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United Arab Emirates Ministry of Interior General Directorate of Civil Defence

For the Protection, Guidance and Welfare of the Inhabitants and the City of Abu Dhabi

BUILDING FIRE PROTECTION CODE

Revision 10/ 2004

Civil Defence Department City of Abu Dhabi Fire Protection Code


Proposal to be discussed with the Special Commission

FORWARD

Abu Dhabi is a fast rising city containing some of the most beautiful and modern buildings in the world. The density of the plots, the increasing height of the structures of the buildings and the modern materials and construction methods are requiring new / upgraded safety regulations. It is mandatory for the authority to renew the existing codes for fire protection for the sake of the people, their properties and the city as a whole. The new amendments to the code will give both the inhabitants and firefighters a safer environment. No code will prevent accidents, but the often disastrous outcome and consequences of rather minor incidents can very well be minimized or avoided. The proposed amendments will follow the principal of having the latest knowledge of fire protection combined with the existing code and the needs for the City of Abu Dhabi, but giving strong recommendations on existing problems with the intent of prevention and safety. The closeness of the writer to the Quick Intervention Unit of Abu Dhabi and their daily business in fire fighting will make this code very essential, especially in its recommendations for the ever returning dangerous situations.

May the City of Abu Dhabi keep on rising in a bright and safe future!

United Arab Emirates Ministry of Interior General Directorate of Civil Defence

Fire Protection Code


Revised 2004

Part 1
Buildings
General Note:
All revised and/or modified text sections or parts are written in green colour. All parts or section that will be removed will be written in red colour. Only the titles of revised or new sketches are written in green/red colour and are having the character of a proposal only and are representing one solution only. Page 1 of 239

Index of Chapters

Fire Protection Procedures Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Subject General Definitions General Codes Conditions of Location Planning Classification of Buildings and Structures as per the Hazard of Contents and Occupancy Description Means of Egress Safety Conditions of Building Engineering Utility Services in Buildings Conditions of Location Planning Special Terms according to Occupancy Description Private Buildings Fire Protection in the Construction Fields Firemans Elevator Page 4 12 17 21 28 59 80 90 102 222 227 237

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Index of Chapter One

General Definitions

Subjects

Page

1.1 General 1.2 Definitions

4 4

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Chapter 1 General Definitions 1.1 General The following is a list of definition Accepted: Wherever this word is seen means acceptance by the administration of Civil Defence. One of the accepted standards: Wherever this sentence is seen means one of the local, gulf or international standards accepted by the administration of Civil Defence. Accepted inspection authority: Wherever this sentence is seen means one of the inspection authority local, gulf or international that is accepted by the administration of Civil Defence. Special terms: Wherever this sentence is seen means the terms mentioned in section 9,10 and 11.

1.2 Definitions
Buildings Any type of structure use for housing any type of occupancy. High rise building (sketch 1) Any building which rises over 28 meters from the level of the sidewalk up to the floor of the last resident floor Mezzanine (sketch 2) It is a partial floor that is centralized in the space between the floor and the ceiling of any room or floor and its area is not half of that room or floor and if it goes beyond that then the mezzanine is considered as an independent floor as far as this codes are concerned.

Low Level Buildings (sketch 3) Low level buildings are buildings having room floors not exceeding 7m above ground level. Normal Buildings (sketch 4) Normal buildings are buildings having room floors not exceeding 28m above ground level.

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Roof

Sketch 1

+ 28,00m F.F.L. Top Room

Ground Level 0,00

Sketch 2

Roof /Ceiling Mezzanine

Ground Level 0,00

Sketch 3
Roof + 7,00m F.F.L. Top Room

Ground Level 0,00

Sketch 4

Roof + 28,00m F.F.L. Top Room

Ground Level 0,00

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Underground structure / basement (sketch 5) Any floor or building or part of the building that has a floor under the level of the sidewalk, with the exception of where the floor is enforced over the length of two outer walls with at least one entry point every 15 meters vertically with the need of minimum area of the entry point to be 9 square meters and that all the entry points be over the level of the sidewalk.

Open air structure It is any floor that contains outer walls which has openings of 20% or more of the total area of the outer walls of the floor and it is required that the opening be arranged in a way that guarantees good ventilation for all the parts of the floor or the part considered. Means of Egress It is the means of evacuation that is available and useable for escaping safely in the cases of emergency in a way where people that are situated in any point inside the building has the ability of moving safely outside of the building to the fresh air of the main road. Exit access It is that part of the escape means that leads to the entry point of the exit. Exit It is that part of the escape means that is separated of other parts of the building by elements that are fire resistant to provide a safe way for reaching the final exit, like escape stairs and the doors which open to the outside of the building directly. Exit Discharge It is that part of the exit means which start from the end of exit to main road. Stairs (sketch 5) It is the means of evacuation between floors, and the stairs considered in this codes are all the internal and external stairs used as means of escape. Smoke proof stair It is a stair that is protected from the passage of smoke produced by the fire, and it consist of a contentious stair that is disconnected of the other parts of the building by barriers that can resist fire for at least two hours. Ramps It is the sloped way that is used instead of the stairs to move from one level to another, and the ones considered here are the ones used for means of escape.

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Sketch 5

Opening of 9 m2

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Horizontal exit It is a horizontal means of moving from the building to a temporary sheltering point in another building on the same level or means of moving through or around a barrier that is fire resistant for passing to a temporary sheltering point that is safe from fire and the smoke produced by it. Locked door It is the door that needs a key to open and escaping through, the key can be a normal key or a mechanical or electrical mechanism that may be remote controlled. Closed door It is the door that can be opened immediately for exit without the use of a key. Smoke Compartment It is any space inside the building when it is surrounded by smoke barriers including the upper and lower sides with the exception of the outer sides and the final roof. Fire Compartment It is any space inside the building when it is surrounded by fire barriers including the upper and lower sides. Some times the outer sides are not considered in this code according to the position of the building relative to other buildings. Smoke Barrier It is any architectural element used, horizontal or vertical like the walls and the floor and the ceiling, floor and the final floor with the need for that part to be designed to prevent the passage of smoke. It is not necessary for the barrier to be fire resistant. Dead end It is that part of the passage or the space that does not lead to an exit, when it is entered there will be a need to backtrack to reach the exit. Common path of travel It is that part of the way to the exits that need to be used before reaching two separate ways for escape. Travel distance It is the length of the way connecting between any point in the floor and the exit door, the distance of movement is measured on the axis of the real way for escape. Occupant Load It is the total number of the people that are expected to be in the building or any part of it at any given time.

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Occupant Load Factor It is the area required per person to occupy within the building at any given time (m2/ person) Fire Door It is a door and its parts designed to prevent the passage of smoke and fire from the opening that it covers for a specified timeframe. Interior Finish It is the material of the finished surface of the internal building that is exposed. Fire resistance rating It is the time span that the material, barrier or element is able to resist the fire according to the inspections recorded in the accepted standards. Flame Spread It is the fast spreading of flame over some area. Guard It is a vertical barrier that is built over the length of the places that dont have stairs or balconies etc Handrail It is a strip of material for guiding and/or supporting people. Occupancy It is the way that the building is used like housing, industrial or residential etc. Hazards of contents The hazards of the contents are classified into low hazard, ordinary hazards and high hazards. Low Hazards The contents have a low tendency for fire so there is a small chance of self starting fire. Ordinary Hazards The contents gets fire on an average speed or it produces notable amounts of smoke and it exists in most of the occupancies. High Hazard The contents are highly flammable catches on fire very fast, or it creates an explosion.

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Automatic fire extinguishing system It is a system that is designed and installed to detect /extinguishing fires without human intervention.

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Emergency It is the situation that threatens the safety of peoples or damage property. Hazardous areas It is the areas of the building, due to its content, has a high danger ratio than the danger of the building that is made to occupy, for example the stores or the usage of flammable or fast flammable or decomposing elements, boiler rooms and fuel heaters, laundries etc.. Hose reel It is a permanent hose mounted on a reel to be used primarily by building occupants in the early stages of a discovery of a fire. Dry risers It is a permanent piping system that dont have water but two connectors diameter of 2.5 inch(BS) outside the building,the riser pipe must be according to the system used by the civil defence ,distributed in the needed places and is used for helping the people of the civil defence for pushing water into the high floors. Wet Risers It is a permanent piping system that has a constant water supply that feeds fire risers with the connectors diameter of 2.5 inch according to the system used by the civil defence or by trained people and the diameters of the pipes in accordance with the heights of the building. Fire hydrants It is an underground network of permanent pipes that has a constant water supply that feeds fire risers with normal sizes according to the system used by the civil defence for firefighting outside of buildings.

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Index of Chapter Two General Codes

Subjects

Page

2.1 General

13

2.1.1 Target

13

2.1.2 Implementation

13

2.1.3 Change of Building Occupancy

13

2.2 Concerned Department

13

2.3 Adjustment

13

2.4 Examination and Maintenance

13

2.5 Minimum Requirements for Buildings and Structures

14

2-6 Other Precautions

14

2-7 Other Substitutes

15

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Chapter 2 General Codes

2.1 General

2.1.1 Target The target of these codes is to provide the minimum level of safety of souls and properties from the dangers of fire and explosions and other dangers.

2.1.2 Implementation These codes need to be implemented in the new buildings and the buildings that are revised as for the building already existing will submit to later specifications that will be announced by the general administration of civil defence while maintaining the codes mentioned in 2.1.3

2.1.3 Change of Building Occupancy It is not allowed for changing the type of occupation in any building or any part of it without approval of the civil defence and after providing the additional needs that have surfaced by the new situation to supply the needs of the codes. 2.2 Concerned Departments It is the authorized department for applying these codes and is represented by the general administration of civil defence or from some representative of its sub departments or any other department it finds suitable.

2.3 Adjustment The general administration of civil defence has the right to change this codes according to the needs. 2.4 Examination and Maintenance Constant maintenance should be available to all the devices of protection, alarms and fire fighting or any other devices used in this codes. In particular all fire extinguisher should have a label of regular maintenance. The maintenance should be made by the some accepted department that takes into its responsibility doing examinations and maintenance over specified time spans according to one of the accepted specifications with the addition of the instructions provided by the general administration of civil defence.

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2.5 Minimum Requirements of Buildings and Structures Every building should be built and prepared and be maintained and operated in a way that avoids major dangers over souls, and to guarantee the safety of it occupants from fire and smoke or the panic that happens through the time of escape or the time needed for firefighting. Every building should be provided with the necessary means of escape and other means of safety that a suitable type and quantity, taking into considerations the type of occupation and the physical status of the occupants of the building and the number of endangered occupant and the means of protection allowed and the type and the height of the building and other necessary factors for providing all the building occupants with the needed level of protection. The means of escape should be arranged and maintained in each building to provide the ability of escape from any part of the building without any problem at any time that the building is being occupied according to the occupant load factor that the building is designed for. All the exits should be marked clearly and easy to see, also there should be some helping marks on the ways that leads to the exit so anyone who is physically and mentally sound can know the way to escape from any point.All signs to be in Arabic(top) and English(bottom), Pictograms are preferable. When artificial lighting is needed in the building escape lighting should be available and trustable too. An alarm system should be installed to alarm the occupants of the presence of fire in each building that has the size and type of occupancy. There should be at least two independent ways of escape in each building or fire compartment or sector, if the area or the type of occupancy or the nature of the building can produce danger during the escape from one escape or a blocking can happen to one of the escape routes, so there is a need to have two escape routes at least to lower that chance. Every building that does not have the minimum level of safety codes and is considered not safe because of the absence of the means of escape, or being a threat of a huge fire, or the type of occupancy is not suitable for the building should be removed or adjusted so it becomes safe according to the codes and instructions of the civil defence. 2.6 Other Precautions Applying these codes is not a reason for removing or reducing other precautions that are necessary for the safety of the building occupants.

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2.7 Other Substitutes Applying these codes does not prevent the usage of other ways of calculation and examination methods and other systems of protection as replacements to these codes if the alternatives is of better or equal quality and fire protection, under the conditions of providing the technical and design data that proves it and then the civil defence will accept those alternatives.

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Index of Chapter Three Codes of Location Planning

Subjects

Page

3.1 General Requirements

17

3.2 Streets and Roads Planning

19

3.3 Distance of Approach

19

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Chapter 3 Codes of location planning

3.1 General Requirements

When providing the plans for approval the plans for the site should be in a suitable drawing scale pointing to the place of the project, the main entrances, and the building or buildings that need to be approved, in addition to the nearby buildings and their use, and the positions of the external fire hydrants and the dry risers and the dimensions of the street and the parking for the vehicles and the vehicles of the civil defence, mentioning also the names of the street surrounding the site. There should be a street that is accessible for the vehicles and the devices of the civil defence for reaching easily to the closest suitable point to the building, from one or two sides according to this codes, this applies to single buildings or buildings that are part of a complex.(sketch 6) It is allowed to specify specified parking in the road for serving the vehicles of the civil defence for parking and maneuvering, it is also allowed for the civil defence to use a whole ally in case of emergency. Suitable signs should be placed to prevent parking in the parking allocated for civil defence and this is done with the coordination with the concerned authorities in Abu Dhabi. There also need to be a guidance sign to specify all the means and devices of fire fighting that is available in the yard of the site according to the instructions of the civil defence. There should be a guidance plan inside a frame that is mounted at the main entrance of the establishment and the main door of the building , that specify all the needs of firefighting and fire protection in the project, most importantly the main entrances of the establishment and the surrounding buildings and streets including the internal ones, and the nature of use of those buildings, as well as the dangerous places, external fire hydrants, dry risers, water valves and water sprinklers, the position of the pump room, ventilation openings and the necessary information about the fuel systems used and other necessary information. The space percentage in the industrial zones and complexes specified by the civil defence should be used for fire protection, like providing dividers spaces between the buildings or the boundaries of the establishments, or for providing space for the civil defence people and vehicles to operate, the space between the building or establishments should be suitable to prevent fire spreading to the nearby buildings according to chapter 6.

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Sketch 6 Sample for areas for fire fighting

Set-up area Strip of land without obstacles


4 =3to=9

4,5

Driveway opening h=4,50m w=4,0m


4
=9 1,25 1,25

Set-up area

11 6

=11

=1

Driveway for fire brigade

4 In places where no set-up of vehicles can be expected, the roads may be narrowed

Road

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11

11

3.2

Street and Road Planning Enough roads should be available for the vehicles of the civil defence to reach the building, and those roads should be according to the following specifications:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The basic width of the road should be at least 6 meters, and this applies to the road blocking gates too. The height of the gates and bridges should not be less than 4.5 meters The slope of the street should be no more than 10% The radius of the horizontal curves of the internal roads should be at least 16 meters The roads need to be paved with asphalt and should be designed to support the movement of the civil defence vehicles, and the load factor of those roads is specified in accepter standards. When the road leads to a dead end that has a length of more than 45 meters in any road allocated to the usage of the vehicles of civil defence. A traffic circle should be made with a radius of at least 16 meters. Any passage through a gate or underpass or tunnel of a building required for the civil defence vehicles, must have a free space of 4.5 meters in width and 4.5 in height. Their should not be any curve 10meters before and after the passage or else the width of the passage must be increased accordingly.

6.

7.

3.3 Distance of Approach Depending on the type of vehicle of the civil defence, the distance and faces of the building and distance to the parking, all measurements in table 3.1 will have to be applied to. When there is exit balconies and special windows for rescue the distance of arrival to them should be around 10-15 meters, and this applies for the emergency openings and special exit in the underground floors too. In the case of the existence of dry risers the ability for the fire pump car to arrive to them should be no more than 45 meter. There should exist a good paths with a minimum width of 2 meters for the civil defence personals to walk through on the whole length of the space separating between the vehicles of civil defence and the specified points in this codes, whether this point are dry risers or main exits or others.

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Table 3.1 The type of vehicles according to the distance and points of arrival and the number of sides Building height (In floors) Building size (1000 m3) Type of civil defence vehicles Fire pump Maximum distance Points of arrival and the number of sides

Any size

43

Main exits

Less than 7 7-27

Fire pump

30

Main exits

Fire pump

18

One or more sides + Main exits

More than 27-57

Fire pump

18

Two sides + Main exits

More than 57-85

Fire pump

18

Three sides + Main exits

More than 85 3 or more Less than 7

Fire pump

18

All sides

Mechanical ladder + Fire pump

10-15

At least one side + Main exits

7-28

Mechanical ladder + Fire pump

10-15

Two sides + Main exits

More than 28-57

Mechanical ladder + Fire pump

10-15

Three sides + Main exits

More than

Mechanical ladder + Fire pump Page 20 of 239

10-15

All sides

Index of Chapter Four

Classification of Buildings and establishments according to the Hazard of Contents and Occupancy Description Subjects 4.1 Classification According to Hazard of Contents 4.1.1 General 4.1.2 Hazard of Contents 4.1.2.1 Low Hazard 4.1.2.2 Ordinary Hazard 4.1.2.3 High Hazard 4.2 Classifications according to the type of occupation 4.2.1 Group A-A5, Assembly Occupancy 4.2.2 Group B, Educational Occupancy 4.2.3 Group C-C2, Juridical and Care Occupancy 4.2.4 Group D-D3, Habitation Occupancy 4.2.5 Group E, Administrative and Profession Occupancy 4.2.6 Group F, Trade Occupancy 4.2.7 Group G-G2, Industrial Occupancy 4.2.8 Group H-H2, Store Occupancy 4.2.9 Group I, High Hazard Occupancy 4.3 Other Buildings 4.4 , 4.4.1, 4.4.2 Separating Mixed Occupancies
Page

22 22 22 22 22 22 22
22/23

23 23
23/24

24 24 24 25 25 25 26

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Chapter 4 Classification of Buildings and Establishments according to the Hazard of Contents and Occupancy Description

4.1 Classifications according to Hazard of Contents

4.1.1 General What is meant by the danger of the contents in this codes is the relative dangers for starting and spreading fire in addition to the dangers of smoke and gases that are produced by the fire as well as the dangers of explosions and other accidents that can endanger souls. The authority that is responsible for specifying the level of contents danger is the civil defence and this is done according to the nature of contents and the type of work and the production operations done inside the building or the establishment, some times with the help of the accepted standards. When there are multiple levels of danger in the contents of the building in different parts the classification is done according to the highest level of danger, unless those parts are separated from each others according to the codes mentioned in 4.5. 4.1.2 Hazard of contents The dangers of contents in the building are classified into low, ordinary and high dangers. 4.1.2.1 Low Hazards The contents have a low tendency for fire so there is a small chance of self starting fire. 4.1.2.2 Ordinary Hazards The contents gets fire on an average speed or it produces notable amounts of smoke and it exists in most of the occupancies. 4.1.2.3 High Hazard The contents get on fire very fast, or it can produce explosions. 4.2 Classifications according to the type of occupation The buildings and establishments are classified according to the type of occupation into the following groups:

4.2.1 Group (A), assembly occupations, and they are classified into: A1. Theaters, they are assemblies of people for the purpose of watching the acting artists and so, usually it contains permanent chairs, like theaters, opera's, cinemas, television and radio stations which has chairs for viewers. Page 22 of 239

A2. Assemblies of individuals in closed halls, with or without viewers for the purpose of entertainment or fun in addition to some theatricals or cinematic shows or lectures without the presence of a theater platform with the exception of the normal platform, and usually it dont have permanent chairs, like lecture halls, show halls, wedding halls, dance halls, artistic show halls, stations(bus, train, airports, harbors), halls of justice, libraries, museums, restaurants, multi usage halls in schools and others, gaming halls, bowling halls, gym halls and others. A3. Assemblies of individuals in closed sports halls, with or without seats (with the exception of the halls mention in group A2), like the closed stadiums, closed swimming pools, skiing rinks. A4. Assemblies of individuals in closed religious halls, like mosques A5. Assemblies of individuals in open spaces, like entertainment cities, open stadiums, Eid pray ground, open exhibitions.

4.2.2 Group (B), Educational Occupancy It is a group of building used for the purpose of education until the end of the high school which contains no less than 6 students on a time span of no less than 4 hours a day and more than 12 weekly hours, like schools, garden schools, babies gardens (more than 5 babies with an age of more than two years and a half) mentioned in 9.2.1.1. and others. 4.2.3 Group (C), Juridical and Care Occupancy They are classified into the following groups: C1. Juridical and rehabilitation occupancy: it is the buildings that contains different level of security control and it is occupied by individuals that can't protect their well being, like jails, police stations jails, reformatories with detention cells, mental disruption hospitals with detention cells, quarantine places and others. C2. Care occupancy, it is the buildings that contains people that needs help because of there health or mental status (without limiting there freedom), like care houses, children gardens (more than 5 babies with an age of more than two years and a half), old age hospital , hospitals, health care unit(with sleeping places), reformatories with detention cells, sanitarium ,mental disruption hospitals without detention places and others. 4.2.4 Group (D), Residential Occupancy It is the buildings used for living and sleeping with the exception of the C group, and is classified into the following groups: D1. Hotels and Motels, and it contains all the buildings used for temporary residence for more than 16 individuals with a maximum living period of 30 days, as well as the buildings used for group livings for more than 16 individuals that are not from the same family, like hotels, motels, furnished apartments, internal houses in the schools and universities, singles houses, barracks, workers houses and others. Page 23 of 239

D2. Habitation Apartments and it consists of the buildings that contain at least 3 residential independent units made for permanent residence, and each unit should contain a kitchen and a toilet, this group contains the furnished apartments used for permanent living too. D3. Single or double family buildings, this buildings contain the ones that has one or two permanent residence unit, and each unit is occupied by individuals of the same family, like villas and public houses. 4.2.5 Group (E), Administrative and Profession Occupancy It is the buildings used for administration and professions that are nonindustrial , like banks, barber and beauty centers, medical and dental clinics, post office, administration offices, departments of civil defence, municipalities, police offices, the buildings of telecommunications, the stations of television and radio, watching posts in airports, cars show rooms, cars washers, nurseries without sleeping places, printing shops, translation offices, consultancy offices, veterinary hospital , educational buildings in universities(including the rooms that has a capacity of less than 50 individuals), educational laboratories and others.

