they can be replaced by an element such as they, it, do so. It is the same for VPs, PPs, etc. E.g. The students left when they finished the classes. NP = the students = they E.g. The students will leave the hall if the teachers will do so. VP = leave the hall = do so E.g. They left for the mountains and we left there too.

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PP = for the mountains = there 2. The movement test: a constituent can be moved as a single unit to a different position within the sentence. E.g. For the mountains they left / They left for the mountains. 3. The co-ordination test: Patterns built around a conjunction (and, or, but) are called co-ordinate structures. Co-ordinate structures can link only structures of the same type: NP + NP; VP + VP; AP + AP; PP + PP. A group of words forms a constituent if it can be joined to another group of words by such a conjunction. E.g. Mary is keen on calculus but tired of chemistry. AP + but + AP COMPLEMENT CLAUSES = sentence-like constructions that are embedded

within larger structures. E.g. Tom told Mary that he loved her. In the above example Tom told Mary that he loved her is called the matrix clause, while that he loved her is called a complement clause. There is no limit on the number of embedded clauses that can occur in a sentence: E.g.

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The teacher said that there was a student that another student reported that S NP Infl VP Pst CP S NP Infl Pst VP NP

CP S NP Infl Pst CP Det N V C NV Det N C Det N V C VP

The teacher said that there was a student that another student reported that A CP may serve as a complement to a V, N, A, Adv, or a P:

E.g. He said that he was right They lack proof (that) he was right He was certain that he was right They talked about whether he was right

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S NP Infl Pst VP CP C NP N V N S VP AP V A

He

said

he

was

right

NP N Proof AP A certain PP P (talk) about CP whether he was right CP that he was right CP that he was right

TRANSFORMATIONS = a type of syntactic rule that can move an element from While phrase structure rules generate deep structures ( D-structures),

one position to another. transformations generate surface structures (S-structures). There are two types of transformations: A. Inversion (the sentence contains an auxiliary verb to the left of the sentence)

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B.

Wh-Movement (the sentence begins with a wh-word). A. Inversion = a transformation that moves Aux from its position within the VP to a position to the left of the subject, formulated as: Move Aux to C. Inversion in yes-no questions. Their syntactic analysis involves transformations

in addition to the usual phrase structure rules. E.g. Can the boy jump over the fence? Can = Infl (Aux) the boy = NP (Det +N) jump over the fence = VP (V + PP) Stages: 1. In order to determine the deep structure, we must return the auxiliary verb to its position under Infl. Thus, the usual XP rule is used to form a structure in which the auxiliary can occupies its normal position in Infl (head position), between the subject (its specifier) and the VP (its complement). S D-structure NP Det The N boy Infl can VP V jump PP over the fence

2. In order to determine the surface structure (i.e. the question structure) a transformation known as inversion moves the auxiliary from the Infl position to a position to the left of the subject: e.g. Will the boy ____ leave? Inversion S-structure

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Inversion: Move Infl to the left of the subject NP Since no position is available to the left of the subject for the auxiliary verb can we assume that sentences occur within larger CPs (complementizer phrases), whether they are embedded or not: CP C (head) S (complement)

When embedded within a larger sentence, the CP can contain an overt complementizer such as that or whether. Elsewhere, the C position in the CP shell is present but is simply left empty (O): E.g. I dont know whether she comes. CP = whether she comes C = whether S = she comes

S NP VP CP S

Infl N I dont V C NP she NPst VP comes know whether

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E.g. I know (that) she comes.

S NP VP CP S Infl NPst N I V know C (that) NP she Infl VP comes

RULE: Move Infl to C (empty position) CP

C Infl Det Will the NP N boy

S Infl V e jump VP

Trace = the empty element, marked by the symbol e, that is left in syntactic structure after an element has been moved (from the head position within S) NOTE: a) a transformation can change only an elements position.

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b) it does not change the categories of any words c) it cannot eliminate any part of the structural configuration created by the phrase structure rules: E.g. can retains its Infl label even though it is moved into the C position, and the position that it formerly occupied remains in the tree structure. Do Insertion (to form questions corresponding to sentences that contain no

auxiliary). E.g. The students attended the lecture.

STAGES: 1. The usual XP rule gives the deep structure which contains no auxiliary verb in the Infl position.

CP S C NP Infl Pst Det The N students V Det attended the N lecture VP NP

Through transformation, the special interrogative auxiliary did is inserted into the empty Infl position.

CP S C

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NP

VP NP

Det The 2.

N students

Infl did

V attend(ed)

Det the

N lecture

Inversion applies, moving interrogative desired surface structure.

did to the C position and giving the

CP C NP Infl Det Did the N students e Infl V attend S VP NP Det the N lecture

B. 1. Wh-Movement = a transformation that moves a wh-phrase to the beginning of the sentence: Move a wh-phrase to the specifier position under CP. E.g. Which book should he buy? NOTE: who/which/what = simple nouns Which = determiner Wh-phrase = fulfil the complement function (of a verb or preposition) in the sentence.

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Stages: 1. Deep structure for the wh-question: He should buy which book S NP Infl N He shouldbuy V which Det book VP NP N D-structure

Through transformation (Wh-movement) the wh-phrase is moved from its position in deep structure to a position at the beginning of the sentence. Wh-Movement: Move the wh-phrase to the beginning of the sentence. 2. The desired question structure ( S-structure) is formed by applying W-Movement and inversion to the deep structure. Which book should he ----- buy -----? Inversion Wh-Movement

NOTE: The wh-phrase is moved to the specifier position under C.

CP S-structure

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NP

C NP Infl N

S VP Infl V e buy e NP

Which book should he

Wh-Movement in sentences where the wh-word is the subject.

E.g. Who called Tom? Since there is nothing for the subject wh-word to move over in such cases, there is no visible change in word order. e.g. Who ------------called Tom? Wh-Movement

AMBIGUOUS SENTENCES: E.g. A. Who called Tom? (subject) B. Who did Tom call? (direct object) Surface structure: A. Who -------------called Tom? Wh movement CP NP C NP S Infl VP

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Pst NP V Who e called N Tom

A.

Who did Tom

---------Inversion

call

-----

Wh-Movement CP NP C S Infl Infl Who did NP Tom e VP V call NP e

OTHER STRUCTURAL PATTERNS

1. Co-ordinate structures 2. Modifier constructions 3. Relative constructions 4. Passive structures NOTE: 1, 2, and 3 are employed by practitioners of transformational syntax.

1. Co-ordinate structures

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= a phrase that is formed by joining two (or more) categories of the same type with a conjunction such as and, or, but. E.g. a man and a woman Co-ordination = the operation that groups together two or more categories of the Ns: the book and copy-book Vs: repair and paint the house Ps: up and down the stairs As: beautiful and expensive dress Advs: a beautifully and smartly-dressed woman NPs: a man and a woman VPs: go home and read a book PPS: on the desk and under it APs: quite beautiful and very expensive AdvPs: very calmly and quite rapidly Ss: The teacher entered the room and the students stood up.

same type with the help of a conjunction:

E.g. quite beautiful and very expensive AP AP Deg A Con and Deg very AP A expensive

Quite beautiful

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E.g. The teacher entered the room and the students stood up . S

Con

NP

Infl Pst V

VP NP

NP

Infl Pst V

VP PP

The teacher entered

the room

and the students

stood

up

The Co-ordinate Structure Constraint does not allow an element to be removed

from a co-ordinate structure. Island = a constituent that does not permit extraction of a component part:

E.g. Dave and Pam; a poem or a story. The Co-ordination rule is the phrase structure rule that states the composition of Xn = either an X or an XP can be co-ordinated

a co-ordinate structure: Xn Xn* Con Xn

* = one or more categories can occur to the left of the conjunction E.g. a book, a copy-book and a pencil 2. Modifier Constructions A modifier = an optional element that describes a property of a head.

E.g. that blue car the book that Sue read RULE: we will attach modifiers at the XP level of phrase structure: NP

E.g. a famous writer

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AP DET A A famous N writer

E.g. never listen attentively VP AdvP Qual Never V listen Adv attentively

Types of modifiers that can modify Ns or Vs:

A.

APs as modifiers of Ns:

E.g. a very high building

NP AP Det A Deg very A high N building

APs as complements of Vs (become/seem)

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E.g. She seemed quite happy. S NP Infl Pst AP N She V seemed Deg quite A happy VP

B.

AdvPs as modifiers of Vs:

E.g. She left early. S NP Infl Pst AdvP N She C. D. E.g. He stayed for two days. S PPs as modifiers of Vs: V left early VP

NP

Infl

VP

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Pst PP N V P NP

He So, the RULE is:

stayed

for

two days

XP (Spec) (Mod) X (Complement*) (Mod) E.g. a happy couple always talk carefully tell the news very rapidly 3. Relative Clauses = a CP-sized modifier that provides information about the noun head to its left . E.g. the man that Sue met. Like other modifiers, relative clauses occur within the same phrase as the head CP that they modify. (Spec) X (Mod) X (Mod) X (Complement) (Mod)

NP

C NP

S Infl Pst VP V met

Det The

N man that

N Sue

They resemble embedded wh-questions:

a) They begin with a wh-word such as who/ which. b) There is an empty position within the sentence from which the wh-phrase has apparently been moved.

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e.g. She may read the book which Tom bought. S NP Infl VP NP CP C NP N She may V Det N book which N Tom S Infl Pst V bought VP

read the

3. Passive Sentences = a sentence in which the NP bearing the theme role is encoded as subject. E.g. The report was written by the students. The transformational analysis of passives makes use of both deep structure and surface structure. In order to account for thematic role assignment, the NP that receives the theme role occurs as complement of the verb in deep structure while the NP that receives the agent role, if present occurs as complement of the special preposition by. A transformation then moves the NP bearing the theme role from its deep structure position to the subject position in surface structure, giving the correct final form of the sentence. E.g. The report was written by the students . (the agent role is suppressed or appears as complement of the preposition by; the preposition by assigns its agent role to its complement the students): S

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NP

Infl Pst

VP VP V V Was written *<ag, th> * passive verb cannot assign agent role the students NP

In the surface structure, a NP movement takes place: Move NP (bearing the theme role) from the direct object position to the subject position when the latter is empty. S VP Infl Pst VP NP NP The thief V V e PP P by NP the police

was arrested

Thematic roles = the parts played by a particular entity in an event (agent, theme, source, goal, location) a) Agent = the thematic role of the doer of the action designated by the verb. E.g. the students (The report was written by the students)

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b) Theme = the thematic role of the entity directly affected by the action designated by the verb. E.g. the report (The report was written by the students) c) Source = the starting point for a movement e.g. from (He comes from India) d) Goal = the end point for a movement E.g. to (He goes to India) e) Location = the place where an action occurs E.g. London (He learned at London) It results that: Thematic roles are associated with each NP in a sentence Thematic roles are implied by their meanings:

E.g. hit <agent>, <theme> walk <agent> to <goal> from <location> (e.g. the prepositions to and from assign a thematic role to their complement NP, India). PP P From <Source> NP India P to <goal> PP NP India

NOTE: Theme roles are assigned to the Vs complement: <theme> Agent roles are assigned to the Vs subject: E.g. He bought the present.

E.g. He bought the present.

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<agent> So we have:

He bought the present. <ag, th>

Verbs assign agent roles to their subject and theme roles to their complement: e.g. He bought the present. <ag, th> In a passive construction a passive V cannot assign agent role: <ag, th> < th> S NP Infl Pst VP NP Det The N present V was V given e P by PP NP him VP

E.g. The present was given by him.

Thematic role assignment in a wh question: E.g. What should the man bring? The man should bring what <ag, th>

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(role received by virtue of its position in Deep Structure, not Surface Structure, where it occurs at the beginning of the sentence) It results that a NPs deep structure position determines its thematic role. The relevance of deep structure to the assignment of thematic roles is important for two reasons: 1. 2. It shows that syntactic structure not only represents the way in which words are organised into phrases, but also is relevant to semantic interpretation. The fact that a NPs position in deep structure determines its thematic role provides additional support for the existence of this underlying level of syntactic structure; there are at least two types of syntactic rules.

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ANNEX

COMPLEMENT OPTIONS FOR VERBS: e.g. NP 0 AP PP NP NP PP PP Proved Vanish Become Dash Hand Talk The professor proved (NP the theorem) The child vanish The man became (AP very angry) The dog dashed (PP to the door) We handed (NP the

man) (NP a map) I talked (PP to a doctor) (PP about Sue)

COMPLEMENT OPTIONS FOR OTHER CATEGORIES (Ns, As, Ps). e.g. Complement (Ns) PP PP options Sample heads Presentation Example the presentation (PP of a medal) (PP to the Adjective complements O Preposition complements NP Sample heads Tall Sample heads In winner) Example very tallExample in (NP the house)

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EXERCISES 1. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) 2. a) b) Each of the following phrases consists of a specifier and a head. Draw the appropriate branching tree for each example: the zoo always try so witty perhaps pass less bleak this house very competent quite cheap never surrender those books The following phrases include a head, a complement, and (in some cases) a specifier. Draw the appropriate tree structure for each example. into the house repaired the telephone

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c) d) e) f) g) h) i) 3. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) 4. a) b) c) d) e) f) 5. a) b) c) d) e)

full of mistakes more towards the window a film about pollution always study this material perhaps earn the money that argument with Owen the success of the programme Draw phrase structure trees for each of the following sentences: Those guests should leave. Maria never ate the brownie. That shelf will fall. The glass broke. The student lost the debate. The manager may offer an increment The judge often sentences shoplifters. The teacher often organised a discussion. A psychic will speak to this group. Marianne could become quite fond of Larry. Indicate the category of each word in the following sentences; Then, draw the appropriate branching tree structure for each sentence: The tutor told the students to study. The customer asked for a cold beer. He have the Red Cross some money. The jet landed. A journalist wrote the article. Julie is tired of her job. Indicate the category of each word in the following sentences; Then, draw the appropriate branching tree structure for each sentence: That glass suddenly broke. A jogger ran towards the end of the lane. These dead trees might block the road. The detective hurriedly looked through the records. The peaches never appear quite ripe.

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f) 6.

Gillian will play the trumpet and the drums in the orchestra. Apply the substitution test to determine which of the bracketed sequences in the following sentences form constituents; Then draw appropriate branching trees for each sentence:

a) b) c) d) e) f) 7.

[The tragedy] upset the entire family. They hid [the cave]. The [computer was very] expensive. [The town square and the civic building] will be rebuilt. Jane [left town]. The goslings [swam across] the lake. Apply the movement test to determine which of the bracketed sequences in the following sentences form constituents; Then draw appropriate branching trees for each sentence:

a) b) c) d) e) 8.

We ate our lunch [near the river bank]. Steve looked [up the number] in the book. The [island has been] flooded. I love [peanut butter and bacon sandwiches]. The environmental [movement is gaining momentum]. Lexical categories are divided into subcategories on the basis of their complements. For each of the following words, two potential complement options are given. For each of the words: i) Determine which one of the two options better matches the subcategorisation requirements of the verb, noun or adjective. ii) Justify your choice by creating a sentence using that complement option. Verb Options or NP NP NP or NP or PPto PPabout NP or NP PPfor or NP NP NP or NP NP or NP PPloc NP PPto or NP PPfor

a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h)

Expire Destroy Observe Discuss Clean Mumble Throw Paint

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Noun a) b) c) d) e) Debate Hammer Success Transfer Sickness Adjective a) b) c) d) e) Strong sick bored knowledgeable small

Options PPof PPto or PPwith PPabout or PP PPwith PPabout PPof PPto or PPof PPwith PPabout or PPof PPto or PPwith PPabout Options or PPabout NP or PPof PPwith or PPof PPto or PPabout PPof or

9. a) b) c)

The following sentences all contain embedded clauses that function as complements of a verb. Draw a tree structure for each sentence: The reporter said that an accident injured the boy. The fishermen think that the company polluted the bay. Barbara reported that a student asked whether the eclipse would occur. 10. The following sentences all contain embedded clauses that function as complements of an adjective, a preposition or a noun. Draw a tree structure for each sentence:

a) b) c) d) 11.

The police appeared happy that the criminal would surrender. That officer was sure that Gerry often speeds down the motorway. Anna wondered about whether the exam would cover that section. The jury will never believe the claim that the driver wrecked the Porsche. The derivations of the following sentences involve the inversion

transformation. Give the deep structure and the surface structure for each sentence; Then draw a tree structure for each sentence: a) b) c) Will the boss hire Hilary? Can the dog bring the Frisbee? Should the student report the incident?

