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WORK, POWER & ENERGY WORK, POWER & ENERGY

Kinetic and potential energy; Work and Power, Conservation of
mechanical energy, work energy principle.
WORK : .
When a force is applied at a point and the point gets some displacement along the
direction of force then work is said to be done by the force. The work done, W by a constant
force

F
when its point of application undergoes a displacement

S
is measured as
W =
F

.
S

= |

F
| |

S
| cos
Where is the angle between

F
and

S
. Work is a scalar quantity and its SI unit is N-m or
joule (J).
Only the component (Fcos) of the force F which is along the displacement contributes
to the work done. If

F
=
x F


i
$
+
y F


$
j
+
z F


$
k
and

S
= x
i
$
+ y
$
j
+ z
$
k
then W =

F
.
S

= F
x
x+F
y
y+F
z
z
Positive and Negative work : The work is said to be positive if the angle is acute (
< 90
0
) and negative if the angle is obtuse ( > 90
0
). If the angle between

F
and

S
is 90
0
then work done by the force is zero.
If the force is variable then the work done by the variable force is given by dW =

F
.

dS

or
W =


2
1
S
S
dS . F
Work depends on frame of reference. With change of frame of reference displacement
may change, so the work done by a force will be different in different frames.
Illustration 1 :
A particle of mass 2 kg moves under the action of a constant force

F
=
$
( )
5i 2 j
$
N. If
its displacement is 6
$
j
m. What is the work done by the force

F
?

S Y L L A B U S
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Solution :
The work done

F
.

x
=
$
( )
5i 2 j
$
.
$
6 j
= - 12 Joule
Illustration 2 :
A load of mass m = 3000 kg is lifted by a rope with an acceleration a = 2 m/s
2
. Find the
work done during the first one and a half seconds from the beginning of motion.
Solution :
The height to which the body is lifted during the first 't' second is h =
2
1
at
2
tension in
the rope T = mg + ma
Work done = T.h = m(g + a)
,
_

2
2
1
at
= 3000 (10 + 2) ( )
1
]
1

2
5 1 2
2
1
. x x
= 81 KJ
WORK DONE BY A SPRING FORCE :
Whenever a spring is stretched or compressed, the spring force always tend to restore it
to the equilibrium position. If x be the displacement of the free end of the spring from its
equilibrium position then, the magnitude of the spring force is F
S
= - kx
The negative sign indicates that the force is restoring.
The work done by the spring force for a displacement from x
i
to x
f
is given by
Ws =

f
x
i
x
kxdx
W
s
= ( )
2 2
2
1
i f
x x k
WORK DONE BY FRICTION :
Work done by friction may be zero, positive or negative depending upon the situations:
When a block is pulled by a force F and the block does not move, the work done by
friction is zero.
When a block is pulled on a stationary surface, the work done by the kinetic friction is
negative.
When one block is placed on another block and is pulled by a force then friction force
does negative work on top block and positive work on the lower block
WORK DONE BY GRAVITY :
Here the force of gravity is F
g
= - mg
$
j
and the displacement is given by

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S
= x
i
$
+ y
$
j
+ z
$
k
Work done by gravity is W
g
=
g

F
.

S
= - mg y
y =
f i
y y
= - h
W
g
= + mgh
If the block moves in the upward direction, then the work done by gravity is negative
and is given by W
g
= - mgh.
DEPENDENCE OF WORK ON FRAME OF REFERENCE :
Work depends upon the frame of reference from where it is calculated. As the
displacement as well as force, depends upon the different frames of reference. Therefore, the
work also changes.
For example :- If you calculate work from a non inertial frame work due to pseudo force has to
be included.
CONSERVATIVE AND NON CONSERVATIVE FORCES :
In Conservative force field the work done by the force is independent on path followed
and depends only on initial and final co-ordinates. Such forces are known as Conservative
forces.
Examples are gravitational, electrostatic forces.
If the work done depends on path followed. Such forces are called non-
Conservative forces. Example is frictional force.
Illustration 3 :
A train is moving with a constant speed "v". A box is pushed by a worker applying a
force "F" on the box in the train slowly by distance "d" on the train for time "t". Find the work
done by "F" from the train frame as well as from the ground frame.
Solution :
As the box is seen from the train frame the displacement is only 'd' if the force direction
is same as the direction of motion of the box.
Then the work done = F.d = Fdcos0
0
= Fd
= Fdcos180
0
= -Fd (if the displacement on the train is opposite
to 'F')
As the box is seen from ground frame,
the displacement of the box = vt + d (if the displacement is along the direction of
motion of the train )
= d - vt (if the displacement is opposite to direction of motion
of the train)
then work done = F. (vt + d) = Fvt + Fd OR = F.(d-vt) = Fd - Fvt

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Illustration 4 :
A block is (mass m) placed on the rough surface of a plank (mass m) of
coefficient of friction "" which in turn is placed on a smooth surface. The block
is given a velocity v
0
with respect to the plank which comes to rest with respect
to the plank. Find the
a) The total work done by friction in the plank frame.
b) The work done by friction on the smaller block in the plank frame.
c) Find the final velocity of the plank
Solution :
The acceleration of the plank = Friction force applied by the block on the plank / mass of
the plank.
g
m
mg
a
p

(a) Pseudo force acting on the block = g (back wards)


Force of friction is mg ( acting backwards)
From the plank frame time needed to stop the block is given by
0 = at V +
0
( ) g a 2
t =
g
V
2
0
Velocity of the plank during this time is
t a u V
p p p
+
=
2 2
0 0
V
g
V
g

Displacement of the block = S =


g
V
a
V
V

,
_

,
_

8
3
2
2
2
0
2
0 2
0
Work done by friction on the block = ( ) 1
8
3
2
0


g
V
. mg cos . S . F =
2
0
8
3
mv
(b) From the Plank frame
Work done by friction on smaller block = -mgl
g 2
V 0
2
0


2
mV
g
2
0

work done by friction from the Plank frame =
2
mV
2
0

(c) Final velocity of the block

m
m
0
v
mg
p
ma
m
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= Velocity of the plank =
2
0
V
WORK ENERGY THEOREM :
Now we have to study which physical quantity changes when work is done on a particle.
If a constant force F acts through a displacement x, it does work W = Fx

2 2
i f
v v + 2 ax
W =
( )
2
2 2
i f
m v v
=
2
1
m
2
f
v -
2
1
m
2
i
v
The quantity k =
2
1
m v
2
is a scalar and is called the kinetic energy of the particle. It is
the energy posses by the particle by virtue of its motion.
Thus the equation takes the form
K K K W
i f

The work done by a force changes the kinetic energy of the particle. This is called the
work -Energy Theorem.
Illustration 5 :
The velocity of an 800 gm object changes from

