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Mauretta Bonomi

Emma Christopherson

Sara Amidoni

FIRST ALL
of
Grammar consolidation and development of language skills Complete guidance to FCE papers with final mock exam Further listening practice online

Your New Grammar Matters


libro

Backup for Success at FCE

LiM
misto
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Mauretta Bonomi

Emma Christopherson

Sara Amidoni

FIRST ALL
of
Your New Grammar Matters

Backup for Success at FCE

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FIRST ALL
of
FIRST OF ALL is an invaluable and complete guide which provides thorough preparation for the new Cambridge ESOL First Certificate in English exam. It is intended as an aid to: developing and consolidating language competence; acquiring and building up a solid base to be successful in the exam. FIRST OF ALL is divided into the following sections:

Backup for Success at FCE

Your New Grammar Matters

Grammar reference A concise summary of essential grammar points with clear explanations and a variety of preparatory exercises which allow students to practise and master techniques and target structures. Language booster An indispensable top-up section which focuses on broadening vocabulary, as well as developing key language skills required in Paper 3 - Use of English. Specific sections are dedicated to linking words, prepositions, phrasal verbs and word formation.

Direzione editoriale: Adriana Massari Progetto grafico: Roberto Ducci, Valentina Greco Redazione: Silvia Bisi, Samantha Papaianni Impaginazione: Ag-Media Milano Ricerca iconografica: Eleonora Calamita Progetto grafico di copertina e adattamento:

ISBN 978-88-416-4567-3 Prima edizione: marzo 2010 Printed in Italy Ristampe 2014 2013 2012 2011 VI V IV III II

Enrica Bologni
Referenze iconografiche: Archivio Principato Collaborazione al progetto editoriale:

2010 I

Alessandra Brunetti

The authors would like to express their warm thanks to Mary Anne Seldon and Silvia Bisi for their valuable help.

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FCE: Task types and sample papers A detailed overview of all five papers complete with useful tips and guidance. Extensive practice with model tasks and answers is given to familiarise students with the exam format and content and help them develop the necessary skills. Mock exam A final complete test for self-assessment of students performance level. Visual material for Paper 5 - Speaking A wide selection of colour visual aids for practice in the speaking activities. FIRST OF ALL is accompanied by an audio CD for the listening exercises and by extra material for further listening practice available through the website: www.europassedizioni.it.

KEY
FIRST OF ALL - KEY contains: the answers to all exercises, including clear and detailed explanations of all model tasks, which makes it an essential tool for self-study; the full tapescripts of all parts of Paper 4 - Listening; extra material with tapescripts for further listening practice online; a guide to answer format and samples of the exam answer sheets.

2010 - Propriet letteraria riservata. vietata la riproduzione, anche parziale, con qualsiasi mezzo effettuata, compresa la fotocopia, anche ad uso interno o didattico, non autorizzata. Le fotocopie per uso personale del lettore possono essere effettuate nei limiti del 15% di ciascun volume dietro pagamento alla SIAE del compenso previsto dallart. 68, commi 4 e 5, della legge 22 aprile 1941 n. 633. Le riproduzioni per finalit di carattere professionale, economico o commerciale, o comunque per uso diverso da quello personale, possono essere effettuate a seguito di specifica autorizzazione rilasciata da AIDRO, Corso di Porta Romana 108, 20122 Milano, e-mail segreteria@aidro.org e sito web www.aidro.org.

Casa Editrice G. Principato S.p.A. Via G.B. Fauch 10 20154 Milano http://www.principato.it e-mail: info@principato.it

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CONTENTS
SECTION
FCE exam overview

6 7 8 9 10 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 19 20 20 22 22 24 24 26 26 27 28 28

1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

Grammar reference
Past tenses: Used to Would Perfect forms Perfect forms with for/since If-clauses Wish Must To have to Should / Ought to Had better Need Can Could To be able to May Might To be likely / To be unlikely Verbs of will Shall I/we? The passive voice To have/get something done Use of the -ing form Verbs followed by the -ing form and/or the infinitive Reported speech Reporting verbs Use of the infinitive Use of the infinitive without to Relative clauses Like As Enough Too

SECTION

2
1 2

Language booster
Linking words

29
30

Subordinating conjunctions Text organizers Prepositions Verbs followed by prepositions Adjectives followed by prepositions Prepositions followed by word combinations Additional exercises Phrasal verbs Be - Break - Bring - Call - Carry - Come Cut - Fall - Get - Give - Go Keep - Look - Make - Put Run - Set - Take - Turn Additional exercises Word formation Prefixes Suffixes - concrete nouns Suffixes - abstract nouns Suffixes - adjectives Suffixes - verbs Suffixes - adverbs Additional exercises

30 32 33 33 34 36 38 40 40 42 44 46 48 52 52 54 54 58 58 58 60

1 2 3 4

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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SECTION

FCE: Task types and sample papers


Paper 1 - Reading

63
64

Task types Sample paper A Sample paper B Paper 2 - Writing Task types Sample paper Paper 3 - Use of English Task types Sample paper A Sample paper B Paper 4 - Listening Task types Sample paper Paper 5 - Speaking Task types Sample paper A Sample paper B
SECTION

64 76 82 88 88 110 114 114 130 136 142 142 144 148 148 157 158 159 160 160 162 164 166 166 168 170 170 172 173 174 176 176 178 179 180 182 182 183 184 184 186 187 187 189 190 190 192

Mock exam
Paper 1 - Reading Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Paper 2 - Writing Part 1 Part 2 Paper 3 Use of English Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Paper 4 - Listening Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Paper 5 - Speaking Parts 1 - 2 - 3 - 4

SECTION

Visual material for Paper 5 - Speaking


Sample paper A Part 2 Part 3 Sample paper B Part 2 Part 3 Mock exam Part 2 Part 3

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FCE exam overview


Simple present di to be Task Types
Part 1 multiple-choice questions Part 2 gapped text-sentences removed Part 3 multiple-matching questions

Paper Format

Timing

Paper 1 Reading Number of questions: 30

1 hour

Paper 2 Writing Two parts

Part 1 question 1: compulsory letter or email (120-150 words) Part 2 questions 2-5: choice of one task from a range of four: questions 2-4 can be a letter / an email, an article, a report, a review, a short story, an essay; question 5 is a task based on set texts (120-180 words).

