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IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol. 2, No. 1, 2012

Simulation of a Rectangular Patch Antenna

Zaakri Safa, Zenkouar Lahbib

Electronic and Communication Laboratory, EMI Mohamed V University, Rabat - Morocco

AbstractThis paper is dedicated to simulate a rectangular patch antenna by using the software HFSS and ADS. Microstrip antennas have a profile which relays at the needs of new technology, such as a low profile, a flat configuration and a better gain. The simple configuration of the rectangular microstrip antenna presents generally a narrow band. This inconvenient provokes changes on this type of antenna, by integrating patches with various shapes with crack.

Keywords

Memontum

Rectangular

patch

antennas;

L-band;

ADS

I.

Introduction

The telecommunication always tries to reach the best performances, the reliability and the efficiency with the lowest possible costs. In this domain, antennas establish a basic element allowing the transmission of the electromagnetic waves in free space. We find several types of antennas which different by cuts, geometrical shape, capacity of transmission [1-7].

The most serious limitations of the microstrip antenna is its narrow band, which is typically of the order of some percents 1-5 % [1]. However, the new generation of the communication, the mobile or satellite communication, provokes considerable changes in

patches

antennas,

from

which

the various modern

applications require a functioning in wideband and dual band

[1-4].

Novel investigation of a microstrips antennas compacts conception with a wideband, a double frequency, a double band, an enhanced gain of operation, was announced during the last years [3, 7].

The first chapter presents a generality of patch antenna, concerning their characteristics and mechanism of radiation.

So,

an

outline

on

the

various

techniques

allowing

increasing the bandwidth of microstrips antennas.

BRI Seddik, Material and Instrumentation Groups, ESTM, Moulay Ismail University, Meknes - Morocco

This paper presents the simulation of a rectangular patch antenna, by using the software Ansoft HFSS and the Agilent ADS.

II.

Theory of patch antenna

A microstrip antenna in its simplest form consists of a radiating patch on one side of a dielectric substrate and a ground plane on the other side.

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

Figure 1. Microstrip antenna configuration.

Patch: present the radiant conductive element and which

Patch: present the radiant conductive element and which

can take several forms Substrate: allows to isolate both conductive planes,

characterized by the permittivity

Ground plane: conductor situated below the circuit on which is placed the substrate

However, other shapes shown in figure 2 are also used. The rectangular and circular shape presents a better radiation, bandwidth and polarization [3-4].

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

Figure 2. Different shapes of microstrip patches.

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IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol. 2, No. 1, 2012

III.

Characteristics of microstrip antennas

Every antenna has the characteristics specific for a type of application and not on the others. An antenna can be characterized by [8]:

Return loss S 11

The reflection loss corresponds to the reflection of the power supply input. A high return loss is therefore desirable as it results in a lower insertion loss.

Input impedance

The input impedance is an important consideration to have of better result of an antenna granted on a transmitter or a receiver. By definition, the input impedance of an antenna is the impedance view from the feed line. It is given by the following formula:

(1)

• Gain (G)
Gain (G)

An antenna which is badly radiate, has a low gain. The gain allow to measure how an antenna radiate compared with a reference antenna, as a dipole. The gain are the result of two

effects: the directivity ( D ) and the return loss ( ).

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.
• Radiation pattern
Radiation pattern

(2)

The radiation or antenna pattern describes the relative strength of the radiated field in various directions from the antenna, at a fixed or constant distance. The radiation is maximal on the main lobe and minimal on the secondary lobes. It is important to know the model of radiation of the antenna, to assure that a principal lobe is in the direction wished by communication.

IV. Rectangular patch antennas

A microstrip antenna in its simplest form consists of a radiating patch on one side of a dielectric substrate and a

ground plane on the other side. However, the shape takes forms, but generally taken as a regular to facilitate the analysis and the understanding of the characteristics of the antenna radiation. The rectangular patch antenna is the most used configuration because this shape requires a simple theoretical analysis (figure 7).

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

Figure 7. Top view of a rectangular patch antenna.

  • A. Radiation mechanism of a microstrip antenna

The radiation from microstrip line, structure similar to a microstrip antenna, can be reduced considerably if the

substrate employed is thin and has a higher relative dielectric

constant. Radiation from a microstrip antenna can be

determined from the field distribution between the patch metallization and ground plane. The fringing fields can be modeled as two radiating slots (figure 8.c).