0
v
= 3
i
$
- 4
$
j
to

f
v
= -6
$
j
+ 2
$
k
m/s.
What is the change in K.E of the body?
Solution :
Here m = 800gm = 0.8 kg

o
v
=
( )
2 2
4 3 +
= 5
( ) ( )
2 2
2 6 +

f
v
= 40
change in K.E =
2
1
x 0.8

,
_


2
0
2
v v
f = ( ) J x . x 6 25 40 8 0
2
1

Illustration 6 :
The coefficient of sliding friction between a 900 kg car and pavement is 0.8. If the car is
moving at 25 m/s along level pavement, when it begins to skid to a stop, how far will it go
before stopping?
Solution :
Here m = 900kg = 0.8, v = 25 m/s S =?
K.E = work done against friction
2
2
1
mv = F.s = N.s = mgs
s =
g
v
2
2
=
( )
10 8 0 2
25
2
x . x
~ 39 m

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Illustration 7 :
An object of mass 10kg falls from rest through a vertical distance of 20m and acquires a
velocity of 10 m/s. How much work is done by the push of air on the object? (g = 10 m/s
2
)
Solution :
Let upward push of air be F
The resultant downward force = mg - F
As work done = gain in K.E
(mg - F) x S =
2
2
1
mv
(10 x 10 - F) x 20 =
2
1
x 10 x (10)
2
F = 75 N
Work done by push of air = 75 x 20 = 15 Joule
This work done is negative.
POTENTIAL ENERGY :
Potential energy of any body is the energy possessed by the body by virtue of its position
or the state of deformation. With every potential energy there is an associated conservative
force. The potential energy is measured as the magnitude of work done against the
associated conservative force
du = - r d . F

for example :
(i) If an object is placed at any point in gravitational field work is to be done against
gravitational field force. The magnitude of this work done against the gravitational force
gives the measure of gravitational potential energy of the body at that position which is
U = mgh. Here h is the height of the object from the reference level.
(ii) The magnitude of work done against the spring force to compress it gives the measure
of elastic potential energy, which is U =
2
1
k x
2

(iii) A charged body in any electrostatic field will have electrostatic potential energy. The
change in potential energy of a system associated with conservative internal force as
U
2
-U
1
= - W=

2
1
F . dr
CONSERVATION OF MECHANICAL ENERGY :
Change in potential energy U = - W
C
where W
C
is the work done by conservative forces.
From work energy theorem
W
net
= k
Where W
net
is the sum of work done by all the forces acting on the mass. If the system

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is subjected to only conservative forces then W
net
= W
C
= k
U = - k U + k = 0
The above equation tells us that the total change in potential energy plus the total
change in kinetic energy is zero, if only conservative forces are acting on the system.
(k+U) = 0 or E = 0 where E = k + U
When only conservative forces act, the change in total mechanical energy of a
system is zero. i.e if only conservative forces perform work on and within a
system, the total mechanical energy of the system is conserved.
k
f
+ U
f
- (k
i
+ U
i
) = 0
k
f
+ U
f
= k
i
+ U
i

E = 0, integrating both sides E = constant.
Illustration 8 :
A projectile is fired from the top of a 40m. high cliff with an initial speed of 50 m/s at an
unknown angle. Find its speed when it hits the ground.
Solution :
Taking ground as the reference level we can conserve the mechanical energy between
the points A and B
(K + U) = 0 K
i
+ U
i
= K
f
+ U
f


2
1
mv
2
+ mgH =
2
1
mv'
2
+ 0

2
1
(50)
2
+ 40 x 10 =
2
1
v'
2

(1250 + 400) x 2 = v'
2
v'
2
= 3300
v' ~ 58 m/s
POWER : .
Power is defined as the rate at which work is done. If an amount of work W is done in a
time interval t, then average power is defined to be
P
av
=
t
W

The S.I. unit of power is J/S or watt (W). Thus 1 W = 1 J/S


The instantaneous power is the limiting value of P
av
as t 0 that is P =
dt
dW
Instantaneous power may also be written as P =

v . F
dt
dW
Since work and energy are

' v
H
A

v
B
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closely related, a more general definition of power is the rate of energy transfer from one body
to another, or the rate at which energy is transformed from one form to another, i.e. P =
dt
dE
.
Illustration 9 :
A car of mass 500 kg moving with a speed 36km/hr in a straight road unidirectionally
doubles its speed in 1 minute. Find the average power delivered by the engine.
Solution :
Its initial speed V
1
= 10 m/s then V
2
= 20 m/s
k =
2
1
m
2
1
2
2
2
1
mv v
Power delivered by the engine
P =
( )
t
v v m
t
K

2
1
2
2
2
1
=
( )
60
10 20 500
2
1
2 2
x
= 1250 W.
MOTION IN A VERTICAL CIRCLE :
A particle of mass 'm' is attached to a light and inextensible
string. The other end of the sting is fixed at O and the particle
moves in vertical circle of radius 'r' equal to the length of the string
as shown in the fig. At the point P, net radial force on the particle is
T-mg cos.
T - mg cos =
r
mv
2
T = mg cos +
r
mv
2
The particle will complete the circle if the string does not slack even at the highest point
( = ). Thus, tension in the string should be greater than or equal to zero (T > 0) at = for
critical situation T = 0 and =
mg =
R
mv
min
2

2
min
v =
gR

min
v = gR
Now conserving energy between the lowest and the highest point

O
T
P

cos mg
sin mg
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2
1
( ) R mg mv mu
min min
2
2
1
2 2
+
gR gR gR u
min
5 4
2
+
gR u
min
5
If gR u
min
5 the particle will complete the circle. At u = gR 5 ,velocity at highest
point is v = gR and tension in the string is zero.
If u < gR 5 , the tension in the string become zero before reaching the highest point and
at that point the particle will leave the circular path. After leaving the circle the particle will follow a
parabolic path.
Above conditions are applicable even if a particle moves inside a smooth spherical shell
of radius R. The only difference is that the tension is replaced by the normal reaction N.
Illustration 10 :
A heavy particle hanging from a fixed point by a light inextensible string of length l is
projected horizontally with speed g . Find the speed of the particle and the inclination of
the string to the vertical at the instant of the motion when the tension in the string is equal to
the weight of the particle.
Solution :
Let T = mg at an angle as shown in figure
h = l (1 - cos)
Conserving mechanical energy between
A and B
2
1
mu
2
=
2
1
mv
2
+ mgh
u
2
= v
2
+ 2gh v
2
= u
2
- 2gh . (i)
T - mg cos =

2
mv
T= mg cos +

2
mv
mg = mg cos +

2
mv
v
2
= g

l (1- cos) . (ii)
From (i) and (ii) u
2
- 2gl (1 - cos) = gl (1 - cos)
cos =
3
2
= cos
-1