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d) e)

Must the musician play that music? Is that player leaving the team?

12. The following sentences involve the rules of Wh- Movement and inversion. Give the deep structure and the surface structure for each of these sentences. Then draw a tree structure for each sentence: a) b) c) d) e) f) 13. a) b) c) d) e) f) 14. Who should the director call? Who should call the director? What is Joanne eating? Who will those immigrants live with? What might Chris bake for the party? What was Anne bringing to the gathering? The following sentences contain modifiers of various types. For each sentence, first identify the modifier(s), then draw the tree structures: A large iguana suddenly appeared. The headteacher made an important announcement after the class. An unusual event occurred before the game. The very hazardous waste seeped into the ground quickly. A huge moon hung in the black sky. Timothy drew an enormous map during the afternoon. Each of the following sentences contains a relative clause. Draw the deep structure and the surface structure trees for each of these sentences., then draw the tree structures: a) b) c) d) e) 15. a) b) The animals which Sam saw came from Kenya. Kyle likes the girl whom June befriended. The woman whom Keith lives with recycles plastic. Helen recited a poem which Wordsworth wrote. The canoe which Crusoe built was too heavy. In each of the following sentences, indicate below each NP whether it is agent or theme. The, draw the tree structures: Maria purchased a present. The class was conducted by an expert.

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c) d) e) 16. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) o) p) q) r) 17. a) b) c) d) e) 18.

Those books were read by young children. An expert conducted the class. A present was purchased by Marie. Analyse the following sentences from a transformational point of view drawing appropriate branching trees for each sentence: All classes were cancelled because the weather was bad. I cant understand why you did such a thing. This is such a beautiful piano that Im sorry I have to sell it. Mary tried hard and solved the exercises quickly. This swimming pool is used by over a thousand people each The new central heating is being put in today by the men. Helens book has been just published by her publishers. The meal, which wasnt very tasty, was very expensive. What do you think I should do? The student read a tragedy by Shakespeare and a story by Who carries the luggage? Who meets Mary at the station? Who does Mary meet at the station? Harry, who was tired, went to bed very early. Do you ever get annoyed by people/ My radio, which isnt very old, has suddenly stopped I think that my boss is the person whom I admire most. Show structural ambiguity by drawing different branching trees for the following sentences: John loves money more than Mary. The ambassador did not leave London to take up an She fed her dog biscuits. There are wealthy men and women. Nicole saw the people with binoculars. The following sentences all contain conjunctions. Draw a tree structure for each of the sentences. Show two possible tree structures (a conjunction can link two phrases or two sentences): appointment in Africa. working. Last week I ran into an old friend whom I hadnt seen for ages. Hemingway. week.

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a) The cyclist drank a gallon of water and a litre of Coke. b) The airplane will land at the airport and taxi to the terminal. c) The dog went down the stairs and out the door. d) Crusoe landed on an island and ate a goat. e) Jill should recycle that book and magazine. f) Hillary knows that spring will come and that the snow will g) Mary is keen on calculus but tired of chemistry. melt.

LANGUAGE TERMINOLOGYY

[1] ADJECTIVE = (A) A lexical category that designates a property that is applicable to the entities named by nouns, can often take comparative and superlative endings in English, and functions as the head of an adjective phrase (e.g. red, obese, hearty).

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[2] ADVERB = (Adv.) A lexical category that typically names properties that can be applied to the actions designated by verbs (e.g. quickly, fearfully). [3] AGENT = The thematic role of the doer of the action designated by the verb (e.g. Mary in Mary fed the cat). [4] ARGUMENT = A NP which is syntactically a grammatical dependent of a verb and about which semantically the verb says something (e.g. Her friends showed the inspector her letters). [5] AUXILIARY VERB = A functional category that serves as the specifier of a verb (e.g. was in was talking). [6] COMPLEMENT = The element or elements for which a head is subcategorised and which provide information about entities and locations whose existence is implied by the meaning of the head (e.g. the book in bought the book). [7] COMPLEMENT CLAUSE = A sentence-like construction that is embedded within a larger structure (e.g. that her father had been a teacher in Mary told her friend that her father had been a teacher ). [8] COMPLEMENTIZER (C) = A functional category that takes an S

complement, forming a CP (complementizer phrase) (e.g. whether he knows the truth in I wonder whether he knows the truth). [9] CONJUNCTION = A functional category that joins together two or more categories of the same type, forming a co-ordinate structure (e.g. and in a man and his dog). [10] CONSTITUENT = One or more words that occur together as a syntactic unit (e.g. the doctor in The doctor consulted the patient).

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[11] CO-ORDINATE STRUCTURE CONSTRAINT, THE = A constraint on transformations that does not allow an element to be removed from a coordinate structure (e.g. a man and a woman). [12] CO-ORDINATE STRUCTURE = A phrase that is formed by joining two (or more) categories of the same type with a conjunction such as but, and, or (e.g. those men and women). [13] CO-ORDINATION = The operation that groups together two or more categories of the same type with the help of a conjunction (e.g. Tom and his beautiful bride). [14] CO-ORDINATION RULE, THE = The phrase structure rule that states the composition of a co-ordinate structure: Xn X n*ConX n. [15] CO-ORDINATION TEST = A test used to determine if a group of words is a constituent by joining it to another group of words with a conjunction such as and, or but (e.g. beautiful but expensive). [16] DEEP STRUCTURE = The structure generated by the phrase structure rules in accordance with the subcategorization properties of the heads. [17] DEGREE WORD = (Deg) A functional category that serves as the specifier of a preposition or an adjective (e.g. quite in quite tired; very in very near the house). [18] DETERMINER = (Det) A functional category that serves as the specifier of a noun (e.g. a, the, these). [19] DIRECT OBJECT = The NP complement of a verb (e.g. a fish in Judy caught a fish). [20] FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS = An approach to syntactic analysis that attempts to understand syntactic phenomena in terms of their communicative function.

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[21] FUNCTIONAL CATEGORY = A word-level syntactic category whose members are harder to define and paraphrase than those of lexical categories (e.g. auxiliary verbs, conjunctions, determiners, and degree words; also called NON-LEXICAL CATEGORY). [22] HEAD (of a phrase) = The word around which a phrasal category is built (e.g. V, N, A, P). [23] INFL (INFLECTION) = The node that appears directly under S in a phrase structure tree and dominates tense as well as other verbal inflection (i.e. person and number); the constituents of INFL take part in subject-verb agreement. INFL is often abbreviated to I). [24] INVERSION = A transformation that moves Aux from its position within the VP to a position to the left of the subject, formulated as: Move Aux to C. [25] ISLAND = A constituent that does not permit extraction of a component part (a co-ordinated phrase like the dog and the cat). [26] LEXICAL CATEGORY = The word-level syntactic categories noun (N), verb (V), adjective (A), and preposition (P). [27] LINGUISTIC UNIVERSALS = Structural characteristics that occur across the languages of the world. [28] LINGUISTICS = The discipline that studies the nature and use of language. [29] MATRIX CLAUSE = The larger phrase in which a complement clause occurs (e.g. I knew that he was right; CP = that he was right). [30] MODIFIER = An optional element that describes a property of a head (e.g. blue in the blue sky; the book that I read in I liked the book that I read). [31] MOVEMENT TEST = A test used to determine if a group of words is a constituent by moving them as a single unit to a different position within the sentence (e.g. Yesterday I stayed home; I stayed home yesterday).

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[32] MORPHOLOGY = The system of categories and rules involved in word formation and interpretation. [33] NOUN = (N) A lexical category that typically names entities, can usually be inflected for number and possession (in English), and functions as the head of a noun phrase (e.g. key, Bob, perception). [34] NP MOVEMENT = A transformation that moves a noun phrase into the subject position. [35] PASSIVE SENTENCE = A sentence in which the noun phrase bearing the theme role is encoded as subject (e.g. The paper was written by a good student). [36] PHONETICS = The branch of linguistics that examines the inventory and structure of the sounds of language. [37] PHONOLOGY = The component of a grammar made up of the elements and principles that determine how sounds pattern in a language. [38] PHRASE LEVEL = The metrical level on which the stress patterning of phrases is represented. [39] PHRASE = One or more words that are built around a skeleton consisting of two levels, a phrase level and a word level, and act as a syntactic unit (e.g. the apple, Bob, hurried to class). [40] PHRASE STRUCTURE RULE = A rule of grammar that states the composition of a phrase (e.g. XP (Specifier) X). [41] PREPOSITION = (P) A lexical category that functions as the head of a prepositional phrase and occurs before its complement (e.g. into, with, for). [42] RELATIVE CLAUSE = A CP-sized modifier that provides information about the noun (e.g. that she wants in the book that she wants)

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[43] S RULE, THE = The phrase structure rule that states the composition of a sentence: S NP Infl VP [44] SEMANTICS = The study of meaning in human language. [45] SPECIFIER = A word that helps to make more precise the meaning of the head of the phrase and that occurs immediately beneath XP (e.g. will in will leave). [46] SUBCATEGORIZATION = The classification of words in terms of their complement options (e.g. eat is subcategorised for a complement NP) [47] SUBJECT = The NP occurring immediately under S ( Mary in Mary is a student). [48] SUBJECT CONSTRAINT, THE = A constraint on transformations that prevents elements from being removed from a subject phrase). [49] SUBSTITUTION TEST = A test used to determine if a group of words is a constituent by replacing them with a single word (e.g. them instead of Tom left his old friends). [50] SURFACE STRUCTURE = The structure that results from the application of whatever transformations are appropriate for the sentence in question. [51] SYNTACTIC CATEGORY = The category into which an element is placed depending on the type of meaning that it expresses, the type of affixes it takes, and the type of structure in which it occurs (includes both lexical and functional categories). [52] SYNTAX = The system of rules and categories that underlies sentence formation in human language. [53] TEMPLATE = The innate blueprint of birdsong that predisposes birds to perform a general song that is extremely simplified.

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[54] THEMATIC ROLE = The part played by a particular entity in an event (e.g. agent, theme, source, goal, location). [55] TRACE = The empty element. Marked by the symbol e, that is left in syntactic structure after an element has been moved. [56] TRANSFORMATION = A type of syntactic rule that can move an element from one position to another (e.g. Will he leave?) [57] TRANSFORMATIONAL SYNTAX = A widely accepted approach to

syntactic analysis in which syntactic phenomena are described in terms of phrase structure rules (which generate deep structures) and transformations (which generate surface structures). [58] TREE STRUCTURE = A diagram that represents the details of a words or phrases internal structure. [59] VERB = (V) A lexical category that typically designates actions, sensations, and states, can usually be inflected for tense, and functions as the head of a verb phrase (e.g. see, feel, remain). [60] WH MOVEMENT = A transformation that moves a wh phrase to the beginning of the sentence: Move a wh phrase to the specifier position under CP. [61] WH QUESTION = A sentence that begins with a wh word (e.g. Who did you call?) [62] WORD LEVEL = A level of metrical representation above the foot level.

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PART TWO

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PART TWO: SYNTAX PHRASES. CLAUSES. SENTENCES PHRASES A phrase is a sequence of one, two or more words arranged in a grammatical unit and lacking a finite verb or such elements of clause structure as subject and verb, as a preposition and a noun or pronoun, an adjective and noun, or an adverb and verb, especially such a construction acting as a unit in a sentence. Phrases are usually classified according to their central word Head, e.g. Noun Phrase (NP), Verb Phrase (VP), Adjective Phrase (AP), Prepositional Phrase (PP), Adverbial Phrase (AdvP), Conjunction Phrase (ConP), Complementizer Phrase (CP), etc. Eg. NP = Tom, the book, the red cat VP = writes, reads a book, watched a good film yesterday AP = eager to help people PP = in the classroom, near the table AdvP = today, last week. ConP = a man and a woman CP (+S) = that he comes

CLAUSES A clause is a syntactic construction containing a subject and predicate (a finite verb) and forming part of a sentence or constituting a whole simple sentence. E.g. Mary said that she was tired. (two clauses) I waited. She married a young engineer. Because I was late, they went without me. (two clauses) Clauses can be: main (independent) and subordinate (subclause, dependent), finite or non-finite.

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A main clause (also called simple clause) is a finite clause that has a subject and a finite verb. e.g. She failed. I hurried. A subordinate clause is a finite clause that gives more information about a main clause, and is introduced by a conjunction such as because, if, that, or a whword. Subordinate clauses can come in front of, after, or inside the main clause. E.g. I hurried (independent clause) because I was late (dependent clause). When he stopped, no one said anything. They were going by car because it was more I said that I should like to come. The man who came into the room was short. A non-finite clause is a subordinate clause which is based on a participle or an infinitive (with no subject or conjunction). E.g. Not knowing what to do, I telephoned Robin. I persuaded her to try a new method. A clause is different from a phrase. A phrase is a group of words which form a grammatical unit. A phrase does not contain a finite verb (of a verb form: distinguishing person, number, and tense, as well as mood or aspect, as opens in She opens the window; of a clause: containing a finite verb) and does not have a subject-predicate structure. For example: I liked her expensive new car. George hated working in the garden. comfortable.

SENTENCES A sentence is the largest unit of grammatical organisation within which parts of speech (e.g. word, phrase, clause) are said to function. It is a structurally independent grammatical unit of one or more words, in speech often preceded and followed by pauses and in writing begun with a capital letter and ended with a period

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or other end punctuation, typically consisting of a subject and a predicate containing a finite verb and expressing a statement, question, request, command or exclamation. E.g. Summer is here. Who is it? Stop! Sentences are made up of one or more clauses, which are the basic units of grammar. In English, a sentence normally contains one independent clause with a finite verb. Units which are larger than the sentence (e.g. the paragraph) are regarded as examples of discourse. There are 4 (four) types of sentences: simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex (or composite). A simple sentence consists of one main clause, which has a subject (NP) and one predicate (VP) with one finite verb ( The car has stopped) or elliptical (Where is John? In the garden); I like milk (predicate). E.g. The teacher left. Her father died ten years ago. I did not open the letter at once. Little is known about her way of living. A compound sentence has two or more independent clauses that are equally important which means they are jointed by co-ordination: E.g. We must all eat proper food, or well get sick. He went to the bar, ordered a drink, and then drank it. I came, I saw, I conquered . (Julius Caesar) It is an interesting book and yet difficult to follow. Tom uttered something and then remained silent. It is strange yet it is true. (two co-ordinated simple sentences) He is a small boy (ind cl) but he is very strong (ind cl) Ill either phone you or I will send you a note.

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The clauses are joined into one by: a) punctuation alone (asyndetically, without any conjunction)

e.g. The weather was very bad; all classes were b) punctuation and a conjunctive adverb:

cancelled.

e.g. The weather was very bad; therefore all classes were cancelled. Conjunctive adverbs are: copulative (addition): moreover, in addition, besides, not only but (also), neither nor, now, then, furthermore, likewise, moreover, again. disjunctive (condition): otherwise, else. adversative (concession): however, still, nevertheless, but, yet, none the less, all the same, on the other hand, whereas, while. resultative (result): therefore, consequently, then, thus, hence. c) a co-ordinate conjunction (syndetically): and, or, but, yet, so, for. Co-ordinate conjunctions: copulative (addition): and disjunctive (choice): or adversative (concession, contradiction, contrast): but resultative (result, consequence, conclusion): so explanatory (cause): for E.g. He is an intelligent student, and he takes interest in students. We must eat proper food, or well get sick. There are many mistakes but I prefer not to speak about them. He is a good boy so hell manage on his own. I cannot give you the book, for there is great demand for it. accordingly, so,

Similarly, compound sentences may be of the same types:

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a) copulative (denoting addition): and, not only but (also), neither nor, now, then, furthermore, besides, likewise, moreover, again, in addition , etc. e.g. First he did his homework, then he went to the cinema. b) disjunctive (indicating choice): or, either or, else, otherwise, etc. e.g. Either come in or go out. c) adversative (denoting contradiction or contrast): but, yet, still, however, nevertheless, none the less, all the same, on the other hand, whereas, while , etc. e.g. I like tea, whereas / while Joe likes coffee. d) resultative (denoting inference, consequence, conclusion): so, therefore, then, thus, hence, accordingly, consequently, etc. e.g. They broke the rules; so they had to leave. e) explanatory (giving explanations): for e.g. I went to bed, for it was late. The act or state of co-ordinating or of being co-ordinated is known as co-ordination. Co-ordination is the linking by co-ordinators of clauses and other sentence parts of equal meaning and grammatical value, e.g. He was conscious of the elegance of his beard and beautiful hands; He seemed extremely troubled and looked up nervously. (When we co-ordinate 2 (two) clauses into a compound sentence we do not repeat the same subject and auxiliary in the second clause). Co-ordination can link: Nouns: He made a few friends and many enemies. Adjectives: She was lean and half-starved. Adverbials: Autumn is lengthening into winter, slowly but surely. Conjunctions: I dont know if or when. Co-ordination can link: Words: He works quickly and efficiently. Phrases: Bored by the conversation, but not wanting to leave, he walked out into the garden. Clauses: He said that he was tired and that he was going to bed.

