Anda di halaman 1dari 15


BEHAVIOUR OF GASSES: Matter : matter has mass and occupies space. Matter exists in 3 forms : 1)solids 2)liquids 3)gasses Solids : Solids are rigid substances which has definite shape and occupies definite volume. **atoms are closely packed to each other.. Liquids : Liquids does not have definite shape, volume depends on the container. Liquids are of 2 types : 1)dense liquids(fluids) 2)light liquids. **atoms are loosely packed to each other. Gasses : Gasses do not have any specified shape but has weight and occupies space. **atoms are randomly packed to each other. **Volume and Pressure are measurable properties of gasses. **Gasses flows from high pressure to low pressure region. Boyles law : At constant temperature(T), The volume(V) of a given mass of gas is inversely proportional to its Pressure(P). V 1/p ( T= constant)

VP = K Charles law : At constant pressure(P), The volume(V) of a given mass of gas is directly proportional to the temperature(T) of the gas. V T (P= constant) V/T=K Grahams law of Diffusion : Under constant T,P -- Rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proporitonal to square root of its density or molecular weight. R 1/d (T,P are constant)

**Lighter gasses diffuse faster than heavier gasses. Atom : Atoms is a smallest particle which is indivisible, consists of sub-atomic particles Called electrons, protons and neutrons. **protons and neutrons are collectively known as nucleons. **nucleons present at the nucleus of an atom. **electrons revolves around nucleus of an atom in their fixed paths called orbits. Daltons atomic theory : In 1808,Jhon Dalton postulated daltons atomic theory i)matter is composed of smallest particles called atoms which cannot be divided further. ii)All the atoms of same element behaves in the same way. iii)Atoms combine to to give compound atoms.

Cathode rays or electron beams : electrons are negatively charged particles revolving around nucleus of an atom in certain fixed paths called orbits. **J.J. Thomson first invented cathode rays by discharge tube experiment. **G.J. Stony named cathode ray particles as electrons. **Charge of an electron is 1.60210-19 C. **Mass of an electron is 9.1010-28gm. == 0.00055 amu. Anode rays or protons : Protons are positively charged particles presents in the nucleus of an atom **Goldstein invented protons. **Charge of proton is 1.60210-19 C. **Mass of proton is 1.6710-24 gm. == 1.0073 amu. Mp == 1837 Me Neutrons : Neutrons are neutrally charged particles having no charge. **Chadwick discovered neutron in 1932. **Charge of neutron is 0 C.

**Mass of neutron is 1.0087 amu. -particle : When two electrons are removed from helium atom , the resultant entity is defined as an -particle(He2+). Atomic model : An atomic model depicts a systematic arrangement of electrons, protons and neutrons in an atom. J.J. Thomson atomic model : J.J. Thomson atomic model believed that electrons are embedded in the positively charged atomic mass like the seeds embedded in the fibrous mass of a watermelon fruit. Rutherfords atomic model : This atomic model is also known as Planetary atomic model. The main postulates are . i)The volume occupied by an atom contains largely an empty space. ii)The entire positively charged particles are presented in the centre of atomic sphere called as nucleus. iii)the size of the nucleus is very small (about 10-15 m or Fermi ) as compared to the size of the atom(nearly 10-8 cm or Angstroms A) iv)Electrons of an atom revolve around the nucleus with a high speed in order to counter balance the electro static force of attraction between protons and electrons. Atomic number[Z] : for every atom no. of protons = no. of electrons. **The atomic number[Z] is the total number of protons or electrons. Z=no. of protons or electrons. Mass number[A] : The mass of an atom is majorly due to the nucleus of an atom which contains protons and neutrons. **The mass number[A] is the sum of the protons and neutrons ( i.e., nucleons) A= no. protons + no. of neutrons. A=Z + no. of neutrons. .. no. of neutrons = A-Z.

