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1

7 CHAPTER 7: SERVICEABILITY REQUIREMENTS


7.1 Introduction
A properly designed reinforced concrete element is to satisfy two requirements; strength
and serviceability. Strength requirements are elaborately dealt with in previous chapters.
Serviceability refers to some requirements that are needed to make the structure serviceable
such as no excessive deflection or cracking. These are discussed in this chapter.
Historically, deflections and crack widths have not been a problem for reinforced concrete
elements. With the introduction of strength design and high strength steel reinforcement,
the reinforcement stresses at service loads have increased considerably. Since crack widths
and deflections are related to steel stresses, each of these has become more critical.
7.2 Deflection
Excessive deflections can impair the appearance and efficiency of a structure and cause
discomfort or alarm to the occupants. Excessive deflections can cause cracking and possible
separation of plaster finishes, and crushing of partition walls.
The ACI Code provisions for control of deflections are concerned only with deflections that
occur at service load levels under static conditions and may not apply to loads with strong
dynamic characteristics such as those due to earthquakes, transient winds, and vibrating
machinery.
Deflection of a reinforced concrete element is made up of two components; short-term
deflection and long-term deflection. These will be dealt within the next sections.
7.2.1 Deflection Control
Two methods are given in the ACI Code for controlling deflections for beams and one-way
slabs not supporting or attached to partitions or other construction likely to be damaged by
large deflections. The first method indirectly controls deflection by means of minimum
thickness, as shown in Table 7.1, and the second by directly limiting computed deflections,
as shown in Table 7.2.



2
Table 7.1: Minimum Thickness of Beams and One-way Slabs
Restraint
simply
supported
one end
continuous
both ends
continuous
cantilever
Member
Members not supporting or attached to partitions or
other construction likely to be damaged by large
deflections
Solid one-way
slabs
20
l

24
l

28
l
10
l

Beams or
ribbed one-way
slabs
16
l

5 . 18
l
21
l

8
l

* The values given above are only valid for
2
/ 4200 cm kg f
y
. For
reinforcement having
y
f other than
2
/ 4200 cm kg , the values listed in the
table are to be multiplied by

,
_

+
7000
40 . 0
y
f

** l = span length measured center-to-center

Table 7.2: Maximum Permissible Computed Deflections
Type of member Deflection to be considered Deflection
limitation
Flat roofs not supporting or
attached to non-structural
elements likely to be damaged by
large deflections
Immediate deflection due to
live load L

180 / l
Floors not supporting or attached
to non-structural elements likely
to be damaged by large
deflections
Immediate deflection due to
live load L

360 / l
Roof or floor construction
supporting or attached to non-
structural elements likely to be
damaged by large deflections

480 / l
Roof or floor construction
supporting or attached to non-
structural elements not likely to
be damaged by large deflections
That part of the total deflection
occurring after attachment of
nonstructural elements (sum of
the long-term deflection due to
all sustained loads and the
immediate deflection due to any
additional live load)

240 / l

3
7.2.2 Short-term Deflection
Short-term deflections of beams and one-way slabs occur immediately on the application of
load to a structural member. The principal factors that affect the short-term deflection of a
member are:
a. Magnitude and distribution of loads.
b. Span and restraint conditions.
c. Cross-sectional dimensions and amount of reinforcement.
d. Material properties.
e. Extent of flexural cracking.
Figure 7.1 shows short term deflection for several cases of loading and support conditions.


4


Figure 7.1: Short-term deflections for several cases of loading and support conditions
7.2.2.1 Effective Moment of Inertia
The flexural rigidity of a beam may not be constant along its length because of varying
amount of steel reinforcement and cracking at different sections along the beam.
According to ACI Code 9.5.2.2 and 9.5.2.3, short-term deflection is computed using elastic
methods of analysis considering effects of cracking and reinforcement on member stiffness,
e c
i
I E
wL
384
5
4
max

e c
i
I E
wL
384
4
max

c c
i
I E
wL
8
4
max

e c
i
I E
wL
185
4
max

e c
i
I E
PL
48
3
max

e c
i
I E
PL
3
3
max

) 4 3 (
24
2 2
max
a L
I E
Pa
e c
i

L I E
b Pa
e c
i
3
2 2
max

) 3 (
6
2
max
b L
I E
Pb
e c
i

e c
i
I E
ML
16
2
max


5
with the modulus of elasticity for concrete
c c
f E 15100 and with the effective moment
of inertia
e
I given as follows, but not greater than
g
I .
cr
a
cr
g
a
cr
e
I
M
M
I
M
M
I
1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

