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# Maths at St Albans School

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Warm Up
How many cabbages in this garden?

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Warm up
Discuss with your neighbour how you
solved this problem?

## How else could we have solved it? What helped you?

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## Numeracy Project Goal

to be numerate is to have the ability and inclination to use mathematics effectively at home, at work and in the community
Published in Curriculum Update 45:
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## The Numeracy Project...

is about developing children's understanding of numbers and their ability to use numbers to solve problems. involves children solving number problems by counting, adding, subtracting, multiplying, dividing or combinations of these. encourages children to learn a range of different ways to solve problems and to choose the most appropriate one for each problem. often uses methods that involve mental strategies, or working things out in your head, rather than written methods. encourages children to talk about what they are doing, compare strategies with others and choose the best way to solve a problem.

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## The teaching model

Imaging - the bridge between concrete and abstract look but not touch hide materials visualise materials If children are having trouble imaging, the teacher provides the materials again Children need to be secure in using imaging before they enter the using number properties phase. Using Materials Materials this has been common in Junior rooms and now used throughout all levels materials support new ideas might include; counters, beads, number fans, ten frames, lolly sticks, money, number line, cookies...

Imaging Materials

## Working only with numbers

Number Properties it is expected they will connect to number properties without the use of imaging what do students notice about the numbers they are working with. For example when asked how he would work out 65 + 6 a 6year old student replied, very quickly, 71. When asked for his strategy he said, I know 6 and 5 equals 11 so it must be 71. Not the expected response of add 5 then 1. If students have difculty the teacher can decide to re-introduce the imaging phase or even the materials phase again. It can be difcult to move students from simple to more complex strategies

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## Assessing what children know

Assess Group

- where each child is at through oral interviewing and questioning according to a childs strategy stage using the New Zealand Number Framework useful tool - I CAN Sheets/ GLoSS children to self assess (reflect) know and own their next learning steps.

Encourage

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## Knowledge and strategy

Strategy is thinking. Knowledge is those things that a student can instantly recall in order to think. Knowledge must be instant! If the question is 6 and what makes 10 the child must answer 4 without the use of any strategy- an immediate response. Knowledge needs to be instant in order for the child to able to apply it condently when using a strategy.

Example - How could you work out 43 + 23? Using a strategy the child may say 40 + 20 = 60 3 + 3 = 6 so 66 The knowledge the child knew was the double 3 + 3 and adding tens 40 + 60

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## Numeracy Stages - counting

Year NE NE/Yr1 Yr1 Yr1 Y2
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EOY Stage 0 1 2 3 4

## Name Emergent 1-1 Counting all Imaging Advanced counting

Mathematical behaviour
Unable to consistently count a number of objects because of lack of knowledge of number sequence, or one to one correspondence. Can count a set of objects to form a set but cannot solve problems involving joining or separating sets. Can count a set of objects to solve simple addition and subtraction problems. Solves these by counting all the objects. Can visualise set of objects to add or subtract. Still solves problems by counting all objects but by imaging. Counts on or back to solve simple additions and subtractions. Eg 5 + 2, starts at 5 rather than counting all.

## Basic Facts needed

subtraction facts to ve, e.g., 2+1, 3+2, 4-2 Doubles to 10

+ and - facts to 10 doubles and halves to 20 ten and facts 10 + 4 bonds to 10 bonds to 100

## Numeracy Stages - non counting

Year Y3-4 Y5-6
EOY Stage

Mathematical behaviour
Can add and subtract using a limited amount of strategies. Makes use of getting the answer from known facts, and estimating.

## Basic Facts needed

+ facts to 20 - facts 10 2x, 5x and 10x 100 bonds to 1000 e.g., 400+600

5 6

Can estimate answers and solve addition and subtraction tasks involving + and - facts to 20 whole numbers mentally using a x facts up to 10 x 10 number of strategies. Also uses some corresponding division facts combination of known facts and limited x basic facts with 10s, 100s and mental strategies for solving 1000s e.g., 10 x 100 = 1000 multiplication and division tasks. Choose from a broad base of strategies to solve and solve multiplication and division problems. These involve portioning of one or more of the factors (rounding, compensating, reversibility).

## division basic facts up to 10 x 10 fraction to decimal conversions for

1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/5 and 1/10 divisibility rules for 2,3,5,9 and 10 squares and corresponding roots factors and common multiples to 100

Y7-8

Yr8+
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Estimate and solve multiplication, division of decimals and fractions through mental strategies. Recognising fraction to decimal conversions the effect of number size on the answer divisibility rules and converting decimals to fractions common factors when appropriate. Have strongly least common multiples to 10 developed number sense and algebraic thinking.

