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# Demand Factor-Diversity Factor-Utilization Factor-Load Factor | EEP

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16-08-2013 11:47 AM

## Demand Factor-Diversity Factor-Utilization Factor-Load Factor | EEP

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## Demand Factor-Diversity Factor-Utilization

2 of 17 16-08-2013 11:47 AM

## Demand Factor-Diversity Factor-Utilization Factor-Load Factor | EEP

http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/demand-factor-diversity-factor-...

Posted Nov 14 2011 by jiguparmar in Energy and Power with 12 Comments
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## (1) Demand factor

Demand Factor = Maximum demand of a system / Total connected load on the system Demand factor is always less than one. Example: if a residence having 6000W equipment connected has a maximum demand of 300W,Than demand factor = 6000W / 3300W = 55%. The lower the demand factor, the less system capacity required to serve the connected load. Feeder-circuit conductors should have an ampere sufficient to carry the load; the ampere of the feeder-circuit need not always be equal to the total of all loads on all branch-circuits connected to it. Remember that the demand factor permits a feeder-circuit ampere to be less than 100% of the sum of all branch-circuit loads connected to the feeder. Example: One Machine Shop has Fluorescent fixtures=1 No, 5kw each, Receptacle outlets =1 No, 1500w each. Lathe=1No, 10 Hp, Air Compressor=1 No, 20 Hp, Fire Pump=1 No, 15 Hp. After questioning the customer about the various loads, the information is further deciphered as follows: 1. The shop lights are on only during the hours of 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. 2. The receptacle outlets are in the office only, and will have computers and other small loads plugged into them. 3. The lathe is fully loaded for 5 minutes periods. The rest of the time is setup time. This procedure repeats every 15 minutes. 4. The air compressor supplies air to air tools and cycles off and on about half the time. 5. The fire pump only runs for 30 minutes when tested which is once a month after hours. Top

Calculation:

Lighting Demand Factor = Demand Interval Factor x Diversity Factor. = (15 minute run time/ 15 minutes) x 1.0 = 1.0 Lighting Demand Load = 5 kW x 1.0 = 5 kW Receptacle Outlet Demand Factor = Demand Interval Factor x Diversity Factor = (15 minute run time / 15 minutes) x 0.1 = 0.1

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## Demand Factor-Diversity Factor-Utilization Factor-Load Factor | EEP

http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/demand-factor-diversity-factor-...

Receptacle Outlet Demand Load = 15 x 1500 watts x 0.1 = 2.25 kW Lathe Demand Factor = Demand Interval Factor x Diversity Factor. = (5 minute run time / 15 minutes) x 1.0 =0 .33 Lathe Demand Load = 10 hp x .746 x .33 = 2.46 kW Air Compressor Demand Factor = Demand Interval Factor x Diversity Factor. = (7.5 minute run time / 15 minutes) x 1.0 = 0.5 Air Compressor Demand Load = 20 hp x .746 x .5 = 7.46 kW Fire Pump Demand Factor = Demand Interval Factor x Diversity Factor. = (15 minute run time/ 15 minutes) x 0.0 = 0.0 Fire Pump Demand Load = 15 hp x .746 x 0.0 = 0.0 kW Summary of Demand Loads : Equipment Lighting Receptacle Outlets Lathe Air Compressor Fire Pump TOTAL kW 5 22.5 7.5 15 11.25 61.25 Kw D.F. 1 .1 .33 0.5 0.0 Demand KW 5 2.25 2.46 7.46 0.0 17.17 Kw

## (2) Diversity factor / simultaneity factor (Ks)

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## Demand Factor-Diversity Factor-Utilization Factor-Load Factor | EEP

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## Demand Factor-Diversity Factor-Utilization Factor-Load Factor | EEP

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## Diversity Factor in distribution Network

Diversity Factors Elements of System Residential Between individual users Between transformers Between feeders Between substations From users to transformers From users to feeder From users to substation From users to generating station 2.00 1.30 1.15 1.10 2.00 2.60 3.00 3.29 Commercial 1.46 1.30 1.15 1.10 1.46 1.90 2.18 2.40 General Power 1.45 1.35 1.15 1.10 1.44 1.95 2.24 2.46 Large Industrial 1.05 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.32 1.45