(a) (b) (c)
(a) (b) (c)
(a) (b) (c)

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 8. Configuration of a rectangular microstrip antenna (b) side view, (c) top view.

Alternatively, radiation can be described in terms of the surface current distribution on the patch metallization.

The

fundamental

TM 10

mode

implies

that

the

field

varies one

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

/2 cycle along

the

length,

and

there is

no

variation along the width of the patch. It may be

observed

from

that

the

vertical

components

of

the

electric field (E-field) at the

two edges along

the width

are

in

opposite direction. Therefore, the edges along the

width are termed as radiating edges (figure 8.a et 8.b).

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IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol. 2, No. 1, 2012

  • B. Parameters of microstrip antenna

The bandwidth of the microstrip antennas is directly proportional to the substrate thickness h and inversely proportional to the square root of its dielectric constant. As a result, a thicker substrate with a low dielectric constant is generally used to obtain broad bandwidth. Consequently, the

substrate, whose typically between 2.1 to 2.6, are used.

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

This substrate has low dielectric loss (tan

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

in the range

of 0.0006 to 0.002) resulting in better efficiency. Sometimes, air substrates are used to enhance the bandwidth [3].

1) Radiant element A rectangular patch is defined by its length L and width W. For the fundamental TM 10 mode, the length L should be

slightly less than

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.
IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

where is the wavelength in the

dielectric medium. Here, is equal to

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

where

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

is

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

the free-space wavelength and is the effective dielectric constant of the patch.

(3)

The

value of is slightly less than because the
value
of
is
slightly
less
than
because the

fringing fields around the periphery of the patch are not confined in the dielectric substrate but are also spread in the air (figure 8). The fringing field along the edge of the patch extend beyond the physical dimensions, thereby increasing the effective width W.

In general, the resonance frequency of the RMSA excited at any TM mn mode is obtained using the following expression:

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

(4)

With m and n the modes along the L and W.

For an rectangular microstrip antenna to be

an

efficient

radiator, W should be taken equal to a half wavelength.

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

(5)

The width of the patch plays an important role to the

bandwidth and the input impedance of the antenna. So, the length of the patch determines the resonance frequency of

the antenna. You should not forget to deduct the width which corresponds to the extension.

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

(6)

2) Substrate
2)
Substrate

A dielectric substrate is a main constituent of the

microstrip structure, whether it is a microstrip line, circuit, or

an antenna. For microstrip antenna applications, a thicker substrate with a low dielectric constant is preferred to

enhance the fringing fields and hence the radiation.

Another important substrate parameter is its loss tangent ( ). The tangent indicates the dielectric loss, which

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

increases with frequency. For a higher efficiency

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

of the

antenna, the substrate with a low

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

(in the

range of

0.0006

à 0.002)

should be

used;

this

is

costlier than the

substrate with a high

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

[3]. Therefore, judicious

selection of the substrate is required with consideration of

the application and frequency of operation.

  • V. Broadband patch Antenna

Microstrip antennas have several advantages with regard

to the other conventional microwave antennas, presenting a

light weight, a small volume and a flat configuration.

Diverse methods to analyze this type of antenna are briefly described afterward. These antennas are used in the UHF bands of millimetre wavelength. The main limitation of this type of antenna is their narrow band. Fortunately, the bandwidth can be increased by using a thick substratum with

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IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol. 2, No. 1, 2012

a

dielectric

of

low

constant.

So,

piled

patches

The

is a measure of reflected signal at the feed-point

is a measure of reflected signal at the feed-point

electromagnetiqually coupled by line or by aperture allow to

of the antenna.

increase the bandwidth [3,5,9]. We are going to approach on

It

is defined in terms of input impedance

increase the bandwidth [3,5,9]. We are going to approach on It is defined in terms of

in

of

this part

the

various

methods

used

to

increase the

this part the various methods used to increase the of the

of the

bandwidth.