4.2.6 Group (F) Trade occupancy it is the buildings where goods are shown and bought, like shops, malls, trade exhibitions , supermarkets, markets, car service stations. 4.2.7 Group (G) Industrial occupancy It is the buildings where individuals work with industrial assembly, production of materials and other goods, and they are classified into the following groups:

G1 Industrial occupancy with ordinary hazard level, like laboratories that contains materials and liquids that are flammable, like power stations, laundries, dry-cleans, bakeries, bicycles industry, ships and boats building, industry of equipments and office equipments, cameras production, canning including food goods, clothes, milk production both concentrated and dry, disinfectants production, electronics production, the industry of machinery and engines, plants of cotton and carpets and tents and sackcloth and fabric, calyx industry, industry of vegetarian oils, carton industry, furniture spraying and upholstery , tobacco industry, vehicles industry, photographic films industry, food making, clothes laundries, industry of woodworks, cartoon movie making, musical instruments industry, paper mills, plastic industry, printing press, garbage burning ovens, shoes industry, soap industry, sugar recycling plants, airplanes industry, sport equipments industry. and others G2 Industrial occupancy with low hazard level, like the industry of mineral water, ice industry, gypsum and cement and bricks and porcelain and glass materials, blacksmithing, production and assembly of metals, small workshops(electronic workshops, plumper, lathes), water pumping stations and others. Page 24 of 239

4.2.8 Group (H), Store occupancy It is the buildings used for storing of goods or products or cars or animals, and is categorized into: H1 Store occupancy with ordinary hazard level It is the buildings used to store products which have ordinary hazard level, like plastic bags, fabric, paper, jute, reed, chains, leather and fabric belts, books, shoes, cartoon, clothes, ropes, furniture, fur, glue, leather, sheep skin, used furniture stores, cars repair workshops, lubes stores with glowing point of 93O or more, closed parking, silk, soap, sugar, tobaccos and smoking cigarettes, beds, candles and others. H2 Store occupancy with Low hazard level It is the buildings used to store low hazardous products( it is possible that these products are stored in cartoon boxes or carried on wood supporters, but plastic covers should be kept minimal and should not surpass the level of thin plastic covers and plastic handles), like juice and mineral waters, bagged cement, chalk, cheese and yogurt products, dry batteries, electric coils, electric engines, food products and food products in non-flammable containers, vegetables and fruits in non-plastic containers, frozen foods, glass, glass bottles that empty or full with non-flammable liquids, gypsum boards, meats, metal safes, metal tables, metals, mirrors, empty metal cans, electric converters including the ones that are full of oil in spite of electric converters that contains oil that has a glowing point of more than 93o but if this oil is petroleum based and is subjected to internal sparks of type delta and corona inside the electric converters especially after a long operation time in the climate of the our country where the temperature of the electric converters could reach more than 50m and with the presence of the oil disassembly gases this conditions calls for its classification as an H1 group, open parking from the sides, porcelain, electronic washers and others. 4.2.9 Group (I) High hazardous occupancy it is the buildings used for the occupancy of production or usage or storing of hazardous materials in high quantities, like explosives, oxides, plant and stores of gases and flammable or fast flaming liquids in high quantities, stores for dangerous materials in high quantities, flammable dust, flammable fibers, fast flaming solid materials, radiating materials, poisonous materials, production and treatment of chemicals, alcohol materials filtering , mills, harvest cells, plants of paint and varnish, treatment of rubber and plastic, spraying paint, paper recycling establishments, rubber tiers in high quantities and others. 4.3 Other buildings Any building that is not considered in 2.4 is classified according to the suggestions of the civil defence, according to the expected level of danger and the nature of building usage.

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4.4 Separating Mixed Occupancies

4.4.1 Mixed occupancies should by separated by barriers that has a resistance of no less than is mentioned in table 4.1 4.4.2 in case of mixed occupancies in the same building in away that it is practically impossible to provide the necessary separation, the building should be classified according to the highest danger occupancy, but in the case of small occupancies that has a secondary role when taking into consideration the primary occupancy of the building then the primary occupancy could be used to classify the building.

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Table 1.4 barrier resistance between mixed occupancies (hour)

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Index of Chapter Five Means of Egress

Subject
5.1 General 5.1.1 Definition 5.1.2 Applications 5.1.3 Main components of means of egress 5.1.4 Separation of the means of egress 5.1.4.1 Exits 5.1.4.2 Passages 5.1.5 Interior finishing of exits 5.1.6 Net height of means of egress 5.2 Main components of means of egress 5.2.1 Doors 5.2.1.1 General 5.2.1.2 Special regulations 5.2.1.3 Mechanical doors 5.2.1.4 Revolving Doors 5.2.1.5 Automatic closing doors 5.2.2 Stairs 5.2.2.1 Dimensions 5.2.2.2 The stairs landing 5.2.2.3 Curved stairs 5.2.2.4 Spiral stairs 5.2.2.5 Stair discontinuity 5.2.2.6 Building conditions 5.2.2.7 Guiding signs 5.2.2.8 Fire and smoke protection 5.2.2.8.1 Internal stairs 5.2.2.8.2 External stairs 5.2.3 Smoke protected stairs 5.2.3.1 Definition 5.2.3.2 Protected stairs access 5.2.3.3 Ventilation 5.2.3.3.1 Natural ventilation Page 28 of 239

Page

30 30 30 30 30 30 30 31 31 31 31 31 32 32 32 34 34 34 35 35 35 35 35 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 37 37

5.2.3.3.2 Mechanical ventilation 5.2.3.3.3 Stairs pressure system 5.2.3.3.4 Operation 5.2.3.3.5 Reserve Power 5.2.3.4 Exit discharge (final exit) 5.2.4 Horizontal exits and the areas of temporary refuge 5.2.5 Bridges and balconies and outer windows 5.2.6 Ramps 5.2.7 Exit passages 5.2.8 Mechanical stairs and passages 5.2.9 Special means of egress 5.2.9.1 General 5.2.9.2 Straight Fixed Ladder 5.2.9.3 Sloped fixed Ladder 5.2.9.4 Automatic emergency stairs 5.2.9.5 Rescue and ventilation windows 5.3 Means of egress capacity 5.3.1 General 5.3.2 Occupancy load 5.3.3 Estimating the exit capacity 5.4 The number of the means of egress 5.5 Arranging means of egress 5.6 Dead end 5.7 Compulsory movement passage 5.8 Movement distance 5.9 Exit discharge (the final exit) 5.10 Handrails and falling guards 5.11 Means of egress guiding signs 5.12 Emergency lighting

37 39 39 39 39 40 40 41 41 41 42 42 42 42 42 42 43 43 44 44 45 45 46 46 46 48 48 49 49

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Chapter 5 Means of Egress 5.1 General 5.1.1 Definition (also note page 2 general definitions) Means of egress contains horizontal and vertical and sloped ways and it is contains many components, like pass ways, stairs, balconies, ramps, bridges, doors and many others. 5.1.2 Applications All the buildings and establishments should contain suitable means of egress according to this chapter in addition to special codes. 5.1.3 Main components of means of egress Means of egress consists from three primary components which are: Exit passage: it is the part which leads to the exit door. Exit: it is the part that is detached from the rest of the buildings with fire resistant elements, to provide safe passage to the final exit, like escape stairs, and door that open to the outside in the ground floor. Exit discharge (final exit): it is the part that starts from the end of the exit to the main street. 5.1.4 Separation of the means of egress 5.1.4.1 Exits All openings that connect between the floors and the exits should have min. 120 minutes fire resistant doors that submit to the codes mentioned in 6.3.6.2. It is forbidden to make any other openings that go through the exit with the exception of the openings used for electric cables which provide lighting to the exit, escape doors, pressure calibration openings in stairs and the pipes used for conditioning the exit or to provide feed for water sprinklers and fire risers. Also there should be no openings to connect between nearby exits. The exit should provide a continuous unit that is protected from fire to provide continuous escape route until reaching the final exit. Exits should never be used for other causes like storing. 5.1.4.2 Passages Any escape route shall not be longer than 35m (sketch 10) If passages were used as pass ways for reaching exits and it were serving an area which has more than 30 occupants it should be separated from the buildings with at least 1 hour fire barriers.

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5.1.5

Interior finishing of exits

The materials used for the interior finish of exits should be non.flammable, and the finishing for the walls and ceilings of the exits are from type A according to the codes mentioned in 6.6 unless the special codes allows something else. 5.1.6 Net height of means of egress

The net height of the means of egress should be at least 220 cm, and when there exist some protrusion in the ceiling the net length of the ceilings should be no less than 200 cm with respect to those protrusions. The net height of stairs is calculated from any point of the slope of the step to another point above it in the bottom of the sloped ceiling above them, and the net height should be no less than 200 cm as in figure 5.1.

5.2

Main components of means of egress

5.2.1 Doors 5.2.1.1 General Any door mentioned in this part is the doors used in the means of egress and it contains all door with all their components, from frame and bolts etc... Door width: to measure the width of the door the net width of the door is measured when the door is opened to its fullest, like in figure 5.2 in case of splitting the door into two or more pieces with a column, the net width of each part is calculated alone in the same way and the net width of a single door used as a component of the means of egress should be at least 85cm and no more than 120 cm. The difference in the floor level on the sides of the door should be no more than 13 mm. With the exception of the cases allowed in the special codes the movement of the normal doors should be done by side hinges and for the other types of doors like sliding doors should not be used but for limited cases allowed by the special codes and after the civil defence acceptance, with the requirement of it to be easy to open manually, and signs to specify how should it be used are hanged on it. All the doors that split between the floors and the exits and between the exits and the main street and the doors that are used in high danger areas or the ones that serves a room or an area that has more than 50 occupants should open to the way of exit to be used as means of egress. The movement of the door should not affect the capacity of the components of the means of egress that leads to the door, like in figure 5.3 in the following manner:

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1. 2.

The door movement should not prevent the usage of the means of egress in general. The door should not limit the size of the stairs or the pass or the passage or any parts of the means of egress with more than half the needed width. When the door is open to its fullest it should not take space of more than 18cm from the side of the wall, like in figure 5.3 When the door is opened to a stair it should provide a path(landing) with a width of no less than the width of the door.(sketch 9) The doors should be easy to open, and in general the strength need to open it should be no more than 133 Newton(14 KG) applied on the handle of the door. There should be provided easy means for opening the doors when people are inside the building and the closing mechanism should not need special key or knowledge to open it. The door hinges or any other mechanism used for holding the door should have a handle or any other means of opening , that can be operated in all lighting conditions, and the door should be opened with one move only. No ropes or chains that could prevent movement be put in the means of egress

3.

5.2.1.2 Special regulations If the nature of the building needed arrangements or special procedures for security reasons or other reasons, that can prevent the usage of the means of egress, then this is done after taking approval of the civil defence and each case should be treated as a single case, and when accepted there should be arrangements to ease the use of the means of egress at emergencies, in all special cases where electronic locks are used as means of door locking the ability for lock opening in the following manner should be provided: 1. 2. 3. Automatically when the alarm or water sprinklers are triggered Automatically when the electricity is cut Manually after adding pressure to some manual opening mechanism. Doors should not be locked with keys unless mentioned in the special codes. 5.2.1.3 Mechanical doors All the automatic doors that opens with light cell when it is approached, or any other automatic mechanism should have a manual way to open if the automatic mechanism stops working. 5.2.1.4 Revolving Doors Revolving doors are not accepted as components of the means of egress. Page 32 of 239

Sketch 9
Depth Landing X(min.)

Sketch 10

Width Door X

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5.2.1.5 Automatic closing doors When the escape door should stay closed, like the stairs door, it should have springs of the accepted type, to completely close the door after opening it and if the nature of the door needs it to stay open it should have some means of automatic closing.

5.2.2 Stairs All the doors mentioned here are the internal and external doors used as components of the means of egress and the net width of the stair is the net width between the face of the wall and the hand rail. All doors towards staircases must be fire resistant for 60 min. and made smoke/heat proof. 5.2.2.1 Dimensions The dimensions of the stairs are specified according to the following table: The least width of the stairs The most height of the riser The least height of the riser The least depth of the step The least net height of the stairs Some exceptions are noted: If the area of the repeated floor (multiple, identical floors) is no more than 600 m2 and when there exist 2 stairs for egress it is allowed for one of the stairs to have a width of 100 cm It is allowed that the net width of the stairs to be 90 cm if the occupancy load factor for the whole building is no more than 50. Other specifications In addition to the numbers mentioned in the preceding section the stairs should have the following specifications: 1. The width of the stairs should be enough for serving the building occupants at the time of egress. 2. The steps have to be arranged in groups and each group should end with a landing, but the height difference between two landings should be no more than 370cm. 3. The continuous steps in one group should have the same depth and height and there should be no more than 5 mm difference in dimensions of two nearby stairs, a 10 mm difference in depth and height is allowed between the highest and lowest step. 110 cm 18 cm 11 cm 28 cm 200 cm

(with exceptions)

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5.2.2.2 The stairs landing The landing of the stairs should be leveled and it is not allowed for stairs to be within the landing. The minimum width of the landing should be no less than the width of the stairs, with exception of the landing that split the straightness of the stairs into two landing or more, where the width of the landing can be reduced into 120 cm.

5.2.2.3 Curved stairs It is allowed to use curved stairs as a component of the means of egress but the minimum depth of the step should be no less than 28cm on the length of 30cm from the tight end of the step, and the minimum internal half radius should be the double of the stairs width, like in figure 5.4.

5.2.2.4 Spiral stairs The spiral stairs should not be used in the means of egress but in special conditions and according to the following codes: 1. The load occupancy of the area that the spiral stairs serves should be no more than 5 persons. 2. The net stair width should be no less than 70cm. 3. The height of the step should be no more than 24 cm 4. The net height should be no less than 200 cm 5. The depth of the step should be no less than 20 cm in a point that is 30 cm away from the tight end of the step.

5.2.2.5 Stair discontinuity When the stair continue to a level beyond the ground floor level the continuity of the stairs should be cut with some barrier or door or any effective way with the exception of the cases that the stairs continue for a height of no more than half of height of a floor under the ground floor.

5.2.2.6 Building conditions All the stairs should be built including all its components with fire resistant material and it should be built in a sturdy and permanent way, and the ground of the floor should be solid and doesnt allow sliding and should have no pores. The usage of stairs for other reasons like storing is forbidden.

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5.2.2.7 Guiding signs When the stairs are made to serve more than four floors guiding signs should be hanged near the stairs doors from inside to point to the number of the floor that the doors lead to, and these signs should be on the height of 150 cm over the path and easy to see in the case of the door is open or closed in Arabic and English or pictograms. 5.2.2.8 Fire and smoke protection 5.2.2.8.1 Internal stairs All the internal stairs used as exits should be separated from the building with fire and smoke resistant, inflammable or height flammable resistance barriers according to the codes mentioned in 5.1.4. The walls and the external openings surrounding the stairs should be protected when there is a possibility for the stairs to get in fire because of the danger of external spreading due to other parts of the building with an angle of less than 180 degrees. The protection is on a horizontal length of no less than 3 meters and with at least 1 hour's fire resistance for the walls and 120 minutes for the doors and windows like in figure 5.5.

5.2.2.8.2 External stairs All the external stairs should be separated from the building with fire resistant barriers in the same manner of the internal stairs, like in figure 5.6.A and 5.6.B.

5.2.3

Smoke protected stairs

5.2.3.1 Definition The stair that is protected from the passage of the smoke produced by the fire and it consists of a continuous stair that is separated from the rest of the building by fire resistant barriers that has a resistance of no less than 2 hours, this special stairs is requested in places specified by the special codes. 5.2.3.2 Protected stairs access Accessing the protected stairs is through an external balcony or an aired room, as in figure 5.7, with the exception of the stairs protected by a pressure system.

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5.2.3.3 Ventilation Ventilation is achieved by one of the following ways: 1. 2. 3. natural ventilation mechanical ventilation pressure system

5.2.3.3.1 Natural ventilation In the case of using natural ventilation the following has to be noted: 1. 2. The ventilated area and the balcony should be separated from the rest of the building as in figure 5.7. The ventilation opening in the ventilated area has an area of no less than 1.5 m2 in a way that it is open to the outer wall or to an open yard of 6 meters width at least, and the ventilation opening should be completely exposed without windows on it. The width of the ventilated area should have a width of no less than the passage that leads to it and should have a length of no less than 185 cm in the way of egress. The roof opening in a staircase should be 5% of the area of the ground floor or min. 1m2. The natural ventilation should be guide by technical equipment as indicated in sketch 11.

3.

4. 5.

5.2.3.3.2 Mechanical ventilation In the case of Mechanical ventilation usage the following has to be noted: 1. 2. 3. The ventilated hall and the balcony should be separated from the rest of the building as in figure 5.7. The width of the hall should be no less than 110 cm and the length should be no less than 185 cm in the way of egress. The hall should be ventilated in a ventilation average of no less than one time a minute with air suction percentage of no less than 150% from the air supply average, and there should be special pipes and independent from each other for the air supply and air suction. The ceiling of the hall should be higher than the entry door in no less than 50 cm. The supply opening should be no higher than 15 cm of the ground of the hall and the suction openings should be no lower than 15 cm from the hall ceiling. The stairs should have from above a valve for ridding of the extra pressure while supplying the stairs mechanically with air to rid of at least 2500 square foot (71cube meter) per minute through the extra pressure valve while keeping a positive pressure that is at least 25 Pascal (25 Newton/ square meter) inside the stairs and relative to the hall when all the doors are closed. Page 37 of 239

4. 5.

6.

Sketch 11
5 6

4
Smoke Exhaust

4
Smoke Exhaust

1 Central Switch box 2 Smoke exhaust flap(automatic) 3 Air intake flap(automatic) 4


Smoke Exhaust

4 Emergency switch(manual) 5 Power supply for drives 6 Automatic alarm smoke/heat warning device

and automatic release


7 Electrical power connection (Fire

protected cables)
4
Smoke Exhaust

4
Smoke Exhaust

Note: Smoke exhaust flap(2) and air intake(3) must open simultaneously. Emergency switch(4) to be located on every floor or every mezzanine floor.

5 4
Smoke Exhaust Central Switch Box

1.40

n.t.s. Page 38 of 239

Typical Section

5.2.3.3.3 Stairs pressure system A. When depending on a pressure system for protecting stairs from smoke the use of accepted engineering system that produces a positive difference in pressure inside the stairs compartment relative to other places that is no less than 25 Pascal (25 Newton/ square meter), and the system should maintain this pressure difference under all circumstances like wind and fireplace effect and the presence of two open doors and so on. Also the pressure difference at doors should be no more than a limit where 133 Newton (14KG) power is needed to open the door. The equipments and the special tunnels for the pressure system in one of the following places: Outside the building and connected directly with the stairs through special tunnels inside a fire proof establishment. Inside the stairs compartment, in way that the air entrance and exit directly out or through special tunnels that is situated inside a fire resistant establishment that resist fire for no less than 2 hours. Inside the building if it is separated by the rest of the building by fire resistant barriers that have a resistance of no less than 2 hours.

B. 1. 2.

3.

5.2.3.3.4 Operation The mechanical and pressure ventilation systems should be operated through one of the following means: 1. 2. With the use of a smoke detector placed at a distance of no more than 3 meters from the protected stairs entrance. With a manual operated switch, but it should be placed in easy to reach position by the civil defence like in the lobby of the ground floor or the control room. By a signal of the water sprinklers in case of such a system exists. By a signal of the alarm system in the building.

3. 4.

5.2.3.3.5 Reserve Power The mechanical ventilation and the pressure system should be connected to reserve power source (generator) in addition to the main power source, and the reserve power system should be able to provide power for at least 2 hours without the need for refueling. 5.2.3.4 Exit discharge (final exit) With the exception of the cases that the special codes allow the protected stairs should lead to the main street or into a passage that leads out directly, and in the last case the passage should have no openings but the door or the stair which leads to the main street, and that the passage be surrounded by elements that has a fire resistance of no less than the stairs resistance.

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5.2.4 Horizontal exits and the areas of temporary refuge A. Horizontal exits is a horizontal mean of egress from the building to a temporary refuge area in another building or from on fire compartment into a temporary refuge area in another fire compartment on the same level where a temporary and safe refuge area is provided for the endangered individuals, like in figure 5.8. The temporary refuge area that is reached by the horizontal exit should be an independent fire compartment that has a fire resistance of at least two hours, if the horizontals exit inside a fire resistant wall then it should be covered with a door that has a fire resistance of at least 90 minutes and it should be automatically locked and opens to the exit way. It is allowed for the horizontal exits to substitute half of the original number of the exits at most, but the length and capacity codes have to be noted and that for each temporary refuge area and that is reached by the horizontal exit has at least one stair that leads to the final exit. When the codes of chapter 9 request the presence of outer windows for rescue and ventilation then those windows should submit to the codes of 5.2.9.5. If both sides are considered temporary refuge area then another horizontal exit should be provided in the reverse way of the same barrier, in a way that both sides of the temporary refuge area in relative to the other while providing the needed guiding signs in Arabic and English or pictograms. The temporary refuge area that is reached by the horizontal exit should be used by one renter or user, and no locks or any other barring means should be installed at any time with the exception of the cases that is allowed by the special codes. The area of the temporary refugee area should be enough to contain all the people that are expected to be in both sides and an area of at least 0.3m2 for each individual unless other setting is mentioned in the special codes. It is possible for the temporary refuge area to be outside of the building, in another building or a bridge or a passage, in a way that it leads to the main street. When the bridges and windows are used as means of egress , it should apply to the special codes about external stairs as well as the following codes: The openings that faces bridges and balconies should be protected unless it is protected from sides with brick walls or the concrete should have a height of at least 2 meters. The net width of the bridges and the balconies is calculated according to the expected load factor but it should be no less than 110 cm. Protection from falling barriers should be installed on the empty sides of the bridges and balconies according to the codes of 5.10.

B.

C.

D.

E.

F.

G.

H.

5.2.5 Bridges and balconies and outer windows

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5.2.6

Ramps

Ramps are sloped ways that are used instead of the stairs to move from one level to another and it can be considered as one of the means of egress, but it should commit to the general codes of the stair with the addition of the following codes: 1. The ground has to be sturdy and slide free, and that the slope is the same over the whole length of the ramp that connects between two paths, when changing the way of the ramp it should be done through a path. 2. Protection barriers should be installed in the empty sides of the ramps according to the codes in 5.10 and when the slope percentage is more than 1:20 then hand rails should be installed. 3. The dimensions of the ramp are measured according to the following table: The minimum net width 110 cm The maximum linear slope percentage The maximum width slope percentage The maximum height 5.2.7 Exit passages When passages and halls and others are used as components of the means of egress then it should apply to the codes mentioned in 5.1 with the addition to the following codes: 1. 2. The passages should be separated from the rest of the building according to the codes mentioned in 5.1.4. In the case of using the passages as an exit discharge in a way that the final exit connect between the stairs and the main street then it should be separated from the rest of the building by barriers that has a fire resistance of no less than the stairs surrounding it. The ground of the passage should be sturdy and should have no pores or holes and its net width should be enough. 1:10 1:5 76 cm

3.