3 3
1
( 7.1 )
3 1
cr
a
M
M
where
and the cracking moment
cr
M is given in Eq. (7.2)
t
g r
cr
y
I f
M
( 7.2)
a
M = maximum moment in member at stage deflection is computed
g
I = moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis, neglecting
reinforcement
cr
I = moment of inertia of cracked section transformed to concrete
r
f = modulus of rupture of concrete =
c
f 2
t
y = distance from centroidal axis of gross section, neglecting reinforcement, to extreme
fiber in tension.
The effective moment of inertia provides a transition between the upper and lower limits of
g
I and
cr
I as a function of the level of cracking represented by
cr a
M M / . When
cr a
M M /
is less than or equal to 1,
e
I is taken equal to
g
I . When
cr a
M M / is larger than or equal to
3,
e
I is taken equal to
cr
I , as shown in Figure 7.2.

Figure 7.2: variation in effective moment of inertia with moment

6
For each load combination being considered, such as dead load or dead plus live load,
deflections should be calculated using an effective moment of inertia
e
I computed with
corresponding service load moment,
a
M . The incremental deflection caused by the
addition of load, such as live load, is then computed as the difference between deflection
computed for any two-load combinations.
According to ACI Code 9.5.2.4, effective moment of inertia for continuous members is
permitted to be taken as the average values obtained from Eq. (7.1) for the critical positive
and negative moment sections. Furthermore, for prismatic members, effective moment of
inertia is permitted to be taken as the value obtained from Eq. (7.1) at midspan for simple
and continuous spans, and at support for cantilevers.

7.2.2.2 Transformed Concrete Section
(a) Rectangular sections with tension reinforcement only:
The moment of inertia of a cracked beam (
cr
I ) with tension reinforcement, shown in Figure
7.3, is computed as follows:

Figure 7.3: Cracked transformed section of singly reinforced beam
Taking moment of areas about the neutral axis
( ) d k d A n
d k
d k b
s

,
_

2

where
c
s
E
E
n = modular ratio of elasticity, but not less than 6.0,
kd = distance from the neutral axis to the extreme compression fiber.
Letting
s
A n
b
B

7
B
d B
d k
1 1 2 +
( 7.3)
Moment of inertia of gross concrete section is given by
12 /
3
h b I
g
( 7.4)
Moment of inertia of cracked section about neutral axis,
( )
2 3 3
3 / kd d A n d k b I
s cr
+ ( 7.5)
(b) Rectangular sections with tension and compression reinforcement:
For the rectangular section shown in Figure 7.4,

Figure 7.4: Cracked transformed section of doubly reinforced beam
Letting
( )
s
s
A n
A n
r

1

( ) ( ) ( ) B r r d d r dB kd / 1 1 / 1 2
2
1
]
1

+ + + + ( 7.6)
12 /
3
h b I
g
( 7.4)
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 3 3
1 3 / d kd A n kd d A n d k b I
s s cr
+ + ( 7.7)
(c) T- sections with tension reinforcement only:
From Figure 7.5,

8

Figure 7.5: Cracked transformed section of singly reinforced T-beam
1. When
f
h d k , the section is treated as a singly reinforced rectangular section with
w
b
replaced with b .
2. When
f
h kd > relevant equations are given below
Letting
s
w
A n
b
C , and
( )
s
w f
A n
b b h
f


( ) [ ]
( ) h b h b b
h b h b b h
y
w f w
w f w
t
+
+

2 2
2 / 1
( 7.8)
( ) ( ) ( ) C f f f h d C kd
f
/ 1 1 2
2
1
]
1

+ + + + ( 7.9)
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
3 3
2 / 2 /
12 / 12 /
h y h b y h h h b b
h b h b b I
t w t f f w
w f w g
+ +
+
( 7.10)
( )
( )( ) ( )
2 2
3 3 3
2 /
3 / 12 /
kd d A n h kd b b h
d k b h b b I
s f w f
w f w cr
+ +
+
( 7.11)
(d) T- sections with tension and compression reinforcement:
As shown in Figure 7.6,


