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Air Pollution

Introduction: A disturbance in the composition of the compounds which make up the atmosphere is called air pollution. Causes: Major activities which lead to contamination of atmospheric air include motor vehicle exhausts, fertilizer plants, industrial processes, automobile manufacturing, demolition of buildings, construction of roadways, disposal of solid waste, volcanic eruption, manufacturing of electrical components, extraction of metals, forest fires and numerous other activities. Effects: Few commonly seen effects of air pollution are global warming, acid rain, smog and ozone depletion. Air pollution is responsible for major health effects. Every year, the health of countless people is ruined or endangered by air pollution. Many different chemicals in the air affect the human body in negative ways. Just how sick people will get depends on what chemicals they are exposed to, in what concentrations, and for how long. Older people are highly vulnerable to diseases induced by air pollution. Those with heart or lung disorders are under additional risk. Children and infants are also at serious risk. Measures to Control Air Pollution Car Pool: Forming and implementing a car pool will reduce the number of cars, thereby, preventing air pollution by cutting down the use of fossil fuels. Vehicle Care: Timely servicing of the car helps to keep it in a good condition and also minimizes fuel exhaust. Driving the car at an average speed and turning off in traffic is a key to save fuel. Make sure to use unleaded petrol and opt for regular pollution checking of your car. Public Transport: Whenever possible, try to travel by public transports. This helps in two ways; prevents air pollution and increases public income. If you are going to a nearby place, go by walking or use bicycle, instead of using your vehicle.

Water Pollution
Introduction: When the original quality of water deteriorates due to the contamination by foreign matter, it is called water pollution. This form of pollution can occur due to release of toxic substances, pathogenic germs, substances which require a large quantity of oxygen to decompose, or radioactive substances which tend to accumulate and interfere with the aquatic ecosystem. Causes: The major sources which lead to water pollution are petroleum products, synthetic agricultural chemicals, heavy metals, hazardous wastes, excess organic matter, sediment and infectious organisms. Even, air, thermal and soil pollution lead to water pollution as well. Effects: The effects of water pollution are varied and depend on what chemicals are dumped and in what locations. Many bodies of water near urban areas are highly polluted. This is the result of both garbage dumped by individuals and dangerous chemicals legally or illegally dumped by industries. The main problem caused by water pollution is that it kills life that inhabits waterbased ecosystems. Dead fish, birds, dolphins, and many other animals often wind up on beaches, killed by pollutants in their habitat. Ways to Control Water Pollution Control water pollution in your home by using non-toxic soaps, detergents and cleaning products. Refrain from the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides on your lawn and gardens. Always dispose of paints, motor oil, gasoline, antifreeze and other harmful chemicals in accordance with your local laws and safety regulations. Protect groundwater, which is critical for drinking water, irrigation systems and natural ecosystems. If you are using chemicals that may be harmful to the environment, store them correctly. Improperly stored chemicals can slowly seep into the groundwater system, so keep them in tightly sealed containers, inside of structures with cement floors, to avoid groundwater contamination.

Soil Pollution Any form of alteration in the soil chemical composition leads to soil pollution. This form of pollution occurs due to deposition of solid waste in the soil, accumulation of nonbiodegradable substances or toxification of chemicals into poisons. Sources: Not following proper soil management methods, excessive tillage of soil resulting in the deterioration of soil structure, improper irrigation practices, no proper supply of organic matter in the soil or poorly drained soil can lead to soil pollution. Few major sources of this category of pollution include agriculture, mining and quarrying, demolitions and construction activities, sewage sludge and industrial wastes. Effects Decrease in soil fertility and therefore decrease in the soil yield. How can one expect contaminated soil to produce healthy crops? Loss of soil and natural nutrients present in it. Plants also would not thrive in such soil, which would further result in soil erosion. Disturbance in the balance of flora and fauna residing in the soil. Increase in salinity of the soil, which therefore makes it unfit for vegetation, thus making it useless and barren. Ways to Control Soil Pollution There are many factors which control the soil pollution. It includes the limited use of fertilizers and pesticides. The biological control method must be known and implemented. The grazing must be controlled and forest management should be done properly. The afforestation and reforestation must be done. In areas of wind erosion wind breaks and shields must be used. The soil binding grass must be planted and the large trees must be placed along the banks. The industrial wastes must be dumped in the low lying areas. There is a definite technique of cropping which does not allow the weeds to settle on the fields. The mining ways must be improved along with their transportation. The area must not be left barren and dry. Industrial wastes such as harmful gases and chemicals, agricultural pesticides, fertilizers and insecticides are the most common causes of soil pollution.

Noise Pollution The amount of noise pollution is synonymous to the standard of living of a particular country. This form of pollution is caused when a particular sound reaches an unfavorably high intensity and in turn causes adverse effects on our daily mechanisms. Sources Street traffic Aircraft Railroads Industry Construction

Effects of Noise Pollution Noise is considered a serious threat to the environmental health. Some of the adverse effects of noise pollution are given below: 1. It interferes with speech. In the presence of noise we may not able to follow, what the other person is saying. 2. Noise leads to emotional and behavioral stress. A person may feel disturbed in the presence of loud noise such as produced by heating of drums. 3. Noise may permanently damage hearing. A sudden loud noise can cause severe Ways to control Noise Pollution (I) Reduction of noise at the source of origin: Noise at source can be minimised by proper lubrication and better maintenance of machines. (II) Application of sound proofing techniques: Noise producing parts may be covered by suitable insulating materials or operating in sound proof chambers. Sound waves are absorbed by porous materials such as perforated sheet. Putting the cotton plug in the ears reduces noise levels. (III) Keeping residential localities away from noisy places: Residential localities should be established away from noisy industries, busy highways, aerodromes etc. Industrial unit should be displaced and bypass may be developed to divert busy railway tracks and highways from domestic establishments.

Radioactive Pollution Although nuclear energy is said to be a clean form of energy because it does not release pollutants such as carbon dioxide, the waste resulted from a nuclear reaction leads to a form of pollution known as radioactive pollution. Sources: Major sources which can cause radioactive pollution are nuclear power plants, nuclear weapons, improper disposal of nuclear waste and uranium mining. Production of nuclear fuel Nuclear power reactors Use of Radionuclides in industries for various applications

Effects: Radioactive particles forms ions when it reacts with biological molecules. These ions then form free radicals which slowly and steadily start destroying proteins, membranes, and nucleic acids. A longer exposure to radioactive radiations can damage the DNA cells that results in cancer, genetic defects for the generations to come and even death. Ways to control Radiation Pollution Radiation Pollution Control can be done at various levels, including the handling and treatment of radiation waste, the control and mitigation of nuclear accidents, as well as the control and minimization of personal exposure to radiation at an individual level. Treatment of radiation waste cannot be done through degradation by chemical or biological processes. Additionally, many radioactive materials have very long half-times (time necessary for half of the material to degrade or transform into non-radioactive materials) and thus radiation waste may pose a risk for many years after it was produced. Basically, there are only few options for radiation waste treatment involving: Containment of the waste in radiation-shielded containers usually buried under ground

Isolation of radiation waste in remote locations such as remote caves or abandoned mines - which may also involve the use of some kind of barriers (shields),