## Diversity Factor for distribution switchboards

Number of circuits Assemblies entirely tested 2 and 3 4 and 5 6 to 9 10 and more Assemblies partially tested in every case choose Diversity Factor (ks) 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 1

## Diversity Factor for according to circuit function (IEC 60439)

Circuits Function Lighting Heating and air conditioning Socket-outlets Lifts and catering hoist For the most powerful motor For the second most powerful motor For all motors Diversity Factor (ks) 0.9 0.8 0.7 1 0.75 0.8

## Diversity Factor for an apartment block

Apartment 2 To 4 5To 19 10To 14 15To 19 20To 24 25To 29 30 To 34 35 To 39 40To 40 Diversity Factor (ks) 1 0.78 0.63 0.53 0.49 0.46 0.44 0.42 0.41

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## Demand Factor-Diversity Factor-Utilization Factor-Load Factor | EEP

http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/demand-factor-diversity-factor-...

50 To Above

0.40

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## Demand Factor-Diversity Factor-Utilization Factor-Load Factor | EEP

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## (4) Utilization factor (Ku)

In normal operating conditions the power consumption of a load is sometimes less than that indicated as its nominal power rating, a fairly common occurrence that justifies the application of an utilization factor (ku) in the estimation of realistic values. Utilization Factor = The time that a equipment is in use./ The total time that it could be in use. Example: The motor may only be used for eight hours a day, 50 weeks a year. The hours of operation would then be 2000 hours, and the motor Utilization factor for a base of 8760 hours per year would be 2000/8760 = 22.83%. With a base of 2000 hours per year, the motor Utilization factor would be 100%. The bottom line is that the use factor is applied to get the correct number of hours that the motor is in use. This factor must be applied to each individual load, with particular attention to electric motors, which are very rarely operated at full load. In an industrial installation this factor may be estimated on an average at 0.75 for motors. For incandescent-lighting loads, the factor always equals 1. For socket-outlet circuits, the factors depend entirely on the type of appliances being supplied from the sockets concerned.

Maximum demand
Maximum demand (often referred to as MD) is the largest current normally carried by circuits, switches and protective devices. It does not include the levels of current flowing under overload or short circuit conditions.

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## Demand Factor-Diversity Factor-Utilization Factor-Load Factor | EEP

http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/demand-factor-diversity-factor-...

Assessment of maximum demand is sometimes straightforward. For example, the maximum demand of a 240 V single-phase 8 kW shower heater can be calculated by dividing the power (8 kW) by the voltage (240 V) to give a current of 33.3 A. This calculation assumes a power factor of unity, which is a reasonable assumption for such a purely resistive load. There are times, however, when assessment of maximum demand is less obvious. For example, if a ring circuit feeds fifteen 13 A sockets, the maximum demand clearly should not be 15 x 13 = 195 A, if only because the circuit protection will not be rated at more than 32 A. Some 13 A sockets may feed table lamps with 60 W lamps fitted, whilst others may feed 3 kW washing machines; others again may not be loaded at all. Lighting circuits pose a special problem when determining MD. Each lamp-holder must be assumed to carry the current required by the connected load, subject to a minimum loading of 100 W per lamp holder (a demand of 0.42 A per lamp holder at 240 V). Discharge lamps are particularly difficult to assess, and current cannot be calculated simply by dividing lamp power by supply voltage. The reasons for this are: 1. Control gear losses result in additional current, 2. the power factor is usually less than unity so current is greater, and 3. Chokes and other control gear usually distort the waveform of the current so that it contains harmonics which are additional to the fundamental supply current. So long as the power factor of a discharge lighting circuit is not less than 0.85, the current demand for the circuit can be calculated from: current (A) = (lamp power (W) x 1.8) / supply voltage (V) For example, the steady state current demand of a 240 V circuit supplying ten 65 W fluorescent lamps would be: I = 10X65X1.8A / 240 = 4.88A Switches for circuits feeding discharge lamps must be rated at twice the current they are required to carry, unless they have been specially constructed to withstand the severe arcing resulting from the switching of such inductive and capacitive loads.