5.2.8 Mechanical stairs and passages Mechanical stairs and passages are not considered as part of the means of egress.

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5.2.9

Special means of egress

5.2.9.1 General A. The special means of egress can be considered as means of egress in special cases only and after getting the approval of civil defence, and each case should be considered separately, the special cases are: Vertical buildings, where it is hard to implement suitable means of egress according to this codes. In some limited cases, to provide additional means of egress for some places, like machinery rooms and roofs or watch or communication towers and so on, but the load factor should be no more than 3 individuals. All the means of escape should be made from fire proof materials, and it should be treated to be resistant to rust and climate status, as well as being sturdy and connected to the building in a strong way.

1. 2.

B.

5.2.9.2 Straight Fixed Ladder In some exceptions , the usage of a straight Fixed Ladder to serve no more than 3 individuals can be accepted under the condition that a barrier should be installed from both sides at a length of 1 meter over the surface that it ends to, if the ladder length is more than 9 meters then it should be completely covered with a net barrier for protection from falling. 5.2.9.3 Sloped fixed Ladder It is allowed to use the sloped fixed ladder like in the preceding section but the slope angle should be no more than 60 degrees and the steps should have a width of no less than 13 cm and that the distance between them is no more than 20 cm. 5.2.9.4 Automatic emergency stairs In special cases it is allowed by civil defence to used automatic working stairs which go down automatically when used and go up again by the usage of a weight , when left, but it should be of the accepted type. 5.2.9.5 Rescue and ventilation windows The rescue and ventilation windows should be able to open to the inside without the need for any special tool or equipments and a net opening that has a width of at least 60 cm and an area of no less than 0.55 m2 , in a way that any solid material that has the same dimensions should be able to pass through them. Also the window sill should be no more than 110 cm relative to the ground. The means for civil defence people to reach them should be provided too and it should face areas that are connected to the main road.

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5.3

Means of egress capacity

5.3.1 General The capacity of the means of egress to any building or floor or any part of the building should be enough for the occupancy load factor of the building or the floor or any part of it like in table 5.2. table 5.1 occupancy load factor Occupancy group
Occupancy load factor (m2/ person)

A.assembly Medium concentration without fixed chairs High concentration without fixed chairs Waiting halls Libraries- books stores Libraries- reading rooms B-educational Lecture rooms labs C-Juridical Sleeping wings Treatment wings Detention places D-Residential E- Administrative F-Trade Ground floor and underground floors Other floors Storing places G-Industrial Production and maintenance H-Store Car parking Stores and other storing places I-High Hazard Production places Stores

1.4 0.65 0.3 9 4.5 2 4.5 11 22 11 18.5 9.5

2.8 5.6 28 9.5

18.5 28 9.5 28

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5.3.2 Occupancy load A. The occupancy load can be calculated for the floor or for a part of it by dividing the area of the floor or the needed part by the occupancy load factor. B. In multiple floor buildings the load factor is taken for each floor independently when estimating the exits capacity in this floor, with the condition of keeping this capacity starting from the need ed floor in the way of egress until reaching the final exits. C. When the exits of the higher and lower floors meet in a middle floor , its capacity should be no less than the sum of the two from the point of meeting until the final exit. 5.3.3 Estimating the exit capacity The capacity of the exit is estimated using the table 5.2 and in all cases the net width of any part of the means of egress than the minimum accepted limit: table 5.2 Occupancy group Stairs (cm/person) Other components of the means of egress(passages, ramps, balconies etc..) cm/person 0.5 1.3 1

C2-care With water sprinklers Without water sprinklers I-high hazard

0.8 1.5 1.8

Other groups

0.8

0.5

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5.4

The number of the means of egress

With the exception of the cases allowed by the special codes, every floor or zone in the building should have at least two means of egress, and the minimum number of the means of egress should be no less than the numbers specified in the following table: table 5.3 Minimum number of the independent means of egress 2 3 4 Occupancy load

500 or less 501-1000 More than 1000

5.5

Arranging means of egress The exits and the passage to the exits should be arranged and have the following conditions:

1. 2.

To be ready for use at all times The exits should be as far apart as possible from each other to make sure that it cant get barred together during fires or any other emergency, and the ability of egress through opposing directions, with the exception of the cases where there is only one exit. When there are two exits or two doors, the separating distance between them should be no less than half the length of the floor or the concerned area like in figure 5.9, When there exist a protected passage between the two exits, the distance is measured on the length of the distance on a straight line that connects between them, like in figure 5.10, in any other condition the distance is calculated on the length of a straight line that connects between the exit doors. It is allowed to decrease the distance between the exits to the third of the length in the following situations: The water sprinklers protected buildings. When there is a protected passage that connects between the exits.

3.

4.

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5. 6.

The values of the dead ends should not be over the values mentioned in table 5.4. The exit door and the door leading to the exit passages should be arranged in a way that it can be easily recognized and it is not allowed for the passages to the exits to be through kitchens or stores or the workshops or the toilets or others or through any room that can get locked by keys, also it is not allowed to hang curtains or mirrors over the exit doors. It is possible for the exit passages to be through an external balcony or a roof or so with the condition of providing continuous and obvious way for reaching the exits. Dead end It is the part of the passage or the space that does not lead to an exit, eventually when passing through it there is a need for backtracking to reach the exit, like in figure 5.11,and the length of the dead end should be no more than the values mention in table 5.4.

7.

5.6

5.7

Compulsory movement passage It is that part of the passage or the space that is compulsory to move through to reach two separate means of egress, like in figure 5.11. The length of the compulsory passage should be no more than the limits mentioned in table 5.4.

5.8

Movement distance Movement distance is the length of one passage from any point in the floor until the exit door, and that distance should be no more than the limit specified in table 5.4, unless other instructions are mentioned in the special codes. The distance of movement is measured on the line of the real egress axis, which means from the farthest point until reaching the exit door, and it should be noted that the measurement line should pass through a curve around the corners and other obstacles in way that it is at least 30 cm far from them like in figure 5.11 See also section 5.1.4.2 Passages and sketch 10

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Table 5.4 The maximum limits for the compulsory movement passage and the dead end and the movement distance for different types of occupancies

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5.9 Exit discharge (the final exit) A. All the exits should lead directly to the main street, in case it is not possible then it should lead into a fire resistant passage that has the same resistance of the exit, in a way that the passage is the connection between the exit and the main street, and it is not allowed to for any additional doors to be opened to the passage but the exit door. B. In the following cases where the special codes allows that half of exits to end in the ground floor but the following should be considered: 1. Reaching the main street from the exit should be easy and obvious without any obstacles. and that the distance between the exit and the main street is no more than 10 meters and the distance can be increased to 20 meters if the ground floor has full coverage of water sprinkler including the lobby of the ground floor. 2. All the rooms that face the lobby should be of low hazard level and should be separated from the lobby by barriers that has the same fire resistance rating as the surroundings of the exit. 3. The ground floor should be separated from the floor beneath it by barriers that has at least the same fire resistance of the exit surroundings.

5.10 Handrails and falling guards A. Fall guards should be installed for protection along the means of egress, in addition to the buildings roofs and the balconies and the mezzanine and the glass fronts and others according to the following codes: B. Barriers should be made of fire proof material with the exception of the handrail handle, also there should be sturdy barriers to support pressure and expected loads. C. The spaces between the barriers should be no more than 10 cm while noting that the bars should be installed in a suitable way so children cannot climb it. D. The minimum height for the barrier should be 110 cm for the outer parts of the buildings like balconies and roofs and the side opening doors for the stairs and the ramps and others. E. In the case of the existence of a fixed handrail near the wall then the net distance between the wall and the handle of the handrail should be no less than 4 cm and that the height of the handrail should be no less than 90 cm and no more than 100 cm in a vertical scale over the slope line.

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The barriers should have a minimum height of 120 cm for the outer stairs that are open to the air outside the buildings that have a height of more than 3 floors. G. H. The ramps and the stairs should be separated by handrails. that has no more than 150 distance between them. With the exception of special cases agreed by civil defence the glass should not be considered as an alternative to the fall guards, if the height of the windows sills and the outer glass faces that face outside the building is less than 90 cm relative to the floor then these windows and glass faces should have fall guards that has a height of no less than 95 cm. Means of egress guiding signs The means of egress should have the suitable and accepted guiding signs that are easy to see from any way in the passages to the exits, and when needed, an exit sign with an arrow could be used to clear the way of the exit, like in figure 5.12, the guiding signs are placed on the exit doors and near the way leading to the exits in away that no point in the way to exit is away from the sign by more than 30 meters in Arabic and English or pictograms. The signs should be of a size, color , shape that is suitable according to civil defence instructions, in a way that it is clear and distinct and different from what is beside them from decors colors and lighting, and it is not allowed to place any lightings that could bare seeing the signs.All writing must be in Arabic (top) and English (bottom) or pictograms. All the guiding signs should be lit constantly all the time that the building is occupied by people , and the lighting intensity should be at least 54 lux on the surface of the sign, and that it should be powered by the same source used for normal lighting, and also through a reserve power source that works for at least 2 hours. When any door or passage or stair or others that could get confusing when used to egress and leads to unsafe place, a sign should be placed that has the real usage of the object like to the underground, fuel room and so on. Emergency lighting All the means of egress and other places that are specified by the special codes should have enough lighting in the case of emergency when the main power source is disabled, and the needed cabling that is independent from the rest of the cables should be available to provide power in emergency to those lights. The emergency lighting should have a reserve power source in addition to the primary source that has an operation time of no less than two hours and works automatically in the case of emergency with a time margin of no more than 10 seconds, the emergency lighting should give a light intensity of no less than 10 lux as an average. Page 49 of 239

5.11 A.

B.

C.

D.

5.12 A.

B.

C.

In big buildings, complexes, malls, hospitals, or other buildings that are considered similar by civil defence, the emergency lighting should have a central and approved system. In the cases that the special codes allow, it is allowed to light the emergency lights with independent lighting units that are powered by the normal power source and are automatically recharged, in a way that it works for at least 2 hours when the power is down, but it should be of the approved type.

D.

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Figure 5.1 The net height of the means of escape (Vertical)

Figure 5.2 The net width of the door ( horizontal)

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Figure 5.3 The movement of doors and the relation to the exit (horizontal)

Figure 5.4 Curved stairs (horizontal)

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Figure 5.5 Internal stair that faces the right outer side of the building, the wall protection and the external openings that surround the stairs from external spreading from inside the building (Horizontal)

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Figure 5.6.A The External stair (horizontal )

Figure 5.6.B The facing of the external door (Vertical)

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90 B: a door with 90 minutes fire resistance 60 B: a door with 60 minutes fire resistance 30 B: a door with 30 minutes fire resistance Figure 5.7 The smoke Protected stairs (horizontal)

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Figure 5.8 Horizontal exit and the temporary refuge area (Horizontal)

Figure 5.9 The separating space between the two exits should be no less than half of the string (Horizontal) Page 56 of 239

Figure 5.10 When there is a protected path between the exit the distance is measured on the length of the path between them (horizontal)

Dead end Compulsory movement passage Travel distance Figure 5.11, Dead end, Compulsory movement passage and travel distance (horizontal view) Page 57 of 239

Figure 12-5 , Guiding signs for the means of egress (horizontal view)

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Index of Chapter Six Protection Precautions in the Construction Field

Subject
6.1 General Requirements 6.2 Construction classifications, Construction super structure 6.2.1 Classification 6.2.1.1 First type, fire resistant and fire proof 6.2.1.2 Second Type, Fire Proof 6.2.1.3 Third Type, Flammable and protected from outside 6.2.1.4 Fourth Type, Heavy Wood 6.2.1.5 Fifth Type, Wood frames 6.2.2 Classification into secondary types 6.2.3 Internal Wall Separators 6.2.5 Test Conditions 6.2.6 Protecting the elements of the metallic super structure 6.3 Classification into fire compartments 6.3.1 Compartment justification 6.3.2 Exceptions 6.3.3 Fire resistant barriers 6.3.3.1 Types of barriers 6.3.3.2 Size of barrier 6.3.3.3 Opening protection inside the fire resistant barriers 6.3.4 Fire compartments separation on the faade 6.3.5 Protection of external fire spreading 6.3.5.1 General 6.3.5.2 Openings 6.3.5.3 Protection of the outer walls openings 6.3.6 Fire resistant walls and windows 6.3.6.1 General 6.3.6.2 Resistance degree 6.3.6.3 Vision openings 6.3.7 Closing the openings 6.3.8 Protection air conditioners tunnels 6.3.9 Protection of Pipes Openings and Others 6.3.10 Protection of vertical openings

Page
61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 62 62 62 64 64 64 64 64 65 65 65 65 65 67 68 68 68 69 69 69 69 69 70

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6.3.10.1 General 6.3.10.2 The discontinuous openings 6.3.10.3 Resistance level 6.3.10.4 Exception 6.3.10.5 Moving stairs (escalator) and passages 6.3.10.6 The middle space connecting between 3 floors or less 6.3.10.7 The middle space connecting 3 or more floors 6.3.10.8 Hidden spaces 6.4 Smoke barriers 6.4.1 General 6.4.2 Doors and windows 6.4.3 Smoke damper 6.4.4 Protecting the pipes openings and others through the smoke barriers 6.5 Protection from dangers 6.5.1 General 6.5.2 Protection from explosions 6.5.3 Liquids and fast flaming gases 6.6 Interior finishing 6.6.1 General 6.6.2 Classification of the interior finishing of walls and ceiling 6.6.3 Classification of interior finishing for the floors 6.6.4 The usage of interior finishing 6.6.5 Special materials 6.6.5.1 Using fabric in the interior finishing of the walls and the ceilings 6.6.5.2 Pored or foaming plastic materials 6.6.5.3 Using stretched vinyl to cover walls and ceilings 6.6.6 Fire slowing paints 6.6.7 The water sprinklers role 6.6.8 Paints and wallpaper 6.7 furniture and dcor 6.8 Protection of the insulating flammable materials

70 70 70 70 70 70 71 71 71 71 72 72 72 72 72 73 73 73 73 73 74 74 74 74 74 75 75 75 75 75 75

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Chapter 6 Protection Precautions in the Construction Field 6.1 General Requirements The minimum construction requirements should be available in all buildings and establishments according to this chapter in addition to the special rules. The Precautions in the Construction Field are made to protect the super structure from fire dangers which leads to longer building resistance for collapse which is caused by fire, and for improving the ability of fire containment in the smallest spaces and preventing fire from spreading to nearby areas or buildings. Each building or part of the building should be constructed according to these rules and generally it should be made from fire resistant/proof materials with the exception of the cases that the special codes permits and also in special cases that are approved by civil defence. 6.2 Construction classifications , Construction super structure 6.2.1 Classification The buildings are classified in accordance to their resistance into four types which are: 6.2.1.1 First type, fire resistant and fire proof The material of the construction are fire resistant and fire proof like buildings made from concrete, it is possible to include few flammable materials. 6.2.1.2 Second Type, Fire Proof The material of the construction are fire proof like buildings made from steel and composite buildings which have reinforcement and concrete, with the exception of a few flammable materials. They are not fire proof originally but after treating them they become so. 6.2.1.3 Third Type, Flammable and protected from outside It is made of wood and untreated metals may be used too, but for the outer walls should be of fire proof materials like concrete or bricks. 6.2.1.4 Fourth Type, Heavy Wood It is made from heavy wood but the walls inside and outside should be made from fire proof material, like concrete or bricks. 6.2.1.5 Fifth Type ,Wood frames All the construction materials including the outer walls are composed of wood. 6.2.2 Classification into secondary types The types mentioned in 6.2.1 are classified into secondary types according to their fire resistance. Table 6.1 specify the types of the buildings according to the resistance of their super structure.

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6.2.3 Internal Wall Separators It is allowed to use wood wall separators and other elements that have similar properties of wood to separate the internal spaces in the construction of type 1 and 2, and this is for all the occupancies with the exception of the occupancies of groups C,D and I, under the following conditions: The area of the fire compartment that contain the separator should be no more than 600m2 Those separator are not used in fire resistant barriers 6.2.5 Test Conditions The samples of construction material should be tested under similar realistic condition to the final purpose and specific standards should be applied according to the function of the building. 6.2.6 Protecting the elements of the metallic super structure A) When there exist a need for fire protection in the metallic elements of the construction then it should be treated according to this rules to have the required resistance. B)The metallic construction elements should be protected in a proper way. made by dipping enclosing or dressing, or any other accepted way that produces the needed fire resistance. In all conditions the protection should be done according to the approved standards and according to the known engineering standards. This should be specified in the drawings and the description of the project that shall be approved by civil defence before starting the work. C)The plans should explain in detail the sizes of the metallic elements, the thickness, the method and the type of the protection material including the calculation and design tables to be approved by civil defence.

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Table 6.1Classification of buildings and establishments according to there architectural super structure resistance to fire
Construction Super Structure Components Type of Code Number (see page 4 ? )

First
See also table 9.1.1,.

Second
332 222 111 000

Third
211 200

Fourth
2

Fifth
111 000

443

Fire resistance of the components (hour)


Outer load bearing walls 1.Support more than one floor 2.Support one floor 3.Support the final roof Internal load bearing walls 1.Support more than one floor 2.Support one floor 3.Support the final roof

4 4 4

3 3 3

2 2 2

1 1 1

0 0 0

2 2 2

2 2 2

2 2 2

1 1 1

0 0 0

4 3 3

3 2 2

2 2 1

1 1 1

0 0 0

1 1 1

0 0 0

2 1 1

1 1 1

0 0 0

Columns 1.Support more than one floor 2.Support one floor 3.Support the final roof

4 3 3

3 2 2

2 2 1

1 1 1

0 0 0

1 1 1

0 0 0

Heavy Sturdy wood

1 1 1

0 0 0

Normal roof supports and net roof supports 1.Support more than one floor 2.Support one floor 3.Support the final roof

4 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0

Roof Floor
Final Roof Roof support and holders, frames, roof floor 1.hold more than one floor 2.Hold one floor 3.Hold the final roof

height of the roof

less than 4.5m 4.5-6 m more than 6 m

2 1 0

1 0

1 1 0

1 0 0

0 0 0

1 0 0

0 0 0

1 1 0

0 0 0

Outer nonsupporting walls

0 unless else there is danger of outer fire spread

0 unless else there is danger of outer fire spread

Notes for Table 6.1 1. The shaded areas are the components made of the approved type of flammable materials. 2. When the final roof is loaded with additional load (with the exception of normal loads like the objects used for servicing the buildings) then its super structure must be fire resistant, like the roof which is less than 4.5 meters in height, ignoring the actual height of the roof 3. As for the buildings made from one floor and the establishments is of type 1 and 2, then the components of the architectural structure can be made of materials that are not fire resistant ignoring the roof height if the area is no more than 2000 m2, but the roof should be covered with light material with ventilation opening, that has an area of no less than 5% of the total roof area and should be distributed evenly. 4. When it is allowed for the components of the final roof to be of type 1 and 2 which is not fire resistant then it is allowed for the roof to be made from any fireproof material or from wood(type 4) but the building height should be no more than 20 meter relative to the sidewalk. 5. It is allowed to treat the final roof in the same way as the outer wall if its slope is more than 60 degrees to the horizon. 6. 443 or similar: is a short term to the degree of resistance for fire for some component in hours and they are explained in the table above. 7. 12 W: is a short term for wood. 6.3 Classification into fire compartments 6.3.1 Compartment justification The building or the floor has to be classified into fire compartments to contain fire in its place and preventing its spreading inside the same building or into the other buildings like in figure 6.1. 6.3.2 Exceptions The following are considered an independent fire compartment with the exception of other allowed situations: 1. The area unit that is rented to one independent tenant like the apartment or the office or the shop. 2. The floor in multiple floor building. 3. Various occupancies 4. The vertical spaces in the buildings like the stairs compartment, the elevator well, stretching separators. 5. Some of the means of egress according to chapter 5 codes and the special codes. 6. Some of the special danger places while committing to the special codes. 6.3.3 Fire resistant barriers 6.3.3.1 Types of barriers The fire compartments should be separated with barriers that have the needed fire resistance, and there types are: 1. Barrier that has a resistance of 3 hours 2. Barrier that has a resistance of 2 hours 3. Barrier that has a resistance of 1 hours 4. Barrier that has a resistance of half an hour Page 64 of 239

6.3.3.2 Size of barrier The fire barrier should be a full barrier that can prevent smoke and fire from passing. Should be continuous to cover the whole wall compartment from wall to wall going through any void spaces from the floor up to the ceiling like in figure 6.2. 6.3.3.3 Opening protection inside the fire resistant barriers The openings in the barriers should be protected by doors or windows that are fire resistant and by smoke throttle which is approved by the civil defence and have a suitable fire resistance. (sketch 12) 6.3.4 Fire compartments separation on the faade A. The separation between the fire compartments on the facade should be continuous according to these codes. For the exit sides, the rules of chapter 5 are applied and the separations shall be done by providing a barrier on the outer side that has a minimum fire resistance of one hour. The width shall be no less than the following: -200 cm on the horizontal level, if the fire compartments are nearby horizontally, like in figure 6.3. -100 cm on the vertical level, if the fire compartments are nearby vertically, like in figure 6.4 except: in buildings with less than 4 floors in buildings completely protected by sprinklers. B. All the openings which are situated in a vertical distance that is 450 cm or less over the roof of another fire compartment in another nearby building and a horizontal distance of 450 cm or less, unless the roof is fire resistant for at least 1 hour like in figure 6.5. 6.3.5 Protection of external fire spreading 6.3.5.1 General A. To limit the external fire spreading enough distance should be available between the buildings or separating them with fire resistant walls. B. The resistance of the outer walls should be according to table 6.2, and if the outer walls are load bearing then it should submit to the rules in table 6.1 too. C. In buildings which are fully protected by sprinklers, it is allowed to decrease the numbers mentioned in table 6.2 with one hour with the exception of group I. Table 6.2 The needed fire resistance for the outer walls in hours and its relation to the separating distance between the buildings and the type of occupancy The separation area between the buildings (m) 0-1.5
More than 1.5-3 More than 3,4.5 More than 4.5-9 More than 9

Type of occupancy I 3 3 3 1 0 E,F1,G1 3 2 1 0 0 Page 65 of 239 A,B,C,D,F2,G2 3 1 0 0 0

Sketch 12 Fire disconnection measures Possible fire distribution if not properly sealed of Glass/Metal facade

Space to be filled with Stone wool

Fixing Point

Fire proof material Vertical Section

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6.3.5.2 Openings A. The area of the unprotected and protected openings in any outer wall for any floor should be no more than the percentages mentioned in table 6.3. B. When there are unprotected openings in addition to the protected openings then the overall area of the allowed openings are calculated according to the following formula: X/X1 + Y/Y1 <=1 X: The actual area of the protected openings X1: The allowed area of the protected openings Y: The actual area of the unprotected openings Y1: The allowed area of the unprotected openings Table 6.3 The allowed limits of the openings area as a percentage of the outer walls of the building.