Rutherfords planetary atomic model : Rutherford postulated the important aspects as , i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. The volume occupied by an atom contains largely empty space. The entire positive charged particles are presented in the center of atomic sphere called as nucleus. The size of nucleus is very small (about 10-15 m or 1 Fermi0 as compared to the size of atom (nearly 10 8 cm or 1 ). Electrons of an atom revolve around the nucleus with high speed in orded to counter balance the electrostatic force of attraction between protons and electrons. Rutherford atomic model compared with solar-system,. In this atomic model electrons revolve around the nucleus with a high speed in certain orbits just like the planets revolve around the sun. The protons and neutrons are collectively known as nucleons since they present in the nucleus of an atom.

ENERGITICS : chemical reactions involve breaking and making bonds.

Bond dissociation energy : Energy is required to break a bond. Such a energy is called bond dissociation energy. Bond energy: When a new bond is formed, certain amount of energy is released. Such energy is called bond energy. Types of reactions: Basically there are two types of reactions. They are 1) Endothermic reactions: A chemical reaction which takes place with the absorption of heat. 2) Exothermic reaction which is accompanied by the release of hat . Molecules having different energies stored within them. They are. a) b) c) d) Binding energy Vibrational energy Rotational energy Kinetic energy.

Energy stored in the molecule is called internal or intrinsic energy which depends on the its chemical composition( structure ) and physical state. CEMICAL CALUCULATIONS: Symbol: A symbol represents a shorthand notation of an element. Ex: copper is represented as Cu. ** A coefficient preceding a symbol indicates number of atoms. ** A subscript of the symbol also represents the number of atoms. Formula: Formula is defined as a symbolic representation of actual number of atoms present in the molecule of a substance. ** Number preceding the formula indicate the number of molecules of a substance. Chemical Equation: Chemical Equation is a shorthand representation of a chemical change or reaction in terms f of symbols and formula. Cu O + C O === Cu + C O2 Reactants: The substances which take part in a chemical reaction are known as reactants. They are written on the L.H.S. Products: Substances formed due to chemical reaction are known as products. They are written on the R.H.S. **Reactants and products are separated by arrow ( =) Balanced chemical equation: A balanced chemical equation can be defined as a chemical equation in which the number of atoms of each element is same on both the sides.

Physical state representation: The physical state of reactants and products are indicated by (S) fofr solids, (l) fro liquids, (g) for gasses and (aq) for aqueous solutions. **() indicates the precipitation of solid, () indicates the liberation of gas. Electro-chemical equations: The reactions which takes place only with the absorption of electrical energy are called electro-chemical equations. Avogadros Hypothesis: O the basis of Gay-Lussacs law of combining volumes, Berzelius thought that there may be a relationship the volumes of the gasses and the number of atoms. Berzelius stated Under the same T and P , Equal volumes of all asses contain equal number of molecules. Gram molecular Weight: It Can be defined as the relative molecular mass of a substance expresses in grams with reference to the atomic weight of hydrogen. Some times it is called gram molecule of that atom. Gram Molecular Volume: It can be defined as the volume occupied by one GMW of a gas at STP. Tit was experimentally shown that : One GMW of a gas at STP occu pies 22.4 liters. Mole : One mole or one 1 gmw of a substance contains Avogadro number 6.0231023 of atoms. Combustion: Burning of a chemical substance in presence of oxygen (O2), is known as Combustion. Calculations based on the chemical equations can be classified into three types: (i) (ii) (iii) Weight- Weight Relationships. Volume-Weight Relationships . Volume-Volume relationships.

RATES OF REACTIONS: Rate of a reaction: Rate of a chemical reaction is the change in the concentration of reactants and products with respect to time. ** Reactions, which takes place (instantaneously) with in a second are known as fast reactions. **Reactions, taking place in a few minutes to a few hours, are termed as moderate reactions. ** Reactions, taking place in several hours and above, are known as slow reactions. Factors affecting rate of a reaction: Rate of a reaction depends on the nature of a reactants (i.e., specific properties of reactants) used in a chemical reaction. **Rate of a reaction increases with an increase in the concentration of reactants in a chemical reaction. **Rate of a reaction is generally doubled or tripled for every 10 0 rise in temperature. **Rate of a reaction can be increased by using an external agent called catalyst. Catalyst: catalyst is a chemical substance which do not participate in a chemical reaction directly but increases the rate of a chemical reaction. Reversible reaction: in a reversible reaction, products can be reconverted into reactants. Irreversible reaction: in an irreversible reaction, products cannot be reconverted into reactants. **When the rate of forward reaction is equal to the rate of reverse reaction , then the system is said to be in equilibrium. METTALURGY: Generally metals are found in a combined state. Minerals: Compounds of a metal which occur in nature with other minerals such as sand, rock and clay as impurities and which are obtained by mining are called minerals. ** the minerals from which metals can be extracted are known as ores.