1 hour 20 minutes

Paper 3 Use of English Number of questions: 42

Part Part Part Part

1 2 3 4

multiple-choice cloze open cloze word formation key-word transformations

45 minutes

Paper 4 Listening Number of questions: 30

Part Part Part Part

1 2 3 4

multiple-choice questions sentence completion multiple-matching questions multiple-choice questions

Approximately 40 minutes

Paper 5 Speaking Four parts

Part 1 conversation between the interlocutor and each candidate (spoken questions) Part 2 individual one-minute long turn for each candidate with a brief response from the second candidate (visual and written stimuli) Part 3 a collaborative task involving the two candidates with visual and written stimuli and spoken instructions Part 4 discussion on topics related to part 3 (spoken questions)

14 minutes

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Section

Grammar reference
1. Past tenses: Used to Would 2. Perfect forms 3. Perfect forms with for/since 4. If-clauses 5. Wish 6. Must To have to 7. Should / Ought to Had better 8. Need 9. Can Could To be able to 8 9 10 12 13

Getting Ready 14
15 16 17

10. May Might To be likely / To be unlikely Revision 18 11. Verbs of will 12. Shall I/we...? 13. The passive voice 14. To have/get something done 15. Use of the -ing form 19 19 20

Making Steady
20 22

16. Verbs followed by the -ing form and/or the infinitive 22 17. Reported speech 18. Reporting verbs 19. Use of the infinitive 20. Use of the infinitive without to 21. Relative clauses 22. Like As 23. Enough Too 24

Off You Go! 24


26 26 27 28 28

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Section

1
1.

Grammar reference
Past tenses: Used to Would

In addition to the simple past and the past continuous the following constructions can be used to refer to the past: Used+infinitive describes past habits and states which are no longer true: He used to play the violin but now he has given it up. Would+infinitive without to refers to repeated actions or typical behaviour in the past: Whenever Aunt Jane came to see us she would bring us a present. N.B. Do not confuse used+infinitive with to be used to+-ing form which means to be accustomed to or to be familiar with something: When I was young I used to stay up late. (past habit no longer true) Im not tired. Im used to staying up late. (Im familiar with this)

REMEMBER Its (high) time The expression its (high) time can be followed by the simple past or infinitive: Its (high) time you found a job. Its (high) time for you to find a job.

Underline the correct alternative.


2 You didnt Mr Clapton used to be / would be a doctor in the past. 3 answer / wasnt answering the phone. What were you doing / did you do ? 4 Sorry, but We used to live / would live in York before moving to Cardiff. I wasnt listening / didnt listen. I thought / was thinking about something 5 When Jack was a child he would start / was used to start to cry when else. 6 Who was riding / rode the bike at the time of the crash? he saw a cat. 7 I hated travelling by train, but now I am used to commuting / I am used 8 Dont you think its time you grow up / grew up? to commute. 1

Rephrase each sentence using the word in brackets.


I really have to leave the party. (left) Its time I left the party.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

In the past this shop had good prices, but its expensive now. (have) I never drink any beer. (used) Its high time you took your medicine. (take) When we were kids we spent all day on the beach. (would) Its high time for them to make up. (they) Dad hardly ever drives in the fog. (used) My Granny sang us a lullaby before we went to sleep. (would) I loved Christmas when I still believed in magic. (love)

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Getting Ready
2. Perfect forms

The present perfect refers to general experience or events or states still related to the present. It is used with expressions such as never, ever, before, recently, already, yet, this week/month..., in the last few days/weeks/..., up to now / so far: Have you ever visited the science museum? The past perfect refers to something that happened before the time we are talking about: When I reached the station the train had already left. The present perfect and the past perfect are used respectively after the expressions: It is the first/second/... time... Its the first time we have flown. It was the first/second/... time It was the first time we had flown.

The present perfect continuous and the past perfect continuous are used to emphasize actions whose results are still evident: Ive been running. Im out of breath. REMEMBER Been / Gone John has gone on a luxury cruise. (Hes still away) John has been on a luxury cruise. (He has come back) Yet / Still He hasnt got up yet. Hes still in bed. It was the funniest joke Id ever heard.

Never / Ever Id never heard such a funny joke.

Underline the correct alternative.


2 My legs really hurt. I have walked / have been walking all morning. 3 They The whole class read / had read the play before they went to see it. 4 Ben has just have / had been getting on well until Jeremy turned up. 5 Ron missed the concert been / has just gone out, but hell be back soon. 6 Has Frank because no one had been telling / had told him about it. finished / Did Frank finish his project yet? 1

Rephrase each sentence using the beginning in brackets.


Ive never eaten such a good meal. (Its the best...) Its the best meal Ive ever eaten.
1 Its the worst film Ive ever seen. (Ive...) 2 He has never won a 3 They were still waiting for an tennis match before. (It is the first time...) 4 The police havent found the robbers yet. (The answer. (They hadnt...) 5 It was the longest journey shed ever made. (Shed...) police are) 6 Its the first time shes complained about her job. (Shes...) 7 This is 8 Shed never dealt with such an irritating my first game of chess. (Ive...) customer as Mr Scott. (Mr Scott was...)

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Section

1
3 3.

Grammar reference
Perfect forms with for/since

The present perfect / present perfect continuous past perfect / past perfect continuous

are used with for and since to express duration of actions and states. For refers to the length of time and since indicates the starting point in the past: Ive known Ray for two years. (I met Ray two years ago.) He has been studying Dutch since last July. (He started studying Dutch last July.) We had had our old car since 1990. (We had bought our old car in 1990.) Shed been reading for three hours. (She had started reading three hours before.) The continuous form is not used in sentences with a negative meaning.
How long is/was it since...?

The following impersonal constructions are used to ask about the length of time since something happened: How long is it since + subject + simple past in the affirmative: How long is it since he (last) saw her? How long was it since + subject + past perfect in the affirmative: How long was it since he had (last) seen her? The answers can be: Its three weeks since he (last) saw her. or He hasnt seen her for three weeks. It was three weeks since he had (last) seen her. or He hadnt seen her for three weeks.

