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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) - Volume4Issue5- May 2013

Lifetime Maximization in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Residual Energy Sleep Scheduling
Ronald Rygan. S, PG Scholar, Department of Computer Science and Engg, Regional Centre, Anna University: Tirunelveli. Mrs. J.Roselin, Asst. Professor, Department of Computer Science and Engg, Regional Centre, Anna University: Tirunelveli

Abstract Lifetime maximization is a fundamental concern in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) owing to the limited energy of each sensor. Random deployment of sensors in wireless sensor network provides some coverage redundancy problem. There are several methods to avoid such redundancy for extending the overall lifetime of the networks. Wireless sensor nodes are equipped with limited lifetime batteries and redundantly cover the target area. To extend lifetime of the WSN, the objective is to minimize energy consumption while maintaining the full sensing coverage. Residual energy sleep scheduling (RESS) algorithm is a node self-scheduling scheme to decide which sensor nodes have to switch to the sleep state. A low remaining energy node has high priority over its neighbour nodes to enter sleep state. Based on the local neighbourhood knowledge periodically adjust sleep and awake times for sensors based on their relative energy difference. This scheme tries to prolong the sleeping periods of sensors with relatively low energy and compensate for their absence by shortening sleeping periods of sensors with relatively high energy. Keywords: redundancy, sensing coverage, scheduling, remaining energy.

I. INTRODUCTION A wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of spatially distributed autonomous sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, pressure, etc. and to cooperatively pass their data through the network to a main location. The more modern networks are bi-directional, also enabling control of sensor activity. The development of wireless sensor networks was motivated by military applications such as battlefield surveillance; today such networks are used in many industrial and consumer applications, such as industrial process monitoring and control, machine health monitoring, and so on. A sensor node can only be equipped with a limited energy supply in all application scenarios. Energy is consumed during computation and communication among the nodes. The Sensor node lifetime shows a very strong dependency on battery lifetime. Selecting the optimum sensors and wireless communications link requires knowledge of the application and problem definition. Battery life, sensor update rates, and size are all major design considerations. Examples of low data rate sensors include temperature, humidity, and peak strain captured passively. Examples of high data rate sensors include strain, acceleration, and vibration. Most of the energy conservation protocols ensure only one of the fundamental requirements of the wireless sensor

network is sensing coverage. The sensing coverage issue demands that target area or points are perfectly covered by the sensing range of devices. One of the major challenges in the design of WSNs is the fact that energy resources are very limited. Recharging or replacing the battery of the sensors in the network may be difficult or impossible, causing severe limitations in the communication and processing time between all sensors in the network. Therefore, the key parameter to optimize for is network lifetime. In area coverage main objective of the sensor network is to cover or monitor the region, i.e., the collection of all space points within the sensor field and each point of the region to be monitored. Target coverage covers a set of point with known location that need to be monitored. The point coverage scheme focus on determining sensor nodes exact positions, where guarantee efficient coverage application for a limited number of immobile points. Path coverage is one of the applications of wireless sensor networks where the network is responsible for monitoring a path and detecting any object that crosses it. The goal of path coverage is minimize the probability of undetected penetration through the region. K-coverage is an area that can be covered by at least k out of n sensors randomly placed in a bounded region. This is referred to as k-coverage. The generalized version of the coverage-preserving problem requires a point to be covered by at least K sensors called the K-coverage problem. Energy efficient coverage should be considered as the key design objective for implementing WSN. Since, a sensor node can only be equipped with a limited energy supply in all application scenarios. Sensor node lifetime shows a very strong dependency on battery lifetime. To solve the Energy Efficient Coverage problem, a solution to the device coverage problem needs to address the issue of sensing coverage. One of the key challenges in wireless sensor networks is to design an energy efficient communication protocol. Wake-up scheduling scheme is used to minimize energy consumption caused by idle listening. In random deployment sensor nodes are deployed with some redundancy. Using this scheduling protocol scheduled some sensor nodes to active stage and others to power saving stage. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. In Section II, we review the related literature. In Section III the Energy