** the method of extraction of metals from the minerals is called metallurgy. Principles of metallurgy: (i) (ii) Dressing or concentration of the ore: The removal of unwanted impurities by mechanical and other physical methods is known as ore dressing or concentration. Extraction of the metal: Extraction of the ores from its ores involves the following process: a. Calcination: ore is subjected to the action of heat in the presence of air. b. Roasting: heating ore in presence of air. c. Smelting: reduces the ore into molten metal by heating with flux at high T. Flux is a material which combines with the impurities and convert them into a fusible metal Purification or refining of a metal: Purification produces good percentage of required metal.

` called slag. (iii)

Protection of metals: The following methods are used to protect the metals: (i) (ii) (iii) Galvanizing: In this process, steel plate is protected by a coating of zinc. Electroplating: This process involves a cathode and anode and deposition or plating takes placed on the cathode. Alloying: By adding impurities.

Metallurgy of Iron: Iron does not occur in the native state since it can be oxidized easily. Iron occurs in metorites.the most important ores of iron are the oxides, carbonates and sulphides listed below: Magnetite.Fe2 O4 Haematite. Fe2 O3 Limonite Fe2 O3 . 3 H2 O SideriteFe 2 CO3 Iron PyritesFe S2

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX ATOMIC STRUCTURE: Matter is made up of tiny indivisible particles constitute in an element. Element is made up of atoms . Atoms are made up of Sub-atomic particles called Es Ps and ns . Atomic model : the description of the mass and the charges in an atom which gives the behavior of an atom. Thomsons Atomic model: in 1898 , Thomson mentioned that , the positive charges distributed all over the entire body and the electrons are embedded in it , just like in water-melon fruit. Lenards atomic model: From his experiments he concluded that atom must have a lot of empty space in it, with some potion filed with the es and ps but he did not mentioned how they held in an atom. Rutherfords planetary atomic model (or) nuclear model: The salient features of this model are: ** Atoms are spherical in shape and are mostly hollow. ** The nucleus is made up of protons and neutrons and the mass of the atom is almost due to this. ** Electrons revolve around the nucleus, like planets around the sun. ** The two types of forces are present in the atoms: a) Force of attraction between electrons and the nucleus, which pulls electrons towards the nucleus. b) The revolving electrons experience a centrifugal force directed away from the moving path of the electron. This force pulls electrons away from the nucleus ** The two forces are equal and opposite. Thus the atom is stable. Demerits of this model: **According to the classical laws of physics a moving particle should lose energy and come closer to the nucleus. If it looses energy, it eventually should fall into the nucleus of the atom should collapse. But atoms are stable. ** If the electron looses energy continuously, atomic spectra should consists of continuous bands. Experimentally, atomic spectra are made up of discrete spectral lines. Bohrs atomic model: In 1913, the Danish scientist, Niels Bohr put forward a theory to overcome the defects in Rutherford atomic model. Bohrs theory based on the Plancks quantum theory of radiation. Bohr proposed the following postulates: ** Electrons are moving with high velocity around the nucleus in specified paths called orbits or shells . The energy of a particular orbit is constant. Therefore these orbits are called stationary orbits or stationary shells. ** Each stationary orbits corresponds to a definite energy. These stationary orbits are designated by K, L, M, N, O,.. the orbit close to the nucleus has less energy compared to the orbit away from the nucleus. ** When an electron jumps from one energy level to the other ( i.e., from higher to lower or from lower to higher ) , the energy emitted or absorbed is E2 - E1 = hu h is a plancks constant.