Put the verbs into the correct tense and choose between for or since.
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Dad is exhausted. He (drive) _______________ for / since 5 a.m. He was relieved when he got a job. He (not/work) _________ for / since months. The comedian was great. We (not/laugh) ______ so much for / since years. At last I was going home! I (be) ______ away on business for / since two weeks. You cant be tired! We (run) _____________ for / since only 10 minutes.

Rephrase the sentences following the examples.


We havent played tennis for ages. Its ages since we played tennis. Its a month since I heard from him. I havent heard from him for a month. When did you last see a dentist? How long is it since you last saw a dentist?
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

When did they get married? Its two weeks since I wrote to him. We hadnt had such fun for ages. When did you last text him? When did we last go to Egypt? He hadnt been to a concert for years. It was years since shed ridden a horse. Its a long time since we went to Paris.

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Rephrase each sentence using the beginning in brackets.


They started rehearsing at three oclock. (They have...) They have been rehearsing since three oclock.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

The last time I went to the theatre was five years ago. (I havent...) I last played cricket years ago. (Its) When had she started learning Japanese? (How long had?) When did she last take part in a ski competition? (How long?) I havent been shopping for two weeks. (I last) When did you last check the oil level? (How long...?) They arrived in Washington on Tuesday. (Theyve...) It was years since hed appeared on stage. (He...)

Rephrase each sentence using the word in brackets.


When did we last spend a holiday together? (since) How long is it since we last spent a holiday together?
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

When did you take up the violin? (playing) We bought this cottage in 2005. (owned) The last time Patty performed in a theatre was in 1996. (not) The baby had started to cry an hour before. (crying) The last time my tenant paid the rent was last July. (not) I hadnt been to London for ages. (since) Its a long time since our last chat. (spoken) Mary had fallen asleep at 9.30 pm. (sleeping)

Put the verbs in brackets into a suitable tense.


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

My neighbour (go) out an hour ago and his cat (mew) ever since. George and Ted are close friends. How long (they/know) each other? I (not/see) Jack for a long time. (you/know) if hes still abroad? We (have) a barbecue for ten minutes when suddenly the weather (turn) stormy. Ill have a sandwich. I (starve). I (not/have) anything to eat since breakfast. I (teach) for over thirty years now. Its high time I (retire). How long ago (they/move) to Chicago? Well, I think they (live) there for a year. When he (arrive) they (wait) for him for ages and he (not/even/apologize). The farmers were worried about the harvest. It (not/rain) for too long. Sue (stop) smoking three years ago. She (not/touch) a cigarette since then.

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Section

1
4.
TYPE Type 1 Type 2 Type 3

Grammar reference
If-clauses
MAIN CLAUSE IF-CLAUSE Simple future Simple present* She will get to school on time if she leaves earlier. Present conditional Simple past She would get to school on time if she left earlier. Past conditional Past perfect She would have got to school on time if she had left earlier.

* The simple present is used for time clauses too: I wont go to bed until Dad comes back.

The following linking words are also used for if-clauses type 1: unless (= if not), provided/providing (= but only if): Unless weve got something else to discuss well go home. (If we havent got anything) Ill lend you my car provided you pay for petrol. (but only if you pay for petrol.) In if-clauses type 2 the subjunctive were is often used for all persons of to be in formal English: If I were you I would reply as soon as possible. In if-clauses type 3 it is possible to have a present conditional or a present conditional continuous in the main clause when the effect of a past action is still in progress: You wouldnt feel / wouldnt be feeling sick now if you hadnt eaten so many chocolates.

Rephrase the following sentences using the linking words in brackets. Itll be a fantastic outing but only if it doesnt rain. (provided) Itll be a fantastic outing provided it doesnt rain. 1 Youll catch the bus if you leave now. (provided) 2 If you dont press 3 Sandy wont forgive him this button the machine wont stop. (unless) 4 Ill give you my iPad, but only if you bring it back unless he apologizes. (if) 5 If nobody calls the police hell get away. (unless) tomorrow. (provided) Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. 1 If Bill (not/cheat) ____________________ during the exam he wouldnt 2 Im sorry. If I (arrive) ______________ earlier I would be in trouble now. 3 If they offered her a better position, Kim have come to your lecture. 4 If you hadnt told me about Marks (change) _________________ her job. 5 If this rash (not/clear up) hair I (notice) _______________________ it. ____________________ soon you (have) _________________ to see a specialist. Rephrase each sentence using the beginning in brackets. 1 I think it would be advisable to book as soon as possible. (If I...) 2 3 Nobody invited She forgot to set the alarm, so she overslept. (If she...) 4 If Fred doesnt him to the reception, thats why he didnt turn up. (If...) 5 We didnt give me a hand Ill never manage to fix the radiator. (Unless) have an umbrella, so we got all wet. (If we...)

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5.

Wish

The verb wish can be used with the following constructions: Subject + wish + subject + simple past* to express strong desire for the present or future: I wish I had a flat of my own. Subject + wish + subject + would + infinitive without to to underline other peoples willingness or unwillingness to do something: I wish my husband would stop smoking. Subject + wish + subject + past perfect to express regret about the past: We wish we hadnt sold our cottage.
REMEMBER

Wish + simple past corresponds to if only + simple past*: If only I had a flat of my own. Wish + past perfect corresponds to if only + past perfect or the verb regret + -ing form**: If only we hadnt sold our cottage. We regret selling our cottage.

* In formal English the subjunctive were is often used for all persons of to be. ** For the use of the -ing form see page 22.

Rephrase each sentence using the beginning in brackets. She regretted eating so much. (She wished...) She wished she hadnt eaten so much.
1 2 3 4 5

Im really sorry I didnt buy that woollen scarf. (I regret...) What a pity we cant rent that camper van. (I wish...) She cant forgive herself for losing her nerve. (She regrets...) What a shame! We havent got time to visit the exhibition. (I wish...) It was my fault. I didnt check the tyre pressure. (If only)

Use the word in brackets to complete each sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence.
1

She really wishes she hadnt made that choice. (regrets) She _____________________________________ that choice. He took offence because you were too direct. (diplomatic) If you ___________________________ he wouldnt have taken offence. Nobody does anything to help that poor woman. (something) I wish ________________________________ to help that poor woman. I wish I had come to the party. I was so bored at home. (spent) If Id come to the party I ____________ such a boring evening at home. Im so sorry he didnt understand my words. (misunderstood) I wish he _______________________________ my words.