Early strategies

Patterns to 5 e.g. 3 + 2 1+?=5 7 + ? = 10 Patterns to 10 e.g. 7 + 3

## Standard Place Value Partitioning

43 + 35 =!! is! ! (40 + 30 ) + ( 3 + 5)! so! ! 70 + 8

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Compensation
compensation using doubles e.g 7 + 8 =! 7 + 7 = 14, so 7 + 7 + 1 = 15! ! ! ! compensation using rounding e.g. 39 + 26 =! ! 40 + 25 = 65!

## Bridging the ten

8 + 6 = (8 + 2) + 4 75 + 8

Change unknown
25 + ____ = 32 25 + 5 = 30 + 2 =7

## Standard Place Value with Tidy Numbers and Compensation

63 - 29 =!! as! ! 63 - 30 + 1 =!! compensation using rounding

Reversibility
53 - 26 =!! as! ! 26 + = 53

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Emergent - NE/Y1
Can you get me 7 counters from the pile please?

1,2,3,5,8.. .?
The child can not consistently count a collection of objects.

Movie Clip

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## One to One Counting - NE/Y1

Can you get me 7 counters from the pile please?

## 1,2,3, 4,5, 6,7,8.

The child can count a set of objects up to ten but cant join and separate sets like 4 + 3 =

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## Count From One on Materials - Y1

There are 4 counters and another 3 counters. How many are there altogether?

## 1,2,3, 4,5, 6,7 .

The child solves the problem by using their fingers or other materials and counts from one.

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## Count From One By Imaging - Y1

There are 4 counters and another 3 counters. How many are there altogether?

1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8
The child counts all the objects from one by imaging visual patterns of the objects in their mind.
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## Advanced Counting - Y2/3

There are 9 counters under there and another 4 counters under there. How many are there altogether?

Counts on

## The child counts on from the largest number

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An illustration...
Advanced Counting - level 1 (After 2 years at school) Marlene is planning a big party for 34 friends. Everyone needs a can of drink at the party, but she only has 21 cans in her cupboard. How many cans will she have to buy? 21 + ____ = 34

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An illustration...
Advanced Counting - level 1 (After 2 years at school) Marlene is planning a big party for 34 friends. Everyone needs a can of drink at the party, but she only has 21 cans in her cupboard. How many cans will she have to buy? 21 + ____ = 34 At the level children would be prompted to use their knowledge of ones and tens. So 1 + ? = 4 and 20 + ? = 30 1+3=4 20 + 10 = 30 so = 13

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## Early Part-Whole - Y4/5

There are 9 counters under there and another 6 counters under there. How many are there altogether?
I know that If I take one off the 6 and put it on the 9 it =10. 10 + 5 = 15

The child uses simple strategies to solve addition and subtraction problems mentally
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An illustration...
Early Additive - level 2 (After 3 years at school) Peter has 38 oranges and then he gains 7 more. How many does he now have?

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An illustration...
Early Additive - level 2 (After 3 years at school) Peter has 38 oranges and then he gains 7 more. How many does he now have?

The children could count on for this problem - however you would prompt them to use a more efficient strategy. They would therefore be taught that removing 2 from the 7 and adding it to 38 will make 40. There is 5 left so the answer is 45.

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63 people are on the bus and 39 people get off the bus. How many people are left on the bus?
I think tidy numbers would be smartest. 63 40 = 23 23 + 1 = 24

The child can select from a wide range of strategies to solve various addition and subtraction problems mentally
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An illustration....
Advanced Additive - Early Multiplicative level 3 (By the end of Year 6)
John is interested in the history of his family. He sees from records that his great - grandma was born on 25th October 1879 and she dies on 13th December 1945. How old was she when she died?

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An illustration....
Advanced Additive - Early Multiplicative level 3 (By the end of Year 6)
John is interested in the history of his family. He sees from records that his great - grandma was born on 25th October 1879 and she dies on 13th December 1945. How old was she when she died? 1879 + ____ = 1945 From 1879 to 1900 is 21 and from 1900 to 1945 is 45

## so great grandma was 21 + 45 = 66 years old

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There are 28 fruit trees in each aisle of the orchard. There are 6 aisles. How many trees are there altogether? Tidy Numbers would be a smart strategy. 30 x 6 = 180 180 (2 x 6) = 168

The child can select from a wide range of strategies to solve various multiplication and division problems mentally.
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You can make 9 mittens from 15 balls of wool. How many mittens can you make from 10 balls of wool? I can see that 9:15 are both multiples of 3. I can simplify by 3 and get a ratio of 3:5 ?:10 =6 The child can select from a wide range of strategies to solve challenging problems involving, decimals, fraction percentages and ratios.