** The angular momentum (mvr) of the electron revolving I the stationary orbit is equal to yhr integral multiples of h / 2 mvr =

limitations : ** Bohrs theory could not explain the atomic spectra of higher elements such as He, Li, Be, B, C,..Which have more than one electron. ** The atomic spectral lines, in the presence of applied magnetic field, split into several lines. This phenomenon is called zeeman effect. Bohrs model culd not account for this zeeman effect. **Bohrs model could not justiy the quantisation of angular momentum . ** Bohrs model could not account for the formation of chemical bonds. Plancks quantum theory: In 1900, a German scientist, Max Planck, proposed a theory to explain the absorption and emission of electromagnetic adiation by a body. He proposed that the magnetic radiation in the form of packets called quanta. The energy of the radiation is proporitonal to to its frequency. E = h Sommerfelds elliptical atomic model : Atomic spectra display fine structure due to splitting of spectral lines. In an attempt to account for the fine structure, Arnold sommerfeld proposed elliptical orbits instead of circular orbits proposed by Bohr. An ellipse is charactrarized by a major (AB) axis as shown. Where h = 6.625 10 -27 erg.sec or J.sec.

Sommerfeld proposed that the angular momentum of the electron moving in an elliptical orbit is equal to the integral multiples of k h/ 2. Where k is 1, 2, 3, is called azimuthal quantum number. Quantum numbers : Bohr-Sommerfeld model, though primitive, gave a new direction for understanding atomc structure. In 1930, Louis de-Broglie proposed the particle and wave nature of the electron based on the dual nature of the electron, the quantisation of its angular momentum is explained.during this period Schodingers wave equation, for the electron in hyrogen atom unravelled the complete picture of atomic structure. The solutions to the Schodingers wave equation gave birth to the so called atomic orbitals . this equation also gives the limiting values to the various quantum numbers proposed during the period. Modern concepts of atomic structure: ** Atom consists of several stationary states or stationary orbits these statesare esignated by the n values. ** Each stationary orbit is divided into two sub-states . these are called sub-energy levels. The number sub states depends on the value of n. they are designated by l values. ** For the first stationary state n=1, (K shell) has only one substate , the second has 2, third has 3 etc., ** these sub-states are designated as below. s , p , d , f , g, corresponding to l= 0,1,2,3.

** under the influence of the magnetic field, thewse sub-states are further split into grups of states as shown

** The electrons are placed in sub-levels. They revolve around the nucleus and in addition rotate on their own axes clockwise and anticlockwise.

Various quantum numbers: 1) Principle quantum number: Niels Bhor proposed this quantum number based on his stationary states . it is designated as nand takes only real values. If n=1, represents K shell, if n=2, represents the L shell. The principal quantum nuumber gives the size and energy of the orbit. As the n value increases the size and energy of the orbit incrreases. The nummber of sub-energy levels in a given shell is equal to n2. 2) Azimuthal quantum number: Sommerfeld proposed Azimuthal quantum number as a result of elliptical orbits. It is also known as angular momentum quantum number or subsidary quantum number. It is designated as l . the maximum value of l for a given quantum number is n-1. L gives the shape of stationary orbit. If n-=1,l=0, then it is s subshell. If n=2,l=1, then it is p sub-shell. 3) Magnetic quantum number: The magnetic quantm number is proposed by Lande and is designated as m. when an atom is placed in an external magnetic field the electrons placed in an external magnetic field, the electrons present in the different stationary orbits orient in different ways depending on their energies . The value of m depends on the value of l. For a given l value m can have (2l+1) values from l,l+1,..0..(l-2),(l-1),l. 4) Spin Quantum number: in 1925, Uhlenbeck and goudsmit suggested that a moving electron in a orbit revolves or spins on its own axis, which is similar to the earths revolution around the sun. Such spin will contribute angular momentum of the electron. The electron can spin clockwise and anticlockwise. This is designated by S. the spin energy of the electron also is quantized in units of half integral can take only or -1/2. Atomic orbitals: We know that each stationary state is split into sub-stationary states. These sub-stationary states are the regions in space where the electron is revolving around the nucleus. These states are refered to as atomic orbitals . Atomic orbital: It is defined as the space where there is a finite probability of finding the electron. S-orbital: S- orbital is spherical in shape. The following diagram shows the representation of S-orbital. The dots represent the probability of finding electron.