,
_

3
2
putting the value of cos in equation (ii)
v
2
= gl
,
_

3
2
1 =
3
g
v =
3
g
Equilibrium :As we have studied earlier a body is said to be in translational equilibrium if net

A
g u
cos mg
sin mg
B
h

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force acting on the body is Zero.
F
net
= 0
If the forces are Conservative F = -
dr
dU
0
dr
dU

At Equilibrium slope of U and r graph is Zero (or) Potential energy either


maximum or minimum or constant at that position.
At the stable equilibrium position P.E is minimum
At the unstable equilibrium position P.E is maximum
Illustration 11 :
The P.E of a Conservative system is given as U = 10 + (x-2)
2
. Find the equilibrium
position and discuss type of equilibrium.
Solution :
For Equilibrium F = 0
F = - 0 ) 2 x ( 2
dx
dU

x = 2
and 0
dx
U d
2
2
<
it is Stable equilibrium position at x= 2 and P.E at that position is 20 units.
* * * *
WORKED OUT OBJECTIVE PROBLEMS : .
Example : 01
A particle moves with a velocity 5
i
$
- 3
$
j
+ 6
$
k
m/s under the influence of a constant
force

F
=
$ $
( )
10 i 10 j 20 k + +
$
N. The instantaneous power applied to the particle is
A) 200 J/S B) 40 J/S C) 140 J/S D) 170 J/S
Solution :
P =

F
.

V
= (5
i
$
-
$
3 j
+6
$
k
) . (10
i
$
+ 10
$
j
+20
$
k
)
= 50 - 30 + 120 = 140 J/S
Example : 02

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A 15 gm ball is shot from a spring gun whose spring has a force constant of 600 N/m.
The spring is compressed by 5 cm. The greatest possible horizontal range of the ball for this
compression is
(g = 10 m/s
2
)
A) 6.0 m B) 12.0 m C) 10.0 m D) 8.0 m
Solution :
R
max
=
g
u
2
=

,
_

,
_

mg
mu
2
2
1
2
=
mg
kx
mg
kx
2
2
2
2
1

,
_

,
_


,
_

2 2
kx
2
1
mu
2
1

=
( )
m
x .
.
10
10 015 0
05 0 600
2
.
[Note : The actual value of 'u' will be less than the calculated value as some part of 1/2kx
2
is used up in
doing work against gravity when the spring regains its length]
Example : 03
Force acting on a particle is (2
i
$
+ 3
$
j
) N. work done by this force is zero, when a
particle is moved on the line 3y + kx = 5 Here value of k is
A) 3 B) 2 C) 1 D) 4
Solution :
Force is parallel to the line y = 3/2 x + c
and the given line can be written as y =
3
5
3
+ x
k
as the work done is zero
force is perpendicular to the displacement

,
_


,
_

3 2
3 k
= - 1
k = 2
Example : 04
Power supplied to a particle of mass 2 kg varies with time as p =
2
3
2
t
watt. Here 't' is in
second. If velocity of particle at t = 0 is v = 0. The velocity of particle at time t = 2 second will
be
A) 1 m/s B) 4 m/s C) 2 m/s D) 2
2
m/s
Solution :
k
f
- k
i
=

2
0
dt P

2
1
mv
2
=

2
0
2
3
t
2
dt v
2
=
2
0
3
2
1
1
]
1

t

m = 2 kg v = 2 m/s

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Example : 05
A particle of mass 'm' is projected with velocity 'u' at an angle with horizontal. During
the period when the particle descends from highest point to the position where its velocity
vector makes an angle /2 with horizontal, work done by the gravity force is
A) 1/2 mu
2
tan
2
/2 B) 1/2 mu
2
tan
2

C) 1/2 mu
2
cos
2
tan
2
/2 D) 1/2 mu
2
cos
2
/2 sin
2

Solution :
As horizontal component of velocity does not change v cos /2 = ucos
v =
2

cos
cos u
W
gravity
= K =
2
1
mv
2
-
2
1
m (u cos)
2
=
2
1
mu
2
cos
2
tan
2

2

Example : 06
A body of mass 1 kg thrown upwards with a velocity of 10 m/s comes to rest
(momentarily) after moving up 4 m. The work done by air drag in this process is (g = 10 m/s
2
)
A) 10 J B) - 10 J C) 40 J D) 50 J
Solution :
From work energy theorem W
gr
+ W
air drag
= k
- mgh + W
air drag
= 0 -
2
1
mu
2
W
air drag
= mgh -
2
1
mu
2
= (40 - 50) J = - 10 J
Example : 07
The potential energy of particle of mass 'm' is given by U =
2
1
kx
2
for x < 0 and U = 0
for x > 0. If total mechanical energy of the particle is E. Then its speed at x =
k
E 2
is
A) zero B)
M
E 2
C)
m
E
D)
m
E
2
Solution :
Potential energy of particle at x =
k
E 2
is zero K.E = E

2 /
cos u
V
u
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2
1
mv
2
= E or v =
m
E 2
Example : 08
A block is suspended by an ideal spring of force constant k. If the block is pulled down
by applying a constant Force 'F' and if maximum displacement of block from its initial position
of rest is then
A)
K
F
< <
K
F 2
B) =
K
F 2
C) Work done by force F is equal to F D) Increases in energy stored in
spring is
2
1
k
2
Solution :
If the mass of the hanging block be 'm' then elongation of spring is
k
mg
.
Due to the applied force the additional stretching is
F + mg =
2
1
K
K
g m
K
mg
2
2 2
2

,
_

+
=
2
1
K
K
g m
K
mg
K
g m
2
2
2 2
2
2
2 2

,
_


+ +
=
2
1
K
2
+ mg =
K
F 2
.
Example : 09
A stone is projected at time t = 0 with a speed V
0
and an angle with the horizontal in a
uniform gravitational field. The rate of work done (P) by the gravitational force plotted against
time (t) will be as
A) B) C) D)
Solution :
Rate of work done is the power associated with the force. It means rate of work done by
the gravitational force is the power associated with the gravitational force. Gravitational force
acting on the block is equal to its weight mg which acts vertically downwards.
Velocity of the particle (at time t) has two components,
(i) a horizontal component v cos and

P
O
t
P
O t
P
O t
t O
P
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(ii) a vertically upward component (v sin - gt)
Hence, the power associated with her weight mg will be equal to p = m

g
.

v
= -mg (v
sin - gt)
This shows that the curve between power & time will be straight line having positive slope but
negative intercept on Y-axis.
Hence (D) is correct.