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Number Strategies
29 people get off.

Subtraction

## How many people are now on the bus?

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Solution 53 29 =
How

What

## Share your different strategies with the people around you

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## Make sense of these strategies

I use place value 53 20 = 33. Minus another 9. Split the 9 into 3 and 6. 33- 3 = 30 6 = 24 I use tidy numbers: 53 30 = 23 plus 1 = 24

53 29 =
I use an open number line!
+1 + 292 30 0 +20 50 +3 53

+1

I use balancing. 53 29 = 54 30 = 24

+1

## I think of 53 -29 3 9 I cant do so I borrow a ten. 13 9 = 4. 4 tens 2 tens = 2. Its 24

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Number Strategies
There

are 47 children in the hall. 28 more children arrive. How many are in the school hall now?

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Solution 47 + 28 =
How did you work it out? What happened in your head?
Share your different strategies with the people around you.

## Can you think of any other ways to solve the

problem?

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## Make sense of these strategies

Four rows of ten is 40 and two rows of ten is 20, so 40 + 20 = 60 with 7 and 8 left ! double 7 = 14 plus 1 =15 so there are 75 children I use tidy numbers: 50 + 28 = 78 78 - 3 = 75.

47 + 28 =
I use an open number line!
+3 +20 47 +5 75

## I know that 50 plus 30 is 80 and 3 plus 2 is 5, so 80 - 5 is 75

I think of 47 +28 7 plus 8 is 15, so thats 5 and carry one. 4 plus 2 is 6 plus one more ten is 7. so the answer is 75

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Number Strategies
Multiplication

There are 4 packets of biscuits with 24 cookies in each pack. How many cookies are there altogether?

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Solution 4 x 24 =
How

What

## Share your different strategies with the people around you.

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## Make sense of these strategies

I use tidy numbers: I know 4 x 25 = 100. 100-(1x4) = 96. I used place value 4 x 20 = 80. And 4 x 4 = 16. 80 + 16 = 96

I know 24 + 24 = 48. 48 + 48 = 96

4 x 24 =
I think of 24 X4 4 x 4 = 16. Put down the 6 and carry the 1. 4 x 2 = 80 + another ten = 90 90+6 = 96

## I used doubling and halving. Double 4 = 8, half 24 = 12. 8 x 12 = 96

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Number Strategies
You

Proportions

can make 21 glasses of lemonade from 28 lemons. How many glasses can you make from t welve lemons?

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How

What

Can

## you think of any other ways to solve this problem?

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## Make sense of these Strategies

I like to use a double numberline.
12 ? 28 lemons 21 lemonade

## 21 and 28 are both divisible by 7. Its 3:4 ? :12 3 x 4 = 12 so 3 x 3 = 9

21:28

? :12

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Strand maths
level 1
Algebra and fractions teaching
The strands include: Geometry and measurement Statistics It is important at the lower levels to build in the knowledge of Number that the children will need to apply to the Strands later on in their learning.

level 2

level 3

level 4

Number

60-80%

60-80%

50-70%

40-50%

per term

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Developing

## a childs knowledge is a key to their success and development in mathematics.

websites fun

practice

games

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Knowledge Building
Counting Numbers
(cars, shells on beach, pegs, run around the house, how many steps you walk, count backwards, start from different numbers)

(Letter boxes, say a number, use a numberline, use number cards, write a number down, ladder game, keyboard numbers, using dice)

## before and after numbers

Identifying Ordering

(Letter boxes, number plates, speed signs, how many km to go, number cards, combine numbers)

## (Number cards, write some numbers down)

numbers

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Knowledge Building
Knowing Basic
(Using ten frames, using fingers, quinary sticks)

groups to ten

Ten frames

Recalling

## (ten frames, fingers, quinary sticks)

Quinary Sticks
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Stumbling Blocks
Children that cant count backwards have
trouble subtracting 7= 5+2=4+3=6+1

Knowledge of numbers needs to be secure e.g, Place value knowledge needs to be strong By the end of Year 5 confidence in thinking in
groups (multiplicative thinking) generalising

## Supports partitioning, proportions and

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## Basic Facts Games

Salute Ready, set, go. 10.20 Number Hangman

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## Handouts Support Material

Handouts First

to support stages