p-orbital: The p-orbitals correspond from n=2( l shell onwards). All the p orbitals have dumb-bell shape. Therre are threee p- orbitals designated as Px, Py, Pz depending upon their orientattions.they are as shown below.

d-orbital: The d-orbital corresponds to l=2. Theese are present from n=3 shell onwards. There are five d-orbitals represented as dxy , dyz , dxz , dx2y2, dz2. They are shown below:

Relative energies of atomic radius: The order of electrons fill up the orbitals is :1s<2s<2p<3s<3p<4s<3d<4p<5s<4d<5p<6s<4f<5d<6p<7s Electronic configuration of atoms: The electronic configuration is the representation of presence of the electrons in the orbitals of an atom. A systematic arrangement of electrons in the atomic orbits is called electronic configuration. ** The physical structure of an atom can be known through electronic configuration.

** The chemical behavior of an atom is based on electronic configuration. ** The maximum number of electrons present in each orbit is generally gives n as 2n2 ** the chemical behavior of an atom is determined by the number of arrangement of **Electrons in the outermost orbit , which is also known as Valence orbit . **Every atom has a tendency to acquire the electronic configuration of nearest noble gas to become more stable.

The filling up of electrons in the atomic orbitals is governed by the following principles: Aufbaus principle: According to this principle the electron first occupies the orbital of lower energy. In terms of quantum numbers the electron first occupies the orbital having minimum (n+l) value. If two orbitals having same (n+l)values , the orbital having lower n value will be occupied first. Hunds rule: Hunds rule states that electron pairing takes place only after all the availib le de-generate orbitals are occupied by one electron each. Paulis exclusive principle: It states that no two electrons of an atom will have the quantum numbers same. In other words no two electrons will have same n,l,m and s values. This restricts the number of electrons in a single orbital to two.

Electronic configuration : A systematic arrangement of electrons in the atomic orbits is called electronic configuration. ** The physical structure of an atom can be known through electronic configuration. ** The chemical behavior of an atom is based on electronic configuration. ** The maximum number of electrons present in each orbit is generally gives n as 2n2 ** the chemical behavior of an atom is determined by the number of arrangement of **Electrons in the outermost orbit , which is also known as Valence orbit . **Every atom has a tendency to acquire the electronic configuration of nearest noble gas to become more stable. Chemical bond : The force of attraction which holds the atoms together is known as chemical bond. ** the tendency of an atom to acquire stability leads to chemical bonding. **molecules have low energy than of combined atoms, Molecules are more stable than atoms.

Types of chemical bonds : Covalent bond: We know that bond formation takes place either by losing or by gaining or by sharing of electrons between two atoms. the bond formed by the sharing of a pair of electrons by two atoms is called as covalent bond When two atoms approach each other to form a covalent bond the valence orbitals of two atoms overlap each other. The extent of overlap decides the strength of the chemical bond. s-s overlap: Consider two hydrogen atoms having one unpaired electron each and approaching each other. Each hydrogen atom has one unpaired electron in the 1s orbital. As two atoms approach each other their s orbitals starts to overlap and at the appropriate inter molecular distance the overlap is maximum. After the bond formation both the atoms acquire inert gas (He) configuration. Ex:- HH.