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SINGLE ANSWER TYRE .
LEVEL - I .
1. Two springs A and B(K
A
= 2K
B
) are stretched by applying forces of equal magnitudes at
the four ends. If the energy stored in A is E, that in B is
a) E/2 b) 2E c) E d) E/4
2. Two equal masses are attached to the two ends of a spring constant K. The masses are
pulled out symmetrically to stretch the spring by a length x over its natural length. The
work done by the spring on each mass is
a) Kx
2
b) -1/2 Kx
2
c) Kx
2
d) -1/4 Kx
2
3. The negative of the work done by the conservative internal forces on a system equals
the change in
a) total energy b) kinetic energy c) potential energy d) none of these
4. The work done by the external forces on a system equals the change in
a) total energy b) kinetic energy c) potential energy d) none of these
5. The work done by all the forces (external and internal) on a system equals the change in
a) total energy b) kinetic energy c) potential energy d) none of these
6. ________ of a two particle system depends only on the separation between the two
particles. The most appropriate choice for the blank space in the above sentence is
a) kinetic energy b) total mechanical energy
c) potential energy d) total energy
7. A small block of mass m is kept on a rough inclined surface of inclination fixed in an
elevator. The elevator goes up with a uniform velocity v and the block does not slide
on the wedge. The work done by the force of friction on the block in time t will be
a) zero b) mgvt cos
2
c) mgvt sin
2
d) mgvt sin2
8. A block of mass m slides down a smooth vertical circular track. During the motion, the
block is in
a) vertical equilibrium b) horizontal equilibrium
c) radial equilibrium d) none of these
9. A particle is rotated in a vertical circle by connecting it to a string of length l and
keeping the other end of the string fixed. The minimum speed of the particle when the
string is horizontal for which the particle will complete the circle is
a) gl b) gl 2 c) gl 3 d) gl 5
10. Consider two observers moving with respect to each other at a speed v along a straight
line. They observe a block of mass m moving a distance l on a rough surface. The
following quantities will be same as observed by the two observers
a) kinetic energy of the block at time t b) work done by friction
c) total work done on the block d) acceleration of the block
11. A particle of mass m is attached to a light string of length l, the other end of which is
fixed. Initially the string is kept horizontal and the particle is given an upward velocity
v. The particle is just able to complete a circle

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a) the string becomes slack when the particle reaches its highest point
b) the velocity of the particle becomes zero at the highest point
c) the kinetic energy of the ball in initial position was mv
2
= mgl
d) the particle again passes through the initial position
12. The kinetic energy of a particle continuously increases with time
a) the resultant force on the particle must be parallel to the velocity at all instants
b) the resultant force on the particle must be at an angle less than 90
0
all the time
c) its height above the ground level must continuously decrease
d) the magnitude of its linear momentum is increasing continuously
13. One end of a light spring of spring constant k is fixed to a wall and the other end is tied
to a block placed on a smooth horizontal surface. In a displacement, the work done by
the spring is kx
2
. The possible cases are
a) the spring was initially compressed by a distance x and was finally in its natural
length
b) it was initially stretched by a distance x and finally was in its natural length
c) it was initially in its natural length and finally in a compressed position
d) it was initially in its natural length and finally in a stretched position
14. A block of mass M is hanging over a smooth and light pulley through a light string. The
other end of the string is pulled by a constant force F. The kinetic energy of the block
increases by 20J in 1s
a) the tension in the string is Mg b) the tension in the string is F
c) the work done by the tension on the block is 20J in the above is 1s
d) the work done by the force of gravity is 20J in the above 1s
15. A particle of mass 0.25kg moves under the influence of a force F = (2x-1). If the velocity
of the particle at x = 0 is 4m/s. its velocity at x = 2m will be
A) 4
2
m/s B) 2
2
m/s C) 8m/s D) 6m/s
16. Work done to accelerate a car from 10 to 20m/s compared with that required to
accelerate it from 0 to 10m/s is
A) twice B) three times C) four times D) same
17. Two springs have their force constant as K
1
and K
2
(K
1
> K
2
). When they are stretched by
the same force :
A) no work is done in case of both the springs B) equal work is done in case of both
the springs
C) more work is done in case of second spring D) more work is done in case of first
spring
18. The kinetic energy K of a particle moving in a straight line depends upon the distance s
as K = as
2
where a is a constant. The force acting on the particle is
A) 2as B) 2mas C) 2a D)
2
as
19. A particle moves in a straight line with a retardation proportional to its displacement. Its
loss of kinetic energy for any displacement x is proportional to
A) x B) x
2
C) ln x D) e
x
20. Choose the wrong option

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A) If conservative forces are doing negative work then potential energy will increase and
kinetic energy will decrease.
B) If kinetic energy is constant it means work done by conservative forces is zero.
C) for change in potential energy only conservative forces are responsible, but for
change in kinetic energy other than conservative forces are responsible
D) all of the above are wrong
21. Instantaneous power of a constant force acting on a particle moving in a straight line
under the action of this force :
A) is constant B) increases linearly with time
C) decreases linearly with time D) either increases or decreases linearly with
time.
22. Suppose y represents the work done and x the power, then dimensions of
2
2
dx
y d
will be :
A)
1 2 4
M L T

1
]
B)
2 3 2
M L T

1
]
C)
2 4 4
M L T

1
]
D)
3 6
ML T

1
]
23. Choose the correct statement Work done by a variable force
A) Is defined as F . S
uur ur
B) Is independent of path
C) Is always dependent on the initial and final positions
D) None of these
24. Identify the correct statement for a non-conservative force
A) A force which is not conservative is called a non-conservative force
B) The work done by this force depends on the path followed
C) The word done by this force along a closed path is zero
D) The work done by this force is always negative
25. The figure shows a plot of potential energy function, u(x) = kx
2
where x is the displacement and k is a constant. Identify the
correct conservative force function F(x)
26. A plot of velocity versus time is shown in figure. A single force acts on the body. Find
correct statement
A) In moving from C to D, work done by the force on the body is positive
B) In moving from B to C, work done by the force on the body is positive
C) In moving from A to B, the body does work on the system and is negative

