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Chapter 01

1.1 INTRODUCTION The process of getting an aircraft safely and efficiently to its destination depends on three functions: communication, navigation and surveillance. Communication is the exchange of voice and data information between the aircraft and air traffic services units. Navigation provides guidance to the aircraft to navigate from one place to another, and surveillance combines communication and navigation information to use by air facilitate continuous mapping of the relative positions of aircraft, for forming the basic support services of air traffic management. While the functions are not new in aviation, both aircraft and their avionics have become more sophisticated. Rapidly improving satellite and digital technologies now make even more revolutionary advances possible. The CNS/ATM systems concept allows for a judicious mix of satellite technology, OFC and the best of line-of-sight systems to achieve an overall optimum result. The essential elements of the new CNS/ATM systems are described below. 1.2 Communications The communications element of CNS/ATM systems provides for the exchange of aeronautical data and messages between aeronautical users and/or automated systems. Communications systems are also used in support of specific navigation and surveillance functions. There are basically two categories of aeronautical communications: A. Safety-related communications requiring high integrity and rapid response: Air traffic services communications (ATSC) carried out among ATS units or between an ATS unit and an aircraft for ATC, flight information, alerting, etc. Communications carried out by aircraft operators on matters related to safety, regularity and efficiency of flights; and CATC, Allahabad Page 1 of 10

traffic controllers. ICAO calls the three functions the CNS system and regards them as

B. Non-safety-related communications: Aeronautical administrative communications (AAC) carried out by aeronautical personnel and/or organizations on administrative and private matters; and Aeronautical passenger communications (APC). Additionally, broadcast and point-to-point communications are used to convey surveillance data and data that support improved situational awareness. There are some fundamental differences between conventional aeronautical communications systems and those that form part of the new CNS/ATM systems. Some key features of the new systems, which significantly differ from conventional ones, are: Most routine communications are done by data interchange; Voice communications are mainly used in non-routine and emergency situations; and Global connectivity and operation are emphasized. Such features allow for better use of communication channels and enable facilities to be shared among many users. According to the CNS/ATM systems concept, both voice and data communications with aircraft in oceanic and remote continental airspaces would be by direct satellite-aircraft link, operating in the frequency band exclusively allocated to the aeronautical satellite service (1 545 to 1 555 MHz and 1 646.5 to 1 656.5 MHz) and by high-frequency (HF) data link. In terminal areas and where line-of-sight limitations are not a problem, very high-frequency (VHP) voice and data and secondary surveillance radar (SSR) Mode S data link would be used.

Figure: Communication CATC, Allahabad Page 2 of 10

In the future, it is expected that communications with aircraft will increasingly be by means of data. This will allow more direct and efficient linkages between ground and aircraft systems. ICAO has developed a communication system architecture that provides a range of capabilities to suit the needs of air traffic services providers and their users, from basic, low-speed data to high-speed date and voice. Various data communications media (e.g. Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Service (AMSS) , HF data link, VHF data link. Mode S data link) will be integrated through Aeronautical Telecommunication Network (ATN). Although VHF voice continues to be employed, the technology will be that of digital radio instead of present analog radio. 1.2.1 Ground Ground Data Communications the technical site to operational units, thus permitting the

Different media are employed connecting communications equipment, navigational aids and radars from transfer of control/monitoring data. The medium of transfer can be: a) copper; b) fiber; c) radio; or d) satellite, depending upon technical and cost factors. The establishment of ground data networks is a first essential step in improving the efficiency and integrity of ground-ground ATS data communications. The network system could be based on: It is aeronautical Satellite (such as very small aperture terminal (VSAT) technology) Terrestrial (microwave links, UHF links/PTT lines, fiber optics). A mix of satellite and terrestrial systems. that as most routine communications between ground-based offices, NOTAM offices, aeronautical data users and systems will be by data interchange. Such interchanges meteorology


between entities such

banks, ATS units, etc., may be in any of the following forms: Free text messages. Pre-selected data messages (with some manually added parts). Automated data interchange between computerized systems.

A variety of ground networks, implemented by States, a group of States or commercial service providers, will continue to provide data communication services to aeronautical users. However, only networks that use packet switching techniques and are compatible with the ISO OSl reference model will be able to use the Internet services of the ATN.

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The AFTN (Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunication Network) is a low to high speed, store and forward worldwide network, implemented on dedicated lines and used for exchange of aeronautical messages such as, Air Traffic Service (ATS) messages (consists of Flight Plan, Departure and Estimate messages etc.), Meteorological messages, NOTAM messages between stations to enable them to control the air space and movement of Air traffic in an orderly way. These messages are related primarily to the safety of air navigation and regular, efficient and economic operation of air services. Some circuits of the AFTN are within one state and others are provided as international circuits. In the AFTN, messages are required to be transmitted to a number of addressees. It is impracticable for each aeronautical fixed station to be connected physically to all other such stations. Therefore, the AFTN is organized around a system of relay stations, wherein messages are transmitted through successive communication centers until they reach their destinations. With the advent of high speed aircrafts and the increase in number of flights in the airspace across the continent leads to the computerization of Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunication Network to achieve the speedy and accurate flow of the AFTN messages as per the ICAO standards. AFTN in India is under the control of Airports Authority of India. The AAI has established AFTN centers throughout the country in major stations. Most of the messages are intended for multiple locations and messages are being handled as per the ICAO plan in Annex 10 volume II. India plays a key role in the international AFTN, bridging the gap between the eastern and western parts of the world. Messages originating in the western countries are routed through India to the eastern countries and vice-versa. In order to meet the growing demand for air traffic across the air space, India was needed to upgrade and update the communication facilities like AFTN. The first computerized AFTN; the Automatic Message Switching System (AMSS) was introduced in India in the late 80s in two major stations, Mumbai and Delhi by CMC. Thereafter, TATA Unisys Ltd. (TUL) introduced an upgraded system. At present ECIL system has replaced the TUL and CMC system in major airports. The configuration of ECIL AMSS network is shown in the figure below.