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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) - Volume4Issue5- May 2013

Remaining Sleep Scheduling algorithm is detailed. In Section IV, the simulation results of the algorithm are presented. Finally, we conclude the paper in Section V.

process carefully to conserve energy and extend network lifetime and decreasing the load on the central base station. Gaurav S. Kasbekar, Yigal Bejerano, and Saswati Sarkar [8] In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), a large number of II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE sensors perform distributed sensing of a target field. A sensor Numerous algorithms and scheduling approaches to cover is a subset of the set of all sensors that covers the target maximize the life time of the wireless sensor network. The field. Design a distributed coordinate-free algorithm for methods and approaches can be discussed by many authors in attaining high lifetimes in sensor networks, subject to ensuring the k -coverage of the target field during the network lifetime. wireless sensor network. Jiming Chen, Junkun Li, Shibo He, Youxian Sun, and Also prove that the lifetime attained by our algorithm Hsiao-Hwa Chen [1] proposed to find the sensor set with approximates the maximum possible lifetime within a maximum residual energy to cover all point of interest. This logarithmic approximation factor. Bo-Chao Cheng, Hsi-Hsun Yeh, and Ping-Hai Hsu [9] issue was named as minimum weight sensor coverage problem (MWSCP). Ant colony optimization (ACO) and Network lifetime predictability is an essential system particle swarm optimization (PSO) intelligent algorithms are requirement for the type of wireless sensor network used in used to solve this MWSCP to extend the lifetime of the safety-critical and highly-reliable applications. The High Energy First (HEF) algorithm is proven to be an optimal wireless sensor network. Yanli Cai, Wei Lou, Minglu Li, Xiang-Yang [2] Address cluster head selection algorithm that maximizes a hard N-of-N the Multiple directional cover sets (MDCS) problem of lifetime for HC-WSNs under the ICOH condition. Then, we organizing the directions of sensors into a group of non provide theoretical bounds on the feasibility test for the hard disjoint cover sets to extend the network lifetime. Yang Xiao , network lifetime for the HEF algorithm. Mark Perillo and Wendi Heinzelman [10] proposed that, Hui Chen , Kui Wu, Bo Sun, Ying Zhang, Xinyu Sun and Chong Liu [3] proposed that, the optimal k-search approach is an integrated route discovery and sensor selection protocol a special case mode for (k = 2) of a randomized scheduling called DAPR that further lengthens network lifetime by jointly algorithm, in which k subsets of sensors work alternatively. selecting routers and active sensors, again with the goal of Analyze a problem of maximizing network lifetime under minimizing the use of sensors in sparsely covered areas. Quality of Service constraints such as bounded detection delay, Hongseok Yoo, Moonjoo Shim, and Dongkyun Kim [12] proposed DSR and DSP schemes allow sensor nodes to adjust detection probability, and network coverage intensity. Sung-Yeop Pyun , and Dong-Ho Cho [4] solve the major their duty-cycle according to their residual energy for The issue in wireless sensor network is Multiple -target coverage purpose of reducing the sleep latency and balancing energy problem (MTCP). Heuristic and Optimal algorithms are used consumption among sensor nodes. Yanwei Wu, Xiang-Yang Li,YunHao Liu and Wei Lou to solve this problem that considers both the transmitting energy for collected data and overlapped targets. These [11] designing energy-efficient protocols for low-data-rate sensor-scheduling algorithms are considers the transmitting WSNs, where sensors consume different energy in different energy according to the number of targets covered by the radio states (transmitting, receiving, listening, sleeping, and sensor and removes the redundancy of overlapped targets. The being idle) and also consume energy for state transition. They optimal sensor-scheduling algorithm as an integer use TDMA as the MAC layer protocol and schedule the programming that is proved to be NP complete. Heuristic sensor nodes with consecutive time slots at different radio algorithm is used to reduce the complexity of the optimal states while reducing the number of state transitions. They also prove that the energy consumption by our scheduling for algorithm. K. Ramachandran and B. Sikdar [5] analyzing the network homogeneous network is at most twice of the optimum and lifetime as a function of time and energy consumption. the timespan of our scheduling is at most a constant time of Models are developed for sensors with and without battery the optimum. The energy consumption by our scheduling for recharging and expressions are derived for the network heterogeneous network is at most (log (Rmax/Rmin)) times of lifetime as well as the distribution and moments of random the optimum. variables describing the number of sensors with different III. RESIDUAL ENERGY SLEEP SCHEDULING levels of residual energy as a function of time. The model is also extended to the case where new sensors are periodically The RESS is the self scheduling algorithm which is used added to the network to substitute older sensors that have to maximizing the lifetime of the wireless sensor network expended their energy. using remaining energy. Scheduling the sensor nodes in active Santosh Kumar, Ten H. Lai, Marc E. Posner, and Prasun or sleep mode while maintaining the full coverage of a target [6] proposed optimal solutions to the sleep wake-up problems area using minimum active nodes. Increasing the sleep period for the model of barrier coverage for both the homogeneous of sensor based on balanced energy budget. Also monitoring and heterogeneous lifetime cases.Yan Wu, Zhoujia Mao, the task and report to the sink node using reactive tasking Sonia Fahmy, and Ness B. Shroff [7] designed Data-gathering