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D) In moving from O to A, work done by the body and is negative
LEVEL - II .
1. A particle of mass m is moving in a circular path of radius r under the influence of
centripetal force F = C/r
2
. The total energy of the particle is
a)
r 2
C
b)
r 2
C
c) C x 2r d) Zero
2. Water from a stream is falling on the blades of a turbine at the rate of 100kg/sec. If the
height of the stream is 100m then the power delivered to the turbine is
a) 100 kw b) 100 w c) 10 kw d) 1 kw
3. A body is being moved along a straight line by a machine delivering a constant power.
The distance covered by the body in time t is proportional to
a)
1
b) t
3/2
c) t
3/4
d) t
2
4. A ball is dropped from a height of 10m. If 40% of its energy is lost on collision with the
earth then after collision the ball will rebound to a height of
a) 10m b) 8m c) 4m d) 6m
5. A particle moves under the influence of a force F = CX from X = 0 to X = X
1
. The work
done in this process will be
a)
2
CX
2
1
b)
2
1
CX c)
3
1
CX d)
0
6. A uniform chain of mass M and length L lies on a horizontal table such that one third of
its length hangs from the edge of the table. The work done is pulling the hanging part
on the table will be
a)
3
MgL
b) MgL c)
9
MgL
d)
18
MgL
7. An electric motor produces a tension of 4500N in a load lifting cable and rolls it at the
rate of 2m/s. The power of the motor is
a) 9 kw b) 15 kw c) 225 kw d) 9 x 10
3
HP
8. The relation between time and displacement of a particle moving under the influence of
a force F is t =
x
+3 where x is in meter and t in second. The displacement of the
particle when its velocity is zero will be
a) 1 m b) 0 m c) 3 m d) 2 m
9. A moving particle of mass m collides head on with another stationary particle of mass
2m. What fraction of its initial kinetic energy will m lose after the collision?
a) 9/8 b) 8/9 c) 19/18 d) 18/19
10. Two particles each of mass m and traveling with velocities u
1
and u
2
collide perfectly
inelastically. The loss of energy will be
a) m(u
1
u
2
)
2
b) m(u
1
u
2
)
2
c) m(u
1
u
2
)
2
d) 2m(u
1
u
2
)
2
11. A liquid in a U tube is changed from position (a) to position
(b) with the help of a pump. The density of liquid is d and

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area of cross section of the tube is a. The work done in pumping the liquid will be
a) dgha b) dgh
2
a
c) 2gdh
2
a d) 4dgh
2
a
12. A man pulls a bucket full of water from a h metre deep well. If the mass of the rope is m
and mass of bucket full of water is M, then the work done by the man is
a) gh m
2
M
1
]
1

+ b) gh
2
m M
1
]
1

+
c) gh
2
m
M
1
]
1

+ d)
(M + m) gh
13. The force-displacement curve for a body moving on a smooth
surface under the influence of force F acting along the direction
of displacement s has been shown in fig. If the initial kinetic
energy of the body is 2.5J. its kinetic energy at s = 6m is
A) 7J B) 4.5J C) 2.25J
D) 9J
14. A bullet, moving with a speed of 150m/s, strikes a wooden plank. After passing through
the plank its speed becomes 125m/s. Another bullet of the same mass and size strikes
the plank with a speed of 90m/s. It speed after passing through the plank would be
A) 25m/s B) 35m/s C) 50m/s D) 70m/s
15. A man of mass 60kg climbs a staircase inclined at 45
0
and having 10steps. Each step is
20cm high. He takes 2 seconds for the first five steps and 3 seconds for the remaining
five steps. The average power of the man is
A) 245W B) 245
2
W C) 235
2
W D) 235W
16. The potential energy of a particle moving in x-y plane is given by U = x
2
+ 2y. The force
acting on the particle at (2, 1) is
A) 6N B) 20 N C)
12
N D) 0
17. Water is flowing in a river at 20m/s. The river is 50m wide and has an average depth of
5m. The power available from the current in the river is
A) 0.5MW B) 1.0MW C) 1.5MW D) 2.0MW
18. A 5kg brick of dimensions 20cm x 10cm x 8cm is lying on the largest base. It is now
made to stand with length vertical. If g = 10m/s
2
, then the amount of work done is
A) 3J B) 5J C) 7J D) 9J
19. A body of mass m was slowly pulled up the hill by a force F which
at each point was directed along the tangent of the trajectory. All
surfaces are smooth. Find the work performed by this force
A) mg B) -mg
C) mgh D) zero
20. A rope ladder with a length l carrying a man of mass m at its end, is attached to the
basket of a balloon of mass M. The entire system is in equilibrium in air. As the man
climbs up the ladder into the balloon, the balloon descends by height h. Then the
potential energy of man
A) increases by mg l B) increases by mg (l -h)

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C) increases by mgh D) increases by mg (2 l -h)
21. Two springs s
1
and s
2
have negligible masses and the spring constant of s
1
is
one-third that of s
2
. When a block is hung from the springs as shown, the
springs came to the equilibrium again. The ratio of work done is stretching s
1
to
s
2
is
A) 1/9
B) 1/3
C) 1
D) 3
22. A light spring of length l and spring constant 'k' it is placed vertically. A small ball of
mass m falls from a height h as measured from the bottom of the spring. The ball
attaining to maximum velocity when the height of the ball from the bottom of the spring
is
A) mg/k B) l-mg/k C) l + mg/k D) l - k/mg
23. A block of mass 1kg is permanently attached with a spring of spring constant k =
100N/m. The spring is compressed 0.20m and placed on a horizontal smooth surface.
When the block is released, it moves to a point 0.4m beyond the point when the spring
is at its natural length. The work done by the spring in changing from compressed state
to the stretched state is
A) 10J B) -6J C) -8J D) 18J
24. A chain of length l and mass m lies on the surface of a smooth sphere of radius R with
one end tied on the top of the sphere. If = R/2, then the potential energy of the
chain with reference level at the centre of sphere is give by
A) m R g B) 2m R g C) 2/ m R g D) 1/ m R g
25. If the force acting on a particle is given by
F
= 2i + xyj + xz
2
k, how much work is done
when the particle moves parallel to Z-axis from the point (2, 3, 1) to (2, 3, 4) ?
A) 42J B) 48J C) 84J D) 36J
26. A uniform chain of length ' ' and mass m is placed on a smooth table with one-fourth
of its length hanging over the edge. The work that has to be done to pull the whole
chain back onto the table is
A)
4
1
mgl B)
8
1
mgl C)
16
1
mgl D)
32
1
mgl
27. A spring, which is initially in its unstretched condition, is first stretched by a length x and
then again by a further length x. The work done in the first case is W
1
and in the second
case is W
2
A) W
2
= W
1
B) W
2
= 2W
1
C) W
2
= 3W
1
D) W
2
= 4W
1
28. A particle of mass m is fixed to one end of a light rigid rod of length ' ' and rotated in a
vertical circular path about its other end. The minimum speed of the particle at its
highest point must be
A) zero B) l g C) l g 5 . 1 D) l g 2