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Section

1
6.
Must

Grammar reference
Must To have to

The modal verb must is used: to express command and prohibition with present or future reference: You mustnt be so lazy. with the meaning of it is important/essential (for the speaker): Im late. I must hurry. to express deduction in the affirmative with reference to the present or the past: She is so sad. She must have family problems. (I think she has...) She was so sad. She must have had family problems. (I think she had...) To have to To have to expresses obligation and necessity with the meaning of to be obliged / to be compelled. It can be used in all tenses: Did they really have to put their dog in kennels? (Were they really obliged/compelled to...?)
REMEMBER

Mustnt Dont/Doesnt have to Must and have to in the negative form are used to express different functions: You mustnt phone Dad. He is working. (command) You dont have to phone Dad. He has just called. (lack of necessity)

Rewrite the parts in italics using must or to have to in the correct form. 1 Jeans lucky. She isnt obliged to do all the housework by herself. 2 Dont drive so carelessly or youll have an accident. 3 I cant find the door keys. Im sure I left them at home. 4 Do you really need to sign that contract? 5 If I dont lose weight Ill be obliged to buy a new dress for the party. 6 Its not necessary for you to wear seat belts during the whole flight. Rephrase each sentence using the beginning in brackets.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Im sure someone stole my wallet. (Someone must...) It will be necessary for us to wear boots on the excursion. (We...) Were they really compelled to postpone their departure? (Did they...?) I think Helen was 18 at that time. (Helen must...) Are you obliged to switch off your mobile during lessons? (Do you...?) Dont be late for the ceremony. (You) It would be necessary for us to go by train if it were foggy. (We would...) Admission to the museum is free on Sundays. (You dont...) Its not necessary for her to come if she doesnt feel like it. (She) I forbid you from saying that horrible thing again. (You)

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7.

Should / Ought to Had better

Should / Ought to The modal verbs should and ought to are conditional forms and are used: to give advice: You should visit / ought to visit the new art gallery. to express disapproval in the present or past: Mr Ross shouldnt be / oughtnt to be so rude. Jack shouldnt have been / oughtnt to have been so rude. to refer to strong probability/deduction: He should / ought to have arrived by now. N.B. Should can be used to suggest hypothesis in if-clauses type 2: If she should come, tell her to wait for me. (In case she comes,) Had better The modal verb had better refers to the present or future. It is used to give advice in a specific situation and it implies a problem or a danger: Subject + had (d) better + (not) infinitive without to You are going too fast. Youd better slow down.

REMEMBER

Should / Would have to The conditional forms should and would have to are used to express different functions: You should visit the outback when you are in Australia. (advice) If she married him she would have to move to Australia. (obligation)

Underline the correct alternative. 1 I know I would have had to reply / should have replied to your email, but I didnt have time. 2 Hurry up. You should have been / ought to be ready hours ago. 3 We had better not use / should use this pan. Its too rusty. 4 If you should need / ought to need any help just let me know. 5 If you didnt get so dirty I shouldnt do / wouldnt have to do the washing so often. 6 If the baby should wake up / ought to wake up, give her some milk. 7 Its getting late, Id have to go / Id better go now. 8 They ought to warn / shouldnt warn people about the presence of pickpockets in the area. Rephrase each sentence using the beginning in brackets. 1 I dont think it is a good idea to park in that dodgy street. (Wed) 2 You should be more patient with the children. (If I) 3 It was inconsiderate of you to sell Aunt Julias grand piano. (You) 4 We had to drive him home because he had missed the bus. (If he) 5 Why didnt you ask a policeman the way if you were lost? ( You ought) 6 In case anyone calls, will you please ask them to leave a message? (If)

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Section

1
8.

Grammar reference
Need

Need as a regular verb is used to express necessity/ lack of necessity in the present and in the past. It can be followed by a noun or an infinitive: Mum needs some potatoes / to buy some potatoes for lunch. Need can also be used as a modal verb to express lack of necessity in the present and past: Mum neednt buy any potatoes. There are plenty. Need as a regular verb can be followed by the -ing form with a passive meaning: The grass needs cutting. (The grass needs to be cut.)

REMEMBER

The negative forms of need as a regular or modal verb can be interchangeable in the present. To refer to lack of necessity in the past the difference is more noticeable: didnt need + infinitive (there was no need so the action was not done): We didnt need to pack sheets and blankets. We knew they were provided. neednt have + past participle (the action was done unnecessarily): You neednt have bought a sleeping bag. I could have lent you one.

Complete the sentences with the correct present negative form of need as a regular or modal verb (both forms may be possible).
1 2 3 4 5 6

Our old car is in perfect condition. We ___________________ change it. It is just a simple excursion. You ___________________ special equipment. The flower beds _________________ watering. It rained last night. Dont worry. You ____________ decide now. Im sure you _________________________ have a pass to go in. The central heating is OK. It _____________ servicing.

Rewrite the sentences using didnt need + infinitive or neednt have + past participle as in the examples. We were perfectly in time so there was no need to hurry to the airport. We were perfectly in time so we didnt need to hurry to the airport. We hurried to the airport, which was unnecessary. We neednt have hurried to the airport.
2 We brought Why did she iron my shirts? I could have done it myself. 3 a cake, but Maggie had made a delicious apple pie. It was not necessary 4 for me to learn the poem by heart. I remembered it from primary school. I met Susan by chance at the shopping mall so it wasnt necessary to send her 5 There was no need for you to put down a deposit. Why did you? an SMS. 6 We took more luggage than we needed on holiday. 1

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9.