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model. It is a localized self-scheduling algorithm which considers only one-hop neighbourhood knowledge. The RESS algorithm is divided into rounds, where each one begins by a self scheduling phase and ends by a sleep scheduling phase. In self scheduling phase, the nodes verify the coverage of their Sensing area. Eligible nodes (those whose Sensing areas are covered by a subset of their neighbours sensing area) turn off their communication and sensing units to save energy. Ineligible nodes will perform sensing tasks and report the sensory data to the sink node. The self-scheduling phase includes two steps. First, each node obtains the neighbouring nodes informati on. Second, each node checks the eligibility according to eligibility rules. Fig.1 represents the structure of the RESS round. ROUND T

Thus, a blind point occurs after turning off both nodes c and d, as in Figure2. To avoid such a blind point without the need to exchange additional messages, introduce priority between the nodes based on local information of each node. This priority is assigned to each node with the usage of residual energy. Each node compares its residual energy with their neighbours and decided which one has highest priority and which nodes have lowest priority.

b a f c d e e f a c d

b e

(1)

(2)

Blind point

b
R 1 R2

b a e f e

R3

a f

c d

Selfscheduling phase

Sleepscheduling phase

(3)
Fig. 2 Occurrence of a blind point 1. Original sensing area covered by nodes a f 2. Node d turns off itself by the eligibility rules 3. Node c turns off itself by the eligibility rules 4. Occurence of a blind point

(4)

Fig. 1 Representation of the RESS round

The second phase is sleep scheduling phase. In this phase the sink node is placed at the origin and responsible for assigning tasks. Also adjusting the sleep and awake periods based on the residual energy budget. A. Occurence of a blind point If all nodes simultaneously make decisions (that is nodes checks its sensing area is fully covered by the neighbouring nodes sensing area) blind points may appear, as shown in figure2. Node d finds that its sensing area can be covered by nodes fc-b-e. According to the eligibility rule, node d turns itself off. While at the same time, node c also finds that its sensing area can be covered by nodes d, b, a, and f. Believing node d is still working, node c turns itself off too.

A problem can still occur when two neighbours have the same energy level. To avoid such case and to ensure a unique order between nodes, the order operator was finally defined in the Cartesian product energy identity. Thus, even if two neighbour nodes have the same energy level they may be distinguished based on their unique identity. The low residual energy node has higher priority to enter into a sleep state. B. HGS and LGS list computation Neighbour nodes: The neighbouring nodes of a node are the nodes which are present within its communication range. Here SN represents the sensor node. ci, cj SN are neighbours iff d(ci, cj) < Rc

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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) - Volume4Issue5- May 2013
General Sensing area nodes to the node c (GS(c)): Nodes whose sensing areas (SA) intersects with the sensing area of the node c. GS(c) = {ci SN: SA(c) SA (ci) } Neighbours and General Sensing area nodes to the node c (NGS(c)): Nodes belonging to GS(c) that are directly communicate with c. NGS(c) = {ci GS(c): d(c, ci) < Rc}
Send an ADV message