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29. A particle is moving in a conservative force field from point A to B. U
A
and U
B
are the
potential energies of the particle at points A and B and W
c
is the work done in the
process of taking the particle from A to B.
A) W
c
= U
B
- U
A
B) W
c
= U
A
- U
B
C) U
A
> U
B
D) U
B
>
U
A
30. A force is given by Mv
2
/r when the mass moves with speed v in a circle of radius r. The
work done by this force in moving the body over upper half circle along the
circumference is
A) zero B) C) Mv
2
D) Mv
2
/2
31. A moving railway compartment has a spring of constant 'k' fixed to its front wall. A boy
in the compartment stretches this spring by distance x and in the mean time the
compartment moves by a distance s. The work done by boy w.r.t earth is
A)
2
kx
2
1
B)
2
1
(kx) (s+x) C) kxs
2
1
D) ( ) s x s kx
2
1
+ +
32. Force acting on a block moving along x-axis is given by : F = N
2 x
4
2

,
_

The block is displaced from x=-2m to x=+4m, the work done will be
A) positive B) negative
C) zero D) may be positive or negative
33. The system is released from rest with both the springs in unstretched positions. Mass of
each block is 1 kg and force constant of each springs is 10 N/m. Extension of horizontal
spring in equilibrium is:
A) 0.2m B) 0.4m C) 0.6m D)
0.8m
34. In a projectile motion, if we plot a graph between power of the force acting on the
projectile and time then it would be like :
A) B) C) D)
35. A golfer rolls a small ball with speed u along the floor from point
A. If x = 3R, determine the required speed u so that the ball
returns to A after rolling on the circular surface in the vertical
plane from B to C and becoming a projectile at C. (Neglect
friction)
A) gR
5
2
B) gR
2
5
C) gR
7
5
D) none of these
LEVEL - III .

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1. A block m is pulled by applying a force F as shown in fig. If the block has moved up
through a distance 'h', the work done by the force F is
A) 0 2) Fh C) 2Fh D)
2
1
Fh
2. A body of mass m, having momentum p is moving on a rough horizontal surface. If it is
stopped in a distance x, the coefficient of friction between the body and the surface is
given by
A) = p/(2mg x) B) = p
2
/ (2mg s) C) = p
2
/ (2g m
2
s) D) = p
2
(2g m
2
s
2
)
3. A body of mass m moves from rest, along a straight line, by an engine delivering
constant power P. the velocity of the body after time t will be
A)
m
Pt 2
B)
m
Pt 2
C)
m 2
Pt
D)
m 2
Pt
4. The spring shown in fig has a force constant k and the mass of block is m.
Initially, the spring is unstretched when the block is released. The maximum
elongation of the spring on the releasing the mass will be
A)
k
mg
B)
2
1
k
mg
C) 2
k
mg
D) 4
k
mg
5. A skier starts from rest at point A and slides down the hill,
without turning or braking. The friction coefficient is . When he
stops at point B, his horizontal displacement is S. The height
difference h between points A and B is
A) h = S/ B) h = S
C) h = S
2
D) h = S/
2

6. A block of mass m starts at rest at height h on a frictionless
inclined plane. The block slides down the plane travels a
total distance d across a rough horizontal surface with
coefficient of kinetic friction
k
and compresses a spring
with force constant k, a distance x before momentarily
coming to rest. The spring then extends and the block travels back across the rough
surface, sliding up the plane. The maximum height h' that the block reaches on its
return is
A) h' = h - 2d B) h' = h - 2d -
2
1
kx
2
C) h' = h - 2d + kx
2
D) h' = h
- 2d - kx
2
7. A chain of length 3 and mass m lies at the top of smooth prism
such that its length is one side and 2 is on the other side of
the vertex. The angle of prism is 120
0
and the prism is not free to

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move. If the chain is released. What will be its velocity when the right end of the chain is
just crossing the top-most point?
A) l g 2 B) l g
3
2
C) l g
3
1
D) l g
2
1
8. If a constant power P is applied in a vehicle, then its acceleration increases with time
according to the relation
A) a =
t
m 2
P

,
_

B) a =
2 / 3
t
m 2
P

,
_

C) a =
t / 1
m 2
P

,
_

D) a =
mt 2
P
9. A body of mass m slides downward along a plane inclined at an angle . The coefficient
of friction is . The rate at which kinetic energy plus gravitational potential energy
dissipates expressed as a function of time is
A) mtg
2
cos B) mtg
2
cos (sin - cos )
C) mtg
2
sin D) mtg
2
sin (sin - cos )
10. The potential energy for a force field
F
is given by U(x, y) = sin (x + y). The force
acting on the particle of mass m at (0, /4) is
A) 1 B)
2
C) 1/
2
D) 0
11. A uniform rope of length ' ' and mass m hangs over a horizontal table with two third
part on the table. The coefficient of friction between the table and the chain is . The
work done by the friction during the period the chain slips completely off the table is
A) 2/9 mgl B) 2/3 mgl C) 1/3 mgl D) 1/9 mgl
12. A particle is moving in a force field given by potential U = - (x + y + z) from the point
(1, 1, 1) to (2, 3, 4). The work done in the process is
A) 3 B) 1.5 C) 6 D) 12
13. A compressed spring of spring constant k releases a ball of mass
m. If the height of spring is h and the spring is compressed
through a distance x, the horizontal distance covered by ball to
reach ground is
A) x
mg
kh
B)
mg
xkh
C) x
mg
kh 2
D)
kh x
mg
14. A block of mass m = 2kg is moving with velocity v
o
towards
a massless unstretched spring of force constant K = 10
N/m. Coefficient of friction between the block and the
ground is = 1/5. Find maximum value of v
o
so that after
pressing the spring the block does not return back but stops there permanently.
A) 6 m/s B) 12m/s C) 8m/s D) 10m/s

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15. Potential energy of a particle moving along x-axis under the action of only conservative
forces is given as : U = 10 + 4 sin(4x). Here U is in Joule and x in meters. Total
mechanical energy of the particle is 16J. Choose the correct option.
A) At x = 1.25m, particle is at equilibrium position. C) both A and B are correct
B) Maximum kinetic energy of the particle is 20J D) both A and B are wrong.
16. A system shown in figure is released from rest. Pulley and spring is
massless and friction is absent everywhere. The speed of 5 kg block when
2 kg block leaves the contact with ground is (Take force constant of spring
k = 40 N/m and g = 10 m/s
2
)
A)
2
m/s` B) 2
2
m/s
C) 2m/s D) 4
2
m/s
17. Two blocks of masses m
1
= 1 kg and m
2
= 2 kg are connected
by a non-deformed light spring. They are lying on a rough
horizontal surface. The coefficient of friction between the
blocks and the surface is 0.4 what minimum constant force F has to be applied in
horizontal direction to the block of mass m
1
in order to shift the other block? (g = 10
m/s
2
)
A) 8 N B) 15 N C) 10 N D) 25 N
18. A block of mass m is attached with a massless spring of force
constant k. The block is placed over a rough inclined surface for
which the coefficient of friction is = . The minimum value of M
required to move the block up the plane is (Neglect mass of string
and pulley and friction in pulley).
A) 3/5m B) 4/5m C) 6/5m D) 3/2m
MULTIPLE ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS .
1. The potential energy U for a force field
F

is such that U = - kxy, where k is a constant


A) j

kx i

ky F +

B) j

ky i

kx F +

C) The force
F

is a conservative force D) The force


F

is a non-conservative
force
2. Two blocks A and B each of mass m are connected by
a light spring of natural length L and spring constant k.
The blocks are initially resting on a smooth horizontal
floor with the spring at its natural length, as shown. A
third identical block C, also of mass m, moves on the floor with a speed v along the line
joining A to B and collides with A. Then
A) the kinetic energy of the A-B system at maximum compression of the spring is zero
B) the kinetic energy of the A-B system at maximum compression of the spring is