Can Could To be able to

Can The modal verb can is used to express: ability, possibility, permission, requests: I cant dance. / Can I turn on the TV? negative deduction with reference to the present and the past: He cant be so rude. (I dont believe he is so rude.) He cant have been so rude. (I dont believe he was so rude.) Could The modal could is the past form of can and it also has a conditional meaning: He couldnt come to the lecture because he was ill. You could have helped me with the homework. N.B. Can and could are used before verbs of perception: You can/could hear the sounds of the falls in the distance. To be able to To be able to expresses ability and possibility. It can be used in all tenses. It corresponds to the verbs to manage + infinitive and to succeed + -ing form (more emphatic): Im afraid we wont be able to get there before lunch.
REMEMBER

Could Was/Were able to To refer to past actions could and was/were able to are interchangeable in the negative form, but they have a completely different meaning in the affirmative: When I was young I could swim to the shore from here in half an hour. (general ability) Although I had cramp in my arm, I was able to swim to the shore. (ability on one occasion)

Choose the correct alternative. 1 He twisted his ankle but he will be able to / can get around soon. 2 Anyone could / was able to see that she had been crying. 3 When I was seven I could / managed to walk on my hands. 4 She cant have left / couldnt leave the party with Sonia. Ive just met her at the buffet. 5 The test was very long but I was able to / could finish it on time. Rephrase each sentence using the word in brackets. 1 Im sure Mark didnt tell you a lie. Hes an honest guy. (cant) 2 The pub was so crowded that it was impossible to sit down. (we) 3 When Elizabeth was younger she was a wonderful singer. (sing) 4 I refuse to believe that the baseball match was rigged. (cant) 5 All the hotels were full, but eventually we found a room. (to) 6 It will be impossible for me to pick you up at three. (not)

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Section

1
10.

Grammar reference
May Might To be likely / To be unlikely

May Might The modal verbs may and might are used to express probability or possibility in the present or in the past: He may/might pass the exam. (Perhaps/Maybe hell pass the exam.) He may/might have passed the exam. (Perhaps/Maybe he has passed the exam.) May can also be used: to admit or concede something in the present or in the past: He may be attractive, but I dont like him. (Although he is attractive,) He may have been attractive, but I didnt like him. (Although he was attractive,) to express formal permission or prohibition. In this case it means to be allowed: Candidates may not take mobiles into the exam. (Candidates are not allowed to take) To be likely / To be unlikely The expressions to be likely / to be unlikely followed by the infinitive also express probability. To be likely is often used in questions: Are they likely to put off the match because of the snow? (Is it possible they will put off...?)
REMEMBER

Could not Might not To refer to past actions could and might in the affermative form can be interchangeable, but they have a completely different meaning in the negative: I couldnt remember his phone number. (it was impossible for me to remember it) Ill write down his phone number. I might not remember it. (probably I wont remember it)

Underline the correct alternative.


1 The hotel may / might be expensive but it is fantastic. 2 I gave him 3 We a map because I was afraid he could not / might not know the way. 4 It was such mightnt / couldnt see the maze. It was closed to the public. 5 I may not / might a difficult question that I couldnt / might not answer. 6 Are they likely to / May not have been polite, but she gets on my nerves. 7 It was 4.30 half an hour ago. It may they send the parcel by tomorrow? 8 not / cant be 4.20 now. Pam hasnt arrived yet. She may not have seen/ couldnt see our message.

Rephrase each sentence using the word in brackets.


Although he is an excellent cook, he is terrible with customers. (may) 3 Jeff was probably late Do you think Ross will change his mind? (Is) 4 because of the fog. (might) It was impossible for me to hear what they 5 Although it was a wonderful spa, its clients were too were saying. (not) 6 Sorry but you are not allowed to enter the archives. (may) snobbish. (may) 7 Maybe Ill find the info about this conference on the Net. (might) 8 The band will probably not split up. (unlikely)
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11.

Verbs of will

The most common verbs of will are to hate, to like, to love, to prefer and to want. They can be followed by a noun, an infinitive or an -ing form (see page 23). They are never followed by a that-clause, but by the infinitive clause verb + object + infinitive: Would you like Jane to come on holiday with us? No, actually Id prefer her not to come. Would rather This modal corresponds to the conditional forms of to prefer. It is used with the constructions: Subject + would (d) rather + (not) infinitive without to (with reference to the present or future): Id rather stay at home. (Id prefer to stay) Subject + would (d) rather + (not) have + past participle (with reference to the past): Id rather have stayed at home. (Id have preferred to stay / Id prefer to have stayed) Would rather can also be used with two different subjects with the following constructions: Subject + would (d) rather + subject + simple past or past perfect: Id rather you stayed at home. (Id prefer you to stay) Id rather youd stayed at home. (Id have preferred you to stay / Id prefer you to have stayed)

12.

Shall I/we...?

The modal verb shall is used in questions with I/we to make offers, suggestions or proposals: Shall I drive you to school? (Would you like me to drive you to school?) Shall we visit the aquarium? (Lets visit... / What/How about visiting...? / Why not visit...?)

Rewrite the sentences using the hints in brackets in the correct construction.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

This present is quite nice but I (rather/receive) something different. I know he didnt mean to hurt me, but I (prefer/he/hide) the truth. She is still a bit shocked. She (rather/you/ring) her back later. Shall I fix the tap? Well, actually I (rather/you/call) the plumber. The volume is too high. Shall I turn it down? I (prefer/you/turn) it off. Shall we have dinner now? No, we (prefer/wait) for Dad. (you/like/I/give) her the news? Thanks, but I (rather/do) it myself. The letter was addressed to Paul. He (rather/you/not/read) it.

Rephrase each sentence using the word in brackets.


1 Shall I put the heating on? (would) 2 Lets go to the beach tomorrow. 3 Susan would prefer to have studied Medicine than Law. (rather) (why) 4 Do you need a hand to paint the fence? (I) 5 Why did you book a B&B 6 Lets read the instructions again. (shall) 7 and not a hotel? (rather) 8 Ive got toothache. Id prefer to postpone our meeting. (rather) Why dont we subscribe to an American magazine? (subscribing)

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Section

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13.

Grammar reference
The passive voice

The passive voice is made with the various tenses of the verb to be followed by the past participle. The preposition by introduces the agent, but it is omitted when it is clear from the context or superfluous: My father painted this picture. They are restoring the cathedral. This picture was painted by my father. The cathedral is being restored.

The passive of modal verbs is formed like this: modal + be + past participle (for the present): This box should be thrown away. modal + have + been + past participle (for the past): This box should have been thrown away. With verbs followed by two objects (e.g. to ask / to bring / to give, etc.) the first object normally becomes the subject of the passive: They showed us the old brewery. We were shown the old brewery. In the passive form of prepositional verbs, prepositions and adverbs follow the past participle: They have put off the trip. The trip has been put off. With some verbs such as to assume, to believe, to expect, to know, to report, to say, to suppose, to think the passive can be formed in two main ways: Active People thought he was a genius. It + passive + that-clause Subject + passive + infinitive She is known to have been The star is said to be making...