9
Figure 7.6: Cracked transformed section of doubly reinforced T-beam
1. When
f
h kd , the section is treated as a doubly reinforced rectangular section with
w
b
replaced with b .
2. When
f
h kd > relevant equations are given below
( ) [ ]
( ) h b h b b
h b h b b h
y
w f w
w f w
t
+
+

2 2
2 / 1
( 7.8)
( ) ( ) ( ) C r f r f d r f h d C kd
f
/ 1 1 2 2
2
1
]
1

+ + + + + + + ( 7.12)
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
3 3
2 / 2 /
12 / 12 /
h y h b y h h h b b
h b h b b I
t w t f f w
w f w g
+ +
+
( 7.10)
( ) ( )( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2 3 3 3
1
2 / 3 / 12 /
d kd A n kd d A n
h kd b b h d k b h b b I
s s
f w f w f w cr
+ +
+ +
( 7.13)
7.2.3 Long-term Deflection
Shrinkage and creep due to sustained loads cause additional long-term deflections which
may exceed short-term deflections on the structure. These deflections may be two to three
times as large as the immediate elastic deflection that occurs when the sustained load is
applied. Such deflections are influenced by temperature, humidity, curing conditions, age at
time of loading, quantity of compression reinforcement and magnitude of the sustained
load.
According to ACI Code 9.5.2.5, additional long-term deflection resulting from creep and
shrinkage for flexural members is determined by multiplying the immediate deflection
caused by the sustained load considered by the factor given by Eq. (2.7)
' 50 1

+
(2.7)
where

= multiplier for additional long-term deflection.



10
d b
A
s

is the compression reinforcement ratio taken at midspan for simple and


continuous spans and at support for cantilevers.
s
A = cross sectional area of compression reinforcement
b = width of cross section
d = effective depth of cross section
= time-dependent factor for a sustained load, given in Table 7.3.
Table 7.3: Time-dependent factors
Period (months)

3 1.0
6 1.2
12 1.4
60 2.0
Multipliers for long-term deflection are also given in Figure 2.8.
Example (7.1):
For the simply supported beam shown in Figure 7.7, calculate the maximum short-term
deflection and maximum deflection at an age of 5 years. It is given that service dead load
on beam, including own weight, = m ton / 1 , concentrated service live load = tons 3 , 100
% of which is sustained. Use
2
/ 300 cm kg f
c
and
2
/ 4200 cm kg f
y
.

Figure 7.7: Loaded beam and its cross section
Solution:
Moments:
The dead load moment is given as

11
( )
m t M
D
. 50 . 4
8
0 . 6 0 . 1
2

The live load moment is given by
( )
m t M
L
. 5 . 4
4
0 . 6 0 . 3

Total dead and live load moment is
m t M M
L D
. 0 . 9 50 . 4 50 . 4 + +
The sustained bending moment is
m t M M
L D
. 0 . 9 50 . 4 50 . 4 + +
Modulus of rupture
2
/ 64 . 34 300 2 2 cm kg f f
c r

2
/ 67 . 261539 300 15100 15100 cm kg f E
c c

( )
80 . 7
67 . 261539
10 04 . 2
6

c
s
E
E
n
( )
4
3
312500
12
50
30 cm I
g

( )
( )
m t
y
I f
M
t
g r
cr
. 33 . 4
10 25
312500 64 . 34
5

( )
1
3205 . 0
0 . 12 80 . 7
30

cm
A n
b
B
s
( ) ( )
cm
B
B d
d k 74 . 13
3205 . 0
1 1 3205 . 0 44 2 1 1 2

+

( )
[ ]
2
3
3
d k d A n
d k b
I
s cr
+
( )
( ) [ ]
4
2
3
90 . 111645
74 . 13 44 0 . 12 80 . 7
3
74 . 13 30
cm I
I
cr
cr

+

a. Effective moment of inertia under dead load only:
0 . 3 0 . 1 039 . 1
33 . 4
50 . 4
< > and
M
M
cr
D


12
g cr
a
cr
g
a
cr
e
I I
M
M
I
M
M
I
1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

3 3
1
( ) ( ) 90 . 111645
50 . 4
33 . 4
1 312500
50 . 4
33 . 4
3 3
1
1
]
1

,
_

+
,
_

e
I
K O I cm I
g e
. 66 . 290585
4
<
b. Effective moment of inertia under dead and live loads:
0 . 3 0 . 1 078 . 2
33 . 4
00 . 9
< >
+
and
M
M
cr
L D

g cr
a
cr
g
a
cr
e
I I
M
M
I
M
M
I
1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