HGS(c) = {ci NGS(c): c ci} Lower general sensing area nodes to the node c (LGS(c)): Nodes belonging to NGS(c) that have lower order than c LGS(c) = {ci NGS(c): ci c} Figure 3 represents the computation of the higher general sensing area node (HGS) list and lower general sensing area node (LGS) list. Each node transmits to its neighbour nodes an advertisement message (ADV), including its ID and its current remaining energy. The receiver node will compare itself to the transmitter node that is the Sender node covers the receiver nodes sensing area. Based on the comparison result the transmitter node will be added to one of the two lists: HGS (Receiver) list, LGS (Receiver) list. The nodes belonging to the HGS (Receiver) list have less priority than the receiver node to be deactivated. The nodes belonging to the LGS (Receiver) list have more priority than the receiver node to be deactivated. C. Eligibility rule verification

Reception of an ADV message

Calculation of HGS and LGS list

Testing the eligibility rule of HGS list no Sender covers part of the receivers SA yes Eligible node no Ignore message yes Tp has expired no Sender has lower order than receiver yes no yes Testing the eligibility rule of i. HGS list ii. LGS list that have already sent awake message

Waiting active message

yes Eligible node Add sender node to LGS list Add sender node to HGS list

no

Sending active message Fig. 3: HGS, LGS list computation

Higher general sensing area nodes to the node c (HGS(c)): Nodes belonging to NGS(c) that have higher order than c

Deactive state

Active state

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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) - Volume4Issue5- May 2013

energy sleep scheduling scheme. Initially sensor nodes are randomly deployed in a 100m*100m square area. The Fig 4: Eligibility rule verification powerful sink node is placed at the origin and that node is responsible for assigning tasks using the position (x, y). Here Figure 4 represents the verification of eligibility rules. the task assignment is totally based on reactive task model. If SA (Receiver) is covered by the union of the SA of the nodes belonging to its HGS list, then it enters directly to the TABLE 1 RESS SCHEDULING PARAMETERS sleep state. If SA (Receiver) is not covered by the union of the PARAMETERS VALUE SA of the nodes belonging to its HGS list, then it checks verification with LGS (Receiver) list. Deployment area size 100m*100m If the receiver node is an eligible node then select that node for deactivation. Otherwise send active messages to Transmission range 25m its neighbour nodes and select that node for activation.
Sensing range 15m 50 joules Arbitrary 1000

The eligibility rules are defined as follows


Initial energy

RULE 1: Nodes belonging to HGS list of receiver is fully covered by the receivers sensing area then select that receiver node to sleep state. RULE 2: Check the nodes belonging to the HGS list and LGS list that have already sent awake messages are fully covered by the receivers SA then select that receiver node to sleep state. D. Sleep-scheduling phase According to the reactive tasking model the powerful sink node at the origin. The sink node is assigning tasks to sensors. A task is defined using its position (x, y). In that position the events are monitored and the monitored data is send back to the sink node. Initially assume that a sensor sleeps for a random amount of time uniformly distributed in [Ts, TS] and is awake for a random amount of time uniformly distributed in [Ta, TA]. Based on the initial timing perform the task monitoring. After performing each task, calculate the value of the relative difference between sensor energy ei, the maximum energy (emax) and the minimum energy (emin) among the neighbouring sensor and adjust the upper bounds of the ranges from which they select their sleep and awake times. The adjustment is based on the following formulas TSnew = Ts + 2 ((emax- ei) / (emax- emin)) (TS Ts) TAnew = Ta+ 2 ((ei - emin) / (emax- emin)) (TA Ta) Based on the new sleep and awake time scheduling each sensor nodes in sleep mode or awake mode for performing the task and pass the data to the sink node. IV. PERFORMANCE EVALUTION To verify the scheduling algorithm of proposed system, it uses network simulator. The following table 1 illustrate the parameters which are used to execute the residual

Number of nodes Maximum number of tasks

Fig. 5: Lifetime analysis

Fig. 6: Energy consumption rate analysis

Figure 5 represent the lifetime maximization of the following algorithms 1) Randomized scheduling. 2) Residual energy sleep-scheduling.