 

the antenna and the characteristic impedance feed line as given below:

 

A. Bandwidth

The bandwidth could be defined in terms of its VSWR or

input impedance variation with frequency or in terms of radiation parameters. It can be defined by the variation of the input impedance, of radiation pattern and the polarization. The bandwidth may be calculated by using the frequencies lower and upper edges of the achieved bandwidth [3, 5]:

(7) With, : upper frequency
(7)
With,
: upper frequency
  • : lower frequency A satisfactory impedance bandwidth is the basic consideration for all antenna design, which allows most of the energy to be transmittedto an antenna from a feed or a transmission system at a transmitter and from an antenna to its load at a receiver in a wireless communication system . As well as, a designated radiation pattern ensure that maximum or minimum energy is radiated in a specific direction. In more, a defined polarization of an antenna minimizes possible losses due to polarization mismatch within its operating bandwidth. The bandwidth of the microstrip antenna is inversely proportional to its quality factor Q and is given by:

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

(8)

Where VSWR is defined in terms of the input reflection coefficient

as:

(9)

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

(10)

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

The bandwidth is usually specified as frequency range over which VSWR is less than 2 (which corresponds to a return loss of 9.5 dB or 11% reflected power). Sometimes for stringent applications, the VSWR requirement is specified to be less than 1.5 (which corresponds to a return

loss of 14 dB or 4% reflected power).

The expressions for approximately calculating the percentage bandwidth of the rectangular microstrip antennas

in terms of patch dimensions and substrate parameters is

given by: (11)
given by:
(11)

With L and W are the width and the length.

With,

  • for

  • for

  • for

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.
IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.
IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

The bandwidth of a single-patch antenna increases with

an increase in the substrate thickness and a decrease in the

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

of the substrate (11).

The bandwidth can also

be defined

in

terms

of

the

antenna’s radiation parameters. It is defined as the

frequency range over which radiation parameters such as the gain, half-power beamwidth (HPBW), and side lobe levels are within the specified minimum and maximum limits. This definition is more complete as it also takes care

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IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol. 2, No. 1, 2012

of the input impedance mismatch, which also contributes to change in the gain.

VI.

Results of simulation of microstrip antennas

The advantages of antennas microstrips exceed their limits. Several applications take advantage of their performances because of their moderate cost and their dimensions reduce, among them we find the military systems such as missiles, planes and satellites, as well as commercial sector [1-12] , also in RFID technology [13]. The main difficulty of the patch antenna is her narrow band. This common antenna undergoes in several changes in their configuration. This change concerns either the feed, or the radiant element, as well as the substrate. In this present work, we are going to simulate the various configurations by using the simulation software HFSS and the ADS-Momentum software. The purpose to show the performances and the characteristics of every configuration of microstrip antenna.

  • A. Conception of the rectangular microstrip antenna

Dielectric constant of the substrate (

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

): The dielectric

material selected for my design is Silicon which has a

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

dielectric constant of . A substrate with a high dielectric constant has been selected since it reduces the dimensions of the antenna. Height of dielectric substrate ( h ): For the microstrip patch antenna to be used in cellular phones, it is essential that the antenna is not voluminous. Hence, the height of

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

the dielectric substrate is selected as The expressions described previously in the chapter 1, which concerns the theoretical study of the rectangular microstrip antenna, are used to size this antenna (table 1).

.

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

Figure 13. Microstrip patch antenna.

The configuration of the patch antenna shown on the figure (figure 12), works on the L band.

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

Figure 12. Configuration of the rectangular patch antenna by HFSS.

The essential parameters of the structure are:

Frequency of operation

of

the

antenna

must

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

be

: The resonant frequency selected appropriately. The

Personal Communication System (PCS) uses the frequency range from 1850-1990 MHz. Hence the antenna designed must be able to operate in this

frequency range. The resonant frequency selected for this

design is

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

.

Table 1. The parameters of the simple rectangular antenna

1.9 31.1 6.345510 22.8
1.9 31.1 6.345510 22.8
1.9 31.1 6.345510 22.8
1.9 31.1 6.345510 22.8

1.9

31.1

6.345510

-4

22.8

The antenna is fed by a coaxial cable, of inside and outside radius, respectively, 0.5 mm and 1.15 mm. By repetitive simulations, the coordinates of the position of the cable are determined.