p-p overlap: Consider the formation of the diatomic molecule of fluorine , chlorine or bromine. Fluorine has one unpaired electron in 2pz orbital . two Fl atoms having one unpaired electron each. When two such atoms comes together to form a bond their 2pz orbitals overlap each other. Ex:- Cl2, Br2 s-p overlap: Consider the formation of H Cl , hydrogen atom has one unpaired electron in 1s orbital and chlorine has one unpaired electron in 2pz orbital. When both these atoms approach each other to form a bond , results in s-p overlapping. Ex:- H Br, H F. End-on-end overlap: in End-on-End type overlap The end part of an orbital overlaps with the end part of another maximum overlapping takes place and hence sigma bonds are strong. They can exist independently. Ex:- H2, Hc, cl2 etc., Side-on overlap: in this type of overlap, an orbital overlaps with another side-ways. The bond such formed is called pi bond designated as . These are week compared to sigma bonds. Pi bond cannot exist independently they present only along with sigma bonds. Ex-CO2, N2. Multiple covalent bonds: Consider the formation of O2 molecule , oxygen atom has two unpaired electrons each in 2p y and 2pz orbital. Each electron in the pz orbital overlap each other forming a sigma bond. The remaining 2p y orbitals are parallel to each other they overlap sideways form a pi bond. Thus oxygen molecule two has two bonds , often referred as double bond. Co-ordinate covalent bond: We know that each atom contributes one electron for the formation of covalent bonds. In some cases of covalent bond one atom contributes two electrons while the other atom contributes no electrons. Bonds of this type are called co-ordinate covalent bonds. The primary requirement for the formation of co-ordinate covalent bonds is an atom should have lone pair of electrons to donate and the other atom should have empty orbital to receive. Ex:- formation of NH3 . Shapes of the molecules: i) ii) iii) iv) v) Shape of the water molecule is non-linear V shaped. Shape of the Ammonia molecule is pyramidal. Shape of the phosphorous tri chloride molecule is pyramidal. Shape of the phosphorous penta-chloride molecule is trigonal bi pyramidal. Shape of carbon dioxide molecule is linear. O=C=O.

PERIODIC CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS: Sha Classification enables a better understanding of not only the elements and properties but also the fundamental properties which govern them. Today as many as 111 elements are known their classification is as follows. One of the earliest classifications is due to Dobernier in 1817. He observed that elements could be arranged in small groups of three elements each as triads depending upon their similarities in the properties. He further observed that in such triads the atomic weight of the middle atom is equal to the arithmetic mean of the first and last elements. After Dobernier, PettenKofer in 1850 and deChocourtois in 1862 attempted further classification of elements. The next attempt of classification was proposed by English chemist, John A.R.Newlands in 1863. Newlands noted that he eighth element is a kind of repetition of the first, just like the eighth note of an octave in illustrate we may take the similar example in music based on the sequence Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Da, Ni, Sa,. Newlands stated that: If the elements are arranged in the sequence of their atomic weights , every eighth element have similar properties to the first element.

In 1869 Dimitri Mendeleef in Russia and Luther Meyer in Germany Independently put forward the periodic law which is the basis of modern periodic classification. They stated that the properties of elements are the periodic functions of their atomic weights. Mendeleef arranged the elements known at that time n the order of increasing atomic weights and called it the periodic table. In 1872 this table is altered to accommodate few more elements just discovered. Mendeleef predicted the existence of the some of the unknown elements and their

properties. For example, Mendeleef predicted an element with atomic weight 68 and named it eka aluminum. In 2875 debiosbaudron discovered this element and named it as gallium. Similarly Mendeleevs eka Boron became scandium discovered by Nilsson in 1879. The arrangements is done in groups based on the valence electrons. The elements consisting of one valence electron are placed in group1 , and two in group 2. Modern periodic table: Although mendeleefs periodic table is widely accepted, it has many shortcomings in the subsequent findings. The major objection is that the arrangement of elements does not reflect the periodicity in the electronic configuration of the elements. Other objections include (1) inconsistencies in the oxidation states of the elements placed in the same group (ii) marked differences in the properties of elements placed in the same group (iii) non-separation of metals and non-metals (iv) placements of lanthanides and actinides etc., The modern periodic table is the properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic number . The modern periodic table is as follows : **About 113 elements are divided into periods and groups. **This table is known as long form periodic table. This able is divided into 7 horizontal rows called periods. **And the vertical columns are divided into groups. **Lanthanides and Actinides are separately placed at the bottom of the table. **Based on the electronic configuration the elements are classified into 4 classes. a) Inert gasses: Gasses such as He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn, are generally inert towards any chemical reaction and hence they are named as inert gasses. Inert gasses are extremely stable due to their electronic configuration. Except He all the remaining inert gasses configuration is ns2np6. They are placed at the extreme right of the periodic table. These elements are also known as zero group elements. b) Representative elements: Elements having incompletely filled outermost orbital are called as representative elements. These elements having electronic configuration from ns1 to ns2np5. These elements are further divided into two types: a. s-block elements: elements having ns1 and ns-2 as their outermost electronic configuration are called Sblock elements. Group IA and IIA elements are include this block. b. P-block elements: these elements having ns2 np1 to ns2 np5 as their outermost electronics configuration are called p-block elements. Elements belonging to IIIA,IVA,VA,VIA,VIIA are known as p-block elements.