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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) - Volume4Issue5- May 2013

for the different number of nodes. Figure 6 represents the energy consumption rate for the above algorithms with different number of nodes. V. CONCLUSION This paper contains the problems of energy conservation and full sensing coverage in large wireless sensor networks. The Residual energy sleep scheduling algorithm, has been introduced based on a wake-up scheduling concept allowing one to extend the lifetime of the WSN. The RESS algorithm relies on the novel idea of exploiting the remaining energy in making decision on which node has to enter sleep state. The first main feature of the RESS algorithm consists in applying an equity principle by balancing the remaining energy of nodes. This has contributed to extend the WSN lifetime. The second main feature consists in avoiding negotiation phases, as decision to enter sleep state uses a computed priority based on one-hop neighbourhood knowledge. This contributes not only to extend WSN lifetime as message exchanges are reduced, but also to avoid blind points and then to preserve the full coverage of the target area. The third main feature is to continuously adjust sleep and awake times for sensors based on their relative energy difference. REFERENCES
[1] Jiming Chen, Junkun Li, Shibo He, Youxian Sun, Hsiao-Hwa Chen Energy-Efficient Coverage Based on Probabilistic Sensing Model in Wireless Sensor Networks IEEE communications letters, vol. 14, sep 2010. [2] Yanli Cai, Wei Lou, Minglu Li, Xiang-Yang Energy Efficient TargetOriented Scheduling in Directional Sensor Networks IEEE transactions on computers vol. 58, sep 2009. [3] Yang Xiao , Hui Chen , Kui Wu, Bo Sun, Ying Zhang, Xinyu Sun, and Chong Liu Coverage and Detection of a Randomized Scheduling Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks IEEE IEEE transactions on computers vol. 59, Apr 2010. [4] Sung-Yeop Pyun , and Dong-Ho Cho Power-Saving Scheduling for Multiple-Target Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks IEEE communications letters, vol. 13, Feb 2009. [5] K. Ramachandran and B. Sikdar A Population Based Approach to Model the Lifetime and Energy Distribution in Battery Constrained Wireless Sensor Network IEEE journal on selected areas in communications, vol. 28, May 2010. [6] Santosh Kumar, Ten H. Lai, Marc E. Posner, Prasun Maximizing the Lifetime of a Barrier of Wireless Sensors IEEE transactions on mobile computing, vol. 9, Aug 2010. [7] Yan Wu,Zhoujia Mao, Sonia Fahmy, and Ness B. Shroff Construction Maxmum-Lifetime Data-Gathering Forests in Sensor Networks IEEE/ACM transactions on networking, vol. 10, Oct 2010. [8] Gaurav S. Kasbekar, Yigl Bejerano, and Saswati Sarkar Lifetime and Coverage Guarantees Through Distributed Coordinate-Free Sensor Activation IEEE/ACM transactions on networking, vol. 19, Apr 2011.

[9] Bo-Chao Cheng, Hsi-Hsun Yeh, and Ping-Hai Hsu, Schedulability Analysis for Hard Network Lifetime Wireless Sensor Networks With High Energy First Clustering IEEE transactions on reliability, vol. 60, sep 2011. [10] Mark Perillo and Wendi Heinzelman,An Integrated approach to sensor role selection IEEE transactions on mobile computing, vol. 8, May 2009. [11] Yanwei Wu, Xiang-Yang Li,YunHao Liu and Wei Lou, EnergyEfficient Wake-Up Scheduling for Data Collection and Aggregation IEEE transactions on parallel and distributed systems, vol. 21, Feb 2010. [12] Hongseok Yoo, Moonjoo Shim, and Dongkyun Kim,Dynamic DutyCycle Scheduling Schemes for Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks IEEE communications letters, vol. 16, Feb 2012.

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