Opening type

The separation between buildings

Less than 1

1-1.5

More than 1.5-3

More than 3-4.5

More than 4.5-6

More than 6-7.5

More than 7.5-9

More than 9

Protected

Not allowed

Not allowed

10%

15%

25%

45%

70%

100 %

Unprotected

Not allowed

15%

25%

45%

75%

100 %

100 %

100 %

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A. The following are excluded from the table: 1. The open parking on the sides where the unprotected openings can be 100% but the separation distance should be 3 meters at least. 2. The group I buildings where its not allowed to have any unprotected openings unless the separation distance is 4.5m at least. B. The buildings which are fully protected with water sprinklers these percentages can be increased but it should not go over the amounts accepted as protected openings and that is for all the types of occupancy with the exception of group I. C. It is allowed to have unprotected openings of 100% on the outer walls which face the streets in the ground floor but the width of the street should be no less than 4.5 meters and that is for all the occupancies with the exception of group I. 6.3.5.3 Protection of the outer walls openings A. The required protection should be provided to all the outer walls when it is needed that these openings are from the protected type. The protection is achieved by installing doors or windows that have the applicable fire resistant rating . Protection is achieved by using water sprinklers according to one of the accepted standards. B. The required fire resistance needed for protecting the openings is as follows: 1 hour when there are openings within the walls and have a fire resistance of more than one hour hour when there are openings within the walls and have a fire resistance of one hour. 6.3.6 Fire resistant walls and windows 6.3.6.1 General A. The fire resistant doors and windows that are the means of covering the openings to prevent fire and smoke spreading and the fire resistant doors should be according to these codes and if its a part of the means of egress then it submit to the rules of chapter 5. B. The fire resistant doors and windows should make a whole unit in all their components to include: the door bolt,frame and any other accessories. C. The design and production and inspection and installation of the fire resistant doors and windows should submit to one of the accepted standards. D. The fire resistant doors and windows with all there components should be of a type that is approved by civil defence , with an inspection certificate from an authorized inspection authority and according to the accepted standards. E. The fire resistant doors should have a seal that shows the rating of fire resistance, the license number, the maker of the door, other required info and the seal should be made under the inspection authority. All the fire resistant doors should be automatically closing either automatically or mechanically with the exception of the residential apartments doors, as for the fire resistant windows it should automatically close and it should be fixed in a place with no ability to open it. Fire resistant windows should not open at all.

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6.3.6.2 Resistance degree A. The fire resistance of the doors should be like the following: 1.5 2 hours when it is installed on barriers that should have a resistance of 2 hours. 1 hour when it is installed on barriers that should have a resistance of 1 hours, if these barriers are surrounding the exits and the vertical spaces. 45 1 hour when it is installed on barriers that should have a resistance of 1 hours (with the exception of the passages and smoke barriers). 20 30 minutes when it is installed on barriers that should have a resistance of 1/2 hour or in the passages and smoke barriers that has a fire resistance of no more than one hour and the area of the window should be no more than 25% of the barrier area. B. It is allowed to use fire resistant windows only in the barriers that has a fire resistance of no more than one hour and the area of the window should be no more than 25% of the barrier are. 6.3.6.3 Vision openings A. When a vision opening in the fire resistant door is needed then it should be according to the following conditions: It should be covered with reinforced transparent glass that has the same resistance of the door or any accepted glass. It is not allowed to have vision openings in the doors that should have more than 2 hours of fire resistance. B. The area of the vision openings should be no more than: 0.065 m2 in the doors that has an hour or half an hour resistance 0.84 m2 in the doors that have 45 minutes or less fire resistance 6.3.7 Closing the openings All the openings and void spaces inside the fire resistant barriers like walls ceilings and floors should be closed and also on the sides and around the openings and when it is met by another construction elements and that should be done using accepted fire resistant materials.(sketch 12) 6.3.8 Protection air conditioners tunnels A. When air conditioners tunnels pass through the fire resistant tunnels it should be protected by automatic dampers. B. Fusible links that has a high temperature should be used when installing the fire throttles on the air condition tunnels that belong to the smoke control systems. C. The automatic dampers should be of the accepted type and should be sealed from the accepted authority. 6.3.9 Protection of Pipes Openings and Others When the pipes and cables and the electric conduits and air tunnels and others service components inside the fire resistant barriers then it should be protected in the following manner: A. The space between the component and the barrier: it should be filled with a material that can keep the barrier resistance to fire or it should be protected with a mean that was designed especially for this purpose. B. When using a conduit for the passage of the element through the barrier then the conduit should be attached firmly to the barrier. As for the space between the element and the conduit then it should be protected in the following manner: Page 69 of 239

A.

B.

It should be filled with a material that can keep the barrier resistance to fire or it should be protected with the materials and construction method to keep the rating. The insulator or other elements used in covering the pipes and the tunnels should not pass through the barrier unless the barriers resistance is kept or it should be protected by a mean that was designed especially for this purpose.

6.3.10 Protection of vertical openings 6.3.10.1 General All the vertical openings should be protected like the stair compartment and the elevator well and flexible separators by surrounding them with continuous fire barriers of the needed level, with the exception of the special cases that are mentioned in this code and when the special codes allow so. 6.3.10.2 The discontinuous openings The vertical openings that does not extend in the buildings should be surrounded by fire resistant barriers. 6.3.10.3 Resistance level The resistance level of the barriers surrounding the vertical openings should be as follows unless the special codes allows other ways: 2 hours for the openings connecting between 4 floors or more 1 hour for other openings. 6.3.10.4 Exception It is allowed to leave the vertical openings that connect between two nearby floors only, unprotected in a way that it passes through one ceiling ground only, but it should not be used as an exit. 6.3.10.5 Moving stairs (escalator) and passages The moving passages and stairs should be protected when they are used as exits in the same way that the other stairs used as exits, but when they are not used as exits then it should be protected like the vertical openings. The surrounding protection can be ignored if these passages and stairs are within large open spaces like the middle space and the malls.

6.3.10.6 The middle space connecting between 3 floors or less When the special codes allow the existence of a middle space that connects between the floors the following must be followed: 1. The height of the middle space must be no more than 3 nearby floors. 2. The lowest floor that the middle space covers is the ground floor , or the floor directly above it or directly beneath it. 3. The area of the middle space should be open without obstacles for fire fighting purposes. 4. The middle space area should be separated from the rest of the building with fire resistant barriers of no less than 1 hour fire rating, like in figure 6.6. If the building is protected with water sprinklers then separation can be protected by smoke barriers. 5. The hazard level of the contents of the middle space should be low, and if the contents are of the ordinary hazard then it should be protected with water sprinklers. Page 70 of 239

6. Means of egress, for the occupants of the middle space, have to meet the same regulation by considering it one floor. 7. Every individual inside the middle space should have at least one exit that can be reached without moving into another floor in the middle space 8) Every person outside the middle space should have at least one exit that can be reached without passing through the middle space 6.3.10.7 The middle space connecting 3 or more floors When the special codes allow the existence of middle space that does connect an unlimited number of floors the following shall be applied: 1. The middle space must be separated from the rest of the buildings components by fire resistant barriers of at least 1 hour unless then middle space connects between 3 floors or less. It is allowed for the separation with glass bricks made from hardened or reinforced glass but the glass has to be protected with water sprinklers. 2. It is allowed that the paths leading to the exits and the exits discharges are through the middle space area. 3. The level of hazard in the middle space should be low or ordinary. 4. All the building parts should be protected by water sprinklers. 5. Smoke control system should be provided for the middle space, and the smoke control system should submit to the accepted standards.(see sketch 11)

6.3.10.8 Hidden spaces A. The hidden spaces should be protected unless it is of constructions type 3, 4 or 5 should have a fire spreading coefficient that is more than type A and the protection should be as follows: 1. All the walls and the internal and external partitions should continue from the ground up to the ceiling ground and it should contain fire resistant materials. 2. The void spaces that are located above the suspended ceiling should be distributed into units with a maximum unit area of 280 50m2 and that should be done with smoke screens. 3. The void spaces between the ceiling and the floor or the roof should be partioned using smoke screens that continue to the whole height of the space. and should have no more of the following areas: 93m2 for any space between the ground and the ceiling. 280m2 for any space between the ceiling and the roof B. The following are exceptions: the spaces protected with water sprinklers the hidden spaces used for air distribution only or the spaces which are parts of the central air conditioning system. 6.4 Smoke barriers 6.4.1 General A. When the special codes require, the provision of smoke barriers for partitioning the spaces of the building to minimize smoke spreading must be installed. B. The smoke screen should form a continuous barrier that prevent smoke movement and it should continue in a way that It cover the whole smoke compartment from wall to wall going through any open joints and from the floor to the ceiling. C. It is allowed to use the fire resistant barrier as smoke barrier. Page 71 of 239

6.4.2 Doors and windows A. The doors that are installed in the smoke barriers should not allow smoke to pass and it should not have any openings or gaps and it should close automatically or mechanically. B. When the smoke barriers are required to be fire resistant the openings should be protected in the following manner: The fire resistance of the doors should be no less than 20 minutes and it should close automatically or mechanically. The windows should be according to the codes of 6.3.6. 6.4.3 Smoke damper Accepted smoke dampers should be installed on the air openings that exist on the smoke screens and they should exist also when the condition tunnels pass through the smoke screens unless these tunnels are part of a smoke control system. The smoke dampers should shut automatically when smoke is discovered by smoke detectors. 6.4.4 Protecting the pipes openings and others through the smoke barriers When the pipes and cables and the electric conductors or air tunnels or similar elements through smoke barriers it should be protected in the following manner: A. Space between the component and the barrier: it should be filled with a material that can keep the barrier resistance to fire or it should be protected with a mean that was designed especially for this purpose. B. When using a conduit for the passage of the element through the barrier then the conduit should be attached firmly to the barrier. As for the space between the element and the conduit then it should be protected in the following manner: it should be filled with a material that can keep the barrier resistance to fire or it should be protected with a mean that was designed especially for this purpose. 6.5 Protection from dangers 6.5.1 General A. The places that has higher hazard level than the rest of the building should be protected in the following manner: surrounding the place with fire resistant elements that has at least 1 hour resistance and the doors should resist fire for 1 hour and should have a door closer. Protecting the area with an automatic extinguishing system Both options when the hazard level is high or when the special codes request that. B. Some examples of the danger places: the areas used to store flammable element or fast flaming elements and the areas that contain heat producing equipments like boilers, or the places used for maintenance. C. To protect some of the special danger areas that are not covered by this codes like hospital laboratories or labs that chemicals are used within it, than one of the accepted standards is referred. D. When an automatic fire extinguishing system is requested only without asking for portioning the area with fire resistant barriers then the protected place should be surrounded by smoke barriers, and the doors should be smoke proof too and springs should be installed on them. Page 72 of 239

6.5.2 Protection from explosions When the operations are dangerous and the storing has a nature that could lead into explosions a ventilation against explosions should be provided, or an extinguishing system should be installed but it should be designed to face such dangers, in it and it should be according to the accepted standards. 6.5.3 Liquids and fast flaming gases A. The places that contains fast flaming liquids and gases should be protected according to the codes applied in civil defence. B. It is not allowed to store or use the fast flaming liquids or gases in any place that can endanger the evacuation process. 6.6 6.6.1 Interior finishing Plastics The usage of plastics for interior decoration is not allowed, unless it is certified, that the material is hardly or not inflammable. General The interior finishing consist of the material for enveloping and engulfing that is available at the surface of the walls and interior roofs in addition to the floors. It is meant by the interior finishing for the walls and the floors is the exposed interior surfaces for the elements of the building. Including the stationary and portable walls and the separators and columns and ceilings. It is meant by the interior finishing for the floors is the interior exposed surfaces for the floors of the building.

6.6.1 A. B.

C.

6.6.2 Classification of the interior finishing of walls and ceiling The interior finishing for the walls and ceilings are classified into categories according to the flame spreading factor and the density of the smoke and this is according to table 6.4.

Table 6.4 classification of the interior finishing of walls and floors. Type A B C Flame spreading factor 0-25 26-75 76-200 Smoke density 0-450 0-450 0-450

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6.6.3 Classification of interior finishing for the floors The interior finishing of the floors in classified according to averages of the over plus of limits of the heat radiations according to table 6.5. Table 6.5 classification of interior finishing for the floors Type 1 2 The minimum limit for the over plus of limits of the heat radiations 0.45 watt/cm2 0.22 watt/cm2

6.6.4 The usage of interior finishing A. the codes for the interior finishing for the walls and the ceilings should be submitted for like mentioned in chapter 5 and the special codes while taking into considerations the allowed exceptions. B. Interiors of type c can be used for the places that need to be engulfed with materials of type A or B if the area of these interiors is no more than 10% of the total area of the walls and the ceilings. C. The codes for the interior finishing for the floors should be submitted into only in the following cases: When the floors have over normal hazards. When it is required by the special codes. 6.6.5 Special materials 6.6.5.1 Using fabric in the interior finishing of the walls and the ceilings It is allowed to use the fabric materials of type A to cover the walls and the ceilings in the following conditions: All the walls and the ceilings that are fully protected by water sprinklers even if the walls do continue to the ceiling. The walls that have a height of no more than of the net height of the unprotected places but the covering area should be no more than 240cm. Up to the height of 120 cm over the ground level when the walls are continuous to the ceiling and without water sprinklers protection. 6.6.5.2 Pored or foaming plastic materials It is not allowed to use pored or foaming plastic materials for the usage in the interior finishing of the walls and ceilings when they are exposed without any protection, with the exception of dcor usage but its area should be no more than 10% of the total wall or ceiling area, and should have a density of no more than 320 KG/M3 and its depth should be no more than 13mm and its width should be no more than 10cm and it should be of type A and B when going over the allowed limit of smoke density.

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6.6.5.3 Using stretched vinyl to cover walls and ceilings it is allowed to use vinyl materials to cloth the walls in the following conditions: 1. It is allowed to use materials of type A to cover the walls and ceilings of the rooms and the areas protected by waters sprinklers. 2. It is allowed to use the vinyl materials of type A to cover the walls that have a height of no more than of the net height of the room or the opening which is not protected by water sprinklers but this covering should have no more than 240cm. 3. It is allowed to use vinyl of type A to cover the continues walls the continue to the ceiling of the rooms that are not protected by sprinklers but the covering should no extend to more than 120cm over the floor level. 6.6.6 Fire slowing paints It is allowed to use fire slowing paints in the buildings that are existing now to provide the needed fire and smoke spreading factor for the interior surfaces of these buildings, but these paints should be of the accepted type. The fire slowing paints should have the needed continuity and it should be kept in the way that it stays effective and do its needed role under the real usage conditions that are required by the rules of the position and the climate conditions. The water sprinklers role If the place is protected by water sprinklers then the following is allowed: using an interior finishing for the walls and ceilings of type C instead of type B and this applies too to type B instead of type A unless something else is mentioned somewhere else in these codes. Using a interior finishing for the floors of type 2 instead of type 1. Paints and wallpaper It is allowed to use paints and wallpapers in the interior finishing of the walls and ceilings with the condition that its thickness is no more than 1 mm.

6.6.7

6.6.8

6.7 furniture and dcor When it is required by these codes that the curtains and blankets and similar stuff to be of the type that resist fire then it should be according to the accepted standards. When the codes require that the furniture and beds to be of the type that is resistant for cigarettes then it should be according to the accepted standards. When the codes require that the beds should be of the type that emit limited amounts of heat then it should be checked according to the accepted standards. It is not allowed to use furniture and decors of the fast flaming types or the ones that can cause explosions. 6.8 Protection of the insulating flammable materials The flame spreading factor for the foaming plastic materials should be no more than 25, and for other insulating material it should be no more than 500. All the materials that has a flame spreading factor of no more than 25 can be kept exposed without protection with the exception of the foaming plastic materials. Page 75 of 239

The foaming plastic materials and other materials that has a flame spreading factor of more than 25 should be covered with one of the following materials: gypsum boards with a thickness of no less than 16mm and these boards should be fixed over on fixing elements that are independent from the insulating material. The combination of metallic net and cement in a thickness of at least 4 cm that are fixed over independent fixing elements from the insulating elements. Rock or concrete or bricks with a thickness of no less than 5cm. It is allowed to use insulating foaming plastic materials that has a flame spreading factor of no more than 500 when it is made from the factory as part of a pre-made wall without spaces. But it should be only used for the outer walls and it should provide the following too: 1. surrounding the insulating material from all sides with metallic boards that has a thickness of no less than 0.38mm and these boards should stay in its place for a time span of no less than 10 minutes when the wall is submitted into regular fire. 2. The flame spreading factor for the whole wall should be no more than the allowed amount for the place surrounding the wall. 3. It should not be used in the occupancies of type C and D 4. The height of the building should be no more than 18 meter from the sideway up to the ground of the final floor.

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figure 6.1 Separation into fire compartments- the barriers in black are fire resistant barriers (horizontal).

figure 6.2 Continuity of fire resistant barrier (vertical)

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figure 6.3, Horizontal separation between two horizontally nearby fire compartments

100cm

Figure 6.4, Vertical separations between two vertically nearby fire compartment

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figure 6.5, Protection of openings that are situated above the roof of another fire compartment- the protection can be either for the roof or the wall that is above on the length of 450cm (vertical)

Figure 6.6, The middle space connecting between at maximum 3 floors (horizontal)

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Index of Chapter Seven Engineering Services in Buildings

Subject
7.1 Central air condition 7.2 Electrical connections 7.3 Garbage collection/ laundry 7.4 Chimneys 7.5 Ventilation and smoke discharging 7.5.1 General 7.5.1.1 Ventilation for the safety of people 7.5.1.2 Ventilation for controlling fire and to discharge gases and dust 7.5.2 Ventilation specifications 7.5.3 Smoke screens 7.6 Escalators 7.7 Liquid Fuel 7.8 Storing the liquid fuel 7.8.1 General 7.8.2 Storage inside the building 7.8.3 Storing outside the building over the ground 7.8.4 Underground storage 7.8.5 Tank specifications 7.9 Liquid fuel burning devices 7.9.1 General 7.9.2 Pipes and connections 7.9.3 Boiler and control devices 7.9.3.1 General requirements 7.9.3.2 Control Devices 7.9.3.3 Boiler room 7.9.4 Ventilation and gases discharge 7.9.5 Fire extinguishing devices 7.10 Cocking equipments Page 80 of 239

Page
81 81 82 83 83 83 83 83 84 84 84 85 85 85 85 86 86 86 87 87 87 87 87 88 88 88 89 89

Chapter 7 Engineering services in buildings 7.1 Central air condition A. When designing the central air conditioning system, the necessary fire and smoke precautions must be taken through the conducting tunnels according to these codes. B. When specifying the positions of the air intake of the central air conditioning unit, it should not be located in such places where it can easily catch fire. C. It is allowed for the administration of civil defence to require in special cases to install an emergency key on the conditioning device in a place suitable for serving the civil defence personals. D. The main tunnels for the conditioning device should pass through vertical or horizontal passages that are constructed of fireproof materials as a fire resistance unit, with the presence of suitable openings with fire resistant doors to ease maintenance procedures. E. Fire dampers should be installed when condition tunnels go through walls or ceilings that are fire resistant and the fire dampers should have the same resistance of the walls and should shut automatically using a fusible link attached to a cable that works at the heat level of (68-840 C) degrees or when the detectors detects smoke. F. The tunnels of central condition should have smoke detectors that work automatically to stop the operation of the device when smoke is detected and when necessary operates a smoke exhaust fans. G. The materials used for engulfing the air tunnels from inside and outside should be fire proof and should have a thickness of no less than 3cm and it is not allowed to use flammable materials in it. H. It is allowed to engulf the tunnels with flammable materials in certain cases that are specified by the general administration of civil defence and the following is required: The distance should be short It should pass through passages that are flame proof I. The flexible cables for the air tunnels should have the following: It should be fire resistant for at least half an hour. It should not produce heavy smoke when it burns. Its length should be no more than 25cm if the start of the tunnels is near air pushing fans. If the is in the end of the tunnels then its length should be no more than 4 meters and should not go through a wall or a ceiling that is fire resistant and it should not be situated in the special dangerous areas. 7.2 Electrical connections A. The electrical connections specifications should be according to the ministry of electricity specifications. B. The electrical connections and installments should be safe and sound in general so it wont be a direct or indirect cause for fire when it is used and the network should have an electrical shock protection device that work automatically by ground connection or by any other means that are accepted by the ministry of electricity. C. The cables are laid through protection pipes that are connected correctly so it wont allow tampering. D. The open electrical devices are not allowed but for small places and for short distances that is no more than 3 meters but it should be fixed and without cabling. E. The cables that feed the devices and equipments with electricity should be situated in protection pipes that are connected correctly. Page 81 of 239

F. G. H.

I.

The cabling and electrical devices that are situated in stores that are used to store fast flaming/flammable liquids or powders shall be intrinsically safe. The lighting in stores should have a protective cover made of glass with a net to form a separator that prevent the passage of sparks to flammable material. The cabling situated in the suspended ceilings or the internal separations should be put into conduits, as for the heat radiating lights and other electronic devices then they should be situated away of the ceiling tiles for a distance that is enough for preventing the effect of sparks. If the building contains a stand-by generator then it should be kept in a special room that is constructed for this purpose and the room should be made from fire resistant materials and the room shall comply to the following rules: Entrance should lead to the open. No openings shall be left unsealed between the room and any other parts of the building. An oil separator shall be installed. Room should be well ventilated.