  • B. Simulation of results

The results of simulation, made by means of software HFSS and ADS, of the rectangular patch antenna (figure 12)

are shown on figure 14.

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

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IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol. 2, No. 1, 2012

Figure 14. Variation of S 11 according to the frequency with L=31mm,

W=22mm,

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

, h=1.5mm.

The resonance frequency of the rectangular patch antenna equals to 1.903 GHz and the returne loss S 11 equals to -37dB by using the HFSS. The bandwidth calculated at -10dB equal to 21.4 MHz corresponds to 1.12 %. This band contains the wished frequency (1.9 GHz). The structure of the rectangular patch antenna presents a narrow bandwidth around the resonance frequency , with gain about -37dB. By using ADS, the resonance frequency is 1.925 GHz and the returne loss S 11 equal to -8 dB. We notice that the software HFSS is more precise than ADS, HFSS allows to get closer with the wished frequency and to obtain a maximum of gain. We can make changes on the dimensions of the antenna, to have the effect of every parameter and the validity of the expressions quoted previously.

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

Figure 15. Variation of S 11 according to the frequency with various values of L.

The results of the figure 15 of the various values of the length of the patch L, are represented on the table 2. For an increase from 31 mm to 38 mm, we observe a decrease of the central frequency. Table 2. Results of simulation of the antenna

Length L (mm)

Resonance frequency

Returne loss

(GHz)

(GHz) (dB)

(dB)

38

1.82

15

34

1.84

18

31

1.9

37

The resonance frequency is inverssement proportional in the length of the patch. The variation of the frequency according to the width of the patch is shown on the figure 16.

38 1.82 15 34 1.84 18 31 1.9 37 The resonance frequency is inverssement proportional in
 

Figure 16. Variation of S 11 according to the frequency in different Values of the width.

Table 3. Results of simulation of the antenna

 

Width W

 

Resonance frequency

 

Returne loss

Width W Resonance frequency Returne loss

(mm)

(GHz)

(dB)

22

 

1.90

 

37

24

 

1.68

 

27

26

 

1.57

 

14

The resonance frequency decreases when the width W increases. Consequently, the following expression

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

is justified.

We diffirentiate three permittivity relative of the substrate, the Silicon ( ), the Galium-Arsenide ( )
We
diffirentiate
three
permittivity
relative
of
the
substrate, the Silicon
(
), the Galium-Arsenide
(
) and the Diamond (
).

Figure 17. Variation of S 11 according to the frequency with various values of

the relative permittivity.

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IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol. 2, No. 1, 2012

The resonance frequency is conversely proportional in the permittivity of the substrate (Table 4). So, the miniaturization of antennas could be assured by choosing materials in strong permittivity. Table 4. Results of simulation

Permittivity

Resonance frequency

Returne loss

relative

relative (GHz)

(GHz)

relative (GHz)
 

(dB)

16.5

  • 1.62 29

 

12.9

  • 1.82 35

 

11.9

  • 1.90 37

 

The influence of the thickness of the substrate on the performances of the rectangular patch antenna is shown on figure 18.

Figure 19. Radiation pattern on the planes E and H with the resonance

frequency 1.9 GHz.

The performances of the rectangular patch antenna such as the resonance frequency, the gain, the radiation pattern, depend essentially in the good choices of the dimensions of the patch, the material and the thickness of the substrate and also the type of the feed. From the expressions mentioned previously, we notice that the resonance frequency depends on the width and length of the patch, as well as on the dielectric constant of substrate and its thickness. The 3D representation of the gain of the rectangular microstrip antenna is the following one:

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

Figure 18. Variation of S 11 according to the frequency with various values of the thickness.

The thickness of the substrate has an inverse effect on the resonance frequency. When the thickness h decreases, the resonance frequency increases. The radiation pattern of the rectangular patch antenna with the parameters optimal of this configuration, is the following one:

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

Figure 20. 3D view of radiation pattern of the rectangular patch antenna.

The 3D view of radiation pattern of the antenna shows that the antenna radiates in a single direction (according to the axis Z). So, the utility to integrate this antenna inside the mobile phone.