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,
_

4
mv
2
C) the maximum compression of the spring is

,
_

k
m
v
D) the maximum compression of the spring is

,
_

k 2
m
v
3. The kinetic energy of a body moving along a straight line varies directly with time t. If
the velocity of the body is v at time t, then the force F acting on the body is such that
A) F t
1/2
B) F t
-1/2
C) F v D) F v
-1
4. A car of mass m is moving on a level road at a constant speed v
max
while facing a
resistive force R. If the car slows down to v
max
/3, then assuming the engine to be
working at the same power, what force F is developing and what is the acceleration a of
the car ?
A) F = 3R B) F = 2R C) a = 3P/m v
max
D) a = 2 P/m v
max

5. The potential energy of a particle of mass 1 kg moving in xy plane is given by U = 10 -
4x - 3y
The particle is at rest at (2, 1) at t = 0. Then
A) velocity of particle at t = 1 is 5 m/s B) the particle is at (10m, 7m) at t =
2s
C) work done during t = 1s to t = 2s is 75J D) the magnitude of force acting on particle
is 5N
6. A block of mass m is gently placed on a vertical spring of stiffness k. Choose the correct
statement related to the mechanical energy E of the system.
A) It remains constant B) It decreases C) It increases D)
Nothing can be said
7. A spring of stiffness k is pulled by two forces F
A
and F
B
as shown in
the figure so that the spring remains in equilibrium. Identify the
correct statement (s) :
A) The work done by each force contributes into the increase in potential energy of the
spring
B) The force undergoing larger displacement does positive work and the force
undergoing smaller displacement does negative work
C) Both the forces perform positive work
D) The net work done is equal to the increase in potential energy
8. A particle of mass m is released from a height H on a smooth curved
surface which ends into a vertical loop of radius R, as shown in
figure.
If is the instantaneous angle which the line joining the particle and
the centre of the loop makes with the vertical, the identify the
correct statement(s) related to the normal reaction N between the block and the surface.

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A) The maximum value N occurs at = 0 B) The minimum value of N occurs at N =
C) The value of N becomes negative for /
2
< <
2
3
D) The value of N becomes zero only when > /2
9. An engine is pulling a train of mass m on a level track at a uniform speed v. The
resistive force offered per unit mass is f
A) Power produced by the engine is mfv
B) The extra power developed by the engine to maintain a speed v up a gradient of h in
s is
s
mghv
C) The frictional force exerting on the train is mf on the level track
D) None of above is correct
10. A particle of mass 5 kg moving in the x-y plane has its potential energy given by U = (-
7x + 24y) J, where x and y are in metre. The particle is initially at origin and has a
velocity
1
ms ) j

2 . 4 i

4 . 14 ( u

+

A) The particle has a speed of 25 ms


-1
at t = 4 s B) The particle has an acceleration of
5 ms
-2
C) The acceleration of the particle is perpendicular to its initial velocity
D) None of the above is correct
* * * * *
MULTIPLE MATCHING TYPE QUESTIONS : .
1.
List - I List - II
a) Area under F - S e) Change in KE
b) Work energy theorem f) negative of work done to gravitational
force
c) change in PE g) work done by F
d) conservative force
h)

dx . F

, where F is conservative
force
i) gravitational force
2.

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List - I List - II
a) KE e) depends on frame of reference
b) work done f) defined for conservative force only
c) PE g) independent on frame of reference
d) spring PE h) same for either compression or
elongation for same distance
3.
List - I List - II
a) stable equilibrium e) PE in Max
b) unstable equilibrium f) F
net
= 0
c) 0
dx
dF

g) PE is Min
d) 0
dx
dF

h) slope of F-x graph is +ve


4.
List - I List - II
a) work done by frictional force e) indepent of path
b) work done by electrostatic force f) non-conservative
c) work done by gravitational force
for closed loop
g) depends on path
d) for slowly moving body, w
c
+ w
n.c
equal to
h) define PE
i) zero
* * * * *
ASSERTION AND REASON : .
Read the assertion and reason carefully to mark the correct option out of the
options given below:
(a) If both assertion and reason are true and the reason is the correct explanation of the
assertion.
(b) If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct explanation of the
assertion.
(c) If assertion is true but reason is false.
(d) If assertion is false but reason is true.
1. Assertion : A person working on a horizontal road with a load on his head does no
work.
Reason : No work is said to be done, if directions of force and displacement of
load are perpendicular to each other.

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2. Assertion : Work done by friction on a body sliding down an inclined plane is positive.
Reason : Work done is greater than zero, if angle between force and displacement
is acute or both are in same direction.
3. Assertion : When a gas is allowed to expand, work done by gas is positive.
Reason : Force due to gaseous pressure and displacement (of piston) are in the
same direction.
4. Assertion : The instantaneous power of an agent is measured as the dot product of
instantaneous velocity and the force acting on it at that instant.
Reason : The unit of instantaneous power is watt.
5. Assertion : The change in kinetic energy of a particle is equal to the work done on it by
the net force.
Reason : Change in kinetic energy of particle is equal to the work done only in
case of a system of one particle.
6. Assertion : A spring has potential energy, both when it is compressed or stretched.
Reason : In compressing or stretching, work is done on the spring against the restoring
force.
7. Assertion : Comets move around the sun in elliptical orbits. The gravitational force on
the comet due to sun is not normal to the comets velocity but the work done by the
gravitational force over every complete orbit of the comet is zero.
Reason : Gravitational force is a non conservative force.
8. Assertion : The rate of change of total momentum of a many particle system is
proportional to the sum of the internal forces of the system.
Reason : Internal forces can change the kinetic energy but not the momentum of the
system.
9. Assertion : Water at the foot of the water fall is always at different temperature from
that at the top.
Reason : The potential energy of water at the top is converted into heat energy
during falling.
10. Assertion : The power of a pump which raises 100 kg of water in 10sec to a height of
100 m is 10 KW.
Reason : The practical unit of power is horse power.
11. Assertion : According to law of conservation of mechanical energy change in potential
energy is equal and opposite to the change in kinetic energy.
Reason : Mechanical energy is not a conserved quantity.
12. Assertion : When the force retards the motion of a body, the work done is zero.
Reason : Work done depends on angle between force and displacement.
13. Assertion : Power developed in circular motion is always zero.
Reason : Work done in case of circular motion is zero.
14. Assertion : A kinetic energy of a body is quadrupled, when its velocity is doubled.
Reason : Kinetic energy is proportional to square of velocity.
15. Assertion : Work done by or against gravitational force in moving a body from one
point to another is independent of the actual path followed between the two points.