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A complex sentence has one main clause (on which the subclause depends) and one or more subclauses (subordinate/dependent clauses) joined by subordinate conjunctions, e.g. as if, when, after, before, etc. A dependent (subclause, subordinate) clause contains a full subject and a predicate with a finite verb and begins with a word that attaches the clause to an independent clause (called the main clause). According to function in the sentence, sub-clauses may be: 1. Noun Clauses E.g. I cant understand why you did such a thing. 2. Adjective Clauses (Relative)

E.g. Children who are under twelve must be accompanied by parents. 3. Adverbial Clauses

E.g. All classes were cancelled because the weather was bad. Besides conjunctions, relatives, e.g. as, that, some wh-words (relatives), related adverbs, e.g. so, once, or correlatives, e.g. but also, either or, rather than, but and, neither nor, not only but also, just as than, not so much as, never nor, both and, can be used as subordinators. It is a combination of independent and subordinate (dependent) clauses. The act or state of subordinating or being subordinated is known as subordination. Subordinating conjunctions introduce subordinate clauses. They do not have to link two clauses. They can introduce the first clause in a sentence. E.g. All classes were cancelled because the weather was bad. He looks as if he needs sleep. Once you have decided, you have to stick to it. (related adverb) You can either take the book or leave it with me. (correlatives) From then on, John was more careful. When the jar was full, he turned the water off. He speaks very little English, so I talked to him through an interpreter. (related adverb) 54

Mary neither likes him, nor wants to see him. (correlatives) Not only has she been late three times but she has also done no work. (correlatives) The man I was talking to is a professor. (subordinate clause with no introductory subordinator). I would rather like a cup of coffee than a glass of wine. (correlatives) I could never forgive him, nor forget what he had done. (correlatives) A compound-complex (composite) sentence is a mixture of compound and complex sentences. It contains two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses. E.g. All classes were cancelled because the weather was bad, and students were told to listen to the radio to find out when classes would begin again. Shakespeare wrote his plays (main clause) while he was working for the Lord Chamberlains Men (subordinate clause) and this explains (main clause) why he knew so much about stagecraft. (subordinate clause).

THE SIMPLE SENTENCE The smallest sentence unit consists of: NP + VP The NP has the syntactic function of subject, and has the pattern: DETERMINER + MODIFIERS + NOUN The VP has the syntactic function of predicate, and has the pattern: VERB (auxiliary / operator) + PREDICATION (OBJECT: DO, IO, PIO, PO) / COMPLEMENT (SC / OC) / ADVERBIAL MODIFIERS (Adverbial Clauses) E.g. His good friend gave him a nice present on his birthday. NP = his good friend VP (predication) = gave him a nice present on his birthday Verb = gave Objects = him (IO); a nice present (DO) Adverbial Modifier = on his birthday They elected him chairman.

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NP = they VP (predication) = elected him chairman. Verb = elected Object = him (DO) Complement = chairman (OC)

Main Structures of Simple Sentence. Clause Types Languages are generally classified in typological groups according to the clause pattern that is the most frequent in that particular language. As such, there are 7 (seven) basic patterns in English: one is a two-element pattern, two are threeelement patterns, and three are four-element patterns. 1. SV The child was laughing. 2. SVOd We need a teacher. 3. SVCs John is a teacher. 4. SVAdvM Mary is here. 5. SVOdCo We have proved him wrong. 6. SVOdAdvM I put the plate on the table. 7. SVOiOd She gives me expensive presents. Other possible clause patterns, mostly used in speech, are: 1. SVOiOdCo She gave us our coffee black. 2. SVOiOd - She gave us our coffee. 3. SVOdAdvM (Co) They dragged him home (blind drunk). 4. SV (Co) OdC We have proved wrong the clerk. 5. SV (AdvM) OdAdvM He took from his pocket a handful of gleaming coins. 6. (AdvM) SV (AdvM) Sometimes she sings beautifully. 7. S (AdvM) V OIOd She has kindly sent us some photographs. THE SUBJECT AND PREDICATE GROUPS Modern conceptions state and prove the fact that in a sentence most of the information is transmitted through the PREDICATE GROUP (the verb plus objects, plus complements, or plus adverbial modifiers), while the SUBJECT GROUP (the noun or noun equivalents plus attributes) is the element spoken about, described,

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analysed, positioned, etc., or merely a referential element, used as a support for the new quantity of information conveyed. In the same terms, the subject group is defined as the theme or topic, while the predicate group is described as the rheme (Cf. A. Banta), or experiencer / comment (Cf. Quirk) i.e. the element of action, of movement, the carrier of the essential information about the theme. The subject of a sentence may consist of a clause (That she answered the question correctly pleased him enormously), but usually of a NP. It may consist of a pronoun (It rained steadily all day; He had given the girl an apple), or of a single common or proper noun (Universities gradually became famous in Europe during the Middle Ages; John heard the explosion from his office when he was locking the door). But it may be an indeterminately long structure (uncommon) having a noun as head, preceded by other words such as an article, an adjective, or another noun, and followed by a PP or/and by a relative clause. ( The new gas stove in the kitchen which I bought last month has a very efficient oven). Again, a subject may be a nominal relative (Whoever breaks this law deserves a fine). Subject complements, direct objects, and object complements may be realised by the same range of structures as subjects, but subject and object complements have the additional possibility of being realised by AP (having an adjective as head) (She made him very much happier; His brother grew happier gradually). Indirect objects, on the other hand, have fewer possibilities than subjects, and their realisations are chiefly NP (He had given the girl an apple; That she answered the question correctly pleased him enormously); unlike direct objects and subjects they cannot be realised by that-clauses (She saw that it rained all day; That she answered the question correctly pleased him enormously). Finally, adverbials can be realised by AdvP (having an adverb as head), e.g. John carefully searched the room; It rained steadily all day; by NP (It rained steadily all day; They make him the chairman every year); by PP (structures consisting of a NP dominated by a preposition), e.g. The girl is now a student at a large university; and by finite clauses (His brother grew happier when his friend arrived) or non-finite clauses (Having been challenged rudely in the street, John was angry).

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A. THE SUBJECT GROUP (THE NOUN PHRASE). THE NOUN / NOMINAL CLAUSE) The Subject Group consists of the noun or noun equivalents (e.g. pronouns, numerals) plus attributes. The Subject Group is also called the Noun Phrase (NP) and has the syntactic function of Subject. The subject, or NP (in English grammar): a. to it. b. c. determines Concord refers to something about which a statement or assertion is made in the typically precedes the main verb in a sentence and is most closely related

rest of the sentence. That part of the sentence containing the verb or Verb Group (VP) and which may include Objects, Complements, or Adverbials) is known as the Predicate (syntactic function). The predicate is that part of the sentence which predicates something of the subject. For example: Subject The woman Fish DEFINITION The term phrase is used to mean group(s) of words e.g. the student or single words, e.g. Henry, they. The Noun Phrase (NP) is a word or group of words with a noun or a noun substitute (pronoun or numeral) as its head and functioning like a noun in a sentence. CHARACTERISTICS Its function is equivalent to that of a noun, e.g. Living alone in the sentence Living alone has its advantages. The NP can consist of a single noun or pronoun, or of a noun or pronoun with modifiers, e.g. Henry, the assignment, happiness, he, it, somebody, the white iron gate of the house, the assignment which Henry had to write, he who runs, etc. Predicate smiled. is good for you.

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Besides nouns as heads ( Mary, staff, friend, present, word), occasionally we use pronouns and adjectives as heads of NPs, e.g. One of the worst (pronoun as head); the blue of his eyes (adjective as head). In some Traditional Grammars, a Participial or Infinitive phrase which could be replaced by a noun or pronoun, lawn in: George just hates mowing the lawn. could be replaced by it: George just hates it. CONSTITUENTS (of a NP) A Deteminer (Det) is a word which is used with a noun, and which limits the meaning of the noun in some way. For example, in English the following words can be used as determiners: a. ARTICLES, e.g. a pencil, the garden b. DEMONSTRATIVES, e.g. this box, that car c. POSSESSIVES, e.g. her house, my bicycle d. QUANTIFIERS, e.g. some milk, many people e. NUMERALS, e.g. the first day, three chairs. The Head is the central part of a phrase. Other elements in the phrase are in some grammatical or semantic relationship to the head. For example, in the English NP: the fat lady in the floral dress the noun lady is the head of the phrase. A Modifier is a word or group of words which gives further information about (modifies) another word or group of words (the Head). Modification may occur in a NP, a VP, an AP, an AdvP, etc. a. Modifiers before the head are called premodifiers, for example expensive in this expensive camera. b. Modifiers after the head are called postmodifiers, for example with a stumpy tail in The cat with a stumpy (short and thick) tail. A Constituent is a linguistic unit, (usually in sentence analysis) which is part of a larger construction. for example, the participial phrase mowing the

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The Constituents of a NP are: Determiner + Premodifier + Noun Head + Postmodifier E.g. The nice lady in grey the = determiner nice = premodifier lady = noun head in grey = postmodifier E.g. the sheltered western site away from the ocean the sheltered western = premodifier site = head away from the ocean = postmodifier a white door which led to a beautiful walled garden a white = premodifier door = head which led to a beautiful walled garden = postmodifier Determiners can be specified or non-specified E.g. The students are good. Students are good. Premodifiers can be quantifiers or qualifiers. E.g. The two beautiful women two = quantifier beautiful = qualifier A Qualifier is, in Traditional Grammar, any linguistic unit (e.g. an adjective, a phrase, or a clause) that is part of a Noun Phrase and gives added information about the noun. For example, her, expensive, and from Paris are qualifiers in the NP: her expensive blouse from Paris. In Hallidays Functional Grammar, a qualifier is any linguistic unit that is part of a group, gives added information about the Head of the group, and follows the head. For example, from Paris is a qualifier in the noun group her expensive blouse from Paris.

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A Quantifier is a word or phrase which is used with a noun, and which shows quantity. Some quantifiers in English are: many, few, little, several, much, a lot of, plenty of, a piece of, a loaf of, three kilograms of , etc. SYNTACTIC FUNCTIONS Noun phrases may function: a) as subject of a sentence: E.g. Mary looked at the boy attentively. The red dress on the bed is hers. The blue one is mine. The cinema staff was very polite. b) As object: E.g. Have you seen these Romanian paintings? Ive seen all of them. (direct objects) He gave his friend a nice present. (indirect object; direct object) c) As subject complement: E.g. He is one of the worst candidates. He is one of them.

d) As object complement: E.g. They elected him President of the company.

e) As object of a preposition: E.g. She left without another word. He lives in a big house. I am waiting for one of them. f) As adverbial modifier: E.g. Walk that way. I wrote to him last month.

g) As premodifier: E.g. This is the Queen of Englands Palace. h) As postmodifier: E.g. It was written by Nathaniel Hawthorne, the great American romancer.

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i) As free modifier: E.g. A professional man, he retired when his wife died. He felt helpless, a spectator who had enough troubles of his own. DETERMINERS A determiner / a determinative is a word used in front of a noun and before any adjectives in the phrase to indicate whether you are referring to a specific thing or just to something of a particular type. It may function as an adjunct word (a. modifying word or phrase depending on some other word or phrase; b. an element of clause structure with adverbial function. in a noun phrase) E.g. all the day three whole years enough trouble either arm There are two types of determiners: specific and general. Specific determiners are used to help to identify persons or things, when the person you are talking to will know which person or thing you are referring to. They are: a) b) c) e.g. e.g. E.g. articles: a / an, the possessive determiners: my, your, his, her, our, your, their. demonstrative determiners: this, that, these, those. The man began to run towards the boy. Id been waiting a long time to park my car. Young people dont like these operas. We cannot put two determiners from any group a, b, c together, e.g. a / my / this/ book. General determiners (most of them quantifiers) say how much or how many we are talking about. They are used when you are mentioning people or things for the first time, or talking about them generally without saying exactly which ones you mean. They are: Some, any, no

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Each, every, either, neither Much, many, more, most Little, less, least A few, fewer, fewest Enough, several All, both, half What, whatever, which, whichever One, two, three, etc., other E.g. There were several reasons for this. You can stop at any time you like. There was a man in the lift. We can put together two general determiners if the combination makes sense, E.g. We meet every few days. Have you got any more coffee? Determiners usually precede the noun they determine, but we do not use them in random order. According to that criterion, we identify 3 (three) groups of determiners: predeterminers, central determiners, postdeterminers. a) Predeterminers E.g. some quantifiers: all, both, half multipliers: once, twice, double, etc. intensifiers: such, what. b) Central determiners (the most important group) E.g. articles: a, an, the demonstratives: this, that, these, those possessives: my, your, his, her , our, their some quantifiers; some, any, no, etc. wh-determiners: what, which, whose

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Not all predeterminers can be used with all central determiners for semantic reasons. But where we use two or more determiners together, the order is as follows: Predeterminer + Central + Noun E.g. all that year both these girls half the distance just her appearance only the prize Predeterminer + of + Central Determiner + Noun (Countable Nouns) E.g. each of these girls enough of his money a large number of books either of the films Predeterminer(s) + of + Central Determiner + Noun (Countable Nouns) E.g. a few more of those cakes plenty more of our books two or three more of the teachers any more of my brothers Central + Postdeterminer + Noun E.g. the other side the third time her two hands the same thing Predeterminer + Central Determiner + Postdeterminer(s) + Noun (less frequently) E.g. all these six boys only the first two days

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half my books all the other days MODIFIERS A modifier is a word or group of words which comes in front of a noun and adds information about the thing which the noun refers to. They usually stand between any determiners and the head in a NP, making its meaning more precise: e.g. the two leading social orders the two = determiners leading social = premodifiers orders = head Modification is a structure and it may be described in terms of the arrangements of the units of which it is composed: PREMODIFIER + NOUN HEAD + POSTMODIFIER A premodifier (quantifier or qualifier) is a unit (a word, phrase, or sometimes a clause) that is placed between the determiner(s) and the noun head (unless it is one of the degree modifiers of a modifier): e.g. a very interesting book Premodifiers (determiners and pronouns) are also called quantifiers because they show quantity or amount, e.g. all, both, each, half, every, neither, nor, no one ; they are also called qualifiers because they show quality, e.g. beautiful, gorgeous, ugly, interesting. A postmodifier is a unit (a word, a phrase, or a clause) immediately following the noun head, giving more precise meaning to the head. Postmodification is also called noun complementation, i.e. these postmodifiers, mostly abstract nouns, are complements that complete the meaning of the head. E.g. a very interesting book to read. a man of strong will Premodifiers can be: a) adjectives:

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E.g. This is the main part of the course. A harder mattress often helps with back injuries. After the crossroads look out for the large white building. b) nouns: E.g. The tennis teacher is in the gym. the music industry c) adverbs: E.g. The overhead projector is there. merely a matter of routine the now secretary the downstairs television room d) compounds: E.g. easy-going people heavily-built machine a four-month-long winter the floor-washing mornings e) sentences: E.g. a live-and-let-live individualism devil-may-care characters stick-in-the-mud opinion a wash-at-night-and-wear-in-the-morning dress Postmodifiers can be: a) adjectives: E.g. William the Silent It is the only thing notable It is the only solution possible. (which is possible)

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A road fifty feet wide The house ablaze (on fire) is next door to ours. Compare: the stars visible (at a time specified) the visible stars (at appropriate times) Notes: 1. The following adjectives: elect (soon to take office), proper (as strictly defined), absent, present, concerned, involved E.g. the president elect syntax proper all the people present The idea came from the party concerned. You will be informed about the event by the person available. 2. In a few fixed phrases: court martial, attorney general, body politic, heir apparent, letters patent, Knight errant, the Theatre Royal, the Post Laureate, from times immemorial, the Postmaster b) adverbs: E.g. down in the cellar beneath the long march back he alone the crowd outside a reflection of life today in Romania The house there is ours. The discussion afterward was very interesting. c) prepositional phrase: E.g. a man with long hair his criticism of the project authors of today The walls of my room are white. Look at the wings of this butterfly. They helped the children of the poor. pile of stones (Partitive Genitive) a man of tact (Qualitative Genitive) General, proof positive, chairman elect, heir presumptive, postmaster general, lords spiritual, lords temporal, astronomer royal.

