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Lecture 5.

Gas Exchange
cellular respiration, oxidative processes within cells external respiration, exchange of O2 and CO2 between the organism and its environment

Gas Exchange Surfaces

for diffusion to be effective, gas-exchange regions must be:

moist thin relatively large

effectiveness of diffusion is enhanced by vascularization

Respiratory Organs
cutaneous respiration (direct diffusion)

Respiratory Organs
Tracheal systems (branching system of tubes)

Respiratory Organs
Gills or branchia (external or internal)

papulae (dermal branchiae or skin gills)

Respiratory Organs
Gills or branchia (external or internal)

gills in axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) branchial tufts (gills) in marine worm

Respiratory Organs
Gills or branchia (external or internal)

parapodia in ragworm (Nereis spp.)

Respiratory Organs
Gills or branchia (external or internal)

How a fish ventilates its gills

countercurrent flow/exchange
Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Respiratory Organs
Lungs (invaginations)

Lungs of frogs

A frog ventilates its lungs by positive pressure breathing.

Lungs of mammals

Lungs of mammals

Mammals ventilate their lungs by negative pressure breathing.

Lungs of birds

http://www.peteducation.com/article.cfm?c=15+1829&aid=2721

Lungs of birds

http://www.peteducation.com/article.cfm?c=15+1829&aid=2721

the volume of air an animal inhales and exhales with each breath is called tidal volume

it averages about 500 mL in resting humans

the maximum tidal volume during forced breathing is the vital capacity

about 3.4 L and 4.8 L for college-age females and males, respectively

most animals transport most of the O2 bound to special proteins called respiratory pigments

hemocyanin hemoglobin

when the control center registers a slight drop in pH, it increases the depth and rate of breathing, and the excess CO2 is eliminated in exhaled air

O2 diffuses into pulmonary capillaries most O2 combines with hemoglobin in red blood cells to form oxyhemoglobin CO2 diffuses out of pulmonary capillaries most CO2 is transported in the form of bicarbonate ion some CO2 combines with hemoglobin to form carbaminohemoglobin

Fig. 31.27

cooperative oxygen binding and release is evident in the dissociation curve for hemoglobin

a drop in pH lowers the affinity of hemoglobin for O2, an effect called the Bohr shift