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Reason : Gravitational forces are conservative forces.
16. Assertion : Graph between potential energy of a spring versus the extension or
compression of the spring is a straight line.
Reason : Potential energy of a stretched or compressed spring, proportional to square
of extension or compression.
17. Assertion : Heavy water is used as moderator in nuclear reactor.
Reason : Water cool down the fast neutron.
18. Assertion : If two protons are brought near one another, the potential energy of the
system will increase.
Reason : The charge on the proton is C
19
10 6 . 1

+ .
19. Assertion : In case of bullet fired from gun, the ratio of kinetic energy of gun and bullet
is equal to ratio of mass of bullet and gun.
Reason : In firing, momentum is conserved.
20. Assertion : Power of machine gun is determined by both, the number of bullet fired per
second and kinetic energy of bullets.
Reason : Power of any machine is defined as work done (by it) per unit time.
21. Assertion : Mountain roads rarely go straight up the slope.
Reason : Slope of mountains are large therefore more chances of vehicle to slip
from roads.
* * * * *
IIT TRACK QUESTIONS : .
1. A ball hits the floor and rebounds after inelastic collision. In this case [IIT 1986]
(a) The momentum of the ball just after the collision is the same as that just before the
collision
(b) The mechanical energy of the ball remains the same in the collision
(c) The total momentum of the ball and the earth is conserved
(d) The total energy of the ball and the earth is conserved
2. A uniform chain of length L and mass M is lying on a smooth table and one third of its

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length is hanging vertically down over the edge of the table. If g is acceleration due to
gravity, the work required to pull the hanging part on to the table is [IIT 1985]
(a) MgL (b) MgL/3 (c) MgL/9 (d) MgL/18
3. A particle of mass m is moving in a horizontal circle of radius r under a centripetal force
equal to
2
/ r K , where K is a constant. The total energy of the particle is [IIT
1977]
(a)
r
K
2
(b)
r
K
2
(c)
r
K
(d)
r
K
4. The displacement x of a particle moving in one dimension under the action of a constant
force is related to the time t by the equation 3 + x t , where x is in meters and t is in
seconds. The work done by the force in the first 6 seconds is [IIT 1979]
(a) 9 J (b) 6 J (c) 0 J (d) 3 J
5. A force ) ( j i F x y K + (where K is a positive constant) acts on a particle moving in
the xy-plane. Starting from the origin, the particle is taken along the positive x-axis to
the point (a, 0) and then parallel to the y-axis to the point (a, a). The total work done by
the force F on the particles is [IIT 1998]
(a)
2
2Ka
(b)
2
2Ka
(c)
2
Ka
(d)
2
Ka
6. If g is the acceleration due to gravity on the earth's surface, the gain in the potential
energy of an object of mass m raised from the surface of earth to a height equal to the
radius of the earth R, is
[IIT 1983]
(a) mgR
2
1
(b) 2 mgR (c) mgR (d) mgR
4
1
7. A lorry and a car moving with the same K.E. are brought to rest by applying the same
retarding force, then [IIT 1973]
(a) Lorry will come to rest in a shorter distance (b) Car will come to rest in a shorter
distance
(c) Both come to rest in a same distance (d) None of the above
8. A particle free to move along the x-axis has potential energy given by
] ) exp( 1 [ ) (
2
x k x U for + x , where k is a positive constant of appropriate
dimensions. Then [IIT-JEE 1999]
(a) At point away from the origin, the particle is in unstable equilibrium
(b) For any finite non-zero value of x, there is a force directed away from the origin
(c) If its total mechanical energy is k/2, it has its minimum kinetic energy at the origin
(d) For small displacements from x = 0, the motion is simple harmonic
9. A body is moved along a straight line by a machine delivering constant power. The
distance moved by the body in time t is proportional to [IIT 1984]
(a)
2 / 1
t
(b)
4 / 3
t
(c)
2 / 3
t
(d)

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2
t
10. A shell is fired from a cannon with velocity v m/sec at an angle with the horizontal
direction. At the highest point in its path it explodes into two pieces of equal mass. One
of the pieces retraces its path to the cannon and the speed in m/sec of the other piece
immediately after the explosion is [IIT 1984]
(a) cos 3v (b) cos 2v (c) cos
2
3
v (d) cos
2
3
v
11. Two particles of masses
1
m
and
2
m
in projectile motion have velocities
1
v

and
2
v


respectively at time t = 0. They collide at time
0
t
. Their velocities become '
1
v

and
'
2
v

at time
0
2t
while still moving in air. The value of
) ( ) ' ' ( |
2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1
v m v m v m v m + + | is [IIT-JEE Screening 2001]
(a) Zero (b)
0 2 1
) ( gt m m +
(c)
0 2 1
) ( 2 gt m m +
(d)
0 2 1
) (
2
1
gt m m +
12. A particle is placed at the origin and a force
kx F
is acting on it (where k is positive
constant). If 0 ) 0 ( U , the graph of ) (x U versus x will be (where U is the potential
energy function) [IIT-JEE (Screening) 2004]
(a) (b) (c) (d)
* * * * *

x
U(x)
x
U(x)
x
U(x)
x
U(x)
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SINGLE ANSWER TYRE .
LEVEL - I .
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
B D C A B C C D C D AD BD AB B A
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
B C A B D B A C B B A
LEVEL - II .
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
A A B D A D A B B B B C A B D
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
B B A C B D B B C A D C A B A
31 32 33 34 35
A B B B B
LEVEL - III .
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
C C A C B A B D B A A
12 13 14 15 16 17 18
C C D A B A A
MULTIPLE ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS .
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
AC BD BD AD ABD B ACD ABD ABC ABC
MULTIPLE MATCHING TYPE QUESTIONS .
1 2 3 4
a-eg, b-e, c-fh, d-i a-e, b-e, c-ef, d-gh a-fg, b-efh, c-g, d-eh a-fg, b-eh, c-i, d-i
ASSERTION AND REASON .
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
A D A B C A C D A B C
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
D D A A D C B A A A
IIT TRACK QUESTIONS : .
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
C D B C C A C D C A C A