K.

L. M. 7.3 A. B.

The keys and the distribution board should be situated in suitable places The main distribution boards should be situated in a suitable position which is accepted by the administration of civil defence and. it should submit to the following: It should be near the main entrances. It should be in a room that is separated of the building and is open to the outside. A distinct signs and sign board should be installed to guide to the position of the main switches and keys with an explanation of there specifications and usage.Text in Arabic and English. An emergency light with an emergency shut-off key should be installed. All installations must be grounded. Garbage collection/ laundry The garbage/laundry chutes that extends between the floors of fireproof materials shall have a fire resistance according to the codes mentioned in 6.3. The garbage collection room and the laundry collection room that are at the bottom of the chutes should be made of fire resistant materials that has a fire resistance of no less than 2 hours and its door should be fire resistant with at least one hour and a half two hours and it should close automatically.

J.

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C.

7.4 A.

B. C.

D.

The openings of the chutes should close in the floors with fire resistant doors according to the codes mentioned in 6.3 and it should close automatically. The doors should not face the exits directly or the passages that leads to the exits, so a special room should be provided for this purpose and its barriers should have a resistance of no less than one hour two hours. Chimneys Ovens and fireplaces and other similar cocking and heating equipments should have exhaust ducts that lead to the outside and the chimneys should be made of fire proof materials and should have a fire resistance according to the codes mentioned in 6.3, while taking into considerations the codes mentioned in 7.9.4. If the position of the chimney is inside the building then the internal surface should be lined to ease the removal of carbon and other materials. If the chimney is made of metal materials then it should have enough thickness and its connections should be made correctly and they should be fixed to the walls by strong cables. The chimney should rise one meter above the highest point of the building and three meters over the highest point in the nearby buildings taking into considerations all the buildings situated in a circle which have a radius of 25 meters.

7.5 Ventilation and smoke discharging 7.5.1 General Ventilation and smoke discharging should be classified as follows: Ventilation to discharge smoke for the safety of people Ventilation to discharge smoke for helping the civil defence personals in fire controlling Ventilation to discharge gases and flammable powders. 7.5.1.1 Ventilation for the safety of people Suitable natural and mechanical ventilation should be provided to the means of egress and any other part of the building

7.5.1.2 Ventilation for controlling fire and to discharge gases and dust Enough ventilation should be provided to control fire and to discharge gases and dust, so it wont reach a concentration in the air that could lead to flammable range and these ventilation are in the following manner: By installing proper ventilation system where flammable atmosphere can be expected By installing ventilation system in accordance with the protection codes for these devices. When there is low natural ventilation or it is inefficient then mechanical ventilation should be installed

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7.5.2 Ventilation specifications A. The ventilation should be according to the accepted standards. B. In big buildings that has one floor like the ones used for industry and storing, they should have natural ventilation should be provided in the upper parts of the building to discharge gases and hot gases and smoke in cases of emergencies and for helping in controlling fire. Rooms containing hazardous materials and/or atmosphere should be properly ventilated. C. The vertical ventilation system should be in accordance with the accepted standard and in case that the system is closed then it must to be opened in case of emergency by any of the following means: Automatically: using a fusible link. Manually: Using a manual method that is kept at a suitable height in a place that is easy to reach and should submit to the acceptance by the general administration of civil defence. The openings should be covered by fast melting boards the melts by the heat produced by the fire. (see also Sketch 11) D. The calculation of the area of the high openings depends on the nature and the following should be noted: The area of a single openings should be no less than 1 x 1 meter The distance between two nearby openings should be no more than 23 meter. The overall area of the openings should be no less than 1:50 of the total ground area. E. The place next to high openings should have openings on the level of the ground to let air in and those openings should have the same area like doors and other. 7.5.3 Smoke screens When the area of the fire compartment that has high ventilation openings that is more than 1600 M2 smoke screen shall be installed between the openings and should be of a fire proof material. The following should be noted: The screen should reach the roof to make a true barrier for smoke spreading The screens extends down with a depth of no less than one third of the floor height. 7.6 Escalators Escalators should be constructed smoke-proof and in accordance with the codes mentioned in 6.3.10 and each cases to be individually studied.

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7.7 Liquid Fuel A. In general the connections and equipments for fuel and oil burning appliances should be designed and installed in accordance with accepted standards. B. The connection for liquid fuel should be inside sturdy pipes that doesnt allow leakage and the connections should never pass or be put near a heat source and the device should have the needed valves which should be in a suitable place so it could be used easily and should have special characteristics, with the most important ones mentioned below: All canals for the piping system should be well ventilated, so no buildup of fumes in case of leakage is possible. 1. Main shutting off valve near the tank. 2. Main shutting off valve at the fuel-burning device. 3. Automatic shutting valve that work by the heat effect outside the fuel burning device and it is used for stopping the feed of fuel for the burning device in case of fires. And it should work using a fusible link or any other suitable means. 4. Another manual method is required to stop the operation should the automatic valves stop working. B. The fuel-burning device should have the necessary means for fire protection when it is operated. 7.8 Storing the liquid fuel 7.8.1 General A. The liquid fuel that is used for the burning process should be kept in a tank that has a capacity that is enough for average usage of two weeks. B. The main tank should be placed in a suitable place that is agreed to by the general administration of civil defence and it should be fixed on a sturdy base made of concrete that would support the weight of the tank and its contents. C. If the capacity of the main tank is more than 900 litters then a small tank should be provided to serve the main tank and it should have a capacity of no more than the main tank and it is connected directly to the burner to be as a link between the main tank and the burner and this done to provide the following: Maintaining a regular flow due to the gravity without the need for lifting the main tank. Minimizing the danger of fire in case fuel spilling. Keeping the main tank far from the danger of fire. D. The service tank should be put in the boiler room to a suitable distance to make sure the boiler heat doesnt reach it. 7.8.2 Storage inside the building A. if it is necessary to put the tank inside the building then it should be kept in a special room constructed on fire resistant materials that have a fire resistance of no less than 3 hours and its door should have a fire resistance of no less than two three hours and it should close automatically and a special sign should be hanged on the door and the room should face the outside wall while providing the needed natural ventilation in the upper and lower levels to provide gases discharging to the outside of the building.One wall of this room should be build in a way, that in case of an explosion the pressure will be released into the open. B. The doorstep should be built in the needed height to make a basin with the walls that is enough to contain the amount of the stored fuel with an additional 10%. C. All electric installation should be of a special type (flame preventive) D. It is never allowed for the liquid fuel storage room to be in the cellar. Page 85 of 239

7.8.3 Storing outside the building over the ground A. The position of the tank should be suitable and agreed to by the general administration of civil defence and it has to be at least 3 meters away from nearby buildings and it should be away from any places that could start a fire. B. The tank is fixed on a base of metal or concrete that will be able to support the tank with its contents and a fence to prevent tampering should surround it, there is also a need for suitable guiding signs. (in Arabic and English) C. The tank should be surrounded by a burm made of concrete or suitable enviromental standard that would have enough capacity for the stored liquid in case it spills on the ground and it should allow for an additional 10%. D. The tank should be painted with white and silver colors and The tank should have a big and clear writing on it that says Fast Flaming Liquids-No Smokingin Arabic and English. 7.8.4 Underground storage A. When constructing the tank underground then the location should be suitable and agreed to by the general administration of civil defence and the site should have enough distance away from the nearby bases of the buildings. B. The tank is installed on a base of concrete that has a thickness of 20 cm at least in a way that it can support the weight of the tank and its contents. The tank should be grounded, then it should be buried from all sides and above with clean sand and the upper covering thickness should be no less than 70 cm. C. In case there is groundwater in the tank area then the tank needs to be designed and installed in a way that will guarantee it steadiness even if it is completely empty of liquids, with the necessity to provide proof calculations. D. It is allowed to install the tank inside a room that has walls made of bricks or concrete and roof made of concrete and the roof should cover all the area of the tank while leaving an opening for inspection and pipes passage, with the need to take the necessary precautions to limit surface water leakage into the tank room. One side of the room walls/roof should be of light structure to release the pressure in case of explosion into the open. E. In case the site has a car accident then the roof of the room should be able to support the expected weight of the cars movement in addition to other weights. 7.8.5 Tank specifications A. The tank should be made in accordance to accepted specifications standards. B. One inspection opening should be provided for the tank and it should have a compact cover in addition to providing the tank with the needed openings for ventilation, filling, suction, measuring and discharging pipes. C. The tank should have a ground connection to discharge the static electricity charges. D. The rust and crust should be removed from the outer surface of the tank and it should be painted from outside with a rust preventive paint and it should be quarantined with asphalt and this should be done before putting it down in the hole. E. The tank should submit to the hydrostatic pressure test and if the tank is underground then the test should be done before burying it in sand, in all cases the test should be done according to one of the accepted standards.

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7.9 Liquid fuel burning devices 7.9.1 General A. These codes specify the necessary precautions for guaranteeing the safety of the people and properties from fire dangers as well as explosion that are triggered by liquid fuel burning devices. B. Any fixed or portable device that has a feeding fuel tank of more than 230 200 liters should submit to these codes. C. The liquid fuel burning device is a complete system for heating that depends on liquid fuel burning to reach the needed heat for heating and the main components of the system includes: Fuel source and delivery pipe. Boiler and control devices. Ventilation and gases discharge. D. After installing the device by the basic agreement it is not allowed to start using the device before submitting an application for the general administration of civil defence to get the final approval which is given after the inspection of the site and making sure that the device is matching the submitted design in the basic agreement and it has the needed standards. E. The fuel-burning device submits to periodical inspection and maintenance according to the manufacturer's instructions through a specialized technician. F. The area around the boiler and the tank should be kept clean. and it shouldnt be allowed for any garbage or flammable materials or any other unneeded material to accumulate there and when a leakage or fuel spilling is noticed the necessary precautions should be taken to repair it and to limit fire danger. G. The person in charge of the device should be trained on using the basic extinguishing devices and on the necessary action in case of accidents or emergencies. 7.9.2 Pipes and connections A. The tank should have an accepted mean for measuring the liquid inside in addition to pipes for filling, suction and ventilation in addition to any necessary connections according to the accepted standards. B. Filling pipe that has a diameter of at least 7,5cm (3inch) and it should pass through the roof of the tank and should extend for 5 cm(2 inch) over its bottom and it should be connected into a pushing point that has a special connection that is connected to the pump of the fuel truck that feeds the tank. C. The ventilation pipe should have a diameter of no less than 50mm and it should extend from the tank outside into the open air and it should be in a suitable place that is far away from the fire or holes or basement dangers while noting the following: The pipe should rise at least 4 meters above the ground. The pipe opening should be up or to the sides but not to the downside. The opening should have a protection net. The pipe should pass through the roof of the tank and to a depth of no more than 2 cm. 7.9.3 Boiler and control devices 7.9.3.1 General requirements A. The boiler should be made according to one of the accepted standards and by an official certificate and the installation process should be done according to the manufacturer's instructions. B. It is not allowed to use any other type of fuel other than the type that the boiler is made to use according to the manufacturer's instructions. C. The boiler should have enough sources of air to feed the boiler with the needed oxygen for burning. Page 87 of 239

D.

The boiler should have the following main components: Enough air sources with the suitable flow. Enough fuel sources with the suitable flow. A mean for converting the fuel into vapor or sprinkle and push it with the suitable pressure mixed with air. A mean for burning the mix of water and fuel.

7.9.3.2 Control Devices The control devices should provide the following needs: 1. Total control of the burning process and regulating it and stopping it when the water temperature raises or when the water is fully vaporized or when the pressure of the vapor raises in the boiler. 2. Completely stopping the boiler when there is a failure in the basic burning of the fuel. 3. Completely stopping the boiler when the flame is cut during the work of the device. 4. Closing the fuel pipe when the temperature outside the room raises and this is done using a melting connection that works at 650 C or by any other accepted mean. 5. In case of inproper function of the system all pumps, valves, ect. must close automatically. 7.9.3.3 Boiler room The room that will contain a liquid fuel based boiler should have the following: 1. The room should be on the outer wall of the building and its entrance should lead to the outside directly and it should be away from the exits of the building. 2. The boiler room should be constructed from fire proof materials and should have a fire resistance of at least three hours and its door should be of the fire resistant type with a minimum resistance of two three hours and it should close automatically and a special sign should be hanged on it. (in Arabic and English) 3. Enough natural ventilation should be provided for the boiler room. 4. The electricity connections should be intrinsically safe. 7.9.4 Ventilation and gases discharge A. The natural ventilation means should be provided at the place of the boiler and the storing place in an efficient way that does not allow the accumulation of vapors of liquid fuel in a dangerous percentage that could lead to a fire and when enough natural ventilation can not be provided then it is allowed to use mechanical ventilation but it should be independent of any ventilation system in the building. The ventilation needed for the boiler burning process should be calculated in addition to the normal ventilation. B. The boiler should have a natural mean (chimney) for discharging the gases produced by the burning process and the area of the chimney is calculated in a way that it is enough for discharging the produced gases according to the manufacturers instructions. C. The chimney should rise one meter above the point its exit from the ceiling and three meters over any other part of a nearby building falling into a circle that have a radius of 25 meter. D. The chimney is made of sturdy architect to be able to resist the climate processes and outer effects and it is possible to be built of fire bricks or concrete and in this case the internal space should be smooth to ease cleaning.

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E.

F. G. H.

The chimney can be made of metal boards with enough thickness and its connections should be compact and fixed to the walls by sturdy connection cables so it does not get effected by the winds and the external effects. The chimney should have cleaning and inspection openings with suitable areas and distances according to the nature of the place and especially at the curves. The chimney should have at its topside a sparkle preventive device and if it is necessary a carbon strainer. The smoke pass should not pass near any flammable materials.

7.9.5 Fire extinguishing devices A. The place should have enough and suitable manual extinguishers which are suggested by civil defence, it is the right of the general administration of civil defence to ask for any other necessary precautions. B. An emergency shutoff valve should be installed on the pipe that feeds the boiler with fuel for closing the pipe in cases of emergencies. The valve should work manually or automatically by unnatural heat outside the stove and usually the triggering temperature is at 650 C or more, or at any other degree that is calculated on the base of the surrounding degree of the place with an addition of 20-300C. 7.10 Cocking equipments A. All cooking equipment should be installed in accordance with manufactures instructions. B. The installation of the cooking devices and its connections should be done according to the special codes for it. C. The mechanical ventilation should be provided for the commercial kitchens and protection of the tunnel by Karboloy system or by any other accepted replacement system, an exception of this rule will be kitchens that dont contain oil tubes or oil baths.

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Index of Chapter Eight Firefighting and Alarm Equipment

Subject
8.1 General 8.1.1 Type of firefighting equipments 8.1.1.1 Portable manual equipments first steps of firefighting 8.1.1.2 Fixed manual equipments 8.1.1.2.1 Hose reels 8.1.1.2.2 Co2 extinguisher with hoses 8.1.1.2.3 Dry risers 8.1.1.2.4 Foam risers 8.1.1.2.5 Wet risers 8.1.1.2.6 Exterior risers 8.1.1.3 Fixed automatic firefighting equipments 8.1.1.3.1 Fixed automatic water sprinkler 8.1.1.3.2 Automatic CO2 system 8.1.1.3.3 Automatic dry chemical system 8.2 Portable fire extinguisher 8.2.1 General 8.2.2 Types of extinguishers 8.2.2.3 Co2 extinguisher 8.2.2.4 Dry powder extinguishers 8.2.3 Fire types and choosing the appropriate extinguishers 8.2.3.1 fire type A 8.2.3.2 fire type B 8.2.3.3 fire type C 8.2.3.4 fire type D 8.2.4 Distributing the extinguishers 8.3 Dry riser system 8.3.1 General 8.3.2 Network components 8.3.2.1 The vertical rising pipe 8.3.2.2 Fire department connection 8.3.2.3 Risers. 8.4 Wet riser system 8.4.1 General 8.4.2 Water sources 8.4.3 Pumps 8.4.4 System specifications Page 90 of 239

Page
92 92 92 92 92 92 92 92 92 92 92 92 93 93 93 93 93 93 94 94 94 94 94 94 95 95 95 95 95 96 96 96 96 97 97 97

8.5 External fire hydrants 8.5.1 General 8.5.2 The network 8.5.3 Water sources 8.5.4 Pumps 8.5.5 Pressure external fire hydrants 8.5.6 Risers 8.5.6.1 Definition 8.5.6.2 Vertical over ground risers 8.5.6.3 Underground risers 8.6 Hose reel 8.6.1 General 8.6.2 The network 8.6.3 The reel 8.6.4 The hose and its connections 8.6.5 Water sources 8.7 Fire alarm system 8.7.1 Manual alarm systems 8.7.2 Automatic alarm systems 8.7.3 General requirements

98 98 98 98 98 98 99 99 99 99 99 99 100 100 100 100 100 101 101 101

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Chapter 8 Firefighting and alarm equipments 8.1 General 8.1.1 Type of firefighting equipments The firefighting equipments used in the buildings are classified into: Portable manual equipments. Fixed manual equipments. Fixed Automatic equipments. 8.1.1.1 Portable manual equipments first steps of firefighting It is used for firefighting in its first stages used by ordinary people that are in the building. like: Manual firefighting equipments with all its different kinds. Manual water pumps Special fire resistant blankets. 8.1.1.2 Fixed manual equipments It is a fixed fire extinguishing system, and it contains the following components: 8.1.1.2.1 Hose reels Refer page 5. 8.1.1.2.2 Co2 extinguisher with hoses It is similar to the previous type but it is used to limited firefighting areas and the extinguishing material is CO2. 8.1.1.2.3 Dry risers Refer page 5. 8.1.1.2.4 Foam risers It is a fixed pipe that is used to deliver foam into hard to reach areas that are usually used for storing or lighting fuel. 8.1.1.2.5 Wet risers Refer page 5. 8.1.1.2.6 Exterior risers Refer page 5. 8.1.1.3 Fixed automatic firefighting equipments It is a fixed fire extinguishing system that has openings distributed in the places that need to be protected and feed a continuous source of extinguishing material and it is activated by heat or smoke detectors automatically by the heat produced by the fire or by the smoke or by both of them and it has other kinds that are listed below. 8.1.1.3.1 Fixed automatic water sprinkler Refer page 5. When the special codes request the presence of water sprinkler system in the areas and rooms that contain materials that are not compatible with water as an extinguishing agent (like aluminum powder, calcium carbide, calcium phosphate, magnesium powder etc) the water sprinkler should be replaced by another system which is suitable for those materials but It should be of the accepted types.

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8.1.1.3.2 Automatic CO2 system It is a fixed fire extinguishing system which is connected to a bank of Co2 cylinders that are activated by heat or smoke detectors or by both. CO2 systems may be replaced by FM-200 System or equal 8.1.1.3.3 Automatic dry chemical system It is like the type mentioned above but the difference is in the extinguishing material. 8.1.1.3.4 Automatic foam system It is like the type mentioned above but the difference is in the extinguishing material. 8.2 Portable fire extinguisher 8.2.1 General A. Portable fire extinguishers are used in the first stages of a discovery of fire. B. Manual extinguishers are required for any buildings and/or any site that has an occupancy that require the civil defence approval in accordancee with the special codes. C. The manual extinguishers should be of the approved type with an official permission from the general administration of civil defence. D. The manual extinguishers should be kept ready for usage. E. All the inspections and periodical inspections should be according to the accepted standards and they are: 1. Half yearly: a visual inspection to make sure that the extinguishers are ready to use 2. Yearly: checking all the extinguishers with all its contents and make sure it is ready to be used. 3. Each 3 years: total inspection in the factory or the workshop for all the parts of the extinguisher and submitting the extinguisher to hydrostatic test every five years. 4. After every fire check the extinguishers like in case 3. 8.2.2 Types of extinguishers It is the extinguishers that uses the foam liquid as an extinguishing material and it has two kinds: 1. Chemical foam extinguisher: it is the type, which produces foam by the chemical reaction and the foam is pushed using that reaction. 2. Mechanical foam extinguisher: it is the type which produces the foam mechanically by mixing the foam material with water and air and pushing using compressed CO2 inside a small cylinder. 8.2.2.3 Co2 extinguisher It is the extinguishers which uses CO2 as an extinguishing material, it has the same principle but the sizes differ. The gas is kept under pressure in its liquid state and it is ejected when operated by the valve on the head of the cylinder.

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8.2.2.4 Dry powder extinguishers A. They are the extinguishers that produces a dry chemical powder as an extinguishing material and for the chemical substance of the powder there are many types, the most important is: Powder that has sodium bicarbonate as its primary material and it is common commercially. Powder that has potassium bicarbonate as its primary material and it is not used on a large scale. Multi purpose powder. Powders that are specially used for metal fires and it is not used normally but in special cases. B. Classification by the way of operation has two types: 1. Pressure based extinguishers: where the powder is pushed using compressed CO2 gas that is kept under pressure in some small cylinder. 2. Maintained pressure extinguishers: where the powder is pushed by normal air pressure or by compressed nitrogen in the cylinder kept with the powder. 8.2.3 Fire types and choosing the appropriate extinguishers A. When choosing the appropriate type of manual extinguishers the following is noted: 1. Extinguishers in on place are operated in the same way so no confusion can occur when using these extinguishers. 2. In the sites where there is a high place or the places which needs a control of the ejection angle the extinguishers that has hoses are used. 3. Choosing the type that suits the position according to the distance of shooting or the type of ejection (stream or sprinkle). 4. Choosing the types which have suitable wrights and that is suitable for the individuals that will use it. 5. Choosing the easy to use easy to maintain types. The type of fire extinguishers must be according to the civil defence authority B. The fires are classified into four major types that are A, B, C, D and they will be explained in the following with the suitable type of the manual extinguishers. 8.2.3.1 fire type A It is the fires of the normal solid or carbonic materials like paper, wood and fabric and thers and it can be extinguished by water or foam or multi purpose powder. 8.2.3.2 fire type B It is the fast flammable or flammable liquids; it can be extinguished using foam or dry powder or CO2 gas. 8.2.3.3 fire type C It is the fires that happen in electric equipments and Co2 or dry powder can extinguish it. Before cutting the electricity of these equipments it is not allowed to use water or foam to put the fire off because it is connected to the electric current. 8.2.3.4 fire type D It is the fires that happens with metals like magnesium, titanium, sodium, potassium and others and they are extinguished using a special type of dry powder and there are some metals that no other material should be used to extinguish and only a special type of dry powder could be used and in every case the civil defence should be consulted about this matter and following the instructions mounted on the extinguishers by the factory.