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Local Area Networks

Dedicated leased lines

Figure: ECIL AMSS Network

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Characteristics of AFTN:A Circuit is considered as an AFTN circuit when it satisfies the following three conditions: a. b. c. It must be integrated i.e., provisions must be there for exchange of message/ data between that circuit and others of the AFTN. Message / digital data be exchanged on the circuits should be prepared and handled as per ICAO procedures given in Annex 10. Irrespective of the operational and administration control exercised by the State on the circuit, the State must assume responsibility for its operation. Aeronautical Message Handling System (AMHS)

The present AFTN system inherited number of limitations, and it will be increasingly unable to handle future data requirements. Improvements for the near term fall within a number of categories, including upgrading of present automatic messaging; development of high-speed links and conversion of land line circuits into satellite links, if and where necessary. These near-term tasks will reduce AFTN transit times and improve the integrity of the data transmitted. The long-term improvement involves transition from AFTN to AMHS, which is a ground-ground application of ATN. The aeronautical message handling system (AMHS) provides the store-and forward messaging service over the ATN, namely the ATS message service. The AMHS will progressively replace the AFTN, while the ATN is being developed and implemented. However, both messaging systems the AMHS and AFTN will coexist during the transition. During this transition period, to facilitate proper end-toend operation of the aeronautical messaging service without discriminating between two sets of users, the interoperability is offered by the AFTN / AMHS gateway. The AFTN/AMHS gateway provides a message transfer capability to and from the ATN configuration and the AFTN configuration. The implementation of the gateway has an impact on AFTN routing, particularly between regions and between States connected via medium and high-speed trunk circuits. Hence, there is a need for a more timely exchange of routing information between administrations operating gateways and adjacent AFTN centers.

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STATE A The availability of the Internet protocol (IP) infrastructure provides an opportunity to implement AMHS over a transmission control protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP) on a short-term basis as a replacement for AFTN/CIDIN that is becoming obsolete and that might be unable to support future messaging requirements. The main driver for this activity is the replacement of the obsolescent X.25 technology that is widely used to support ground-to-ground data exchange. In this way, the obsolescence of AFTN/CIDIN is also resolved rapidly. When the ATN Internet communication services become available, it would be appropriate to migrate from AMHS over TC/IP to AMHS over a fully compliant ATN lower-layer infrastructure. However, it will require the implementation of specific dual-stack AMHS systems at the boundary of a region, to ensure internetworking with other States that are implementing fully ATN-compliant AMHS systems. Routing Considerations in AMHS and AFTN The AFTN address is used to globally identify the user, regardless of attachment to AFTN or AMHS. The users do not need to know if their communicating entities are attached to AFTN or AMHS. Store-and-forward message transfer service is available on end-to-end basis. AFTN routing is by switching centers, whereas gateway routing is used in AMHS via ATN connectivity. Routing in AFTN is static whereas AMHS routing is dynamic.

The following should be taken into consideration when routing AMHS and AFTN:

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ATS inter facility Data Communications (AIDC)

AIDC is an ATN data link application that can be employed by two ATS units to exchange ATC information. This information includes advanced flight notification, clearances, and transfer of control, surveillance data and free-text data. In addition, acknowledgement messages and application status monitoring capabilities are provided. To achieve this objective, common formats and protocols have been established. This is initially applicable to high-complexity ATC areas, but could be gradually extended to medium-complexity ATC areas. On-Line Data Interchange (OLDI) is similar to AIDC but is not ATN-compatible. This application is only used in ICAO's European Region. States planning to implement AIDC and that need to communicate with States in the European Region having OLDI should consider installing an AIDC/OLDI gateway to interface two dissimilar systems. 1.3 Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (ATN) The ATN will provide for the interchange of digital data between wide varieties of endsystems supporting end-users, such as aircraft operators, air traffic controllers and airline offices. The ATN, based on the ISO OSI reference model, allows for the interoperation of dissimilar air-ground (VHF, Mode S, AMSS and HF) and groundground (ATS message server) sub networks as a single Internet environment. End-systems attached to ATN sub networks communicate with end-systems on other sub networks by using ATN routers. ATN routers can be either mobile (aircraftbased) or fixed (ground-based). The ATN routers select the logical path across a set of ATN sub networks that can exist between any two end-systems. This path selection process uses the network level addressing, quality of service and security parameters provided by the initiating end-system. Thus, the initiating end-system does not need to know the particular topology or availability of specific sub networks. The architecture of ATN is shown in the following figure.

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Figure: ATN architecture The ATN end-systems are capable of communicating with other ATN end-systems to provide end-to-end communication services to ATN applications. For this purpose, the ATN end-systems include a full seven-layer protocol stack to host the appropriate communication services in support of one or more ATN applications. ATN endsystems are also the interface to the ATM and the aircraft automation, as well as the controllers' and pilots' human-machine interface.

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