  • C. Rectangular patch antenna with aperture

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IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol. 2, No. 1, 2012

The rectangular patch antenna represented previously presents a narrow band. In recent years the demand for broadband antennas has increased for use in high frequency and high speed data communication. The slot microstrip antenna allows increasing the bandwidth of the rectangular patch antenna [14]. The simulation of slotted rectangular antenna is represented using ADS-Momentum.

1)

Cross slot

 

In

cross

slot

microstrip

antenna

the

two

separate

operation frequencies are obtained. This antenna is fed by using a single probe feed (figure 21).

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

Figure 21. Layout of Cross-Slot microstrip antenna.

The result is the following one:

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

Figure 22. Plot of S 11 of the cross-slot antenna.

We note that the existence of a slot on the patch has a considerable effect on the functioning of the rectangular microstrip antenna.

2)

Square slot with stub

Considering a square slotted microstrip antenna of the

square patch, as shown in fig. 23.

IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol.

Figure 23. Layout of square slotted microstrip antenna.

The simulation result is as follows:

Figure 24. The square slot antenna Plot.

We notice that the gain increase by using a square slot microstrip antenna, but the bandwidth is less than the cross slotted antenna. Also, the square antenna presents a high frequency of almost 4 GHz with a return loss of -21dB.

VII.

Conclusions

The study of the performances of antennas microstrips supposes the development of the conception and the simulation, which provokes a variation on the structure of this type of antenna. The choice of the resonance frequency of the microstrip antenna depends on their dimensions of the patch, on the substrate material as well as its thickness and on the feed line. Consequently, the characteristics of the patch antenna can be adequately identified according to the application wished for a patch antenna. The conception of antennas using the HFSS and ADS software bases essentially on the variation of the shape of the antenna, the substrate nature and thickness in order to obtain a structure which resonance frequencies wished. A small variation of each of these parameters influences the resonant frequency, as well as the coefficient of reflection, the impedance matching and voltage standing wave ratio.

[1]

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2009.

[2] K. Wong, ‘‘Compact and broadband microstrip antennas,’’ Wiley

[3]

series in microwave and optical engineering, Texas A&M University Kaohsing, Taiwan, 2002. G. Kumar, and K. P. Ray, ‘‘Broadband Microstrip Antennas,’’ University of Colorado at Boulder, Colorado, India, October, 2002.

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IRACST - International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology & Security (IJCSITS), ISSN: 2249-9555 Vol. 2, No. 1, 2012

[4] R. J. James, and P. S. Hall, ‘‘Handbook of Microstrip Patch Antennas,’’ IEE Electromagnetic waves series 28, 1989.

[5] Z. N. Chen, and M. Y. W Chia, ‘‘Broadband Planar Antennas: design and applications,’’ Institute of Infocomm Research, Singapore, 2006. [6] R. Bhartia, I. Bahl, and A. Ittipiboon, ‘‘Microstrip Antenna Design Handbook,’’ University of Manitoba Winnipeg, Canada, 2001.

[7]

P. Shantilal, and Nakar, ‘‘Design of a Compact Microstrip Patch

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[9]

G. Steven, ‘‘Dual-Polarized Broad-Band Microstrip Antennas Fed by

Proximity Coupling,’’ IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.1, No. 53, January 2005. [10] K. S. Vinod, and A. Zakir, ‘‘Dual Band U-shaped microstrip antenna for wireless Communication,’’ International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, pp. 16231628, 2010. [11] A. M. El-Tenger, and A. M. Abdin, ‘‘Design of Multi-Band Dual- Polarization Two Port E-shape Microstrip antenna,’’ Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium, Beijing, China, pp. 23-27, March 2009. [12] D. Malbantoglu, and A. Yanik, ‘‘A Multi-Band Rectangular Patch

Antenna for Wireless Communication,’’ Antennas Propagation:

[13]

Sabaci University, 2004. J. EL Aoufi, N. Alaoui, M. Essaaidi and M. Benayad, ‘‘Design of a

Low Cost Planar Antenna for 2.45 GHz RFID Applications AIMAC ultra high frequencies laboratory,’’ European Journal of Scientific Research ISSN 1450-216X, vol. 1, No. 61, pp. 42-48, 2011. [14] N. Mehta, ‘‘Dual Frequency Dual Polarization Microstrip Slotted Antenna on a Single Layer,’’ Article, SR. 05074, 2003.

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