Some physical quantities of the atom: Atomic size: Atomic size or atomic radii is defined as the distance between the centere of the nucleus and the outermost orbital (valence orbital). **In period atomic radius decreases from left to right . **In groups atomic radius increases from top to bottom. Ionisation Energy: The ionisation energy is defined as the minimum energy required to remove an electron from the outermost orbital of an atom in the gaseous state. **In a period from left to right the ionisation energy should not follow a particular orded. **In a group the I.E decreases from top to bottom. Ionisation energy depends on the following factors: (i) (ii) (iii) Directly proporitonal to the nuclear charge. Inversly proporitonal to the atomic size. Directly proporitonal to the charge of the ion.

Electron affinity: Electron affinity is defined as the energy released when an electron is added to a neutral gaseous atom in its lowest energy state. **

Electron negitivity: Electron negitivity is defined as the tendency of the bonded atomin a molecule to attract the electron density of a shared pair of electrons. **In period electron negativity increases due to decrease in the size of the atom from left to right. **In a group the E.N decreaces from top to bottom. Electro positive character: it is the ability to loose electrons and to become positively charged ions. ** Group I and II are the more electropositive than the others. **In a period from left to right the electropositive character decreases. *In a group from top to bottom the electropositive character increases. Oxidation and reduction properties: Oxidation and Reduction : Loss of Electrons is Oxidation and Gain of Electrons is Reduction. (LEO-GER) **In a period from left to right the reducing property decreases and oxidizing properties increases. **In a group reducing property increases and oxidation property decreases. SOLUTIONS: The homogeneous mixture of two or more substances is known as a solution. A solution comprises of Solute ad a solvent. Solute + solvent = solution Solute: The component which is taken in relatively less quantity is called as a solute, generally solutes decides the properties of a solution. Generally they are dissolvable. Solvent: The component which is taken comparatively large is called as a solvent. Solvent decides the nature of the solution. ** If the solvent used is water then it is known as aqueous solution . Solubility: Solubility is defined as the amount of solute by weight in grams dissolved in 100 grams of solvent at a constant temperature. Types of solutions: Based on the physical state of the solute and solvent solutions are classified into Saturated solutions: a solution which remains in the contact with the excess of solute is said to be saturated solution. Unsaturated solution: A solution having only one solute are termed as unsaturated solutions. Supersaturated solution: if the solute dissolved in a solvent is more than its solubility then the solution thus formed is said to be supersaturated solution.

Factors affecting solubility: 1) Temperature: As the temperature increases the solubility of a solution decreases. Concentration of a solution: concentration is defined as the amount of solute present in unit volume of solution. Weight percentage: The weight of a solute present in 100 grams of a solution is called weight percentage. Weight percentage = 100

Where w is the weight of the solute and W is the weight of the solvent in grams. Volume percentage: The volume of a solute in 100 ml of solution is called volume percentage. Volume percentage = 100

Where v is the volume of a solute and Vis the volume of a solvent. Molarity: Molarity is defined as the number of moles of a solute present in one litre of a solution. It is represented by the symbol M. Molarity = M = in liters.