3 3
1
( ) ( ) 90 . 111645
00 . 9
33 . 4
1 312500
00 . 9
33 . 4
3 3
1
1
]
1

,
_

+
,
_

e
I
K O I cm I
g e
. 37 . 134013
4
<
Initial or short-term deflections:
Deformation caused by dead load only
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
cm
I E
l w
e c
D i
2220 . 0
66 . 290585 67 . 261539 384
600 100 / 1000 5
384
5
4 4

Deformation caused by dead and live loads
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
cm
I E
l P
I E
l w
e c e c
L D i
8666 . 0
37 . 134013 67 . 261539 48
600 1000 3
37 . 134013 67 . 261539 384
600 100 / 1000 5
48 384
5
3 4
3 4

+
+
+

Deformation caused by live load only
( ) ( ) ( ) cm
D i L D i L i
6446 . 0 2220 . 0 8666 . 0
+

Allowable deflections:
For flat roofs not supporting or attached to nonstructural elements, are likely to be damaged
by large deflections, ( ) 180 / l
L i


13
K O cm cm l . 6446 . 0 333 . 3 180 / 600 180 / >
For floors, not supporting or attached to nonstructural elements, are likely to be damaged by
large deflections, ( ) 360 / l
L i

K O cm cm l . 6446 . 0 667 . 1 360 / 600 360 / >
Long-term deflection:
00 . 0
Duration

' 50 1

+

( )
sus i
( )
L i
( )
sus
i


( )
total i


5 years 2.0 2.0 0.8666 0.6446 1.7332 2.3778
For roof or floor construction supporting or attached to nonstructural elements is likely to
be damaged by large deflections, ( ) ( ) 480 / l
L
i
sus
i
+


( ) ( ) cm 3778 . 2
L
i
sus
i
+


cm cm l 3778 . 2 25 . 1 480 / 600 480 / <
i.e. thickness of beam needs to be increased.
For roof or floor construction, is supporting or attached to nonstructural elements, not likely
to be damaged by large deflections, ( ) ( ) 240 / l
l i sus i
+
( ) ( ) cm 3778 . 2
l
i
sus
i
+


K O cm cm l . 3778 . 2 50 . 2 240 / 600 240 / >
Example (7.2):
For the simply supported beam shown in Figure 7.8, calculate the maximum short-term
deflection and maximum deflections at ages of 3 months and 5 years. It is given that service
dead load on beam, not including own weight, = m kg / 200 , service live load = m kg / 500 ,
50 % of which is sustained. Use
2
/ 250 cm kg f
c
and
2
/ 4200 cm kg f
y
.

14

Figure 7.8: Loaded beam and its cross section
Solution:
Moments:
( ) ( ) m t w
D
/ 65 . 0 50 . 2 60 . 0 30 . 0 20 . 0 +
The dead load moment is given as
( )
m t M
D
. 57 . 4
8
5 . 7 65 . 0
2

The live load moment is given by
( )
m t M
L
. 51 . 3
8
5 . 7 50 . 0
2

Total dead and live load moment is
m t M M
L D
. 08 . 8 51 . 3 57 . 4 + +
The sustained bending moment is
( ) m t M M
L D
. 32 . 6 51 . 3 50 . 0 57 . 4 50 . 0 + +
Modulus of rupture
2
/ 62 . 31 250 2 2 cm kg f f
c r

2
/ 96 . 238751 250 15100 15100 cm kg f E
c c

( )
54 . 8
96 . 238751
10 04 . 2
6

c
s
E
E
n
( )
4
3
540000
12
60
30 cm I
g

( )
( )
m t
y
I f
M
t
g r
cr
. 69 . 5
10 30
540000 62 . 31
5


15
( )
1
2237 . 0
7 . 15 54 . 8
30

cm
A n
b
B
s
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
26 . 0
7 . 15 54 . 8
62 . 4 1 54 . 8 1

s
s
A n
A n
r
cm d 20 . 54 0 . 1 80 . 0 4 60
cm d 50 . 5 70 . 0 80 . 0 0 . 4 + +
( ) ( ) ( ) B r r d d r B d d k / 1 1 / 1 2
2
1
]
1