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8.2.4 Distributing the extinguishers The extinguishers should be distributed in the places specified by the administration of civil defence, in general the following has to be noted: 1. The extinguishers should be kept in special cabins to protect them from climate effect and tampering, if it is not subjected to climate effects then it can be hanged on the walls. 2. A sign should be hanged to specify where the extinguishers are while writing the necessary instruction for using them and the warnings, all in Arabic and English or as pictogram. 3. The extinguishers placement should make it easy to reach them and the following should be noted: It should be as closes as possible to the exit The extinguishers should be no more than 22 meters apart. It should be no more than 1 meter in height. 4. The extinguishers should be protected from climate effects. 5. The number and the capacity of the extinguishers are specified according to the accepted standards but also it should be no less than 2 per floor. 8.3 Dry riser system 8.3.1 General This system is required in the following buildings (taking into considerations that when there is a wet riser system there is no need for the dry riser system): 1. The buildings that have 4 or more floors including the ground floor (or if the height of the building is more than 9 meters relative to the sideway level to the floor of the last occupied floor). 2. All the buildings that has a travel distance from any point within, to the closest point where the civil defence equipment can reach is more than 120 meters with the exception of the following cases: The buildings protected by water sprinklers Occupation groups A-4, A5, G2, H2, D3 Buildings that has a floor area of more than 1500M2 3. All the other places and situations that are required by civil defence. 8.3.2 Network components The dry risers network is composed of the following: The vertical rising pipe that feeds the risers The point of water pushing in the bottom of the network for pumping water by civil defence. Dry risers outlets on every floor. 8.3.2.1 The vertical rising pipe A. The network including its pipes connections should be made from good metals and according to the standards and the cods for water network that are accepted by civil defence. B. If the pipe feeds two risers in each floor then its diameter should be no less than 150mm and if it feeds one riser in each floor then it diameter can be no less than 100mm. C. The pipe should have an inspector test valve at the highest point in the roof to let air out of the network when using it to pump water. D. When changing the way of the pipes the usage of big radius curved connecters to minimize friction losing. Page 95 of 239

8.3.2.2 Fire department connection A. The network is provided at the level of the ground floor by a riser for pushing water by the pumps of the civil defence and it should have a male pressing plug with a diameter of 64mm and it should have no less than 2 adapters. B. Each fire department connection should be provided with a protection cover connected with a chain that has enough length with a springing valve and a pipe of 25mm radius for water discharging from the network. C. The fire department connection should be placed in a suitable position agreed by the general administration of civil defence, where the following is noted taken into considerations: the nature of the site and the fire hydrants and protection from glass falling from the windows or any other materials during the fire while taking the codes of chapter 3 into considerations too. D. The fire department connection is kept inside a metal cabin that is situated within the wall on the height of approximately 1meter relative to the sideway level and the cabin should have a door that has a fortified glass and a lock that can be opened from inside after breaking the glass and there should be a writing on the glass (fire department connection) in large letters.(in Arabic and English) 8.3.2.3 Risers. A. The main network has a riser that has a female adapter of 64mm 21/2 which have a valve for closing (according to the specifications and the model available at civil defence) and these risers are distributed in all the floors including the basement and roof. B. No point In the floor should be more than 30 meters away from the closest riser (and the distance is the length of the natural way), with the ability to increase this distance by 9 meters which is the distance of water stream ejection, but there should be no obstacles in the last 9 meters that could block the water stream. C. The riser is placed at a location that is agreed by civil defence. and it should be 1 meter above the floor level or within a cabin of suitable size and there should be writing on the glass (riser). (in Arabic and English) D. The network should be connected to electricity and it should have a connection to positive ground according to the accepted standards. E. The system should be designed and implemented to handle the applied pressure and in accordance to the codes of civil defence. it should submit to the hydrostatic pressure test before it is painted and before the building is used and this is made to assure its validity and for the possibility early problem detection to make it easier to correct. F. The system should be kept safe and protected from damage and tampering and it should be maintained too to be useable at all times and it should submit to periodical inspection to assure its validity. G. The risers system should be installed during the implementation stage to rise with the building and that is to provide a mean of helping the civil defence people in fighting fire during the implementation stage. 8.4 Wet riser system 8.4.1 General A. This system is required in the buildings composed of 10 or more floors including the ground floor (or if the buildings height is more than 28 meter relative to the side way level up to the last occupied floor), also in the other conditions that are required by the special conditions. Page 96 of 239

B.

The standards for the dry riser system is applied to this system too, as well as what will be mentioned in these codes and the use of the system should be for firefighting only. C. The keys and the main valves for the system should be kept in special places that are locked and a copy of the key is kept in a closed box that has a glass tablet and it should be mounted at the entrance to prevent tampering. 8.4.2 Water sources The system should have a water source in the form of a water storage tank that is enough for at least 30 minutes 1 hour of firefighting. 8.4.3 Pumps A. Every system should have two pumps one is the primary and it works by electricity and the other is secondary for back up and it works by diesel (or electricity but it should be connected to the power generator too), but the capacity should be no less than 500 American galloons per minute and a pressure that is equal to the height of the building with an additional 45m 2 1/2bar plus the friction loss. B. The two pumps work in parallel in pumping the water from the tank to the feeder which is connected to the main rising pipe that feeds the risers and every pipe should be equipped with a one way check valve to prevent water from coming back to the tank, the primary and secondary pumps should work automatically when the static pressure in the network is lowered by 5% and it should automatically stop when the pressure returns to normal. C. An alarm should be installed to work automatically when the pumps start working and it should be connected to the following: An alarm in a suitable position in the ground floor that is accepted by the administration of civil defence. The main control board of the alarm system of the building if it exists. D. The control board of the pumps must be situated in the ground floor and designed to give the following in formations: The amount of water in the tank The pressure of the network A signal when the pump is operated Manual operation keys 8.4.4 System specifications A. It must be noted that the available pressure at any wet riser should be no less than 45 meters 2 1/2bar and no more than 70 meters.7bar B. The diameter of the rising pipe should be no less than 150mm if it feed two risers in each floor and its height is more than 30 meters. If it feeds one riser in each floor and its height is less than 30 meters then its diameter should be no less than 100mm. C. The piping system should not pass through hazardous areas or be subjected to climate effects or any possible external conditions. D. The codes mentioned in 8.3.2.1 and 8.3.2.2 and 8.3.2.3 in all it parts with the exception of the pipe diameter. E. The risers system should be installed during the implementation stage to rise with the building and that is to provide a mean of helping the civil defence people in fighting fire during the implementation stage. The worker of the building should be trained on using the risers and maintaining F. them according to a program that is accepted upon with the administration of civil defence and the suitable arrangements should be taken to make periodical inspection for the network to assure its validity. Page 97 of 239

8.5 External fire hydrants 8.5.1 General The purpose of the external fire hydrants is providing means of firefighting. from outside the building or the establishment and they are placed in the squares and the internal street between the complexes of buildings that need to be protected according to the requirements of the special codes, As for the special network for the risers in the main street of the city then it doesnt submit to these codes. The external fire hydrant is composed of: Water network that feeds the hydrants Water sources Fire hydrants 8.5.2 The network A. The network is composed of main lines that are connected in between by branching lines that have a smaller diameter, in a way that it provides as a whole a full circuit and a full network that passes through the site to cover all the places that need protection. It is noted while designing the network that it needs to be separated into many sections with each having a closing section valve and that is for providing the facilities needed for operation and maintenance, like the possibility to concentrate pressure and guiding it to a fire compartment by closing the additional lines with the addition to the ability to maintain part of the network without stopping the whole network. B. The network has to be designed in general (pipes, connections and valves) from good metallic materials and according to the accepted standards. C. The diameter of the pipes used depends on the design calculations for the network like water sources and its flow and the number of risers that are feed, in all the diameter of the pipe that feeds the riser should be no less than 100mm. D. The needed signs should be placed to guild for the positions of the main and secondary keys with the needed data.All signs to be in Arabic and English. E. All the valves should be open and it should be connected and closed (in the opening state) if it is in an open place or a place where it is possible to be tampered with. 8.5.3 Water sources A. The network should have enough water sources to provide the needed amount of water according to the needs of the project and in all ways it should be no less than 250gallons/minute for at least one hour. B. If the external fire hydrants are a continuation of the internal network then it can be feed by water form the same source. 8.5.4 Pumps As for pumps they are normally like in 8.4.3 in a way that it provides the needed pressure and flow. 8.5.5 Pressure external fire hydrants The pressure is specified by the needs of the project and the suggestion of the civil defence, but the pressure should be no less than 45 meter water column or 4.5 bar .

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8.5.6 Risers 8.5.6.1 Definition A. The risers are the point connected to the water network and ends with an opening (hydrant) that is connected to the hoses when there is a need for water for firefighting and usually they are separated into two main types, the over ground and the underground types. The position of the risers is specified in suitable strategic places according to the needs of the project to provide the needed protection for the needed places and the following should be noted: It should not be situated in unpractical places It should not bock the equipment of the civil defence when used. It should be situated at 7 meter distance away from the perimeter of the establishments. B. At each riser there should be a guiding sign in Arabic and English according to the standard model saved at the general administration of civil defence. This sign should point to the number of the riser and its diameter and is mounted on the closest wall. -if it is hard to mount on a metallic column. 8.5.6.2 Vertical over ground risers A. It is a vertical fixed pipe that is connected to the bottom of the feeding network and it ends up by a riser or more with a cover connected by a chain for each riser according to the model specified by the general administration of civil defence and the diameter of the pipe should be no less than 100mm. B. Beside each riser there should be a valve with it and inspection hole according to the accepted standards. 8.5.6.3 Underground risers A. It is a pipe made of cast iron that contains a valve and ends with a male riser (exit) that has a round tip with a cover connected by a chain and it should be according to the accepted standards and according to the model specified by civil defence. B. The underground risers have two types: A type which is connected to the feeding pipe horizontally A type which is connected to the feeding pipe vertically C. The risers are kept in an inspection hole according to the accepted standards and the following has to be noted: 1. The roof of the hole should have two openings one for maintenance and another for the riser 2. The riser opening should be directly over the head of the riser for easing the use of the vertical connecting pipe and it should have a cover that is easy to open by civil defence men and according to the British standards (750)used standards. 3. The distance between the head of the rise and the roof of the hall should be no mote than 35-40 cm. 8.6 Hose reel 8.6.1 General A. The network of the rubber hose reel is an easy way for fire fighting and first aid fire fighting by the residents, without the need for pre training. It is a rubber hose with a diameter of 20 or 25 mm that are rolled on a reel that is mounted on the wall inside a metallic boxe and is connected directly to the water network.

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It is requested in the places specified in the special codes and they consists of the following components:1.The network 2. The reel 3. The hose and its connections 4. Water source C. The hose and the reel should be kept safe and ready to use and periodical inspection should be made to assure their safety and the use of the hose reel should be for fire fighting only. 8.6.2 The network A. The network (pipes and connections) should be made from good materials and according to the used standards and systems and the diameter of the main rising pipe that feeds the hoses should be no less than 1.5 Inch. B. A closing valve should be installed in the beginning of the section line that feeds the hose and normally it is located right before the hose and is kept in the same box. 8.6.3 The reel A. The reel should have is made of two cylinders made of metallic plates with a diameter of approximately 55cm and must be in size , so it can take the full length of the hose.the form the sides of the reel and they are separated by a distance of 18 cm and the axis is made from a hollow column that forms the pipe that connect the network to the side of the hose. The reel is connected to a metallic holder that is fixed on the walls in different shapes. B. The hose should be put inside a metal wall cabinet closet that has door which cant be opened or a door that is closed with a glass front, the lock can be opened from inside after breaking the glass front, a copy of the key is kept in a box that has a glass cover mounted near the closet C. The reel should be put in a suitable place agreed by the general administration of civil defence and it should be away from the fire danger and is easy to access using the stairs and other exits. 8.6.4 The hose and its connections A. The hose has to be made of rubber or any similar material and it should be strong and unbendable or closeable when it is pulled or moving it around corners. The diameter of the hose should be 20 or 25 mm and it length should be 30 meters and there should be another hose cabinet installed if the distance coverage is further than 30 meters from the closest hose (the distance is the length of the natural path) and this distance can be increased by 6 meters which is the distance of the water stream, but there should be no obstacles in the last 6 meters that could prevent the water stream from reaching. B. The side of the hose should be according to the technical standards tied to the axis that forms too the pipe which connect to the network and the other side is connected to a nozzle with a radius of 5 and 6 mm which are connected to a valve closing and controlling the stream of ejected water. 8.6.5 Water sources A. The network is connected to a continuous water source in the form of continuous water line or a permanent tank with a pump or a elevated tank that provide water flow through the gravity, the remaining pressure should be no less than 2 bar 21/2 bar. 8.7 Fire alarm system The fire alarm systems are separated into two major types: 1. Manual alarm systems 2. Automatic alarm systems

B.

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8.7.1 Manual alarm systems It is a system which is operated manually using keys (calling points)that are distributed in certain places and works on electricity, the manual alarm system is composed of: 1. Calling points 2. Alarm bells 3. Control board 8.7.2 Automatic alarm systems It is a system that works on electricity by means of detectors hooked up to the alarm system. It is composed of: 1. Fire detectors (smoke-flame-heat etc) 2. Alarm bells 3. Control board The system works by the following means: 1. When the automatic extinguishing equipments are operated by: 2. Fire detectors 3. Manually using keys (calling points) 8.7.3 General requirements The alarm system is requested and its type is specified according to the special code A. and the type of occupancy too. B. The system should be installed and inspected according to one of the accepted standards. C. The alarm system should submit to an accepted maintenance program and periodical inspection to guarantee the continuity of the system work in the needed way, but special records should be made for this purpose.

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Index of chapter 9 Special codes according to the type of occupancy Subject


9.1 Group A 9.1.1 General 9.1.1.2 Mixed occupancies 9.1.1.3 Arrival of civil defence equipments 9.1.1.4 The level of contents hazard 9.1.1.5 Construction requirements 9.1.2 Means of egress 9.1.2.1 Occupancy load 9.1.2.2 Means of escape capacity 9.1.2.3 Travel distance 9.1.2.4 Exit discharge (final exit) 9.1.2.5 Entrance/Main exit 9.1.2.6 Means of egress components 9.1.2.7 The number of exits 9.1.2.8 Arranging the means of egress 9.1.2.8.1 Arrangement of chairs 9.1.2.8.1.1 Fixed chairs 9.1.2.8.1.2 Soft chairs 9.1.2.8.1.3 Stair paths 9.1.2.8.1.4 Fixed group chairs (without side rest) 9.1.2.8.2 Assembly occupancy in open air with a fence 9.1.2.9 Protection barriers 9.1.2.9.1 General 9.1.2.9.2 Frontal barriers 9.1.2.9.3 Barriers in the wide paths 9.1.2.9.4 Barriers on the side and the back of the chairs 9.1.2.9.5 Areas excluded from barriers rules 9.1.3 Protection 9.1.3.1 Vertical openings protection 9.1.3.2 Protection of external fire spreading 9.1.3.3 Separation into fire compartments 9.1.3.4 Protection from dangers Page 102 of 239

Page
104 104 104 105 105 105 105 105 106 106 106 106 107 107 107 107 107 107 108 108 108 108 108 109 109 109 109 109 109 109 109 110

9.1.3.4.1 Protection of special service rooms 9.1.3.4.2 Protection of other areas 9.1.3.5 Interior finishing 9.1.4 Special arrangements 9.1.4.1 Life safety review 9.1.4.2 Theater stage and platform 9.1.4.2.1 Platform construction 9.1.4.2.2 Construction of the theater stage 9.1.4.2.3 Additional rooms 9.1.4.2.4 Ventilation 9.1.4.2.5 Separation of the stage from the viewers area 9.1.4.2.6 Flame spreading 9.1.4.2.7 Protection of the stage by sprinklers 9.1.4.3 Projection rooms 9.1.4.4 Unordinary entertainment buildings 9.1.4.5 Additional precautions for exhibitions 9.1.4.5.1 Goods showrooms 9.1.5 Fire protection equipments and devices 9.1.5.1 Protection with water sprinklers 9.1.5.2 Alarm and other extinguishing equipments 9.1.6 Operation and monitoring 9.1.6.1 Kitchen equipments 9.1.6.2 Furniture and dcor 9.1.6.3 Crowd management 9.1.6.4 Virtual evacuation exercises 9.1.6.5 Smoking 9.1.6.6 Chairs 9.2 Group D Educational occupancies 9.2.1 General 9.2.1.1 Definition of the educational occupancy 9.2.1.2 Other establishments 9.2.1.3 Mixed occupancies 9.2.1.4 Assembly occupancy 9.2.1.5 Arrival of civil defence vehicles and equipments 9.2.1.6 The level of contents hazard 9.2.1.7 Establishment requirements Page 103 of 239

110 110 111 111 111 111 111 112 112 112 112 113 113 113 114 114 114 114 114 115 115 115 115 115 115 116 116 121 121 121 121 121 121 121 121 122

9.2.2 Means of egress 9.2.2.1 General 9.2.2.2 Occupancy load 9.2.2.3 Means of egress components 9.2.2.4 The number of exits 9.2.2.5 Arrangement of the means of egress 9.2.2.5.1 General 9.2.2.5.2 Internal passages 9.2.2.5.3 Passages inside the classes 9.2.2.6 Travel distance 9.2.2.7 Exit discharge 9.2.2.8 Ventilation and rescue windows 9.2.2.9 Means of egress capacity 9.2.3 Protection 9.2.3.1 Vertical openings protection 9.2.3.2 External fire spreading protection 9.2.3.3 Classifying into fire compartments 9.2.3.4 Protection from hazards 9.2.3.5 Kitchen equipments 9.2.3.6 Stage 9.2.4 Fire protection equipments and tools 9.2.4.1 Water sprinklers protection requirements 9.2.4.2 Alarm equipments and other tools for fighting fire 9.2.4.3 Utility services 9.2.5 Operation and monitoring 9.2.5.1 Evacuation training 9.2.5.2 Daily inspection 9.2.5.3 Furniture and dcor 9.3 Group (C1) Judicial and care occupation 9.3.1 General 9.3.1.1 Definition 9.3.1.2 Implementation 9.3.1.3 Mixed occupancies 9.3.1.4 Total protection 9.3.1.5 Arrival of civil defence equipments and vehicles Page 104 of 239

122 122 122 122 122 122 122 123 123 123 123 123 124 124 124 124 124 124 125 125 125 125 125 125 125 125 126 126 129 129 129 129 129 130 130

9.3.1.6 Level of contents hazard


9.3.1.7 Classification of judicial establishments according to the codes of usage

130 130 131 131 131 132 132 132 132 132 133 133 133 134 134 134 134 134 135 135 135 136 136 136 136 136 137 137 137 138 138 138 138 139 139 140

9.3.1.8 Smoke compartments alternative 9.3.1.9 Administration and security actions 9.3.1.10 Establishment requirements 9.3.2 Means of egress 9.3.2.1 General 9.3.2.2 Occupancy load 9.3.2.3 Means of egress components 9.3.2.3.1 Doors 9.3.2.3.2 Horizontal exits and temporary refuge area 9.3.2.4 Number of exits 9.3.2.5 Arranging the means of egress 9.3.2.6 Travel distance 9.3.2.7 Exit discharge 9.3.2.8 Means of egress capacity 9.3.3 Protection 9.3.3.1 Protection of vertical spaces 9.3.3.2 Protection from external fire spreading 9.3.3.3 Separation into fire compartments 9.3.3.4 Danger protection 9.3.3.5 Interior finish 9.3.3.6 Separation into smoke compartments 9.3.4 Fire alarm and protection equipments and tools 9.3.4.1 Detection and alarm and communications systems 9.3.4.1.1 General 9.3.4.1.2 Residents alarm 9.3.4.1.3 Fire detection equipments 9.3.4.2 Protection with water sprinklers 9.3.4.3 Manual extinguishers 9.3.4.4 Rubber hoses 9.3.4.5 Wet risers network 9.3.4.6 Utility services 9.3.5 Operation and monitoring 9.3.5.2 Emergency plan and virtual exercises 9.3.5.3 Books and clothes Page 105 of 239

9.3.5.4 Heat producing equipments 9.3.5.5 Furniture and dcor 9.3.5.6 Keys 9.4 Group C-2 Care Occupancy 9.4.1 General 9.4.1.1 Definition 9.4.1.2 Mixed occupancies 9.4.1.3 Arrival of the vehicles and equipments of civil defence 9.4.1.4 The level of contents hazard 9.4.1.5 Construction requirements 9.4.1.6 Total protection 9.4.2 Means of egress 9.4.2.1 General 9.4.2.2 Occupancy load 9.4.2.3 Means of egress components 9.4.2.3.1 Doors 9.4.2.3.2 Horizontal exits and areas of temporary refuge 9.4.2.3.3 Passages 9.4.2.3.4 External windows 9.4.2.4 The number of exits 9.4.2.5 Arrangement of the means of egress 9.4.2.6 Travel distance 9.4.2.7 Exit discharge 9.4.2.8 Means of egress capacity 9.4.3 Protection 9.4.3.1 Vertical openings protection 9.4.3.2 Protection from external fire spreading 9.4.3.3 Separation into fire compartments 9.4.3.4 Danger protection 9.4.3.4.2 Labs 9.4.3.4.3 Anesthesia rooms 9.4.3.4.4 Medical gas 9.4.3.4.5 Gift shops 9.4.3.4.6 Commercial kitchens 9.4.3.4.7 Helipads 9.4.3.5 Interior finish Page 106 of 239

140 140 140 141 141 141 141 141 142 142 143 143 143 143 143 143 144 144 144 145 145 146 146 146 146 146 147 147 147 147 147 147 148 148 148 148