It was thought that he was... He was thought to be

Everybody knows she was a spy. It is known that she was... They say the star is making a clip. It is said that the star is...

14.

To have/get something done

The structure to have/get + object + past participle is used to express that something is done for you by somebody else. Questions and negatives are formed with do/does/did. The agent is not usually included unless it is particularly important: When did you have/get your sitting room refurbished?

Rewrite the sentences putting the verbs in brackets into the correct passive tense.
2 It was the second Your car (still/service). Itll be ready tomorrow. 3 4 time the race (cancel). If you had driven carefully, you (not/fine). 5 6 Im tired of (mistreat) by Tim. Id like the walls (paint) pink. If the 7 The parade is going (put off) because of team had won, it (not/demote). 8 When he realized he (follow) by a stranger he called the police. the rain. 9 The thieves (not/catch) yet. They are still hiding. 10 The exhibition (open) by the Mayor next Saturday. 1

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Rewrite the sentences in the passive.


1 2 3 4 5 6

They may give you a promotion for this project. Did anybody tell Liz about it? We must keep this necklace in a safe place. No one had asked you to do it. We brought our children up in the country. They should have picked the fruit last week.

Rewrite the sentences following the example.


They say that Michael is somewhere in town. It is said that Michael is somewhere in town. Michael is said to be somewhere in town.
1 2 3 4 5 6

They say Niagara Falls are breathtaking. Tabloids report that the couple has got divorced. They think the groups tour is starting in May. Everyone knows he is a great coach. People assume that Jeff has left for Jamaica. People believe that Santa Claus travels on a flying sleigh.

Rewrite the sentences using the structure to have + object + past participle in the correct tense and form.
1 2 3 4 5 6

You look great! When (your hair/perm)? Any idea where I can (this digital camera/repair)? The washing machine is making a strange noise. We (it/check) tomorrow. If you had saved the photos on your pen drive we (them/print). Oh no! Theres a spot on my jacket. I (just/it/dry-clean). These jeans are too long. Why (you/not/them/shorten)?

Use the word in brackets to complete each sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence.
1

My parents asked a travel agency to organize their holiday in India. (had) My parents _______________________________________ a travel agency. No one has received any news from Paul since his graduation day. (heard) Paul ________________________________ since his graduation day. They say that drinking green tea is good for your health. (to) Drinking green tea __________________________________ for your health. This is a serious problem. We need to think about it carefully. (be) This is a serious problem. It needs _____________________ very carefully. Apparently nobody was injured in the explosion. (reported) Nobody is ________________________________ injured in the explosion. We should call someone to fix this dripping tap. (have) We should _______________________________. What a pity! They didnt let us visit the greenhouse. (given) What a pity! We ______________________________ visit the greenhouse. Nobody seems to know anything about Freddys past life. (be) Nothing ____________________________________ about Freddys past life.

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Section

1
15.

Grammar reference
Use of the -ing form

The -ing form is a very important verb suffix. It is used to form nouns (writing), adjectives (interesting), progressive tenses (hes playing), -ing clauses (she said hello, smiling politely), and after all prepositions and phrasal verbs (see Section 2). The -ing form is also required with some verbs and expressions such as: admit, appreciate, avoid, be busy, be used to / get used to, be worth/worthwhile, cant bear/stand, cant help, consider, deny, enjoy, fancy, finish, imagine, imply, include, involve, its no good, its no use, keep (on), mind, resist, risk, theres no point in: Would you mind sitting here, please? With reference to the past it is possible to use having + past participle: He denied telling / having told me a lie. When the action expressed by the verb + -ing form is not done by the subject of the main clause the structure is the following: Subject + verb + object or possessive + -ing form: I cant stand him/his complaining about everything. The -ing form is also used in expressions like: to go camping, fishing, shopping, swimming, trekking, walking, etc.

16.

Verbs followed by the -ing form and/or the infinitive

Some verbs can be followed by the -ing form and/or the infinitive with a change in meaning: forget, remember I perfectly remember giving / having given the car keys to the parking attendant. (the memory refers to a previous action) Did you remember to give the car keys to the parking attendant? (the memory refers to a subsequent action) mean Hes determined to make a career, even if it means moving away. (mean = imply) Do you really mean to move to France without your family? (mean = intend) regret We regret not informing / having informed you that the date of the concert had been postponed. (reference to past actions) We regret to inform you that the date of the concert has been postponed. (reference to the present / immediate future) stop She never stops talking. (to finish/end an activity) She stopped typing to talk to an important client. (to end an activity in order to do something else) try Why dont you try removing the stain with warm water? (reference to advice) I tried to remove the stain, but it didnt come out. (reference to an effort)

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The verbs to hate, to like, to love, to prefer can be followed by the -ing form or the infinitive with a slight difference in meaning: I like cooking. (emphasis on something you enjoy doing) I like to have cream in my coffee. (emphasis on a choice or habit) These verbs are always followed by the infinitive when they are used in the conditional: I would like to cook an exotic meal for dinner tonight. The verbs to begin, to continue and to start can take either the -ing form or the infinitive. The infinitive is preferable when these verbs are used in the progressive form: Its started raining / to rain. Its starting to rain. N.B. For the use of need followed by the infinitive or the -ing form see page 16.
REMEMBER

Verbs of perception, such as to feel, to hear, to notice, to see, etc., can be followed by the -ing form to focus on the activity in progress or the infinitive without to to focus on the short completed event: We saw the tide coming in. We saw the van crash into a lamp post. When the verb of perception is in the passive it is followed by the -ing form or the infinitive with the same distinction as above: The man was heard crying for help. The climber was seen to fall off the cliff.

Put the verbs into the correct form.