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his angel of a wife (Appositive Genitive) Well be staying with friends of Joes, (The Double Genitive) d) noun (apposition) Apposition is the use of a word or phrase immediately following another word or phrase and referring to the same person or thing. E.g. Paris, the capital of France This novel was written by Dickens, the great English writer. A noun (phrase) in apposition is used to qualify or identify another noun. Noun phrases in apposition are of equal rank, stand next to each other and refer to the same person or thing. With the stress upon the apposition, we have: Uncle Tom, Professor Albu, Aunt Mary, My friend Joe, Captain Cook, The river Thames, etc. e) clauses (relative and appositive) E.g. Thats the boy who found it. (relative clause) The belief is that Michael has been sent to India. (appositive clause) I bought this dictionary, which has helped me a lot. (relative clause) The news that he has died is not true. (appositive clause) He was no older than his brother, who had been killed at his side. (relative clause) Its a question of how to attain it. (appositive clause) Notes: The head preceding an appositive clause is always an abstract noun, like: appeal, belief, decision, idea, news, thought, hope, sign, indication, rumour, doubt, certainty, certitude, likelihood, possibility, probability, evidence, fact, proof. Appositive clauses are nominal clauses marked off by commas, which have a similar relationship to the preceding noun head. They may be: - That clauses, e.g. She sent a message that Castor would be out. - Wh clauses, e.g. Lewis knew what bitterness was in his mind. - To- Infinitive clauses, e.g. I do not mean to be rude.

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Both appositive and relative clauses may start with that. But appositive clauses may not start with which, as relative can. So where which can alternate with that, the clause is likely to be relative and not appositive. E.g. The premature news that this battle was lost caused consternation. (appositive clause) The premature news that / which said the battle was lost caused consternation. (relative clause) Appositive clauses may be defining and non-defining: E.g. Mary had a strong belief that her husband intended to leave her. (defining) Marys belief, that her husband intended to leave her, resulted in reality. (nondefining) THE NOUN (also NOMINAL) CLAUSE A noun clause is a clause which acts as the subject or object of a sentence. E.g. Lucy told me why she was worried. Nominal is: 1. a term used instead of a Noun. 2. A term for a linguistic unit which has some but not all characteristics of a noun, e.g. wounded in The wounded were taken by helicopter to the hospital. Although wounded is the Head of the noun phrase the wounded and is preceded by an article, it would not be modified by an adjective but by an adverb, e.g. the seriously wounded. A Nominal Clause (also a Noun Clause) is a clause which functions like a noun or noun phrase; that is, which may occur as subject, object complement, in apposition, or as prepositional complement. For example: Nominal clause as subject: What she said is awful. Nominal clause as object: I dont know what she said

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Nominalization is the grammatical process of forming nouns from other parts of speech, usually verbs or adjectives. For example, in English: nominalized forms from the verb to write: writing, writer as in: His writing is illegible. Her mother is a writer. Noun clauses are introduced by the following subordinators: Conjunctions: that, whether, if (as if); Pronouns: who (whoever, whomever), what (whatever, whatsoever), which (whichever, whichsoever); Adverbs: where, when, how, why. NOTES: - the most common subordinator is that - whatsoever and whichsoever are archaic. SYNTACTIC FUNCTIONS: Noun clauses may function as: 1. Subject (S) E.g. That all of them are happy is visible. What she said is unclear. How he got into the house is a mystery. It (preparatory) + V + SC + S (sentence) It is strange that they did not come at all. It is necessary that we should learn for the exam. It + V + S (sentence) It seemed that the meeting would never end. Does it matter whether I tell you the truth or not? NOTE: The subject clauses are never separated by a comma. 2. Subject Complement (SC) E.g. You became what you you had always wanted to be.

E.g.

E.g.

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That is why she came to see me. It looks as if it were going to rain. This is where we work. The trouble is that I am short of money. 3. Object (O) NOTE: This is the most usual function of the noun clause. An object clause (i.e. a noun clause which is the object of a verb) may be: A statement:

a. S + V + DO (=that-clause; lest, etc.) E.g. She said that she had been ill. He suggested that we should read the whole novel. I think that they will accept the invitation. I feared lest he should fail. (formal style) I am afraid he might fail. (informal style) b. S + V + (to + IO) PIO + DO We suggested to her that he might be the thief. S + V + it (DO) + OC + DO (clause) We considered it a compliment that the BC should visit our university. I thought it right that he should be invited. S + V + DO (=Subordinator + Clause) He asked whether I had bought a new car. I wonder what it is. I know how hard you worked. S + V + IO + DO (clause) He told me what the time was.

E.g.

E.g.

E.g.

S + V + PO (Preposition+ Subordinator + Clause) It depends on whether they arrive in time.

E.g.

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THE SUBJECT DEFINITION The subject is a syntactic unit that functions as one of the two main constituents of a sentence, the other being the predicate, and that consists of a noun, noun phrase, or noun substitute typically referring to the one performing the action or being in the state expressed by the predicate, as I in I gave notice. E.g. The students like to listen to good music. Men are used to working harder than women. The chief export of Cuba is sugar. In an active clause, the subject is the part of the clause that refers to the person or thing that does the action indicated by the verb, or that is in the state indicated by the verb. E.g. Helen broke another glass today. Oil floats on water. In a passive clause, the subject refers to the person or thing that is affected by an action or involved in someones thoughts. E.g. She had been taught logic by an uncle. The examination is regarded as an arbitrary, unnecessary barrier. The subject is that principal part of the sentence which shows who / what performs the action expressed by the predicate or to whom / to what a feature or characteristic expressed by the predicate is ascribed.

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You do not add a pronoun after the subject in a clause, e.g. you do not say My sister she came to see me yesterday. You say My sister came to see me yesterday. AGREEMENT The verb in a clause should agree with the subject. This means it should have an appropriate form depending on whether the subject is singular, uncountable, or plural. E.g. He wears striped shirts. People wear wollen clothing here even on hot days. POSITION The subject occupies fixed positions in the English sentence. In a statement, the subject usually comes in front of the verb. E.g. I want to talk to the teacher.

In questions, the subject comes after an auxiliary or after the verb be, unless the subject is a wh-word or begins with a wh-word. E.g. Has he been to the seaside? Why are you here? Who taught you to read? Which library has the book? In an imperative clause, there is usually no subject. E.g. Show the draft of the paper. In writing mainly, the main verb is put in front of the subject when an adverbial of place is put at the beginning of a clause. E.g. Behind the desk was a middle-aged woman.

Inversion also takes place in speech after here and there when you are drawing attention to something. E.g.

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Here comes the cloud of smoke. Theres another one. *You do not use inversion when the subject is a personal pronoun. E.g. Here he comes. There she goes. Inversion occurs when broad negative adverbs or other negative adverbials, E.g. only when / then are put at the beginning of a clause for emphasis. This structure is used in formal speech and writing. E.g. Never in my life have I met such a beautiful girl. Only when he saw her again, did he realise he was in love with her. Only then did he start meeting her again. You use inversion after so when you are saying that the previous positive statement also applies to another person or group. E.g. I read a lot. So do I. *When so is used to express surprise or to emphasise that someone should do something, inversion does not occur: E.g. It is on the table behind you. So it is. I feel very guilty about it. So you should. You use inversion after neither and nor when you are saying that the previous negative statement also applies to another person or group. E.g. You have read neither the book nor have written the report. I cannot remember. Neither can I. Inversion of subject and predicate also occurs in conditional clauses that are not introduced by a conjunction. This structure is formal. E.g. Had he been to the party, he would have met Jane.

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Inversion can also occur in comparisons after as: E.g. I read a lot for this exam as did all my colleagues. KINDS OF SUBJECTS Subjects may be simple, compound, coordinated, complex, and double. Simple subjects are expressed by one word, usually a noun or a noun equivalent, possibly accompanied by attributes. E.g. A train was coming in. Whistling would be heard. Compound subjects, although expressed by two or several elements (nouns), represent one person or one thing. E.g. Here comes my lord and master. Drinking and smoking ages man. Michelangelo, the painter and poet was born in Florence. The agreement is in the singular. Sometimes they may not refer to one thing but they are perceived as one entity. E.g. Strawberries and cream is delicious. To read and to write until midnight is tiring. Coordinated subjects include two or more elements which refer to several notions joined by coordinating conjunctions. Agreement is usually in the plural. E.g. A boaster and a liar are cousin-germans. In the case of two alternative subjects connected by or, the predicate will agree with the noun closer to the verb. E.g. The teacher or the pupils are at fault. Either she or we are going home.

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In the case of two subjects linked by as well as, besides, like, unlike, in addition to, together with, and not, except, but agreement is with the first subject: E.g. Liese together with some other colleagues is in the classroom. In the case of two subjects connected by not only but, the predicate agrees to the subject closer to the verb: E.g. Not only I but the teacher thinks it right. Complex subjects are subjects (or rather subject phrases) made up of heterogeneous elements. a. The for-to phrase E.g. For him to do that is rather difficult. b. The Nominative with the Infinitive E.g. He is said to be a good student. c. The Nominative with the Indefinite Participle E.g. The students were seen taking part in the course. d. Subordinate Subject Clauses E.g. That he will manage is beyond any doubt. Double subjects appear only in folk poetry, in nursery rhymes and in careless speech and consists in both a noun and a pronoun which is a substitute for the former (clearly a case of redundancy). E.g. O, my trade it is the rarest one. The subject may be expressed by: 1. NP (including noun substitutes) E.g. Every ass loves to hear himself bray. (English proverb)

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Beauty is but skin-deep. (abstract noun) Riding is joy. (verbal noun) The Henry I knew was another man. (proper name) Petru Maior University is a state university. (fixed group of words) He is absent. (pronoun). Five of them were present. (numeral) But is a conjunction. (substantivised part of speech) Yesterday will not be called again. (substantivised part of speech) 2. Verbal Phrase (Infinitive Phrase, Gerundial Phrase) E.g. To promise and to give nothing is comfort to a fool. (IP) He said that bringing home his mother would save his mother. (GP) 3. A clause E.g. Whoever broke it needs a good lesson. That they come is not certain. What is worth doing is worth doing well. Classification From the point of view of their semantic content / value, i.e. the amount of meaning which they convey: grammatical subject = is connected with the predicate and there is agreement between the two. Logical / real / notional subject = points to the agent, i.e. to the real author or doer of the action. Usually, the grammatical subject is identical with the logical subject. There are, however, two categories of exceptions: a. passive constructions E.g. This bed (grammatical subject) has not been slept in by anyone (logical subject). b. introductory constructions (it, there, here)

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It (grammatical subject) is nice of you to have come (logical subject); There it comes again. (anticipatory it and there) Here we ride (exclamatory) It is he who broke the window. (real subject is emphasised) It was his sister that I met in the hall. (direct object is emphasised) It was to him that I spoke, not to her. (indirect object is emphasised) It was about you that I was talking, not about him. (prepositional object is emphasised) It is but reluctantly that I gave my consent. (adverbial modifier of manner is emphasised) It was in a frightful snowstorm that he arrived at the chalet . (adverbial modifier of attending circumstances is emphasised) It was at the library that I lost my book. (adverbial modifier of place is emphasised) It was long ago that I met him. (adverbial modifier of time is emphasised) Introductory it (grammatical subject) also known as anticipatory it or preparatory it is used to start a sentence when the it replaces a subject clause which is now placed at the end of the sentence: E.g. it was plain that her interest was in England. (the usual word order would be That her interest was in England was plain.) When the subject is a clause, we often prefer to replace the subject + predicate structure by the introductory it + predicate + subject structure. Any kind of noun clause can take introductory it. There is a tendency in English to put longer parts of a sentence towards the end, giving them end-weight. We often use introductory it with a that-clause, to show our attitude: e.g. It was quite clear that she could not make head or tail of my announcement The normal word order would be That she could not make head or tail of my announcement was quite clear , is less acceptable than the example with introductory it. In fact, with one exception, the ing clauses, the end-position subject clause after introductory it is more common than the corresponding normal sequence of subject + predicate. (logical subject).

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E.g. It is obvious that to lead such an existence and make so great a success of it, you must both have needed a strong will and a determined character! Smoking is forbidden! For the it construction using appear, follow, happen, seem, transpire and other verbs, there is no possible normal equivalent: E.g. It appeared that everything was settled. The following types of clauses can follow introductory it: A to-infinitive clause E.g. It was impossible not to laugh. A wh-clause E.g. It was known where he was staying. A as if / though clauses E.g. It looked as if it was going to rain.

A ing clause: E.g. It was nice taking care of him. A since clause: E.g. It is a long time since I last saw him. Remember that introductory it always occurs first in a sentence, or immediately after an adverbial. Do not confuse introductory it with empty it as in It was about five years after the event that I decided to live in Paris for a time. Introductory (also existential there)

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Many English sentences start with an unstressed there usually followed by some form of be. E.g. There is something strange about his way of behaving. In such sentences, there is an empty, grammatical subject, with the notional subject place later (postponed) in the sentence, thereby giving it focus: e.g. there) There = grammatical subject are = verb six people = notional / logical subject present = complement in my small room / already = adverbial modifiers A less likely sentence would be: Six people are present in my small room already. There is / are, however, introduce not only the idea of existence, but of happening as well. In that case, we can substitute there by to exist or to occur. E.g. There has been an accident on the road to Oradea. Impersonal subjects (also Impersonal Constructions) do not refer to a definite /well-established person or thing. Such subjects may be used to denote time and weather, distance or the state of things in general. They refer to: time (chronological) E.g. It was nearly the time of full moon. There are six people present in my room already. (also called existential

lapse of time E.g. It is a month since we last met.

weather E.g. It is cold.

natural phenomena E.g. It thunders / lightens

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distance E.g. It is 5 miles to the next town. PECULIARITIES OF ENGLISH USAGE The subject is not repeated in an enumeration of predicates: E.g. He came, saw, and conquered. The subject is generally omitted in constructions beginning with as: E.g. as usual, as is normal, as is but natural, as was to be expected, as was shown elsewhere. Unlike Romanian grammar, English grammar requires an expressed subject in the great majority of cases. The omission of the subject, much less frequent than in other languages, is however possible (in certain styles) with co-ordinated predicates and in set phrases. Reflexive-passive constructions in Romanian, with an impersonal subject ( se) are generally rendered in English by passive constructions whose subject is: a. it se spune It is said. b. Nominative + Infinitive - He is said. c. The object Films were shown. Dative constructions (imi place, mi-e foame) I liked / enjoyed the picture.

B. THE PREDICATE GROUP (THE VERB PHRASE) DEFINITION The predicate is a syntactic unit that functions as one of the two main constituents of a sentence, the other being the subject, and that consists of a verb

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and any words governed by the verb or modifying it, as objects, complements, or adverbs, the whole often expressing the action performed by or the state attributed to the subject, as is here in The package is here. E.g. I turned my head. I = Subject / Topic turned my head = Predicate / Comment / Experiencer The predicate in complete sentences always contains a verb, a complement, or a direct object and an indirect object, and sometimes an adverbial. The two parts of the predicate are the operator and the predication. E.g. I must go home these days. I = subject must go = predicate (verb phrase) must = operator (inflection) go home these days = predication (verb + adverbial modifiers)

The operator is the first, or the only auxiliary verb in a sentence. In the sentence I may have just missed the party, there are two auxiliaries, may and have, but only the first one, may is the operator. The operator is important in the forming of interrogatives, negative declarations and other constructions. Where there is no operator in a simple declarative sentence, like I know, we use the verb do as a dummy operator to form questions, e.g. Do you know?, and negatives, e.g. I do not know. The predication is always the rest of the predicate, in this case have just missed the party. We change the order of the subject and the operator to make other kinds of sentences from declaratives. This inversion is found in: Yes / No questions: Have you parted company? Wh-questions: Why have you parted company? Negative questions: Cant you understand that? Question tags: Ill pack them, shall I? Response questions: I gave Tim a present. Oh, did you?