+ + + +
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
cm d k
d k
37 . 17
] 26 . 0 1
26 . 0 1 2 . 54 / 5 . 5 26 . 0 1 2237 . 0 2 . 54 2 [ ) 2237 . 0 / 1 (
2

+
+ + +
( )
[ ] ( ) [ ]
2 2
3
1
3
d d k A n d k d A n
d k b
I
s s cr
+ +
( )
( )[ ] ( ) ( )[ ]
2 2
3
5 . 5 37 . 17 62 . 4 54 . 7 37 . 17 2 . 54 7 . 15 54 . 8
3
37 . 17 30
+ +
cr
I
4
29 . 239186 cm I
cr

a. Effective moment of inertia under dead load only:
0 . 1 803 . 0
69 . 5
57 . 4
<
cr
D
M
M

i.e.
4
540000 cm I I
g e

b. Effective moment of inertia under sustained load:
0 . 3 0 . 1 11 . 1
69 . 5
32 . 6
< > and
M
M
cr
sus

g cr
a
cr
g
a
cr
e
I I
M
M
I
M
M
I
1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

3 3
1
( ) ( ) 29 . 239186
32 . 6
69 . 5
1 540000
32 . 6
69 . 5
3 3
1
1
]
1

,
_

+
,
_

e
I

K O I cm I
g e
. 88 . 458710
4
<
c. Effective moment of inertia under dead and live load:
0 . 3 0 . 1 42 . 1
69 . 5
08 . 8
< >
+
and
M
M
cr
L D


16
g cr
a
cr
g
a
cr
e
I I
M
M
I
M
M
I
1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

3 3
1
( ) ( ) 29 . 239186
08 . 8
69 . 5
1 540000
08 . 8
69 . 5
3 3
1
1
]
1

,
_

+
,
_

e
I
K O I cm I
g e
. 33 . 344237
4
<
Initial or short-term deflections:
Deformation caused by dead load only
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
cm
I E
l w
e c
D i
2077 . 0
540000 96 . 238751 384
750 65 . 0 100 / 1000 5
384
5
4 4

Deformation caused by sustained load
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
cm
I E
l w
e c
sus i
3385 . 0
88 . 458710 96 . 238751 384
750 90 . 0 100 / 1000 5
384
5
4 4

Deformation caused by dead and live loads
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
cm
I E
l w
e c
L D i
5765 . 0
33 . 344237 96 . 238751 384
750 15 . 1 100 / 1000 5
384
5
4 4

+

Deformation caused by live load only
( ) ( ) ( ) cm
D i L D i L i
3688 . 0 2077 . 0 5765 . 0
+

Allowable deflections:
For flat roofs, not supporting or attached to nonstructural elements, are likely to be
damaged by large deflections, ( ) 180 / l
L i

K O cm cm l . 3688 . 0 167 . 4 180 / 750 180 / >
For floors, not supporting or attached to nonstructural elements, are likely to be damaged by
large deflections, ( ) 360 / l
l i

K O cm cm l . 3688 . 0 083 . 2 360 / 750 360 / >
Long-term deflection:
( )
00284 . 0
2 . 54 30
62 . 4



17

Duration
' 50 1

+

( )
sus i


( )
L i
( )
sus
i


( )
total i

3 months 1.0 0.875 0.3385 0.3688 0.296 0.665
5 years 2.0 1.751 0.3385 0.3688 0.593 0.962
For roof or floor construction, supporting or attached to nonstructural elements, is likely to
be damaged by large deflections, ( ) ( ) 480 / l
L
i
sus
i
+


( ) ( ) cm 962 . 0
L
i
sus
i
+


K O cm cm l . 962 . 0 562 . 1 480 / 750 480 / >
For roof or floor construction, supporting or attached to nonstructural elements, is not likely
to be damaged by large deflections, ( ) ( ) 240 / l
L
i
sus
i
+