9.4.3.6 Separation into smoke compartments 9.4.4 Fire protection equipment sand tools 9.4.1.1 Protection with sprinklers 9.4.4.2 Other equipment for alarm and fire extinguishing 9.4.4.3 Utility services 9.4.5 Operation and monitoring 9.4.5.1 Emergency plan and virtual trainings 9.4.5.2 Necessary precaution during the fire 9.4.5.3 Exits maintenance 9.4.5.4 Smoking 9.4.5.5 Furniture and dcor 9.5 Group D-1 Hotel and motel occupancy 9.5.1 General 9.5.1.1 Definitions 9.5.1.2 Mixed occupancies 9.5.1.3 Arrival of the vehicles and equipments of civil defence 9.5.1.4 Level of contents hazard 9.5.1.5 Construction requirements 9.5.2 Means of egress 9.5.2.1 General 9.5.2.2 Occupancy load 9.5.2.3 Means of egress components 9.5.2.4 Number of exits 9.5.2.5 Arrangement of the means of egress 9.5.2.6 Travel distance 9.5.2.7 Exits discharge 9.5.2.8 Means of egress capacity 9.5.3 Protection 9.5.3.1 Vertical openings protection 9.5.3.2 Protection of external fire spreading 9.5.3.3 Separation into fire compartments 9.5.3.4 Protection from dangers 9.5.3.5 Interior finishing 9.5.3.6 Furniture and decor 9.5.4 Fire protection equipments and devices 9.5.4.1 Protection with water sprinklers Page 107 of 239

148 148 148 148 149 150 150 150 151 151 151 152 152 152 152 152 152 152 154 154 154 154 154 154 154 155 155 155 155 155 155 156 156 156 156 156

9.5.4.2 Alarm and extinguishing equipments 9.5.4.3 Utility services 9.5.5 Operation and monitoring 9.5.5.1 Emergency plan and virtual trainings 9.5.5.2 Necessary precautions during fire 9.5.5.3 Instructions for the safety of the residents 9.6 Group D-2 Residential apartments occupancy 9.6.1 General 9.6.1.1 Residential apartments occupancies 9.6.1.2 Mixed occupancies 9.6.1.3 Arrival of the vehicles and equipments of civil defence 9.6.1.4 Level of contents hazard 9.6.1.5 Construction requirements 9.6.2 Means of egress 9.6.2.1 General 9.6.2.2 Occupancy load 9.6.2.3 Means of egress components 9.6.2.4 The number of exits 9.6.2.5 Arrangement of the means of egress 9.6.2.6 Travel distance 9.6.2.7 Exits discharge 9.6.2.8 Means of egress capacity 9.6.3 Protection 9.6.3.1 Vertical openings protection 9.6.3.2 Protection of external fire spreading 9.6.3.3 Separation into fire compartments 9.6.3.4 Protection from dangers 9.6.3.5 Interior finishing 9.6.4 Fire protection equipments and devices 9.6.4.1 Protection with water sprinklers 9.6.4.2 Alarm and extinguishing equipments 9.6.4.3 Utility services 9.6.5 Emergency instructions for the residents 9.7 Group D-3 Single Family buildings/two families 9.7.1 General 9.7.1.1 Implementation Page 108 of 239

156 157 157 157 157 157 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 162 162 162 162 162 163 163 163 163 164 164 164 164 164 164 165 165 165 165 165 167 167 167

9.7.1.2 Mixed occupancies 9.7.1.3 Arrival of the vehicles and equipments of civil defence 9.7.1.4 Level of contents hazard 9.7.1.5 Construction requirements 9.7.2 Means of egress 9.7.2.1 General 9.7.2.2 Types and number of the means of egress 9.7.2.2.1 Primary escape route 9.7.2.2.2 Secondary escape route 9.7.2.3 Arrangement of the means of egress 9.7.3 Protection 9.7.3.1 Vertical openings protection 9.7.3.2 Protection of external fire spreading 9.7.3.3 Separation into fire compartments 9.7.3.4 Interior finishing 9.7.3.5 Protection from fire 9.8 Group E Administrative occupancy 9.8.1 General 9.8.1.1 Definition of administrative occupancies 9.8.1.2 Mixed occupancies 9.8.1.3 Arrival of the vehicles and equipments of civil defence 9.8.1.4 Level of contents hazard 9.8.1.5 Construction requirements 9.8.2 Means of egress 9.8.2.1 General 9.8.2.2 Occupancy load 9.8.2.3 Means of egress components 9.8.2.4 The number of exits 9.8.2.5 Arrangement of the means of egress 9.8.2.6 Travel distance 9.8.2.7 Exits discharge 9.8.2.8 Means of egress capacity 9.8.3 Protection 9.8.3.1 Vertical openings protection 9.8.3.2 Protection of external fire spreading 9.8.3.3 Separation into fire compartments 9.8.3.4 Protection from dangers Page 109 of 239

167 167 167 167 167 167 167 168 168 168 168 168 168 169 169 169 170 170 170 170 170 170 170 172 172 172 172 172 173 173 173 173 173 173 173 173 174

9.8.3.5 Interior finishing 9.8.4 Fire protection equipments and devices 9.8.4.1 Protection with water sprinklers 9.8.4.2 Alarm and extinguishing equipments 9.8.4.3 Utility services 9.8.5 Operation and monitoring 9.8.5.1 Emergency plan and virtual trainings 9.8.5.2 Basic extinguishing equipments 9.9 Group F Commercial occupancy 9.9.1 General 9.9.1.1 Definitions 9.9.1.2 Mixed occupancies 9.9.1.3 Classification of commercial occupancies 9.9.1.4 Arrival of the vehicles and equipments of civil defence 9.9.1.5 Level of contents hazard 9.9.1.6 Construction requirements 9.9.2 Means of egress 9.9.2.1 General 9.9.2.2 Occupancy load 9.9.2.3 Means of egress components 9.9.2.4 Number of exits 9.9.2.5 Arrangement of the means of egress 9.9.2.6 Exits discharge 9.9.2.7 Means of egress capacity 9.9.3 Protection 9.9.3.1 Vertical openings protection 9.9.3.2 Protection of external fire spreading 9.9.3.3 Separation into fire compartments 9.9.3.4 Protection from dangers 9.9.3.5 Interior finishing 9.9.4 Special arrangements 9.9.4.1 Commercial operations in open air 9.9.4.2 Buildings of malls 9.9.4.2.1 Means of egress in malls 9.9.4.2.2 Means of egress details 9.9.5 fire protection equipments and devices Page 110 of 239

174 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 177 177 177 177 177 178 178 178 178 178 178 178 178 179 179 179 179 179 179 180 180 180 180 180 180 181 181 181

9.9.5.1 Protection with water sprinklers 9.5.5.2 Alarm and extinguishing equipments 9.9.5.3 Utility services 9.9.6 Operation and monitoring 9.10 Group G Industrial occupations 9.10.1 General 9.10.1.1 Definitions 9.10.1.1.1 Normal industrial occupations 9.10.1.1.2 Special industrial occupancies 9.10.1.1.3 Industrial establishments in open air 9.10.1.2 Implementation 9.10.1.3 Mixed occupancies 9.10.1.4 Arrival of the vehicles and equipments of civil defence 9.10.1.5 Construction requirements 9.10.2 Means of egress 9.10.2.1 General 9.10.2.2 Occupancy load 9.10.2.3 Means of egress components 9.10.2.4 Number of exits 9.10.2.5 Arrangement of the means of egress 9.10.2.6 Travel distance 9.10.2.7 Exits discharge 9.10.2.8 Means of egress capacity 9.10.3 Protection 9.10.3.1 Vertical openings protection 9.10.3.2 Protection of external fire spreading 9.10.3.3 Separation into fire compartments 9.10.3.4 Protection from dangers 9.10.3.5 Interior finishing 9.10.4 Fire protection equipments and devices 9.10.4.1 Protection with water sprinklers 9.10.4.2 Alarm and other extinguishing equipments 9.10.4.3 Utility services 9.10.5 Operation and monitoring 9.10.5.1 Emergency plan 9.10.5.2 Basic extinguishing equipments 9.11 Group H Store occupancy Page 111 of 239

181 182 182 182 186 186 186 186 186 186 187 187 187 187 187 187 187 188 188 188 188 188 188 189 189 189 189 189 189 190 190 190 190 190 190 190 194

9.11.1 General 9.11.1.1 Definition of partial store occupations 9.11.1.2 Definitions 9.11.1.3 High hazard store occupancies 9.11.1.4 Open store buildings 9.11.1.5 Mixed occupancies 9.11.1.6 Arrival of the vehicles and equipments of civil defence 9.11.1.7 Construction requirements 9.11.2 Means of egress 9.11.2.1 General 9.11.2.2 Occupancy load 9.11.2.3 Means of egress components 9.11.2.4 Number of exits 9.11.2.5 Arrangement of the means of egress 9.11.2.6 Travel distance 9.11.2.7 Exits discharge 9.11.2.8 Means of egress capacity 9.11.3 Protection 9.11.3.1 Vertical openings protection 9.11.3.2 Protection of external fire spreading 9.11.3.3 Separation into fire compartments 9.11.3.4 Protection from dangers 9.11.3.5 Interior finishing 9.11.4 Additional codes for the car parking 9.11.4.1 Implementation 9.11.4.2 Mixed occupancies 9.11.4.3 Open side car parking 9.11.4.4 Classification of occupation 9.11.4.5 Means of egress 9.11.4.6 Ventilation and smoke discharging 9.11.5 Fire protection equipments and devices 9.11.5.1 Protection with water sprinklers 9.11.5.2 Alarm and other extinguishing equipments 9.11.5.3 Utility services 9.11.6 Operation and monitoring 9.12 Group I High Hazard occupancy Page 112 of 239

194 194 194 194 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 195 196 196 196 196 196 196 196 197 197 197 197 197 197 197 198 198 198 198 198 198 199 199 199 203

9.12.1 General 9.12.1.1 Definitions 9.12.1.2 Implementation 9.12.1.3 Necessary information 9.12.1.4 General requirements 9.12.1.5 Mixed occupancies 9.12.1.6 Arrival of the vehicles and equipments of civil defence 9.11.1.7 Construction requirements 9.12.2 Means of egress 9.12.2.1 General 9.12.2.2 Occupancy load 9.12.2.3 Means of egress components 9.12.2.4 Number of exits 9.12.2.5 Arrangement of the means of egress 9.12.2.6 Travel distance 9.12.2.7 Exits discharge 9.12.2.8 means of egress capacity 9.12.3 Protection 9.12.3.1 Openings protection 9.12.3.2 Protection of external fire spreading 9.12.3.3 Separation into fire compartments 9.12.3.4 Interior finishing 9.12.4 Fire protection equipments and devices 9.12.4.1 Protection with water sprinklers 9.12.4.2 Alarm and other extinguishing equipments 9.12.4.3 Utility services 9.12.5 Operation and monitoring 9.12.5.1 Emergency plan 9.12.5.2 Basic extinguishing equipments

203 203 203 204 204 205 205 205 205 205 205 205 206 206 206 206 206 207 207 207 207 207 207 207 208 208 208 208 208

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Chapter 9 Special codes according to the occupancy type 9.1 Group A Assembly occupancy

9.1.1.1 Definitions Assembly occupancy It is the buildings or its specified parts in (4.2.1) which contain assembly places for 50 or more people for entertainment, education, praying, sport, show or food and other similar occupancies and they are split into 5 sub groups mentioned in (4.2.1) Stage It is a space inside the building that is used for entertainment with backgrounds and decors and other theatrical effects and they are split into two main parts: 1. Legitimate stage It is the stage where the height of the space above it from the lowest point in the stage ground to highest point in the ceiling or the roof directly over the stage is 15 meters. 2. Regular stage It is the stage where the height of the space above it is no more than 15 meter Platform It is a high point inside the building used to provide music shows and plays and others entertainment means (like platforms of lecture halls and boxing platforms and similar events) without the presence of dcor or background or other theatrical effects with the exception of the lighting. Temporary platform It is that is made for a specific time span of no more than 30 days. Proscenium wall It is the wall separating the theater stage from the viewers. Special amusement buildings Any temporary, permanent or portable building that contains a system for transporting people in any direction for amusement in way that the means of egress are not clear enough because of the sound and light effects or others, or the means of egress are not available because of this transportation method in the building or the establishment, like ghost city and roller coaster inside closed buildings. 9.1.1.2 Mixed occupancies A. In the case where there is assembly occupancies inside other occupancy buildings like restaurants inside the commercial buildings and party halls in hotels and the meetings halls in schools, the needed procedures needs to be taken to protect its occupants from fire dangers that could happen in the other parts, the protection can be achieved by using fire resistant barriers or by choosing the suitable locations. The exits can be used by all the occupancies of the assembly or the other occupancies but it should be able to evacuate all the occupancies at the same time Page 114 of 239

B.

C. D.

The mixed occupancies should be separated like in the codes mentioned in 4.5 The only means of escape for any residential unit should not pass through the assembly occupancy in the same building.

9.1.1.3 Arrival of civil defence equipments A. In addition to the codes mentioned in chapter 3, there should be a street or a path around the assembly buildings in away that it is possible for the vehicles of civil defence to reach from two sides at least of the buildings sides and one of them should be from the main entrance side. (see sketch 6) It is necessary to allocate parking to serve the vehicles and equipments of civil defence and according to the codes in chapter 3.

B.

9.1.1.4 The level of contents hazard It is nessecary to classify the dangers of the occupancy contents according to the codes mentioned in 4.1. 9.1.1.5 Construction requirements A. B. C. The codes of chapter 6 should be applied in addition to these rules The types of allowed constructions in the assembly buildings are specified according 9.1.1. The openings used for the passage of the pipes and the conductors and the condition tunnels and others, should be protected by fire resistant barriers according to the rules mentioned in chapter 6.

9.1.2 Means of egress It is required to implement the general codes of the means of egress mentioned in chapter 5, in addition to these rules. 9.1.2.1 Occupancy load The allowed occupancy load in the assembly buildings is specified according to the rules mentioned in 5.3 and this is according to the following load factors: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Assembly areas for high concentration without fixed chairs like lecture halls, mosques and churches, party halls: 0.65 m2/person Assembly areas for the usage of less concentrated assemblies like meeting rooms, food courts, exhibitions, sports halls: 1.4m2/person. Waiting areas (lobbies and similar others): 0.3m2 0,65m2/person. Stadiums or similar long group chairs: 1 person for each 45cm length. Fixed chairs: the actual number of chairs is calculated. Kitchens: 9.5 m2/person. Libraries: Book storage areas 9m2/person Reading areas 4.5 m2/person Page 115 of 239

8. Swimming pools Pool 4.5 m2/person Pass way 2.8 m2/person

9. Stage 1.4 m2/person 10. Theater balcony and high level pass ways 9.5 m2/person.

9.1.2.2 Means of escape capacity The capacity of the means of escape is specified according to what is mentioned in 5.3.4 9.1.2.3 Travel distance A. The travel distance from any point to reach the closest exit should be no more than the values mentioned in 5.8. In addition to these codes while taking into considerations the maximum limits allowed for dead ends and the compulsory passages mention in 5.8 too. The general codes for the pass ways should be provided according to chapter 5 in addition to he following codes: The pass ways should be organized in such a way to facilitate a continuous flow of people exiting in a way that it leads directly to the exits. The width of the passages should be enough to facilitate the flow of the people using it.

B.

9.1.2.4 Exit discharge (final exit) All the exits should lead to the outside directly or to a protected passage that is completely separated from the building by fire resistant barriers and it is allowed for half of the exits to end in the main lobby of the building after providing the codes mentioned in 5.9. 9.1.2.5 Entrance/Main exit A. B. A main entrance should be provided for every assembly occupancy in each floor to be used as an emergency exit when it is needed. The width of the main entrance should be enough to facilitate half of the total occupancy load and it should be on the level of the ground floor or directly connected to an escape stair or a ramp that lead into the open. Also there is a need to provide an additional exit of suitable width to facilitate the other half of the expected occupancy load. The net width of the arrival ways to the exits should be no less than 110cm if it serves 50 or more people.

C.

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9.1.2.6 Means of egress components The following components can be used in the means of egress: stairs and ramps, doors, horizontal exits, pass ways, balconies, temporary refuge areas and this is according to the codes of chapter 5 in addition to these codes. 9.1.2.7 The number of exits The number of exit should be no less than the codes mentioned in 5.4 and this apply to all the assembly occupancies with the exception of group A5. 9.1.2.8 Arranging the means of egress A. The exits should be as far apart as possible from each other and they should be arranged in a way to minimize the possibility of there damage or blocking during emergencies and this is according to the codes mentioned in 5.5 The passages for entry and exit should be kept in good condition to facilitate smooth and undisturbed movement for the administration staff, security staff, police, civil defence and medical emergency team without any unneeded obstacles.

B.

9.1.2.8.1 Arrangement of chairs The passages between the chairs lines and tables should be enough to facilitate for all the occupants of the place. (minimum 60cm) 9.1.2.8.1.1 Fixed chairs A. B. The net distance between the lines of normal chairs should be no less than 30cm. The number of chairs in each line should be no more than 7 chairs in a row if they are connected to the path from one side. If the number of chairs is increased then the distance between the rows of chairs should be increased by 1.5cm for each chair added. It is not required for the net width to go over 55cm. No chair should be further away than 9 meters from the path that leads to two means of egress.

9.1.2.8.1.2 Soft chairs A. When the lines of chairs are connected to service paths from two sides or by doors from each side then it is allowed to increase the number of the single line chairs up to 100, but the net distance between the lines of the chairs should be increased by 0.8 cm for each additional chair other than the first 14 chairs and with a maximum limit of 55cm. The travel distance from any chair to the closest door for the assembly hall should be no more than 45 30 meters. The net width of the passages perpendicular with the lines of chairs should be no less than the following: 120cm for the stair paths that serves the chairs from both sides 90cm for the stair paths that serves the chairs from one side 105cm for normal paths or ramps that serves the chairs from both sides

B. C.

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9.1.2.8.1.3 Stair paths A. When the slope of the path is more than 8:1 8% then it should be implemented as stair path and the depth of the step should be no more than 28cm and the height of the riser should be around 11 and 20cm. 15-18cm The paths perpendicular with the lines of chairs should lead to a wide path or lobby with an exit of enough to accommodate all the paths that ends within it. The length of dead ends in these paths should be no more than 6 meters.

B.

9.1.2.8.1.4 Fixed group chairs (without side rest) A. B. C. D. The distance between the lines of chairs from one axis to another should be no less than: 75cm for the chairs with a back 55cm for the chairs without a back The net distance between the lines of chairs should be no less than 30 cm. The theoretical number of chairs is calculated on the base of 45cm for each person. The number of chairs in a single line connected to the path by one side should be no more than 7 for the chairs with a back and 20 for the chairs without a back.

9.1.2.8.2 Assembly occupancy in open air with a fence A. The number of exits should be no less than two and they should be far from each other as much as possible, if the occupancy load is more than 6000 then 3 exits at least should be provided and if it is more than 9000 then 4 exits should be provided. The distance between the exits of the stair paths or the open stadium should be no more than 25meters. The escape distance calculated over the natural path of travel from the seat and the exit or the playground should be no more than 45 30meters. The number of chairs between any chair and the closest path should be no more than 20. The width of the path should be no less than 120cm and it should have no steps unless its slope is more than 8:1 8%.

B. C. D. E.

9.1.2.9 Protection barriers 9.1.2.9.1 General A. Protection barrier should be provided where there is a chance of falling of people because of pushing and other situations. The barriers should be according to the codes mentioned in 5.10 in addition to these codes. The barriers should be arranged so the openings within the barriers dont allow the passage of a ball that has a diameter of more than 10cm.

B.

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9.1.2.9.2 Frontal barriers When the height of the ground of the front of any stadium or balcony should be no more than 75cm relative to the place under it and the height of the barrier should be no less than the following, (as in figure 9.1.1): 65cm for the barriers in front of the chairs for all the assembly occupancies with the exception of sport stadiums where the height should be no more than 90cm. 95cm for the barriers in the end of the path.

9.1.2.9.3 Barriers in the wide paths A. Protection barriers should be installed with a minimum height of 65cm at the wide paths existing between the lines of chairs unless the height of the chairs back on the length of the front side of the wide path is no less than 60cm, figure 9.1.2. If the height of wide path is more than 75cm relative to the level below it then fall protection barriers should be installed according to the code mentioned in 5.10.

B.

9.1.2.9.4 Barriers on the side and the back of the chairs If the difference in level between the sides and the back of the seats and the paths is more than 75cm relative to the theaters and cinemas and similar or 120cm for the stadiums then fall protection barriers with a height of no less than 105cm. 9.1.2.9.5 Areas excluded from barriers rules It is not required to install fall barrier for the following: 1. 2. 3. The theater stage and the ramps used for theatrical activities or for shows and this is for the sides facing the viewers. Vertical openings within the theater stage for the use of theatrical shows. Open sky events e.g. religious assemblies.

9.1.3 Protection 9.1.3.1 Vertical openings protection A. All the vertical spaces should be protected according to the codes mentioned in 6.3.10 and it is allowed to use all the allowed exception mentioned in 6.3.10, in addition it is allowed for the stairs and the ramps connecting between the main area for the assembly hall and the mezzanine or the balcony and the lighting paths to be left unprotected.

9.1.3.2 Protection of external fire spreading The protection from the external fire spreading is according to the codes mentioned in 6.3.5. 9.1.3.3 Separation into fire compartments The buildings of hotels should be separated into fire compartments according to the codes mentioned in 6.3 in addition to the codes mentioned in this chapter. Page 119 of 239

9.1.3.4 Protection from dangers All the dangerous places should be protected according to the codes mentioned in 6.5 in addition to these codes. 9.1.3.4.1 Protection of special service rooms All the rooms that contains high pressure boilers or big electric equipments should be protected and this is done by separating them from the rest of the building parts with elements that have a resistance of no less than one hour or by protecting them with an automatic extinguishing system. Enough natural ventilation should be provided too for these rooms through ventilation openings that face the outside directly and these rooms can never be put near the exit or directly beneath it. 9.1.3.4.2 Protection of other areas The hazardous areas should be protected in the following manner: A. By separation from the rest of the building by fire resistant element that have a resistance of no less than 1 hour or by an automatic extinguishing system and this should be done for the following places: Boiler and oven rooms The rooms and the places used for storing or using the tools and supplies that are flammable in amounts that are considered hazardous should be evaluated by civil defence on their degree of danger. The rooms and places used for storing hazardous materials or flammable liquids or fast flaming liquids in amount that are assumed to be hazardous according to international standards. The rooms that contains fuel. Maintenance workshops including the wood workshops and the paint areas. By separation from the rest of the building by elements which have a resistance of no less than one hour in addition to protecting them by an automatic extinguishing system and this is done for the following areas: Laundry. Areas and rooms used for treating or using hazardous materials and flammable or fast flaming liquids in high amounts that are considered as hazardous by the accepted standard.