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Fronting of negative and semi-negatives: Nor is there anything like ones hatred for an ex-spouse. Fronting of so (meaning me too): I feel shy now. So do I. Hypothetical conditions with omitted if: I Should we meet again, I would reveal my love for her. The operator is important in the process of ellipsis. A. We often omit the subject and operator, e.g. in: Statements: Wheres Ann? Gone to the cinema. Questions: It is far more likely she will laugh. Laugh? Coordinate clauses: There were murmurs from the kitchen, then silence. Sub-clauses: The town seemed deserted at that hour, though shining in the daytime. B. We sometimes omit the operator alone, e.g. You love me? C. We usually omit the predication in: Short answers: Why have you married her? I havent. Response questions: She agrees. Does she? Question tags: You still love Danny, dont you? Sub-clauses: So you want to be a writer. I feel I can. The operator and predication also figure in the process of substitution. Substitutes for the predication include: Do: I couldnt meet him. At least, I could have done it, if I didnt mind his meeting another girl, but I do, Im jealous. So: So am I. Do this: Other women have done this. Do so: A woman has always kept to self-esteem and vanity. In doing so, she has lost many times. The operator is important in 3 (three) ways: 1. We add not or nt to the operator to form negative declaratives and interrogatives: E.g. Why shouldnt you have a private place?

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2. In affirmative sentences with an operator, the middle position for adverbs is immediately after the operator: E.g. I should instantly (Adv) have been sick. 3. When we want to put emphasis on the modal meaning of a spoken sentence, we put the intonation nucleus on the operator, whether the meaning is positive or negative: E.g. Well, I think it was like that. How could you have told her? The verb (phrase) may be finite (showing tense, mood, aspect and voice) or non-finite (not showing tense or mood but still capable of indicating aspect and voice): E.g. He had given the girl an apple. (finite) Having been challenged rudely in the street, John was angry. (non-finite) Formal Classification of Verb Phrases (Predicates) According to form VP may be: 1. V: The phone rings. He has arrived. 2. V + NP: We saw this film. I know him. 3. V + AP: It is nice. He is proud of her. 4. V + ValP (Verbal Phrase): I want to meet her. 5. V + PP: He is waiting for his brother. 6. V + AdvP: Come here. He behaves well. 7. V + CL (Clause): I know where it is. He asks if I am happy. Combinations: 8. V + NP + NP: She gave the child an apple; They elected him president. 9. V + NP + AP: He painted it blue. 10. V + NP + ValP: We made them do it; She saw the thief running away. 11. V + NP + PP: He gave them to his brother; Thank you for coming. 12. V + PP + NP: She dictated (to) me the letter.

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13. V + NP + Cl: She asked me if I knew him; He told us that he had not found it. 14. V + PP + CL: He confessed to her that he had spent all his money. B. Functional Classification of VP (Predicates) According to function VP can be: 1. V (Predicate): Birds fly. He has been hurt. 2. V + SC: She is happy. The leaves have turned red. 3. V + DO: I cut my finger. He enjoys playing golf. 4. V + DO + DO: I asked him a difficult question. 5. V + IO + DO: She ordered herself a new dress. 6. V + (DO) + (To /For + IO) PIO: I gave (the money) to my mother; He bought a gold watch for me; I have written (a letter) to them 7. V + PO: It depends on the weather; He called on me. 8. V + DO + OC: We found the bag empty; I must get my hair cut. Adverbial modifiers can be added to any of the above patterns: 1. V + AdvM: The sun is shining brightly. 2. V + SC + AdvM: She is ill now. 3. V + DO + AdvM: I cut my finger yesterday. 4. V + DO + DO + AdvM: I asked him a question when he came home. 5. V + IO + DO + AdvM: She ordered herself a new dress last week. 6. V + DO + PIO + AdvM: He bought a gold watch for me in London. 7. V + PO + AdvM: He called on me yesterday afternoon. 8. V + O + OC + AdvM: I must get my hair cut tomorrow. KINDS OF PREDICATES All predicates fall under 2 (two) main divisions: simple (verbal) and compound (nominal or verbal) The simple verbal predicate, which denotes an activity performed (or suffered) by the subject is expressed by a finite verb (in a simple or compound form: present, past and future tenses, Indicative, Imperative and Conditional Moods, active and passive voice); adverbial modifiers can complete the meaning of the predicate. E.g. She speaks fluently.

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I have been speaking for two years. The compound nominal predicate denotes a certain state or quality of the subject. It consists of a link verb, or a verb of incomplete predication (non-finite) and a subject complement (element predicativ suplimentar). The subject complement (SC) is an adverb of location, a (pro)noun, or an adjective, or the equivalent, which completes the predicate and refers to the subject. It follows either be or copulative (linking) verbs and intransitive verbs in the passive voice. The SC may be expressed by: E.g. They are friends. (NP) He is /became a teacher. (NP) The room is mine. (NP) The man became angry. (AP) He felt awkward. (AP) The ring is of gold. (PP) We are out of sugar and coffee. (PP) The SC is also expressed by: A numeral: He is the first. An infinitive: To decide is to act. A gerund: Seeing is believing. An adverb: He is off; The meeting is at eight. A Val Cl: The greatest problem is for you to understand. The link verb is in the main clause. There are certain link/linking verbs (verbe copulative; copule): Verbs of being or state: to be, stand, feel. E.g. The meeting stands adjourned. (ridicm edina) Verbs of remaining or continuing: continue, keep, remain, hold, stay. E.g.

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The rule still holds good. Verbs of becoming or of transition from one state to another: become, get, grow, turn, fall, run, go, prove, turn out. E.g. He appeared vexed. The compound verbal predicate are predicates which, by the use of semiauxiliaries of modality or aspect besides the notional verb, indicate both the action and the way in which it is performed or its relation to the time factor. They are subdivided into modal and aspect verbal predicates. A. A modal compound verbal predicate consists of a modal verb (or modal phrases + verb) followed by an infinitive. The modals may be either defective ( must, can should, etc.) or non-defective (to have to, to want, to intend, to wish, etc.). The modal phrases may have various structures ( I would rather, you had better, I would sooner, I cant help + -ing, etc.) E.g. We are to meet at seven. I cant help loving him. B. A compound aspect verbal predicate is made up of a personal form of a verb denoting a lexical aspect and a non-personal form (i.e. a verbal) of the principal / predicative verb. It indicates the beginning, duration, end, or repetition of an action followed by an infinitive or gerund. The main verbs used in this pattern are: begin, start, stop, finish, end, cease, give up, continue, go on. E.g. He stopped to read / reading.

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THE OBJECT. THE OBJECT CLAUSE DEFINITION An object (O) is a noun, a noun phrase, or pronoun representing either the goal or the recipient of the action of a verb or the goal of a preposition, e.g ball in I hit the ball; her in He asked her a question; table in under the table. THE DIRECT OBJECT (DO) is a person or thing upon which the action of a verb is performed or towards which it is directed, as the pronoun it in I saw it. The direct object may be expressed by: A noun phrase or a noun substitute He loved his mother. Dont forget that. Have you seen him? I have none. He cut himself. Give me the first. A verbal phrase He enjoys lying in the sun. Would you prefer to watch a film?

E.g.

E.g.

A clause Nobody knows whose it is. Ill ask when he comes. He said he was busy. Kinds of DO:

E.g.

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Simple DO: expressed by a single word, possibly determined and modified by

attributes or even by a whole attributive clause: E.g. Read it to me. I accepted the terms he offered and took his place. Co-ordinated DO: two or several nouns or noun equivalents in the Accusative

discharging an identical syntactical function in relation to a v.t. or a verbal phrase: E.g. You have leisure, comfort and calm. Compound DO: similar to co-ordinated DO in structure and function but

dissimilar in that the two or several nouns refer to only one person, object or abstract notion: E.g. He is my friend and adviser. Double DO: connected with the same v.t., yet answering different, separate

questions (who, what). They usually follow a limited number of verbs such as: to ask, answer, forgive, envy. E.g. Ask me no questions. There are verbs that take 2 (two direct objects): to ask, to answer, to take, to envy, to hear, to forgive, to save, to strike. E.g. They envy him his success. Forgive them their rudeness. Some transitive verbs may take two objects: an indirect object and a direct object. E.g. I gave him the book. I made myself a cup of tea. V + DO + DO

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THE INDIRECT OBJECT (IO) usually refers to the person who benefits from an action or receives something because of it. You can put an IO in front of the DO or in a prepositional phrase (PP) after the DO. V + IO + DO V + DO + PIO E.g. Dad gave me a car. He handed his room key to the receptionist. The IO may be expressed by a noun phrase (NP) or a noun substitute (pronouns are commoner as IO than nouns): E.g. We owe you many apologies. I read my friend the letter. I made myself a cup of coffee. She showed us her new dress. The IO of a great number of verbs may correspond to the subject of a verb in the passive, whose DO is retained: E.g. Somebody gave the child an orange. (IO) The child was given an orange. (S) THE PREPOSITIONAL INDIRECT OBJECT (PIO) corresponds to an IO preceded by the preposition to or for. It usually follows the DO. V + DO + (for/to) PIO E.g. He wrote to me two days ago. He always reads to us with pleasure. The PIO is used: When the speaker / writer wants to emphasise the DO or to place it in contrast with another IO (explicit or implicit) E.g. I shall show the letter to you . (but not to her) I shall show the letter for her (but not for you)

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When the DO is expressed by a pronoun, while the IO is expressed by a noun: He gave them to his mother.

E.g.

When both objects are expressed by personal pronouns: Send her to them.

E.g.

When the IO is placed at the head of the sentence (in the interrogative form): To whom did you lend it?

E.g.

When the IO heads a relative clause (post-modifier): The boy to whom I gave the letter has lost it.

E.g.

After the verbs: announce, ascribe, attribute, communicate, contribute, declare,

dedicate, deliver, describe, dictate, explain, hint, indicate, interpret, introduce, open, owe, point out, present, propose, relate, repeat, report, return, say, speak, submit, suggest, talk, translate. E.g. He ascribed the mistake to her. He introduced his friend to her. When a verb is used without its DO:

E.g. He wrote to me two weeks ago. When the IO is much longer than the DO: She told the news (DO) to everybody in the town (PIO). I have written letters (DO) to most of my ex students (PIO). THE PREPOSITIONAL OBJECT (PO)

E.g.

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Some verbs govern their object by means of a preposition. Such an object is called a prepositional object. (It is not always easy to tell whether a PP stands for an object, or an adverbial modifier). E.g. It consists of two parts. They live on rice. He recovered from his illness. They were listening to music. Who cared for your opinion? What are you about? The PO may correspond to the S of a verb in the passive to which the preposition remains attached: E.g. They sent for the doctor. (PO) The doctor was sent for. (S) Kinds of PO: PO of agent: it denotes the person (more rarely the thing, the natural element or abstract notion) performing the action: E.g. The pupils were badly treated by the nurse. I learned of his through him. PO of instrument / instrumentality : it denotes the instrument through which the V + PO

action is performed, or the material for building. E.g. He always writes with a sharp pencil. PO of means: similar to the PO of instrument but it refers mainly to the means of

transportation; the preposition by is used. E.g. He travels by plane.

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PO of association: it denotes the person (rarely the animal, object, etc.)

participating in the action (more rarely the state) with the speaker or writer. The preposition with (also together with, alongside of / with) E.g. I went there with my bother. PO of relation: it includes various kinds of relations, as well as attitudes, feelings,

etc.: E.g. My reaction / response to such proposals is always the same. THE OBJECT CLAUSE functions as a noun clause when the clause acts as the object of a sentence. E.g. Lucy told me why she was worried.

COMPLEMENTS. COMPLEMENT CLAUSES A complement completes a grammatical construction in the predicate and describes or is identified with the subject or object, e.g. small in The house is small or president in They elected him president. It can also refer to any word or group of words used to complete a grammatical construction, especially in the predicate, including adverbials, infinitives, and sometimes objects. There are Subject Complements (SC) and Object Complements (OC). A COMPLEMENT CLAUSE is a subordinate clause that functions as the subject (S), direct object (DO), or prepositional object (PO) of a verb, e.g. that you like it in I am surprised that you like it. THE SUBJECT COMPLEMENT (also called SUBJECTIVE COMPLEMENT) is a word or group of words usually functioning as an adjective or noun, that is used

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in the predicate following a copula / a link verb, e.g. to be and which describes or is identified with the subject of the sentence, E.g. sleepy in The travellers were sleepy. The SC may be expressed by: An adjective: We were very happy. The other child looked neglected. Their hall was larger than his whole flat. Adjectives can be used as SC after the following link verbs: appear, be, become, come, feel, get, go, grow, keep, look, pass, prove, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn. A NP (or substitutes): I feel a bit of a fraud. Hell make a good president. He always seemed a controlled sort of man. Its me again. (pronoun) This one is yours. (pronoun) Youre someone who does what she wants. (pronoun) Its an easy mistake to make. A NP can be used as SC after the following link verbs: be, become, comprise, constitute, feel, form, look, make, prove, remain, represent, seem, sound . After the following verbs which refer to actions: be born, die, emerge, escape, hang, lie, return, sit, stand, survive. E.g. He died young. I used to lie awake watching the rain seep through the roof. George stood motionless for at least a minute. THE OBJECT COMPLEMENT (also called OBJECTIVE COMPLEMENT) is a noun, a noun phrase, pronoun, or adjective used in the predicate following a V + SC

E.g.

E.g.

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factitive verb (a verb that takes a DO and an additional word or phrase indicating the result of the process, e.g. made in They made him king) and referring to or identified with its direct object, as treasurer in We appointed him treasurer. or white in They painted the house white. V + OC

The OC describes the object. The following transitive verbs are used with an

adjective as OC: believe, call, certify, consider, declare, eat, find, hold, judge, keep, label, leave, like, make, prefer, presume, pronounce, prove, reckon, render, serve, term, think, want. E.g. Toms jokes made her uneasy. He had proved them all wrong. Do you want it white or black? The OC may be expressed by an adjective (AP): E.g. He has painted the house blue. I want everything ready by seven oclock. Some verbs are used with a very restricted range of OC: to drive someone crazy /

mad, to burn someone alive, to get someone drunk / pregnant, to knock someone unconscious, to paint something red / blue, etc, to pat something dry, to pick something clean, to plane something flat / smooth, to rub something dry / smooth, to send someone mad, to shoot someone dead, to sweep something clean, to turn something white / black, etc, to wipe something clean / dry. E.g. She painted her eyelids deep blue. He wiped the bottle dry with a dishcloth. The following transitive verbs are used with a NP as OC: appoint, believe, brand,

call, consider, crown, declare, designate, elect, find, hold, judge, label, make, presume, proclaim, prove, reckon, term, think. E.g. They consider him an embarrassment. In 1990 they appointed him manager. I consider this picture a masterpiece of art.

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The following transitive verbs are used with a name as OC: call, christen, dub,

name, nickname. E.g. Everyone called her Molly. He was dubbed a hero. An OC may be also expressed by a verbal phrase: What do you want me to do? I heard my name called. I could feel my heart beating wildly. What makes you think so? The OC is related to the DO or PO in such a way that, if the O + OC were expanded into a clause, the O would be the S and the OC the predicate (= VP) E.g. a) I saw him cross the street. DO He V OC crossed the street. V + DO

E.g.

We were waiting for them to come. PO They came. S V OC

b) She swept the floor clean. DO The floor is clean. S V + SC DO His father is chairman. S V + SC OC They elected his father chairman. OC

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In a passive construction the OC becomes a SC: E.g. They saw him cross the street. O OC He was seen to cross the street. S SC

ADVERBIAL MODIFIERS. ADVERBIAL CLAUSES. A modifier is a word, phrase, or sentence element that limits or qualifies the sense of another word, phrase, or element in the same construction. An adverbial modifier comprises both simple adverbs and adverb phrases (noun or verbal phrases with or without a preposition). This term may also be used for adverbial clauses. Adverbs: V + ADV M

E.g. Ill see you tomorrow. Adverb Phrase (locuiune circumstanial): He is in the bathroom. Adverb Clause: Ill see you when you come back. Adverbials can be finite or non-finite: E.g. He fell in love, just as he was afraid of. (finite) Students listened to learn the words in the classroom. (non-finite) When asked where his wife was, Henry replied she was lying down. TYPES OF ADVERBIAL CLAUSES (COMPLEX SENTENCES) TIME: (WHEN?) introduced by the conjunctions when, after, as, as long as, as

E.g.