Mole fraction: the ratio of number of moles of a constituent to the total number of moles of all the constituents present in the solution. ACIDS BASSES AND SALTS: Acid: Acids are sour to taste. They turns blue litmus to red. Properties of acids: ** Acids change the color of the indicators. **Acids liberate hydrogen gas on reacting with metals like Zn , Mg, . **Acids react with bases to form salt and water. **Acids react with metallic oxides to form salt and water. **Acids liberate CO2 on reacts with carbonates and bicarbonates. **Aqueous solutions of acids show electrical conductivity. Bases: Bases are soapy to touch and they turn red litmus to blue. Properties of bases: **like acids, bases change the color of the indicators. ** On heating bases decompose into metal oxides and water. **As stated earlier bases react with acids to form salt and water. **Aqueous solutions of bases also show electrical conductivity. .

Arrhenius theory: Arrhenius a Swedish scientist proposed in 1887 the theory on ionization of substances including acids and bases. According to him An acid is a substance which produces H+ ions in aqueous solutions and aa base is a substance which produces OH- ions in the aqueous solution. Limitations of Arrhenius theory: ** this theory explains the nature of the substances which are soluble in water only. **This theory fails to explain the acidic nature of some substances like CO2, SO2,SO3andP2O5. Ionization of water: Water ionization to a small extent and produces H + and OH- ions H2O H+ + OH- .

Ionic product of water: The product of concentration of H+ and OH- ions in one mole of water is defined as the ionic product of water. It is represented by K w . Ionic product: Kw = . The value of Kw increases with temperature.

PH values: Sorensen introduces the term PH The pH is defined as the negative logarithm of H+ ion concentration. pH = -log10H+ for acidic solution the pH is 0-7, for bases the pH is7-14, for a neutral solution the pH is 7

CHEMISTRY OF CARBON COMPOUNDS: Carbon is an important element, which plays an exceedingly prominent role in our daily life. Earths crust contain 0.3%of the carbon in various forms. Allotropes: the occurrence of an element in two different forms is known as allotropes. Diamond and graphite are important crystalline allotropic forms of carbon. Diamond: Diamond is a crystalline solid. It came to prominence as a precious gem on account of its brilliance and hardness. It is costliest due to its scarcity. It has a density of 3.51 gm/cc . its refractive index is 2.51 . hence it reflects light falling on it. It is insoluble in any solvent and bad conductor of heat and electricity. It remains unaffected by acids and bases. Due to its hardness it is used as a glass cutter. Structure: in diamond the carbon atoms are in tetrahedral arrangement. Each carbon atom is bonded to four other carbon atoms by covalent bonds. The C-C bond length is 1.54 and also bond angle is 109 0 28 Graphite: It is a grayish-black soft crystalline with metallic lustre and soapy to touch. It is used as lubricant . it is a good conductor of heat and electricity. It is also insoluble in any solvent. It has much less density than diamond 2.25gm/cc. Structure: graphite contains carbon atoms in hexagonal rings and the rings in turn are joined together to form a layer. A series of layer are piled one over the other to form graphite. The C-C bond length is1.42 . Bond angle is 1200.the successive layers of graphite are separated by 3.35 . Oxides of carbon: carbon forms two types of oxides. They are carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Carbohydrates and proteins: The name carbohydrate implies that they are compounds of carbon and water. General formula is Cx(H2O)y. scientists later found that it is incorrect and then they defined it as: The polyhydroxy aldehydes/ketones or the compounds which can give these compounds on hydrolysis. Carbohydrates are classifieds are as follows: Based on the taste carbohydrates are classifieds into sugars and non-sugars. 1) Monosaccharide : these are simple carbohydrates which cannot be hydrolyzed to still simple carbohydrates. Ex:- Glucose, fructose and mannose 2) Oligosaccharide : these are carbohydrates which on hydrolysis give two to nine units of Monosaccharide . Ex:- Sucrose and maltose. 3) Polysaccharides : these are polymeric carbohydrates which give a large number of Monosaccharide units on hydrolysis.