( ) ( ) cm 962 . 0
L
i
sus
i
+


K O cm cm l . 962 . 0 125 . 3 240 / 750 240 / >
7.3 Crack width control
With the advent of high-strength steels and with the use of Strength Design Methods which
allow higher stresses in reinforcement, control of flexural cracking has assumed more
importance.
Crack widths are of concern for three main reasons: appearance, leakage, and corrosion.
Wide cracks are unsightly and sometimes lead to concern by owners and occupants. Crack
control is important in the design of liquid-retaining structures. Leakage is a function of
crack width. Corrosion of reinforcement has traditionally been related to crack width.
Modern studies suggest that the factors governing the eventual development of corrosion
are independent of the crack width.
A simple and more practical equation has been adopted starting with the 1995 code which
directly limits the maximum reinforcement spacing. The new method is intended to control
surface cracks to a width that is generally acceptable in practice but may vary widely in a
given structure. The new method, for this reason, does not support to predict crack widths
in the field. According to the new method given in ACI Code 10.6.4, the spacing of
reinforcement closest to tension surface shall not exceed that given by

18
c
s
C 5 . 2
f
106400
S ( 7.14 )
and maximum spacing of reinforcement is given as
s
max
f
84000
S ( 7.15)
where S = center-to-center spacing of flexural tension reinforcement nearest to the extreme
tension face, and
s
f = calculated stress in reinforcement at service load computed as the
unfactored moment divided by the product of steel area and internal moment arm. It is
permitted to take
s
f as 2/3
y
f .
c
C = Clear cover from the nearest surface in tension to the
surface of flexural tension reinforcement.
7.4 Skin Reinforcement in Deep Flexural Members
According to ACI Code 10.6.7, for deep flexural members with overall hight h exceeding
90 cm, additional longitudinal reinforcement for crack control must be distributed along the
side faces over the full depth of the flexural tension zone. Without such additional
reinforcement, the width of the cracks in the web may exceed widths at the level of the
flexural steel reinforcement, as shown in Figure 7.9. The required skin reinforcement must
be uniformly distributed along both side faces of the member within the flexural tension
zone, considered to extend over a distance 2 / d nearest to the main tension reinforcement.

Figure 7.9: Side cracks in deep members
The spacing of the skin reinforcement, s shall be computed using Equations (7.14) and (7.15),
where
c
C is the least distance from the surface of the skin reinforcement to the side face, as
shown in Figure 7.10. The code does not specify the size of the skin reinforcement. Research
has shown that the spacing rather than bar size is of primary importance. Typically bars
mm 10 to mm 16 , with minimum area of 0.02 cm
2
per cm of depth is provided.

19

Figure 7.10: Skin reinforcement
Example (7.3):
For the cross section shown in Figure 7.11, determine whether the reinforcement satisfies
ACI Code requirements for crack control.
Use
2
/ 280 cm kg f
c
and
2
/ 4200 cm kg f
y
.

Figure 7.11
Solution:
c
s
C 5 . 2
f
106400
S
cm 8 . 4 80 . 0 0 . 4 C
c
+
( )
( ) 8 . 4 5 . 2
4200 3 / 2
106400
S
cm 26 S


20
( )
K . O cm 0 . 26 cm 0 . 30
4200 3 / 2
84000
f
84000
s
>
Actual bar spacing (center-to-center) =
( ) ( )
K . O cm 0 . 26 cm 13 . 6
3
0 . 2 80 . 0 2 0 . 4 2 30
<


7.5 Problems
P7.6.1 For the beam in Figure P7.6.1, (a) compute the short-term deflection produced by
the total load, and (b) estimate the additional long-term deflection if the live load acts
continuously, (c) if the beam supports nonstructural elements not likely to be damaged by
large deflections, does the beam satisfy ACI Code requirements for allowable deflections?
Use
2
/ 250 cm kg f
c
and
2
/ 4200 cm kg f
y
.

Figure P7.6.1

P7.6.2 A simply supported beam with the cross section shown in Figure P7.6.2 has a span
of 6.0 m and supports a service dead load of 2 t/m, including its own weight, in addition to a
service live load of 2.5 t/m. Use
2
/ 300 cm kg f
c
and
2
/ 4200 cm kg f
y
. Evaluate the
following:
1. The immediate deflection due to dead load only.
2. The immediate deflection due to dead and live loads.
3. The deflection at three month period assuming that 40 % of the live load is sustained.

21

Figure P7.6.2

P7.6.3 For each of the cross in Figure P7.6.3, determine whether the reinforcement satisfies
the ACI Code requirements for crack width control.
Use
2
/ 250 cm kg f
c
and
2
/ 4200 cm kg f
y
.

Figure P7.6.3