E.g.

soon as, before, by the time (that), directly, during the time (that), immediately, the

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moment (that), now (that), once, since, until / till, whenever, while. We generally use a comma when the adverbial clause comes first. E.g. After she got married, she changed completely. You did not look very well when you got up this morning. PLACE: (WHERE?) introduced by the conjunctions where, wherever, anywhere,

everywhere. They normally come after the main clause: E.g. The church was built where there had once been a Roman temple. You cannot camp anywhere you like these days. MANNER: (How?) introduced by the conjunction as or by the conjunctions as if /

as though after the verbs act, appear, behave, feel, look, seem, smell, sound, taste . They normally come after the main clause. E.g. This fish is cooked as I like it. (colloquial: how / the way I like). She trembled as if she had seen a ghost. REASON: (Why?) introduced by the conjunctions because, as, seeing (that),

since. E.g. As / Because / Since there was very little support, the strike was not successful. I am afraid I cannot go to the party as I feel very tired. CONDITION: introduced by the conjunctions assuming (that), on condition (that),

provided (that), providing (that), so / as long as, unless. E.g. Unless it stops raining soon, they will have to cancel the ball game. I am not afraid of anything, as long as you are near me. CONCESSION (CONTRAST): introduced by the conjunctions although,

considering (that), though, even though, even if, much as , while, whereas, however much / badly / good, etc, no matter how, no matter where. E.g. However far it is, I intend to drive there tonight.

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Try as he might, he could not solve the problem. PURPOSE: (What for? For what purpose?) introduced by the conjunctions so

that, so as to, in order that, in case, lest, for fear (that) . E.g. I have bought tickets so that I can see the whole game better. They must have worn gloves in order not to leave any fingerprints. RESULT (CONSEQUENCE): introduced by that after so + adjective to answer,

e.g. How (quick) ? E.g. His reactions are such that no one can match him. He reacts so quickly (that) no one can match him. NOTE: CLAUSES OF PURPOSE COMPARED WITH CLAUSES OF RESULT In a purpose clause we can always replace so that by in order that, which we cannot do in a result clause: E.g. We arrived early so that / in order that we could get good seats. A result clause always follows the main clause, whereas a purpose clause can precede the main clause: E.g. So that I should not worry, he phoned me on arrival. COMPARISON: (How? followed by or implying in relation to or compared

with). They involve the use of as + adjective + as (as quick as), as + adverb + as (as quickly as), not so / as , -er than, more than, less than, the the. . . E.g. He is as quick in answering as his sister (is). The more you practise the better you get. He did not sell half as / so many videos as he thought he would. ABBREVIATED ADVERBIAL CLAUSES: by deleting the subject (S) and the

verb be after the conjunction: E.g.

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While (she was) at college, she wrote a novel. (time) Where (it is) necessary, improvements will be made. (place) He acted as if (he was) certain of success. (manner) If (it is) possible, please let me know by this evening. (condition) Though (he was) exhausted, he went to bed very late. (concession). Clauses of reason cannot be abbreviated in this way. However, they can often be replaced by participle constructions. Such constructions also have the effect of shortening clauses. E.g. Being (Since she was) unable to print the letter herself, she asked her brother to do it. THE VERBAL PHRASE A verbal is a word, especially a noun or adjective, derived from a verb, as a gerund, infinitive, or participle. A gerund is a form regularly derived from a verb and functioning as a noun, used in all cases but the nominative, as writing in Writing is easy. An infinitive is a nonfinite verb form, in many languages the simple or basic form of the verb, that names the action or state without specifying the subject and that functions as a noun or is used with auxiliary verbs or, in English, after the word to, as eat in I want to eat. A participle is a nonfinite verbal form that can function as an adjective or be used with certain auxiliaries to make compound verb forms, as burning in a burning candle or devoted in your devoted friend. INFINITIVE (IP), GERUNDIAL (GP) AND PARTICIPIAL (PP) PHRASES. Syntactic functions: Subject (S): To leave unexpectedly is shameful. Leaving unexpectedly is shameful.

IP: GP:

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With preparatory it: IP: GP: IP: GP: IP: GP: IP: PP: It is essential to read the compulsory bibliography. It is useless trying to learn by heart.

Subject Complement (SC): To make mistakes is to acknowledge we are not perfect. He was said to have been a hero. Making mistakes is acknowledging we are not perfect.

Object (O): Why does he refuse to help you? I do not know how to proceed. Would you mind helping me with this heavy luggage?

Object Complement (OC): The captain ordered his soldiers not to shoot. I heard the baby crying. He found himself chosen for the job.

IP:

Adverbial Modifier (ADV M): I stayed late to finish the paper. On listening to the old song, I was overwhelmed by memories. Having lost our way, we asked a stranger for directions.

GP: PP:

Noun modifier: I have met a limping-boy at the party. Look at that smiling boy. He is a learned man.

a) premodifier: GP: PP:

b) postmodifier: IP: PP: Here is something for you to eat. The girl lying on the beach is a friend of mine. The pictures taken by Tom are excellent.

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IP:

Adjective modifier (postmodifier): You are very rude to leave her alone. I am sad for you to leave so early. I am fond of listening to good music.

GP:

THE PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE (PP) The preposition is a member of a class of words that are typically used before nouns, pronouns, or other substantives (functioning as nouns) to form phrases with adverbial, nominal, or adjectival function, and that typically express a spatial, temporal, or other relationship, as on, by, to, with, or, since. Usage. The often-heard " rule " that a sentence should not end with a preposition is transferred from Latin, where it is an accurate description of practice. But the Latin rule does not fit English grammar. In speech, the final preposition is normal and idiomatic, especially in questions: What are we waiting for? Where did he come from? You didn't tell me which floor you worked on . In writing, the problem of placing the preposition arises most often when a sentence ends with a relative clause in which the relative pronoun (that; whom; which; etc.) is the object of a preposition. In edited writing, especially formal writing, when a pronoun other than that introduces a final relative clause, the preposition usually precedes its object: He abandoned the project to which he had devoted his whole life. I finally telephoned the representative with whom I had been corresponding. If the pronoun is that, or if the pronoun is omitted, then the preposition must occur at the end: The librarian found the books that the child had scribbled in. Syntactic Functions: Prepositional Object (PO): I could not help looking at the beautiful girl. She was waiting for her friend. Prepositional Indirect Object (PIO): Give the apple to your younger brother. I wanted to but a present for my father. There is the woman he spoke of.

E.g.

E.g.

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Adverbial Modifier (ADVM): We have English classes on Mondays. He lives with his parents.

E.g.

Postmodifier:

a) to a noun phrase (NP): NP + PP E.g. She promised me a ticket for the concert. The cover of the book is white. b) to an adjective phrase (AP): AP + PP E.g. Milk is good for babies. I am bad at drawing. Compare: He is looking at the window. (PP) He is standing at the window. (AdvM) The boy at the window is my brother. (Postmodifier)

Subject Complement (SC): She was in bad shape. It was of no good.

E.g.

Postmodifier to an adverb: He worked independently of the others. He argued very strongly for the proposal.

E.g.

Free modifier: In brief, the meeting was a success.

E.g.

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In a way, he is mistaken. THE ADJECTIVE PHRASE (AP). THE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE (also called RELATIVE CLAUSE) An adjective is a member of a class of words functioning as modifiers of nouns, typically by describing, delimiting, or specifying quantity, as nice in a nice day, other in other people, or all in all dogs, and in many languages distinguished by formal characteristics, as often in English by the ability to be used in comparative and superlative forms. An adjective phrase (AP) consists of one adjective, e.g. I am hungry, or in connection with another adjective, e.g. short and plump. An adjective clause is a clause (introduced by a relative pronoun) which does the same job as an adjective, e.g. a baby that wants to eat. Syntactic Functions: Premodifier of a noun: She is a very beautiful lady. Where are my new trousers? Postmodifier of a (pro)noun: It is a problem very easy to solve. He is a man very fond of his wife. Subject Complement (SC): The students are good. The weather is keeping fine. Object Complement (OC): She painted the house too red. She made the cake quite tasty.

E.g.

E.g.

E.g.

E.g.

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Adverbial Modifier (AdvM): When sour, the milk is not good. He is educated, though very poor.

E.g.

Free Modifier: Happy, I went to meet him at the station. Most important, he is a good father. An Adjective Clause is also known as a RELATIVE CLAUSE.

E.g.

Relative clauses may be introduced by: A relative pronoun: who, whom, that, whose, which.

E.g. He paid the money to the man who had done the work. (subject) He paid the money whom he had hired. (object of a verb) He paid the man from whom he had borrowed the money. (object of a preposition) This is the girl whose picture you saw. (possessive adjective) Here is a book which / that describes animals. (subject). The chair which / that he broke is being repaired. (object of a verb) She was wearing the coat for which she had paid a lot. (object of a preposition) A relative adverb: This is the year when the Olympic Games are held. (time) Here is the house where I live. (place) Give me one good reason why you did that. (reason) A conjunction: before, after, as

E.g.

E.g. He became sick the day before he was to leave for his vacation. She made the same mistakes as (=that) her sister did.

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Relative clauses are restrictive and non-restrictive. A restrictive clause is a clause that identifies or limits the meaning of a modified element, as the relative clause that just ended in The year that just ended was bad for crops. In English a restrictive clause is usually not set off by commas. A non-restrictive clause is a clause that describes or supplements a modified element but is not essential in establishing its identity, as the relative clause which has been dry in the sentence This year, which has been dry, was bad for crops. In English a non-restrictive clause is usually set off by commas.

Sample sentence The two houses sit concurrently, one House, normally the Commons, completes its stages there
4 2 1

but

in legislation a bill is introduced in after it

and

it is passed on to the other House. 3

I.

1. Main Clause 2. Main Clause 3. Main Clause 4. Subordinate Clause Composite Sentence

II.

1. S (NP) + V + Adv M (Adv P) 2. Adv M (Adv P) + S (NP) + V + Adv M (Adv P) 3. S (NP) + V + Adv M (PP) 4. S (NP) + V + DO (NP)

III.

A. SG = NP 1. The two houses = Simple Subject 2. A bill = Simple Subject 3. it = Simple Subject 4. it = Simple Subject NP 1. Determiners = the 2. Determiners = a

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Pre Modifiers = two Head Noun = houses Post Modifiers = 3. Determiners = Pre Modifiers = Head Noun = it Post Modifiers = B. PG = VP 1. sit concurrently = Simple Verbal Predicate

Pre Modifiers = Head - Noun = bill Post Modifiers = 4. Determiners = Pre Modifiers = Head Noun = it Post Modifiers =

2. in legislation . is introduced on One House, normally the Commons = Simple Verbal Predicate 3. completes its stages there = Simple Verbal Predicate 4. is passed on to the other House = Compound Verbal Predicate Verb: 1. sit 2. is introduced VP 3. is passed on 4. completes

Predication 1. concurrently 2. in legislation.in one House, normally the Commons 3. to the other House 4. its stages there II. A. State the kind of subordinate clauses: 4. adverbial clause of time B. Write the non finite clauses: ___________ C. Write the syntactic function of: - there = Adv M (Adv P) - other = Pre Modifier (Det) - in legislation = Adv M (PP)

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\ SYNTAX EXERCISES 1. Assign appropriate parts of speech ( ) to the words in each sentence: S, V, DO, IO, SC, OC, AdvM a) b) c) d) John carefully grew steadily searched happier all day the room gradually . . . .

His brother It He rained

had given

the girl

an apple

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e) f) g) h) i) him j)

The girl They She

is make saw

now him that it grew

a student

at a large

university .

the chairman rained happier all day

every year .

His brother That she enormously The girl

when his friend correctly

arrived pleased

answered . is now

the question

a student

at a large

university

2. Analyse the sentences syntactically: a) b) c) d) e) f) editor g) h) i) j) . I He climbed handed stood called up the tree . to the receptionist for at least a . minute . His parents I will give dont live the conch was in this town . .

to the next person to speak . .

Their hall He She He wiped

larger than his whole flat dry

the bottle

with a dishcloth deep blue . It

painted finished

her eyelids

the second page

and passed

to

the

his room key motionless her

George Everyone

Molly

3. Classify the following sentences according to their structure (simple, compound, complex, composite): a) b) c) A new hospital is being built there. Whoever did it needs a good lesson. Shakespeare wrote his plays while he was working for the Lord Chamberlains Men and this explains why he stagecraft. d) e) f) g) h) The weather was very bad; all classes were cancelled. John was sick; however, he came to school. He hadnt behaved as a gentleman should have. Consequently, he set out to conquer all of Europe. Having no money, he simply said he would go without dinner. knew so much about

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i) j)

The teacher corrected the papers while he was away to Paris and explained to the students why he had left them at home. He used to be a very good husband but now he seldom buys flowers or remembers his wifes birthday.

4. Classify a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l)

the

following

sentences

according

to

their

function negative):

(declarative, interrogative, exclamatory, imperative positive or He plans to be back by Saturday. She gave him a nod of encouragement. Many people dont fancy it, either. Have you never met him? How cold it is getting! Wont you have an ice cream? You take care of yourself! He hasnt come yet, has he? Here come the gold-diggers. Do stop crying! The childs illness gave them much trouble. She could hardly believe her eyes.

5. State the syntactic function of the predicates in the following sentences: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) He is good at swimming. He introduced himself. She is always at home in the evening. They have got a house of their own. He doesnt give her any money. I told them the truth. She cooked me a meal. She made a cake for her son. He explained to his students the sequence of tenses. He gave a present to my daughter. He speaks English well. We were listening to the news. It seems a very long way. This is a difficult job.

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o) p) q) r) s) t) u) v) w) x) y) z) aa) bb) cc) dd) ee)

She did her homework after lunch. You look very funny in that hat. I say good-bye to them. I ordered it for your father. I ask you to help me. They elected Paul (as) their leader. He gets his hair cut regularly. She got her son to buy some milk. He wants to become a doctor. They are getting rich. I cant understand you wanting to do that. She went on speaking for half an hour. She is bored with studying. It makes him feel less homesick. He asked me three questions. I heard the baby crying. He noticed the lady drop her handkerchief.

6. Translate into English: a) b) c) d) e) f) Se spune c e grozav la matematic. Se crede c este singura soluie. S-au creat condiii. Problema se studiaz de ctre o comisie. Ne era somn. Ii ade bine.

7. Decide upon the type of determiners (specific or general): a) b) c) d) My, your Enough, both A, an What, much

8. Analyse the noun phrases: a) b) The two leading social orders A man of strong will

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c) d)

A man with long hair Neither of the boys

9. Analyse the clause and state whether it is an appositive or relative clause. Argue your point. The belief is that Michael has been sent to India. 10. The co-ordinating conjunction and shows addition, result, condition, sequence, or contrast: a) b) c) d) e) He felt heavily and broke his arm. Toms fifteen and still sucks his thumb. We were talking and laughing. Learn and youll be rewarded. He finished lunch and went shopping.

11. State the type of sentence (simple, compound or complex, or composite): a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) He neither speaks French, nor understands it. He couldnt find his pen, so he wrote in pencil. However hard I try, I cannot remember peoples names. That the match will be cancelled is now certain. What a terrible temper he has. I cant understand why you did such a thing. To get there, you must turn right at the bridge. Mr Smith doesnt like his aunt; he invited her to his anyhow. All classes were cancelled because the weather was students were told to listen to the radio to find would begin again. 12. State the syntactic function of the following noun clauses: a) b) c) d) e) That money doesnt grow on trees should be obvious. Everybody knows that money doesnt grow on trees. He boasted that he was successful. The question is whether he has signed the contract. When he did it is a mystery. out bad, when and classes wedding

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f)

Im concerned about whether he has met her

13. State the syntactic function of the following noun clauses: a) b) c) d) e) f) I want to see whoever deals with complaints. You can call me whatever you like. Home is where your friends and family are. What he is looking for us a wife. He gave whoever came to the door a winning smile. His ambition, to be a straight actor, was never fulfilled.

14. Analyse the underlined parts syntactically: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) The most important thing is for us to reach the place of The train was expected to arrive in time. I cant understand you wanting to do that. She is bored with studying. She is too young to marry that man. It was of no good to go there. The child sleeping in the car is my son. The book lying on the first desk is mine. How careless of him to drive so fast. She was the last to learn the news. I heard my name called. It does not seem much good staying here. I cant avoid meeting them. I made my influence felt. destination before daybreak.

15. Find the subject in the following sentences and state what it is expressed by: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Your reading so carelessly prevents your enjoying this It is no use talking to him. To do things well means to live well. It would be a great mistake not to follow his advice. Reading is a pleasant way of spending an evening. To ask him to help me with money was useless. It will cost you a fortune to spend your holiday in Italy. poetry.