When we saw Max (wear) that funny sheep costume, we couldnt help 2 The play is said (be) boring. Its not worth (see). 3 (Accept) (laugh). 4 that offer will mean (work) at weekends too. She kept (ring) me and 5 I may have (ask) for help. She didnt know what (do) about her son. 6 Do you forgotten (turn) off the oven. Id better (go) back and (check). 7 Im feel like (have) a drink at the pub or would you rather (watch) TV? sure she expects me (lend) her some money but I have no intention of (do) it 8 Your windows need (clean). Would you like me (help) you? 9 again. Ive tried (give) up (smoke), but Ive never succeeded. Why dont you try (smoke) a pipe? 10 I think its a good idea (make) a note, or you risk (not remember) (send) the parcel.
1

Rephrase each sentence using the words in brackets.


1 Shes only forty. Is she really going to retire? (mean) 2 I cant wait 3 Its a waste of time to try to leave for Prague with my friends. (looking) 4 Sleeping in a tent is a new experience for him. to convince him. (point) 5 (He isnt ) I found it impossible not to eat that delicious apple pie. 6 The baby will continue to cry if you dont feed him. (couldnt resist) 7 (wont stop) Ricks so lazy! He idles around all day. Its annoying. (stand) 8 When I lived in Malta I went swimming every morning. (used)

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Section

1
17.

Grammar reference
Reported speech

When turning a sentence from direct into indirect speech with a reporting verb in the past the point of reference is different. Accordingly, it is necessary to make changes in the pronouns, verb tenses and other words: I saw this play last year in London, he said to me. He told me that he had seen that play in London the previous year. In reported speech the simple future turns into the present conditional: Your bike will be ready next Friday he assured me. He assured me that my bike would be ready the following Friday. If-clauses type 1 turn into if-clauses type 2. If-clauses type 2 and 3 remain unchanged. Questions are reported in the form of statements with introductory verbs such as to ask, to inquire, to want to know, to wonder: Wheres the station, please? He asked a passer-by where the station was. Both if and whether are used to introduce a reported question. Whether is more formal than if and it is the only one that can be used after prepositions and before infinitives: Im doubtful about whether hell come (or not).

18.

Reporting verbs

To say and to tell are the most common verbs to report statements with the constructions: to say that, to tell sb that, to tell sb to... / not to Other introductory verbs you can use to make the reported sentence shorter and more fluent are: verbs followed by a that-clause: add, admit, agree (with sb), announce (to sb), answer (sb), (re)assure (sb), complain (to sb), confess (to sb), declare, deny, exclaim, explain (to sb), inform (sb), point out (to sb), promise (sb), remark, remember, remind (sb), repeat (to sb), reply (to sb), state, think, threaten (sb); verbs followed by an infinitive clause: accept, advise (sb), agree, encourage (sb), instruct (sb), invite (sb), offer (sb), order (sb), promise (sb), recommend (sb), refuse (sb), remind (sb), threaten (sb), warn (sb); verbs followed by a preposition and/or the -ing form: admit, advise, apologize (to sb) for, blame (sb) for, complain (to sb) about, congratulate sb on, deny, recommend, regret, suggest, thank (sb) for, think about/of. N.B. To suggest can be followed by that + subject + (should) + infinitive without to when the suggestion refers to another person: I suggested that he/Paul (should) take up yoga to relax. To advise and to recommend can have the same constructions as to suggest, but are commonly followed by object + infinitive. To remember means to recollect. To remind means to make/help sb remember.

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Rewrite the sentences in reported speech using the verbs to tell and to ask in the simple past.
2 Mr Foster to his son: Well have a wonderful outing next Sunday. 3 The boy to his mother: Where did you put my jeans?. Lily to her 4 schoolmate: I have never met such a peculiar person as Ms Dunlop. Thomas to Bruce: Kens not feeling well so we may not be able to join you at 5 The babysitter to the children: You must tidy away your toys. the lake. 6 The receptionist to the party: Will you be ready to leave after lunch?. 1

Turn the sentences into reported speech using the hints in brackets.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

You can find extra exercises on page 12. (teacher/inform/pupils) If the dog hadnt barked, the burglar would have broken in. (Mr Trent/ explain/policeman) We are going to get married tomorrow. (couple/announce/parents) Yes, if I win the elections Ill reduce taxes. (senator/repeat/crowd) Please dont say anything about the surprise party. (David/tell/Roger) How much did you pay to have this carpet cleaned? (Ms Crane/ask/neighbour) Should I complain to the manager about the room service? (Sandy/wonder) I have nothing to declare but my genius. (Oscar Wilde/reply/Customs officer)

Rewrite the sentences in reported speech using the simple past and the right construction of the verbs given in the box in scrambled order.
suggest regret promise remind encourage thank apologize congratulate deny invite Mrs Cole to her daughter: Dont forget to call on Betty on your way 2 Peter to Quentin: You gave me a wonderful idea. Thank you. back. 3 Edward to a colleague: Im sorry I lost my temper yesterday. 4 Alex: 5 Jason: What about spending the I didnt read Lesleys text messages. 6 Carol to herself: How silly of me to ignore Alfreds weekend in a spa?. 7 8 Luke to advice. Trainer to a player: Come on! Dont give up!. 9 Mrs Dell to a friend: Why his parents: I wont get into trouble again. dont you stay for lunch?. 10 Examiner to a candidate: Well done! Youve passed with full marks!.
1

Read the sentences and write down what the speaker actually said.
2 Helen refused to answer Luke agreed to share the flat with Mark. 3 He asked a policeman the way to Trafalgar Square. 4 the questions. 5 Henry offered to William advised me to see a doctor the following day. 6 Rose blamed herself for being so stupid as carry Janes heavy suitcases. 7 to believe him. Jordan wondered whether Sandy would reply to his email. 8 My father wanted to know what time I had got home the night before. 1

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Section

1
19.

Grammar reference
Use of the infinitive

Besides being used to express purpose and in alternative to the -ing form with certain verbs, the infinitive can be used: with the constructions: adjective (noun) + infinitive: She isnt easy to get on with. adjective (noun) + for + object + infinitive: Its essential for us to book in advance. with the verbs to allow, to arrange (for), to expect, to get (= to persuade), to wait (for) with the construction verb + object + infinitive: I finally got him to change his mind.

20.