## (5) Coincidence factor

The coincidence factor =Max. demand of a system / sum of the individual maximum demands The coincidence factor is the reciprocal of the diversity factor

## Demand Factor & Load Factor according to Type of Industries

Type of Industry Arc Furnace Induction Furnace Steel Rolling mills Mechanical/ Electrical a) Single Shift b) Double Shift Cycle Industry Wire products Auto Parts Forgings Cold Storage a) Working Season Demand Factor 0.55 0.90 0.80 0.45 0.45 0.40 0.35 0.40 0.50 0.60 Load Factor 0.80 0.80 0.25 0.25 0.50 0.40 0.40 0.50 0.35 0.65 Utilization Factor (DF x LF) 0.44 0.72 0.20 0.11 0.22 0.16 0.14 0.20 0.17 0.39

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## Demand Factor-Diversity Factor-Utilization Factor-Load Factor | EEP

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b) Non-Working Season Rice Shellers a) Working Season b) Non-Working Season Ice Candy Units a) Working Season b) Non-Working Season Ice Factories a) Working Season b) Non-Working Season Cotton Ginning a) Working Season b) Non-Working Season Spinning Mills Textile Industry Dyeing and Printing Ghee Mills Oil Mills Solvent Extraction Mills Plastic Soap Rubber (Foot Wear) Distilleries Chemical Industry Gas Plant Industry Pain and Colour Factory Sugar Paper Flour Mills(Single Shift) Atta Chakies Milk Plants Printing Presses Repair Workshops Bottling Plants Radio Stations Telephone exchange Public Water Works Medical Colleges Hospitals Nursing Homes Colleges and Schools Hotels and Restaurants Marriage Palaces

0.25 0.70 0.05 0.50 0.50 0.80 0.80 0.70 0.10 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.50 0.70 0.45 0.60 0.50 0.45 0.35 0.40 0.70 0.50 0.30 0.50 0.80 0.50 0.40 0.35 0.40 0.40 0.55 0.50 0.75 0.60 0.25 0.50 0.50 0.75 1.00

0.15 0.80 0.30 0.65 0.10 0.65 0.10 0.25 0.10 0.80 0.80 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.25 0.25 0.35 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.40 0.45 0.80 0.25 0.25 0.80 0.30 0.25 0.35 .0.45 0.90 0.40 0.25 0.90 0.50 0.20 0.40 0.25

0.04 0.56 0.01 0.32 0.05 0.52 0.08 0.17 0.01 0.48 0.40 0.20 0.25 0.35 0.22 0.11 0.12 0.16 0.17 0.20 0.35 0.20 0.13 0.40 0.20 0.12 0.32 0.10 0.10 0.14 0.25 0.45 0.30 0.15 0.22 0.25 0.10 0.30 0.25

## Demand Factor & Load Factor according to Type of Buildings:

Individual Facilities Demand Factor Load Factor

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## Demand Factor-Diversity Factor-Utilization Factor-Load Factor | EEP

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Communications buildings Telephone exchange building Air passenger terminal building Aircraft fire and rescue station Aircraft line operations building Academic instruction building Applied instruction building Chemistry and Toxicology Laboratory Materials Laboratory Physics Laboratory Electrical and electronics systems laboratory Cold storage warehouse General warehouse Controlled humidity warehouse Hazardous/flammable storehouse Disposal, salvage, scrap building Hospital Laboratory Dental Clinic Medical Clinic Administrative Office Single-family residential housing Detached garages Apartments Fire station Police station Bakery Laundry/dry cleaning plant K-6 schools 7-12 schools Churches Post Office Retail store Bank Supermarket Restaurant Auto repair shop Hobby shop, art/crafts Bowling alley Gymnasium Skating rink Indoor swimming pool Theater Library Golf clubhouse Museum

60-65 55-70 65-80 25-35 65-80 40-60 35-65 70-80 30-35 70-80 20-30 70-75 75-80 60-65 75-80 35-40 38-42 32-37 35-40 45-50 50-65 60-70 40-50 35-40 25-35 48-53 30-35 30-35 75-80 65-70 65-70 75-80 65-70 75-80 55-60 45-75 40-60 30-40 70-75 70-75 70-75 55-60 45-55 75-80 75-80 75-80