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h) i)

His being ill will spoil everything. It took us a long time to understand him.

16. Which of the three predeterminers all, both, and half could acceptably replace X as predeterminers? Note that more than one answer may be acceptable: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) I have read X of this book already. I have read X of these books already. X the students were away. X students were too ill to get up. X had influenza. They X had a high fever. X of them had to go to hospital. X the medicine they took was no use. It X cost a lot of money. They were X away for weeks.

17. The non-finite clauses in the sentences below are open to more than one interpretation. Illustrate this by expanding each dependent clause in two different ways: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) I ran over a dog crossing the square. To see him alone would be indiscreet. Though shouting as loud as possible, the rescuers could not hear us. Dressed in white robes, we thought the visitors looked like priests in some strange ceremony. I regret speaking to you so bluntly. Walking fast after breakfast could be fatal. He was so ill as to be obliged to give up work altogether. It will take several hours to finish this. Whether here or not, his application will have to be considered. Always afraid of snakes, we shut every door and window at night.

18. Supply an acceptable preposition to fill each of the gaps. a) b) c) Chalk is different ____ cheese. When is John due ____ promotion? He is eager _____ more responsibility.

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d) e) f) g) h) i) j)

Dont be envious _____ anyone. He is not equal _____ the task. Hes not expert _____ anything. Have you been faithful _____ me? Im not familiar _____ this town. Fred is not fit _____ this job. John is fond _____ Mary.

19. Which of the sentences below contain nominal that clauses: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) Everyone tends to think that he is not sufficiently appreciated. Everyone that thinks so is not necessarily conceited. My opinion that you disagree with so strongly has not represented. My opinion, that no action need be taken yet, is shared by most of us here. The main difficulty lies in the fact that we have nobody properly qualified We are at a serious disadvantage in that we have nobody properly qualified for this job. I understand you have had some trouble with your telephone. Youve had some trouble with your telephone, I understand. That John actually took the money, I cant believe. John never actually took the money, I believe. for this work. been properly

20. Point out the subject. State what it is expressed by. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) Someone wants to speak to you. What he says is always worth listening to. A pretty large number of books have been published How do you do that is a very difficult question. Flying is a glorious and thrilling sensation. It was necessary to argue with him on this point. His was a lucky lot. What an easy question it is! Whoever broke it needs a good lesson. The apple on the table is yours. It is no use staying here. this year.

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l) m) n) o) p) q) r) s) t) u)

It is a long way to the station. On the wall there are nice pictures. You always feel nervous the first time you speak in front of many people. To climb this tree would be difficult. That they are right is certain. Twenty were present. It was after midnight that he came. It is pleasant to live in a village. There is a cat on the roof. Here comes my best friend.

21. State the nature of it, whether it is a personal, or an impersonal pronoun; an introductory it or a demonstrative it: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) o) p) q) r) s) t) I looked at my watch. It was eight oclock. It is windy today. It was nearly time to leave. It is him that I like. It is nice of you to have come. It is a very nice poem. The strike went on for a year before it was settled. I like it here. She was frightened, but tried not to show it. So you dont like then? Its a pity. Its Sunday morning. Its nice hearing your voice again. It was warm in the restaurant. Its a pity you dont stay. Its funny how people change. Its like the ticking of a clock. Its three months since you were here last. It was good of you to phone. It doesnt interest me what you think. It seems that he forgot to buy the tickets.

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22. State the nature of there; choose from existential there, indefinite subject, subject in to Infinitive clauses, subject in ing clauses, exclamatory there, definite subject, subject in yes / no questions. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) o) There must be a reason. There is a fire on the fourth floor. There happened to be a man passing by at that very moment. There still remains the point about creativity. There came the crack of a shot. There seems to be a misunderstanding. Is there any more soup? There is a pen on the desk. I dont want there to be any mistake. He was disappointed at there being so little to do. There he comes. Theres a hole in my tights. There were no footsteps to be seen. Where can he sleep? Well, theres always the attic. There was this man, sitting on the porch (in stories)

23. Analyse the following sentences syntactically (Subject Group and Predicate Group), also stating the type of sentence and writing the pattern of the sentence. There is a model given at the key: a) Two thousand innocent people have been killed in an attack by fascist bombers on a small town in Spain. b) An artist living in Paris, read this terrible news one April morning in 1937. c) His heart stirred with anger as he thought back to the days when he lived as a boy among the very people who had been killed. d) He also told me that my grandfather was the ugliest little man he ever saw. e) Petrol and garage facilities on almost all roads in Britain are really good distances between filling stations are short. f) The two houses sit concurrently, but in legislation a bill is introduced in to the other House. g) The room was filled with massive furniture, and on each of the sofas were three big cushions. one House, normally the Commons, and after completing its stages there it is passed on and

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h) The clouds hung heavily, and there was a rawness in the air that suggested snow. i) Then a friend of one of his brothers said that if the boys head was plunged into a bucket of cold water and the eyes held open beneath the water minutes or so at a time, several times a day, this would bring most stubborn weakness any eye ever had. j) Richard Skate had taken a couple of hours away from the Ministry to see whether his house was still standing after the previous nights raid. k) As long as certain occupations require higher levels of ability and some form of examinations will be needed to determine those best able from such training and to determine whether in fact they have, measured up to the required standards. 24. Identify the following underlined phrases as Cs or Co: a) - We consider him an idiot. b) - The reports were believed false. c) - They made them angry. d) - He entered the room in a foul mood. 25. Choose the right definition for complementizers and as introducers. Give two examples for each: a) - they have no special meaning of their own. b) - they have a very specific meaning. 26. Choose the right type of clause (embedded or subordinate) that fits definition: they are clauses that are not arguments of a predicate. They are thus not used as subjects or objects. 27. State the type of clause for the underlined clauses: a) - That Sharons car had broken down astonished the mechanic. b) - We visited the Olympics, although we avoided the crowds . 28. Choose the appropriate characteristics referring to non-finite clauses, mentioning the letter: this subordinators in training, to the benefit end, for five hardiness to the

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a) They can function on their own as grammatical sentences or as the main clause of a larger clause. b) They cannot function as declarative or interrogative clauses. c) They dont need to have overt subjects. 29. The contrast between finite and non-finite clauses must be shown as a mood contrast on the trees. How is the mood marker called and how is it abbreviated on a D-structure tree? 30. Analyse the following sentences into clauses. Write out each clause separately and specify whether it is finite or non-finite, what its subject is (even if it is just (e)), and what tensed verb or modal it has, if any. the clause has another clause embedded in it, include the clause in parentheses. - Eliot ordered his deputy to arrest the smugglers . 31. Sentences are simple, compound, and complex. State the type of sentence: a) - The wife of a friend of mine has had an accident . b) - Jack came up the hill, but Jill went down the hill . c) - I didnt know what to do. e) - If he were drowning, Id watch. Where embedded

32. A simple sentence may be a declarative, an interrogative, an imperative, or an exclamation. State the type of the following sentences: a) - Youre coming with us?! b) - What happened? c) - She fell? d) - Have a safe journey! e) - What a student you are!

33. Subjects can be double, simple, complex, compound, and co-ordinated. State the type of subject in each of the following: a) - A train was coming in.

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b) - Drinking and smoking ages man. c) - For him to do this is rather difficult. d) - He is said to be a good student. e) - Oh, my trade it is the rarest one. 34. How are the two parts of the predicate below called: - I must go. 35. Predicates can be simple verbal, compound nominal, compound verbal. State the type of the predicates below: a) - I have been speaking for two years. b) - He felt awkward in the presence of ladies. c) - Seeing is believing. d) - We are to meet at seven. e) - He stopped to read. 36. Choose the right form: a) - American and Dutch beer is/are both much lighter than British. b) - Helens and Marys cars were/was badly damaged. c) - Either you or I was/were to go there. d) - Either your eyesight or your brakes is/are at fault. e) - The Minister, as well as the trades unions is/are f) - No people of that name live/lives here. g) - I sent cards to Mary and Michael but neither has/have h) - Nobody, not even the teachers, was/were listening. i) - It is I who am/is to blame. j) - Every man and woman want/wants peace. 37. State the difference in meaning between the two sentences by translating them into Romanian: a) - Each answer question sets. b) - Each answer questions sets. 38. Analyse the following phrases stating the determiners, premodifiers, head, postmodifiers, quantifiers, and the part of speech or clause they represent: answered. responsible for it.

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E.g. The two leading social orders: the two-determiners (article, numeral); leading social-premodifiers (adjectives); orders-head (noun)

a)- this curious history b) - the established custom c) - the frontier provinces d) - two youths on white horses e) - the only truth he spoke f) - a window overlooking the sea g) - the crowd outside h) - heir presumptive i) - both boys j) - something strange

39. Both appositive clauses and relative clauses may start with that. But appositive clauses may not start with ------ as relative can. Which of the two underlined clauses below is an appositive clause and which is a clause: a) - The premature news that this battle was lost caused consternation . b) - the premature news that said the battle was lost caused consternation. 40. Explain the difference in meaning between the two phrases below: a) - the stars visible b) - the visible stars 41. Use the appropriate for of the verb: a) - A number of people (was, were) standing in front of the booking-office. b) - The red and green plaid (is, are) in the cupboard. c) - The number of books in my library (has, have) increased. d) - A lecture and a report on this subject-matter (is, are) to be delivered on Friday. e) - Not only the professor, but also the students themselves (disapprove , disapproves) of his behaviour. relative

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42. State the type of the underlined subordinate clauses: a) - What this country needs is a period of peace. b) - If you follow my instructions, nobody will be hurt. c) - The man who owes me money lives in Australia. d) - Kicking the ball, he injured his foot. 43. State the type of the main clauses below: a) - We are lucky. b) - How are you? c) - Dont be silly. d) - Im so hungry!

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SYNTAX KEY 1. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) 2. a) S; V; AdvM b) S; V; DO; IO. c) S; V; SC. d) S; V; DO; OC; AdvM e) S; V; DO; OC. f) S; V; DO; V; DO; PO. g) S; V; PO. h) S; V; DO; IO. i) S; V; SC; AdvM j) S; V; DO; OC. S; AdvM; V; DO. S; V; OC; AdvM S; V; AdvM; AdvM; S; V; IO; DO. S; V; AdvM; SC; AdvM S; V; DO; OC; AdvM S; V; O (S; V; AdvM) S; V; SC; AdvM (S; V) S (S; V; DO; AdvM); V; DO; AdvM S; V; AdvM; SC; AdvM

3. a) b) c) d) e) f) simple complex composite compound compound complex

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g) h) i) j) 4. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l)

simple complex composite compound

declarative (negative) declarative (negative) declarative (negative interrogative (positive) exclamatory (positive) interrogative (negative) imperative (positive) interrogative (negative) exclamatory (positive) imperative (positive) declarative (positive) declarative (negative)

5. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) SC; PIO IO AdvM; AdvM; AdvM DO; of; IO IO; DO IO; DO IO; DO DO; for; IO PIO; DO DO; PIO DO; AdvM PIO DO

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n) o) p) q) r) s) t) u) v) w) x) y) z) aa) bb) cc) dd) ee) 6.

DO DO; AdvM SC; AdvM DO; PIO DO; for; IO DO; DO DO; OC DO; OC; AdvM DO; OC DO SC DO; OC DO; AdvM SC; with; IO DO; OC DO; DO DO; OC DO; OC

a) It is said that he is an adept at mathematics. b) It is believed that it is the only solution. c) Conditions have been created. d) The problem is being examined by a commission. e) We were sleepy. f) It suits / fits you well. 7. a) specific b) general c) specific d) general 8. a) the two determiners; leading social premodifiers; orders head. b) A man head; of strong will postmodifier (qualifier).

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c) A man head; with long hair postmodifier. d) Neither of premodifier (quantifier); the boys (head). 9. Appositive clause that cannot be replaced by which, possible only in relative clauses.

10. a) b) c) d) e) 11. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) 12. a) b) c) d) e) f) 13. a) Do subject of a verb object of a verb object of a verb complement after be subject object after a preposition compound compound complex complex simple complex simple compound composite result contrast addition condition sequence

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b) c) d) e) f)

Oc Sc S Io Apposition

14. a) S b) Sc c) Do; Oc d) SC; PIO e) SC f) SC; S g) S; SC h) S; SC i) SC; S j) SC k) DO; OC l) SC; S m) DO n) DO; OC

15. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) Your reading so carelessly = Verbal Phrase It (introductory); = Verbal Phrase To do things well = Verbal Phrase It (introductory); = Verbal Phrase Reading = Verbal Phrase It (introductory); = Verbal Phrase It (introductory); = Verbal Phrase It (introductory) ; Verbal Phrase His being ill; Verbal Phrase It (introductory); Verbal Phrase

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16. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) 17. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) 18. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) from cheese for promotion for more responsibility of anyone to the task at anything to me with this town for this job of Mary As it was crossing / As I was crossing For you to see her / For me, or someone else, to see her. Though we were / Though they were We, dressed in white robes / The visitors, dressed I regret that I am speaking now / I regret that I spoke If I walked fast, it could be / If you, or someone else walked So ill that he was obliged / so ill that he is now obliged For me to finish this / For you, or someone else, to Whether he is here / Whether it is here We were always afraid / We are all, half all, both, half all, both, half both all, both, half all, both all, both, half all, half all all, both.

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19. a); d); e); I) 20. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) o) p) q) r) s) t) u) 21. a) personal pronoun b) d) impersonal pronoun introductory / emphatic c) impersonal pronoun e) introductory / emphatic someone = NP (noun substitute) what he says = clause a pretty large number of books = NP (a = determiner; pretty large = premodifier; number = head noun; of how do you do that = clause flying = verbal phrase (GP) It to argue with him on this point = It + verbal phrase It = NP (noun substitute) Whoever broke it = clause The apple on the table = NP (the = determiner; apple = the table = postmodifier) It staying here = preparatory it + verbal phrase (GP) It a long way to the station = formal subject (it) + NP There nice pictures = formal subject (there) + NP You you = indefinite subject (NP: noun substitute) To climb = verbal phrase (IP) That they are right = clause Twenty = NP (noun substitute) It that he came = preparatory it + clause It to live in a village = formal subject + logical subject phrase: IP) There = indefinite subject + a cat on the roof (NP) Here = NP (noun substitute) (verbal head noun; on (IP) noun) A lucky lot = NP (a = determiner; lucky = premodifier; lot = head books = postmodifier)

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f) demonstrative g) personal pronoun h) impersonal pronoun i) impersonal pronoun j) impersonal pronoun k) m) n) p) q) r) s) t) 22. a) existential b) existential c) indefinite subject d) indefinite subject e) exclamatory f) indefinite subject g) subject in yes / no questions h) existential i) j) l) m) subject in to- infinitive clause subject in ing clause existential indefinite subject impersonal pronoun impersonal pronoun introductory / emphatic personal pronoun impersonal pronoun preparatory / introductory preparatory / introductory preparatory / introductory l) introductory / preparatory

o) introductory / emphatic

k) exclamatory

n) definite subject o) definite 23. l) An artist living in Paris, read this terrible news one April 1. type of sentence = complex sentence morning in 1937.

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2. 3.

(1) An artist read this terrible news one April morning in (independent), finite clause.

1937

main clause;

(2) living in Paris = subordinate (subclause, dependent), non-finite pattern of the complex sentence: S + V + AdvM + V + DO + AdvM Syntactic analysis of the complex sentence:

attributive (relative clause).

Sentence (1): A. Subject Group (NP): an artist (simple subject) Determiners: Pre-modifiers: Head Noun: an artist (NP) Post-modifiers: 1937.