Use of the infinitive without to

Besides being used after modal verbs and verbs of perception, the infinitive without to is also used with the verbs to make and to let with the constructions: to make + object + infinitive without to (to express obligation or involuntary actions): She made me promise not to reveal the secret. The film made me cry. to let + object + infinitive without to (to express permission): My parents never let me stay up on weekdays. When to make is used in the passive it is followed by the infinitive: I was made to promise not to reveal the secret. To let is not used in the passive. It is replaced by to be allowed followed by the infinitive: Im not allowed to stay up on weekdays. N.B. The verb to help can be followed by the infinitive or the infinitive without to: Why dont you help (to) prune the hedge?

Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs given in the box.
allow arrange expect get let make (2) wait
2 Be good or Ill ___________ ________ me help you with the luggage. 3 4 Dont you go to bed. The fans ____________ for the concert to start. 5 _____________ her to be grateful. Shes so selfish. Dont blame him. Im 6 This is an exam. No one _____________ sure he was ___________ to do it. 7 Why dont you ____________ Emma to play something to talk to anyone. 8 We have _______________ for a taxi to pick you up at 10. for us? 1

Rephrase each sentence using the beginning in brackets.


1 Sandy looks older when she wears glasses. (Glasses make...) 2 Every3 They body was surprised when he burst into tears. (Nobody expected...) 4 We need to found it difficult to understand his point of view. (It was...) 5 Why do hurry if we dont want to miss the connection. (Its necessary...) you never allow me to listen to music at full volume? (Why do you never let?) 6 I dont think it is interesting to watch golf. (In my opinion golf isnt...)

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21.

Relative clauses

Defining relative clauses are so called because they define or identify the person, animal or thing they refer to. They are never separated from the rest of the sentence by commas. Non-defining relative clauses provide additional information. They are very formal and are separated from the rest of the sentence by commas. Defining People Animals, things Non-defining People Animals, things Subject who/that which/that Subject , who, , which, Direct object (whom/that) (which/that) Direct object , whom, , which, Indirect object (whom) prep. (which) prep. Indirect object , prep. + whom, , prep. + which, Possession whose whose Possession , whose, , whose,

In defining relative clauses the relative pronoun can be left out when it is a direct object: These are the photos we took in Canada. If there is a preposition this is put at the end of the clause and the relative pronoun is omitted: Thats the person we sold our cottage to. Whose is followed by what is possessed: This is the church whose frescoes are famous all over the world. That cannot be used after a preposition and cannot be used in non-defining relative clauses. In non-defining relative clauses the relative pronoun cannot be left out.
REMEMBER

The relative pronoun which is also used to refer to the previous sentence: She left the windows open, which was silly of her. (It was silly of her to leave the windows open.) The pronoun what can be used as a relative with the meaning of the thing/things that. It is never preceded by everything/all: Lets make a list of what we need. Lets make a list of everything/all (that) we need. Why is used as a relative adverb in the expression the reason(s) why ( = for which): Can you give me any reason why you were absent?

Rephrase each sentence using the beginning in brackets with a relative clause.
It was a shame the weather was so bad last week. (The weather was so bad) 3 There were very few applicants and this surprised me. (What) Its strange that Rex didnt bark when you rang the doorbell. (Rex didnt bark) 4 My friends ambition is to become a champion sleeper. (I have a friend) 5 He is very fit because he trains every day. ( The reason ) 6 Mr 7 Jackson knows six foreign languages. Hes a hotel chef. (Mr Jackson, ) They were talking about an actor. Id never heard of him. (Id never heard) 8 The murder was committed with this gun. (This is) 9 Mark wants to become a dancer. His father works in the Navy. (Mark,) 10 They said a lot about the new cure, but it was all nonsense. (Everything)
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Section

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22.

Grammar reference
Like As

Like and as are both used to express similarity. Like is a preposition and it is used before a noun, a pronoun or an -ing form. Like and such as are used to give examples. As is used: as a conjunction followed by a clause with a subject and a verb (see page 30) as a preposition before a noun to refer to an occupation or a function to express comparison with the constructions as as, the same as in expressions like as agreed, as requested, as follows, as usual. N.B. As well is an adverb which means the same as too and also. As well as is a preposition which means in addition to.

Complete the sentences with as, like / such as.


2 Liz Taylor was wonderful She behaves _________ a prima donna. 3 4 _______ Cleopatra. Hes so agile that he climbs ________ a monkey. 5 He plays the piano and the violin, _______ well. She dances at the Scala 6 Theres a strange noise, ______ a kitten mew_______ a prima ballerina. 7 Dianas working _____ a barmaid. 8 Do ________ you are asked ing. 9 The festival was dedicated to great film directors, ________ for once! Kubrick and Scorsese. 10 ________ you know, Im afraid of flying. 11 Men _______ him are very rare. 12 There werent as many subscriptions _________ wed expected. 13 . Poor woman! She works _______ a slave. 1

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Enough Too

Enough is an adverb of degree. It comes after adjectives and adverbs, but before nouns. Too is the opposite of enough. Enough and too can be followed by the structure for + object + infinitive: This flat is not economical enough for us to buy. This flat is too expensive for us to buy. N.B. Other adverbs of degree are so and such: This flat is so expensive that we cant buy it. This is such an expensive flat that we cant buy it.

Rephrase each sentence using the word in brackets.


1 2 3 4 5 6

The class was cancelled because there werent enough students. (too) The river was so deep that they couldnt wade it. (too) These oranges are too bitter to eat. (so) Its too cold to have breakfast in the garden. (not) That man is so mean that he never gives to charity. (such) The ice was quite thin. We couldnt walk on it. (thick)

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Section

Language booster
Linking words
1. Subordinating conjunctions 2. Text organizers 30 30 32 33 33 34 36 38

Prepositions
1. Verbs followed by prepositions 2. Adjectives followed by prepositions 3. Prepositions followed by word combinations 4. Additional exercises

Phrasal verbs
1. Be - Break - Bring - Call - Carry - Come 2. Cut - Fall - Get - Give - Go 3. Keep - Look - Make - Put 4. Run - Set - Take - Turn 5. Additional exercises

Revision

40 40 42 44

Making Steady
46 48 52

Word formation
1. Prefixes 2. Suffixes - concrete nouns 3. Suffixes - abstract nouns 4. Suffixes - adjectives 5. Suffixes - verbs 6. Suffixes - adverbs 7. Additional exercises

Off You Go! 52


54 54 58 58 58 60

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