70-75 20-25 28-32 13-17 24-28 22-26 24-28 22-28 27-32 22-28 3-7 20-25 23-28 33-38 20-25 25-20 45-50 20-25 18-23 20-23 20-35 10-15 2-4 38-42 13-17 20-25 45-60 20-25 10-15 12-17 5-25 20-25 25-32 20-25 25-30 15-25 15-20 25-30 10-15 20-45 10-15 25-50 8-13 30-35 15-20 30-35

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## Demand Factor-Diversity Factor-Utilization Factor-Load Factor | EEP

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## Selection of Induction Motors for Industrial Applications (part 2) May 4, 2013

TAGS distribution network, diversity, factor, iec 60439, load, maximum demand, utilisation FILLED UNDER CATEGORY Energy and Power

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## Demand Factor-Diversity Factor-Utilization Factor-Load Factor | EEP

http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/demand-factor-diversity-factor-...

jiguparmar - ignesh Parmar has completed his B.E(Electrical) from Gujarat University. He has more than 12 years experience in Power Transmission-Power Distribution-Electrical Theft detection-Electrical Maintenance-Projects (Planning-Designing-coordination-Execution). He is Presently associate with one of the leading business group as a Assistant Manager at Ahmedabad,India. He has published numbers of Technical Articles in "Electrical Mirror", "Electrical India", "Lighting India", "Industrial Electrix" (Australian Power Publications) Magazines. He is Freelancer Programmer of Advance Excel and design useful Excel base Electrical Programs as per IS,NEC,IEC,IEEE codes. He is Technical Blogger and Familiar with English, Hindi, Gujarati, French languages. He wants to Share his experience & Knowledge and help technical enthusiasts to find suitable solutions and updating themselves on various Engineering Topics. Become EEP's Contributor and introduce yourself to 70k+ of our readers all across the web. RSS Feed for Comments

1. salariah Jul 10, 2013 kindly correct.. demand factor = maximum demand/ no. of connected load,,,,,,,,, diversity factor = no. of connected load/maximum demand.. Log in to Reply

2. salariah Jul 10, 2013 your examples (1and 2) for diversity factor, oppose each other, kindly confirm the correct one. Log in to Reply

3. jsaravanamuthu Jun 26, 2013 sir client has EB service panel for 12 flats and also purchased kirloskar 125 Kva DG, I have suggested for ATYS panel but client is not ready to spend more money give me a suggestion.

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## Demand Factor-Diversity Factor-Utilization Factor-Load Factor | EEP

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4. jsaravanamuthu Jun 26, 2013 dear sir, how to connect 125 Kva DG to an appartment having 12 flats Log in to Reply

5. Gulraiz Amin Mar 04, 2013 it is very helpful for designing Log in to Reply

6. tiger_man_no1 Nov 19, 2012 Very good article , but these calculation derived from which Code or standard ??? specially table (Demand Factor & Load Factor according to Type of Industries) , because these values is varied and depend on the practice wise Log in to Reply

jiguparmar Nov 19, 2012 Yes. Agree with you. This is just reference Value .This Value vary according to its users Profile. We can not predict the actual value but this table value helpful us to calculate more realistic assumption. I got this Table from one Book or Manual. If it is more valuable for You than I will defiantly convey its Reference Source. Log in to Reply

tiger_man_no1 Nov 21, 2012 Thank you for reply , this book or Munual is very important to me , if you can forward it to me that will be very kind from you
14 of 17 16-08-2013 11:47 AM

## Demand Factor-Diversity Factor-Utilization Factor-Load Factor | EEP

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k.goh Mar 15, 2013 Do you happen to base on any Code or Standards or written guideline for the diversity factors to various type of development? If yes, will appreciate if you could forward them to me, for my current studies. Thank you in advance. Log in to Reply

7. ctichenor Sep 28, 2012 Just curious how many industries were surveyed for load factor (given near the end of the write up). This information is extremely interesting. Thanks! Log in to Reply

8. Musab2012 Feb 26, 2012 This really a great valuable information for me as a senior students studying power distribution system .Thanks for this great post . Log in to Reply

9. Edvard Nov 27, 2011 Great explanation, thanks Jignesh! Log in to Reply

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## Demand Factor-Diversity Factor-Utilization Factor-Load Factor | EEP

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## Demand Factor-Diversity Factor-Utilization Factor-Load Factor | EEP

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