B. Predicate Group (VP): read this terrible news one April morning in (simple predicate) Operator: (did) Predication: verb: read (VP) DO: this terrible news (NP) AdvM: one April morning in 1937 (NP)

Sentence (2): A. Subject Group (NP): (an artist elliptical) Determiners: Pre-modifiers: Head Noun: Post-modifiers: (simple predicate) Operator: (was) Predication: verb: living (VP) AdvM: in Paris (PP)

B. Predicate Group (VP): living in Paris.

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24. a) Co; b) Cs; c) Co; d) Cs;

25. a) - complementizers; b) - subordinators; 26. subordinate; 27. a) -embedded; b) - subordinated; 28. a) b; b) c; 29. INFLECTION, abbreviated I; 30. 1. Eliot ordered his deputy ( [e] to arrest the smugglers) finite non-finite Eliot [e] ordered (none) 2. [e] to arrest the smugglers

31. a) simple; b) compound; c) complex; d) complex; 32. a) declarative; b) interrogative; c) interrogative; d) imperative; e) exclamation; 33. a) simple; b) compound; c) complex; d) complex; e) double; 34. a) operator; b) predication; 35. a) simple verbal; b) compound nominal; c) compound nominal; d) compound verbal; e) compound verbal; 36. a) are; b) were; c) was; d) are; e) is; f) live; g) has; h) were; i) am; j) wants; 37. a) - Fiecare rspunde la setul de ntrebri; b) - Fiecare rspuns se refer la ntrebare; 38. a) - determiner (demonstrative pronoun), premodifier (adjective), head (noun); b) premodifier (participle); c) premodifier (noun); d) postmodifiers (prepositional phrase-

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preposition+adjective+noun);

e)

head

(NP-article+adverb+noun),

postmodifier(relative clause); f) postmodifier (adverbial); g) postmodifier(non-finite clause); h) postmodifier (adverbial); i) postmodifier (adjective); j) quantifier (pronoun); k) quantifier (pronoun); 39. a) which; b) appositive; c) relative; 40. a) - temporary; b) - always when appropriate; 41. a) were; b) is; c) has; d) are; e) disapprove; 42. a) noun clause; b) adverbial; c) relative; d) non-finite -ing; 43. a) statement; b) question; c) imperative; d) exclamation.

LANGUAGE TERMINOLOGY [1] ADJUNCT Adverbials may be classified as adjuncts, conjuncts, or disjuncts. An adjunct is part of the basic structure of the clause or sentence in which it occurs, and modifies the verb. Adverbs of time, place, frequency, degree, and manner, are examples of adjuncts. He died in England. I have almost finished. Conjuncts are not part of the basic structure of a clause or sentence. They show how what is said in the sentence containing the conjunct connects with what is said in another sentence or sentences. Altogether, it was a happy week. However, the weather was not good. Disjuncts (also called sentential adverbs) are adverbs which show the speakers attitude to or evaluation of what is said in the rest of the sentence. Naturally, I paid for my own meal. I had to pay for my own meal, unfortunately.

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[2] ADVERBIAL (Adv) = any word, phrase, or clause that functions like an adverb. An adverb is a single-word adverbial. [3] ADVERBIAL CLAUSE (Adv Cl) = a clause which functions as an adverb. For example: When I arrived I went straight to my room. (adverbial clause of time) Wherever we looked there was dust. (adverbial clause of place) We painted the walls yellow to brighten the room. (adverbial clause of purpose)

[4] ADVERBIAL PHRASE (AdvP) = a phrase that functions as an adverb. For example: After dinner, we went to the movies. [5] APPOSITION, APPOSITIVE = When two words, phrases, or clauses in a sentence have the same reference, they are said to be in apposition. For example, in the sentence: My sister, Helen Wilson, will travel with me. My sister and Helen Wilson refer to the same person, and are aclled appositives. The sentence can be rewritten with either of the two appositives missing, and still make sense: My sister will travel with me. Helen Wilson will travel with me. [6] CLAUSE (Cl) = a group of words which form a grammatical unit and which contains a subject and a finite verb. A clause forms a sentence or part of a sentence and often functions as a noun, adjective or adverb. For example: I hurried home. Because I was late, they went without me.

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[7] COMPLEMENT (C), COMPLEMENTATION = (in grammar) that part of the sentence which follows the verb and which thus completes the sentence. The commonest complements are: o Subject Complement (SC): the complement linked to a subject by be or a linking verb: She is a doctor. o Object Complement (OC): the complement linked to an object:

We made her the chairperson. o Adjective Complement (AC): the complement linked to an adjective:

I am glad that you can come. o Prepositional Complement (PC): the complement linked to a preposition:

They argued about what to do.

While Adjuncts are optional parts of sentences, complements are often obligatory parts of the sentences in which they occur. [8] COMPLEMENT (ARY) CLAUSE (CCL) = a clause which functions as a complement. For example: The question is why you did it. [9] COMPLEX SENTENCE = a sentence which contains one or more dependent clauses, in addition to its independent, or main, clause. For example: When it rained, we went inside. (dep cl) (ind cl)

[10] COMPOUND SENTENCE = a sentence which contains two or more independent clauses which are joined by co-ordination. For example: He is a small boy but he is very strong. (ind cl) (ind cl) Ill either phone you or I will send you a note. [11] COMPOUND SUBJECT = a subject which consists of two or more elements joined by and and normally taking a plural verb. For example: Beer and wine do not mix.

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[12] CONSTITUENT = a linguistic unit, (usually in sentence analysis) which is part of a larger construction. [13] CONSTITUENT STRUCTURE = the arrangement of linguistic units

(Constituents) in a phrase, clause, sentence, etc., in order to show their relationship to one another. A constituent structure can be represented in various ways. A popular way is to use a tree diagram. For example, the constituent structure of the sentence The penguin swallowed the fish can be shown as: Sentence NP Determiner Noun Verb Det VP NP N

The

penguin

swallowed

the

fish

[14] DETERMINER (Det) = a word which is used with a noun, and which limits the meaning of the noun in some way. For example, in English the following words can be used as determiners: ARTICLES, e.g. a pencil, the garden DEMONSTRATIVES, e.g. this box, that car POSSESSIVES, e.g. her house, my bicycle QUANTIFIERS, e.g. some milk, many people NUMERALS, e.g. the first day, three chairs.

[15] EXISTENTIAL = (in linguistics) describes a particular type of sentence structure which often expresses the existence or location of persons, animals, things, or ideas. In English, a common existential sentence structure is: There + a form of the verb be For example: There are four bedrooms in this house. Another frequently used existential structure uses the verb to have. For example:

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This house has four bedrooms. [16] EXTRAPOSITION = the process of moving a word, phrase, or clause to a position in a sentence which is different from the position it usually has. For example, the subject of some sentences can be moved to the end of the sentence: Trying to get tickets was difficult. It was difficult trying to get tickets.

In sentence two, It is called anticipatory subject, and trying to get tickets is called postponed subject. [17] HEAD = the central part of a phrase. Other elements in the phrase are in some grammatical or semantic relationship to the head. For example, in the English NP: the fat lady in the floral dress the noun lady is the head of the phrase. [18] IMPERSONAL CONSTRUCTION (SUBJECT) = a type of sentence in which there is no mention of who or what does or experiences something. For example: Its cold; Its raining. [19] LOGICAL SUBJECT = a NP which describes, typically, the performer of the action. Some linguists make a distinction between the grammatical subject and the logical subject. For example, in the passive sentence: The cake was eaten by Vera. the cake is the grammatical subject but Vera is the logical subject as she is the performer of the action. In: Vera ate the cake. Vera would be both the grammatical and the logical subject. [20] MODIFIER, MODIFICATION, MODIFY = a word or group of words which gives further information about (modifies) another word or group of words (the Head). Modification may occur in a NP, a VP, an AP, etc. Modifiers before the head are called premodifiers, for example expensive in Modifiers after the head are called postmodifiers, for example with a stumpy this expensive camera. tail in The cat with a stumpy tail.

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[21] NOMINAL is a term used instead of a Noun. a term for a linguistic unit which has some but not all characteristics of a noun,

e.g. wounded in The wounded were taken by helicopter to the hospital. Although wounded is the Head of the noun phrase the wounded and is preceded by an article, it would not be modified by an adjective but by an adverb, e.g. the seriously wounded. [22] NOUN PHRASE (NP) = (in Structuralist Linguistics, Transformational Generative Grammar and related grammatical theories) a group of words with a noun or pronoun as the main part (the Head). The NP may consist of only one word (for example Gina in Gina arrived yesterday) or it may be long and complex (for example, all the words before must in: The students who enrolled late and who have not yet filled in their cards must do so by Friday). [23] NOMINAL CLAUSE (also NOUN CLAUSE) = a clause which functions like a noun or noun phrase; that is, which may occur as subject, object complement, in apposition, or as prepositional complement. For example: Nominal clause as subject: What she said is awful. Nominal clause as object: I dont know what she said [24] NOMINALIZATION = the grammatical process of forming nouns from other parts of speech, usually verbs or adjectives. For example, in English: nominalized forms from the verb to write: writing, writer as in: His writing is illegible. Her mother is a writer. [25] NOTIONAL GRAMMAR = a grammar which is based on the belief that there are categories such as tense, mood, gender, number, and case which are available to all languages although not all languages make full use of them. For example, a case system is found in German, Latin, and Russian, but not in modern English.

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Traditional Grammar was often notional in its approach and sometimes attempted to apply some categories to a language without first investigating whether they were useful and appropriate for describing that language. [26] NOUN PHRASE (NP) = (in some Traditional Grammars) a participial (see Participles) or Infinitive phrase which could be replaced by a noun or pronoun. For example, the participial phrase mowing the lawn in: George just hates mowing the lawn. Could be replaced by it: George just hates it. [27] OBJECT (O) = the noun, noun phrase or clause, or pronoun in sentences with transitive verbs, which is traditionally described as being affected by the action of the verb. The object of a verb can be affected by the verb either directly or indirectly. If it is affected directly, it may be called the Direct Object (DO). In English, the direct object of a verb may be: created by the action of the verb, as in: changed in some way by the action of the verb, as in: perceived by the Subject of the verb, as in: evaluated by the subject of the verb, as in: obtained or possessed by the subject of the verb, as in: If the object of a verb is affected by the verb indirectly, it is usually called the Indirect Object (IO). In English, the indirect object may be: the receiver of the direct object, as in: the beneficiary of the action of the verb, as in: In English, direct objects and many indirect objects can become subjects when sentences in the active voice are changed to the passive voice: The cake was given (to) me. I was given the cake. Terry gave me the cake. (= Terry gave the cake to me) Terry baked me the cake. (= Terry baked the cake for me) Terry baked a cake. Terry baked a potato. Terry saw the cake. Terry liked the cake. Terry bought the cake.

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[28] PREDICATE = that part of a sentence which states or asserts something about the subject and usually consists of a verb either with or without an object, complement, or adverb. For example: Joan is tired. The children saw the play. The sun rose. Adjectives, nouns, etc. which occur in the predicate are said to be used predicatively. For example: Her behaviour was friendly. (predicative adjective) These books are dictionaries. (predicative noun) [29] QUALIFIER (Qual), QUALIFY = (in Traditional Grammar) any linguistic unit (e.g. an adjective, a phrase, or a clause) that is part of a Noun Phrase and gives added information about the noun. For example, her, expensive, and from Paris are qualifiers in the NP: her expensive blouse from Paris. = (in Hallidays Functional Grammar) group, and follows the head. For example, from Paris is a qualifier in the noun group her expensive blouse from Paris. [30] QUANTIFIER = a word or phrase which is used with a noun, and which shows quantity. Some quantifiers in English are: many, few, little, several, much, a lot of, plenty of, a piece of, a loaf of, three kilograms of , etc. [31] SIMPLE SENTENCE = a sentence which contains only one predicate. For example: I like milk. (pred) [32] SUBJECT = (in English grammar), generally is the noun, pronoun, or Noun Phrase (NP) which: typically precedes the main verb in a sentence and is most closely related to it. any linguistic unit that is part of a group, gives added information about the Head of the

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determines Concord refers to something about which a statement or assertion is made in the

rest of the sentence. That part of the sentence containing the VERB or Verb Group and which may include Objects, Complements, or Adverbials) is known as the Predicate. The predicate is that part of the sentence which predicates something of the subject. For example: Subject The woman Fish Predicate smiled. is good for you.

[33] TRADITIONAL GRAMMAR = a grammar which is usually based on earlier grammars of Latin or Greek and applied to some other language, often inappropriately. For example, some grammarians stated that English had six Cases because Latin had six cases. These grammars were often notional and prescriptive in their approach (see Notional Grammar, Prescriptive Grammar). Although there has been a trend towards using grammars which incorporate more modern approaches to language description and language teaching, some schools still use traditional grammars. [34] VERB PHRASE (VP) = (in Transformational Generative Grammar) the part of a Sentence which contains the main verb and also any Object (s), Complement (s), and Adverbial (s): For example, in: Tom gave a watch to his daughter. All the sentence except Tom is the verb phrase.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY - Part I [1] Banta, A. (1996). Descriptive English Syntax. Institutul European Iai: Editura Didactic. [2] Budai, Laszlo. (1999). Gramatica englez. Teorie i exerciii. Bucureti: Teora. [3] Chomsky (1957). Syntactic Structures. The Hague: Mouton. Reprint. Berlin and New York (1985). [4] Chomsky (1965). Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge: The MIT Press. [5] Chomsky (1981). Lectures on Government and Binding: The Pisa Lectures . Holland: Foris Publications. Reprint. 7th Edition. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1993. [6] Grady, William O. (1996). Contemporary Linguistics. An Introducation. London and New York: Longman. [7] Haegeman, L. (1993). Introduction to Government and Binding Theory. Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers. [8] Jacobs, R. (1995). English Syntax. A Grammar for English Language Professionals. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [9] Quirk, R. (1990). A Grammar of Contemporary English. Longman Group Ltd: William Clowes & Sons Ltd. Beccles & London.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Part II [1] Banta, A. (1996). Descriptive English Syntax. Institutul European Iai: Editura Didactic.

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[2] Broughton, G. (1990). The Penguin English Grammar A Z for Advanced Students. London: Penguin. [3] Budai, Laszlo. (1999). Gramatica englez. Teorie i exerciii. Bucureti: Teora. [4] Capot, T. (2000). Dicionar explicativ de termeni gramaticali. Cluj Napoca: Dacia. [5] ------------. (1992). Collins Cobuild English Usage. Birmingham: Harper Collins. [6] Haegeman, L. (1993). Introduction to Government and Binding Theory. Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers: [7] Iacob, Olimpia (2002). English Syntax through Exercises. Cluj Napoca: Dacia Educational. [8] Jacobs, R. (1995). English Syntax. A Grammar for English Language Professionals. [9] Lctuu, T. (2000). Essentials of English Syntax. Complex Structures. Iai: Demiurg. [10] Popa, E. (1997). Elemente de sintax englez. The Simple Sentence. Cluj: Presa Universitar Clujean. [11] Quirk, R. (1990). A Grammar of Contemporary English. Longman Group Ltd.: William Clowes & Sons ltd. Beccles & London. [12] Wilson, Misty. (1998). Syntax. Pembroke: University of North Carolina at Pembroke.

CONTENTS - Part I Linguistics definition Branches of Linguistics: Phonetics Phonology Morphology Syntax Semantics

Syntax Definition Rules of Sentence Formation: Syntactic Categories Phrase Structure Rules: NP, VP, AP, PP, AdvP. Transformations

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D-Structures: Constituents; Special Tests: Substitution Movement

Co-ordination The Head of a Phrase Specifiers of: Nouns (determiners) Verbs (qualifiers) Adjectives (degree words) Adverbs (degree words) Adverbs (degree words) Complements. Complement options Phrase Structure Template: Specifiers + Head + Complements.

The Sentence. The Sentence Rule: NP + Infl + VP. Complemetizers (C) Complementizer Phrase (CP) Complement Clauses S-Structures: Transformations Inversion ; Do Insertion Wh-Movement Rules of Transformation Trace element

Ambiguous Sentences Other Structural Patterns: Co-ordinate Structures Modifier Structures Relative Structures

Passive Structures; thematic roles: agent, theme, source, goal, location.

Annex: Complement Options Exercises Language Terminology Bibliography

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CONTENTS Part II Phrases. Clauses. Sentences Phrases (P) Clauses Cl) Sentence (S)

The Simple Sentence The Subject and Predicate Groups A. B. The Subject Group (The Noun Phrase: NP) The Noun Clause The NP Determiners Modifiers The Subject The Predicate Group (The Verb Phrase: VP) The operator. The predication Classification of Predicates Kinds of predicates The Predicative Clause

The Object (O). The Object Clause (OCl) The Direct Object (DO) The Indirect Object (IO) The Prepositional Indirect Object (PIO) The Prepositional Object (PO)

Complements (C). Complement Clauses (CCl) The Subject Complement (SC) The Object Complement (OC)

Adverbial Modifiers (AdvM). Adverbial Clauses (AdvCl) Types of Adverbial Clauses Abbreviated Adverbial Clauses The Verbal Phrase (GP / PP / IP) The Prepositional Phrase (PP)

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The Adjective Phrase (AP). The Relative Clause (ACl)

Restrictive / Non-restrictive Relative Clauses Syntax Exercises Key to Syntax Exercises Language Terminology Bibliography

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