1. 2.

3.

4. 5. B.

1. 2.

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9.1.3.5 Interior finishing A. B. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. C. The codes mentioned in 6.6 should be applied in addition to these codes. The interior finishing for the walls and the ceilings should be as the following: Of type A and B for the passages and the lobby Of type A for the exits Assembly areas with an occupancy load of more than 300: type A or B. Assembly areas with an occupancy load of 300 or less: A or B or C. Cinema screens: type A or B. The interior finishing for the grounds of the exits and passages should be of type 1 or 2.

9.1.4 Special arrangements 9.1.4.1 Life safety review A study should be done to evaluate the safety of the lives if the occupancy load goes over 6000 and it should be excuted by qualified experts that are approved by civil defence, the study should contain written reports about the safety precautions available in the buildings and they should submit for review on the yearly bases for acceptance by civil defence and they should be modified when circumstances change. The safety review contains evaluation of the following circumstances and the needed safety precautions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. The nature of the activities and the workers and the viewers. Medical emergencies. Fire dangers. Temporary and permanent buildings. The harsh weather status. Problems between the viewers. Hazardous emergencies inside the building borders or near it. Coordination between the building administration and other concerned authorities including civil defence. Theater stage and platform Platform construction

9.1.4.2 9.1.4.2.1 A.

The temporary platforms can be built from any materials but the space between the platform and the ground should only be used for electric cabling needed for the platform. The permanent platforms should be made from the same materials as the building superstructure they are within, with the exception of covering the ground that can be done with wood. In all cases if the space between the platform and the ground is used for any thing other than electric cabling and sewage pipes then the ground of the platform should be fire resistant for an hour at least. Page 121 of 239

B.

9.1.4.2.2 Construction of the theater stage A. The normal stage should be made of the same materials allowed for the superstructure of the building they are within, with the exception of covering the ground that can be done with wood that is allowed in all cases. The high stage should be made of the materials allowed for the superstructure of type 1.

B.

9.1.4.2.3 Additional rooms If the area of the stage is more than 93m2 then the workshops and store rooms and clothes rooms and other areas which are near the stage should be separated from each other and from other areas by elements that have a fire resistance of at least one hour. 9.1.4.2.4 Ventilation If the area of the normal stage is more than 93m2 or if the stage is of the high type then they should be provided with a smoke and gas suction system. The ventilation is done using one or more of the following means: 1. Smoke control system to guarantee a smoke free area with a height of 183cm over the ground of the highest elevation within the room. that contain chairs or over the highest elevation that the moving stage reaches. The system should have a secondary power source in addition to the primary power source. Also there should be an ability to operate the system by all the following means:

Automatically when the sprinklers over the stage are activated. Automatically when the smoke detectors over the stage are activated. Manually using a key that is put in a suitable area. 2. Ventilation openings that are situated on the ceiling near the center of the stage and they should be no less than two and there total area should be no less than 5% of the stage area and the ability to operate the ventilation openings automatically using fusible links that works by heat, also a manual mean of operating the openings should be provided. (in Arabic and English) Any other alternatives for smoke discharge and they should be of the accepted type.

3.

9.1.4.2.5 Separation of the stage from the viewers area A. When the stage is of the high type then it should be completely separated from the viewers area using a wall that has a resistance of no less than two hours and it should be constructed of fireproof materials. And for the watching opening in the wall then it should be protected using one of the following: Water curtain. Fire protection curtain. The protection curtain should be accepted type and it should close in all of the following means: Page 122 of 239

1. 2. B.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Automatically when the sprinklers work. Automatically when the alarms works. Manually using keys that are put at the control board for the curtain and also at the sides of the stage. The area of viewers should be protected from smoke using a good system and the separation needed by A can be ignored if this is available.

9.1.4.2.6 Flame spreading All the theatrical props effects like clothes, blankets and dry plants and others should be treated with flame slowing materials. It is not allowed to use foaming plastic materials unless the acceptance of civil defence is taken and every situation is taken alone. Fire extinguishers and blankets should be available at close range for all the personnel, actors,musicians as well as technicians and employees. 9.1.4.2.7 Protection of the stage by sprinklers The stage should be protected by a sprinklers system that covers the whole stage area in addition to the rooms that are connected to it, the sprinkler can be ignored in the following cases: 1. 2. Sprinklers are not required for normal stages that have an area of less than 93m2 but the curtains and other theatrical effects should be of the vertically pulled types. Sprinkler are not required under the stage when the net height under the stage is less than 1.2 meters and this space should not be used for storing with the exception of chairs and tables.

9.1.4.3 A.

Projection rooms

The projectors (cinema and video movies) should be put inside special rooms that submit to the codes mentioned in 9.1.3.4.2 and this is when those devices are of the type that uses the light sources that produce particles or gases that are poisonous or radiations or dangerous dust. The area of the room for one projection device should be no less than 7.5m2, an area increase of 3.7 m2 should be provided for every additional device and the net height of the room should be no less than 2.3m. The door of the room should open in the escape way and it should shut automatically. The area of the show openings that are situated on the wall separating the projection room of the hall should be no more than 25% of the wall area and those openings should be protected with glass. A special store for the movies should be available. Mechanical ventilation for the room should be provided according to one of the accepted standards.

B.

C. D.

E. F.

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9.1.4.4 A.

Unordinary entertainment buildings

Ignoring the occupancy load, the special codes for assembly occupancies should be applied to all the unordinary entertainment buildings in addition to the codes mentioned in this clause, with the exception of the buildings where the entertainment establishments are not higher than 3 meters and the horizontal distance between these establishments is no more than 15 meters. The unordinary entertainment buildings should have a fire detection and alarm system. When the alarm goes on all the visual and sound effects should stop in addition to lighting up the emergency lights and the exit signs. The interior finishing should be of type A.

B.

C.

9.1.4.5

Additional precautions for exhibitions

The shelves and the viewing goods should be arranged so they dont block the passage or reaching the exits or the signs of the exits or the extinguishing equipments, like in figure 9.1.4.

9.1.4.5.1 Goods showrooms A. B. C. D. The maximum allowed travel distance between any points inside the show room and the closest path should be 15 meters. At least two independent means of egress should be provided for every high floor in the multi-storied show rooms. The projection rooms can be constructed from one of the following materials: Flame proof materials or limited flaming materials. Flame spreading resistant materials like treated wood or any other accepted material. Fabrics and other wall covering materials that are allowed for the interior finishing of walls and ceilings according to the codes mentioned in 6.6. The curtains and blankets and dcor materials submit to the codes mentioned in 7.6, the sound insulator materials and other dcor materials like wool, straw, sawdust and similar materials should be treated with flame retarding substances.

9.1.5 Fire protection equipments and devices 9.1.5.1 Protection with water sprinklers A. B. Groups A-3, A-4, A-5: are excluded from the sprinklers code. Groups A-1, A-2: are covered by sprinklers if the occupancy load is more than 300 on the following manner:

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1. 2. C. 1. 2.

Full covering for the floor that contains assembly occupancies and all the floors below it. When the assembly occupancy is in an underground floor then the ground floor and all the underground floors should be protected. The following cases are also excluded from the sprinklers code: Assembly occupancies that are made of one multi purpose hall and the area of the hall should not be more than 1500M2 and it should not be used as a showroom. All the occupancies of group A-2, if the contents are of low hazard level and the height of the ceiling relative to the ground below it is no less than 15 meters.

9.1.5.2 Alarm and other extinguishing equipments The necessary precautions in the field of utility services should be available according to the codes mentioned in chapter 7.Alarms and fire-extinguishing equipments should be supplied according to table 9.1.2 and 9.1.3 9.1.6 Operation and monitoring 9.1.6.1 Kitchen equipments A. B. The cooking equipments and kitchens should be protected according to clause 10.7. It is allowed to leave openings between the food preparation area and the food halls unprotected.

9.1.6.2 Furniture and dcor A. B. The fabrics and the blankets used for dcor and all the curtains should be of the flame resistant type according to the codes mentioned in 7.6. It is the right of the general administration of civil defence to specify the amount and the method of arranging the flammable materials to provide the needed level of safety.

9.1.6.3 Crowd management With the exception of prayer areas if the occupancy load is more than 100 persons. there should exist a supervising personals with an average of one supervisor per 250 individuals. The supervisors should submit to an accepted training session for the techniques of crowd management. 9.1.6.4 Virtual evacuation exercises Enough training should be provided for the supervisors and the employees of the assembly occupancy and it should include the action to be taken in cases of fire or panic or any other emergency for the purpose of evacuating the place. In addition, training on the use of manual extinguishers and other basic extinguishing equipments are mandatory.

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9.1.6.5 Smoking Specified areas for smoking should be coordinated with civil defence and these areas should have suitable ashtrays and no smoking signs should be hanged in the areas where smoking is forbidden. Smoking permissions must follow government rules and regulations. 9.1.6.6 Chairs In the areas that are occupied with more than 200 individuals with the exception of restaurants and similar areas the chairs should be fixed with each other into groups, the number of chairs per group is between 3 and 7, in addition the chairs in the balconies should be fixed too. Table 9.1.1 Types of allowed establishments in the assembly occupancies Type of Super Structure Floor
Underground

Ground

Upper floors 1 2 3 or more Allowed

First (443) First (332) Second (222) Second (111)

One floor only is allowed One floor only is allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Second (000)

Not allowed

Allowed

Third (211) Fourth (2WW) Fifth (111) Third (200)

Not allowed

Allowed

Allowed, area no more than 1600M2 Allowed

Allowed, area no more than 1600M2 Not allowed

Not allowed

Not allowed

Not allowed

Not allowed

Not allowed

Allowed, area no more than 800M2 Allowed, area no more than 400M2

Not allowed

Not allowed

Not allowed

Fifth (000)

Not allowed

Not allowed

Not allowed

Not allowed

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1. The mezzanine is not considered an independent floor unless it covers an area of more than 50% of the floors area. 2. It is allowed for the super structure of the roofs of a closed sport halls (Group A-3) that are constructed of type 1 and 2 (including the normal roof holder and the net roof holders and the frames and the ceiling floor) to be of type 4 or from any fireproof materials that dont have any fire resistance. 3. 344 and others: is a shortcut for the resistance of the construction element in hours and they were specified in the table above. 4. 2WW means wood.

Table 9.1.2 Alarm and firefighting equipments for assembly occupancies Type of equipment Group Areas concerned

1-Manual extinguishing equipments Manual extinguisher 2-Fixed equipments Rubber hoses A-1, A-2, A-3 All floors high stagestage with an area of more than 93m2 According to 8.3.1 According to 8.4.1 For big complexes All groups All floors

Dry riser Wet riser External fire hydrants 3-Fire alarm equipments Manual and automatic alarm system

A-1, A-2, A-3 A-1, A-2, A-3

All floors

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Table 9.1.3, Utility services for fire protection in educational buildings Type of utilities Ventilation system Lighted guiding signs Emergency lighting Precaution power source Fire elevator Fire resistant doors Area concerned Basement-stage according to 9.1.4.2.4 Means of egress and basement and assembly halls Means of egress and basement and assembly halls High buildings High buildings According to this chapter and chapter 5 and 6

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Figure 9.1.1 Protection barriers

Figure 9.1.2, Protection barriers in horizontal paths

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Figure 9.1.3 Arrangement of shelves inside the showrooms (vertical)

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9.2 Group D Educational occupancies

9.2.1 General

9.2.1.1 Definition of the educational occupancy (look page 16 and 17) The educational occupancies includes the buildings used for the means of educating and baby nursing.until the end of the secondary school and the buildings should have no less than 6 students for a time of no less than 4 hours a day and 12 hours a week, like schools, baby gardens, babies shelters and baby nursing center (more than 5 babies, age over two and a half years). 9.2.1.2 Other establishments A. B. When there exist other occupancies inside the educational occupancies then the chapter describing them should be referenced. The other educational establishments that the definition mentioned in 9.2.1.1 does not apply to should be classified on the following manner: Educational buildings in universities and institute: group E. The educational classes with an occupancy load of less than 50 people: group E. The educational classes with an occupancy load of 50 people or more: group A2. Educational laboratories: group E. Laboratories that are not used for education: group G.

9.2.1.3 Mixed occupancies When there exist other occupations with the educational occupancies the rules mentioned in 4.5 are applied in addition to these rules. 9.2.1.4 Assembly occupancy When there exist assembly occupancy with the educational occupancy like auditoriums, big lecture halls and sport halls then these occupancies should submit to the codes in 9.1. 9.2.1.5 Arrival of civil defence vehicles and equipments The access for the civil defence vehicles should be supplied according to the rules mentioned in chapter 3 in addition to these rules. There should exist special parking for civil defence vehicles and equipments according to chapter 3. 9.2.1.6 The level of contents hazard Referring clause 4.1 can specify the level of contents hazard in educational occupancies.

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9.2.1.7 Establishment requirements A. B. C. In addition to the codes mentioned here the codes in chapter 6 should be applied. Referring to table 9.2.1 can specify the types of allowed establishments in educational buildings. The opening for the passage of pipes and conductors and the conditioning tunnels and others should be protected within a fire resistant barrier.

9.2.2 Means of egress 9.2.2.1 General A. B. C. In addition to these codes the general codes for the means of egress mentioned in chapter 5 should be applied. All the educational classes allocated for the students of primary level 1or less should be on the ground floor. All the educational classes allocated for the students of primary level should never be over the first floor.

9.2.2.2 Occupancy load A. B. C. The occupancy load is specified according to the following load factors: Educational classes: 2 m2 /Person Workshops and labs and other workshops: 4.5 m2 /Person When there exist a fixed chair then the occupancy load is calculated according to the actual number of chairs. The occupancy load in assembly places that has more than 50 individuals like lectures halls and sports halls and cafeterias is calculated according to 9.1.2.1.

9.2.2.3 Means of egress components The following components can be used in the means of egress: stairs and ramps, doors, horizontal exits, pass ways, balconies, temporary refuge areas and this is according to the codes of chapter 5 in addition to these rules. 9.2.2.4 The number of exits The number of exit should be no less than the codes mentioned in 5.4. 9.2.2.5 Arrangement of the means of egress 9.2.2.5.1 General A. B. The arrangement of the means of egress should be according to the codes mentioned in 5.5. The maximum limits for travel distance and dead end and compulsory movement paths should be according to table 5.2.

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C.

Two exit doors should be provided for each room or place that has more than 50 occupants or have an area of more than 93m2 and they should be as far apart from each other as possible and they should lead into two independent exit in opposite directions. The door that opens to the passages should be arranged in a way that will not prevent movement in passages and the doors should open with a 180 degrees or any other acceptable method.

D.

9.2.2.5.2 Internal passages The passages should be separated from the rest of the building by walls that has at least 1 hour fire resistance, with the exception of the following cases: 1. 2. When each place occupied by students have at least one door that leads directly to an exit or to a protected external balcony that leads to the exits. The buildings fully protected by water sprinklers.

9.2.2.5.3 Passages inside the classes A. When the number of chairs is more than 60 then the width of the passage that serves the chairs from one side should be no less than 90cm and the passage that serves the chairs from two sides should have a width of at least 110cm, but if the number of chairs is 60 or less then the passage width should be no less than 75cm. The number of chairs that separates between any chair and the passage should be no more than 6.

B.

9.2.2.6 Travel distance The travel distance should be no more than the values mentioned in table 5.2. 9.2.2.7 Exit discharge A. B. The exit discharge should be according to the codes mentioned in 5.9 in addition to these codes. At least one independent exit per class should be available in the underground floor and this exit should lead directly outside the building without passing through the ground floor.

9.2.2.8 Ventilation and rescue windows A. One external window at least should be provided for ventilation and rescue for each class or educational room if its area is more than 23m2, with the exception of the buildings fully protected by water sprinklers and the rooms and classes that has a direct door leading to the outside of the building. There should exist a ventilation and rescue window that is open able from inside without the use of any tools or equipments and a net openings that has a width and height of at least 60cm and its area should be at least 1,0 m2 in a way that a solid object that has the same dimensions can pass through it. The sill should be no higher than 10cm relative to the floor of the room. The ability for civil defence personal to reach all the windows that faces areas that are connected to the open should be provided.(see also 5.2.3.3.1/2)

B.

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9.2.2.9 Means of egress capacity A. B. In addition to these codes the means of egress capacity can be specified according to the codes mentioned in 5.3.4. The net width of the passages that leads to the exits should be no less than 180cm.

9.2.3 Protection 9.2.3.1 Vertical openings protection The vertical openings should be protected according to the codes mentioned in 6.3.10 and it is allowed to use all the allowed exceptions mentioned in 6.3.10. 9.2.3.2 External fire spreading protection The protection from external fire spreading is according to the codes mentioned in 6.3.5. 9.2.3.3 Classifying into fire compartments A. B. The educational buildings should be classified into fire compartments according to the codes mentioned in 6.3 in addition to the codes of this chapter. The educational buildings should be classified into secondary fire compartments by smoke barriers that have a fire resistance of no less than 1 hour in the following cases: When the area of the fire compartment is more than 2800m2. When the width or length of the building in more than 90meters.

With the exception of the following: When each area that has students has at least one door that leads directly outside or to and external balcony that leads to the exits. C. Buildings that have one floor that are fully protected by water sprinklers. Building that have ground floor level only The area of on smoke compartment should not be no more than 2800m2 and it width and length should be no more than 90 meters with the exception of the buildings fully protected by water sprinklers where these limits can be overridden but the number of smoke compartments should be no less than 2.

9.2.3.4 Protection from hazards A. B. 1. 2. All the hazardous areas should be protected according to the codes mentioned in 6.5 in addition to these codes. The following hazardous areas should be separated from the rest of the buildings parts by fire resistant barriers of at least one hour or by using water sprinklers: Boiler and oven rooms and maintenance workshops and wood workshops and clothes laundries. The rooms and the areas used for storing or using the tools and supplies that are flammable in amounts that are considered hazardous and this is estimated by civil defence. The rooms and areas used for storing hazardous materials or flammable liquids or fast flaming liquids in amount that are assumed to be hazardous according to international standards. Page 134 of 239

3.

E. The rooms and areas used for treating or using hazardous materials and fast flaming or flammable liquids in amounts that can be considered hazardous according to the accepted standards, should be protected by separation from the rest of the buildings parts by barriers that has a fire resistance of at least 1 hour in addition to protecting it using water sprinklers. 9.2.3.5 Kitchen equipments The commercial kitchens should be protected if they exist according to clause 7.10, it is allowed to leave the openings between the food preparing area and the food courts to be unprotected. 9.2.3.6 Stage The stage needs to be protected if it exists according to codes mentioned in 9.1. 9.2.3.7 Interior finish A. The codes mentioned in 6.6. Should be applied in addition to these codes.

B. The interior finish for walls and ceilings should be from type A for exits and from type A and B for other places. C. The interior finish for the floors of the exits and passages should be from type 1 and 2. 9.2.4 Fire protection equipments and tools 9.2.4.1 Water sprinklers protection requirements Water sprinklers should protect all the underground floors. 9.2.4.2 Alarm equipments and other tools for fighting fire A. The alarm and fire fighting should be according to table 9.2.2

B. A general alarm tool should be installed in the form of a whistle or bell that can be heard in all the school and with a distinct sound or by voice messages from the administration. 9.2.4.3 Utility services A. B. The protective precautions in the area of utility services according to chapter 7. The utility services for fire protection should be available according to table 9.2.3.

9.2.5 Operation and monitoring 9.2.5.1 Evacuation training A. Virtual evacuation trainings should be done periodically, at one time per 4 month through the study year, no extinguishing operations should be done through the virtual evacuation trainings, the class teacher should be responsible for his students for organizing the evacuation without any panic or pushing or running and the most aware and most able students should be allocated to help the others.

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B. An assembly place should be agreed upon beforehand so all students can be counted then a search for missing students can be initiated if needed.The assembly point should be away from the dangers of fire and should not affect the work of civil defence personals. 9.2.5.2 Daily inspection The principal and teachers should do daily inspection on all exits to make sure that all the stairs and doors and other exits area in a suitable condition and they should remove any obstacles if it exists. 9.2.5.3 Furniture and dcor A. The curtains and similar objects should submit to the codes mentioned in 6.7.1 B. It is not allowed to store clothes or similar material in the passages unless the passages are completely protected with water sprinklers and storing is done inside metal closets. C. It is allowed to hang educational materials directly on the wall but its area should be no more than 20% of the wall area. Table 9.2.1 Types of allowed establishments in educational buildings
Type of superstructure

Floor Undergrou nd Ground Upper floors 1 2 Allowed 3 or more Allowed

First (443) First (332) Second (222) Second (111)

One floor only is allowed One floor only is allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Second (000)

Not allowed

Allowed, area no more than 1400m2 Allowed, area no more than 1400m2 Allowed, area no more than 1000m2 Allowed, area no more than 500m2

Third (211) Fourth (2WW) Fifth (111) Third (200)

Not allowed

Not allowed

Allowed, area no more than 2100m2 Allowed, area no more than 1400m2 Allowed, area no more than 1400m2 Not allowed

Allowed, area no more than 2100m2 Not allowed

Not allowed

Not allowed

Not allowed

Not allowed

Not allowed

Not allowed

Fifth (000)

Not allowed

Not allowed

Not allowed

Not allowed

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Table 9.2.2 Alarm and firefighting equipments for educational buildings Type of equipment 1-manual extinguishing equipments Manual extinguisher 2-fixed equipments Rubber hoses network All floors if the total area is more than 200 m2 According to 8.3.1 According to 8.4.1 For big complexes All floors Areas concerned

Dry riser network Wet riser network External fire hydrants 3-fire alarm equipments Manual alarm system

In multipurpose halls and administration passages and in closed passages between all the study stages In workshops and labs and stores and libraries and in multi purpose halls and also in hazardous areas and condition tunnels and the basement and the closed passages between the study stages

Automatic alarm system

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Table 9.2.3, Utility services for fire protection in educational buildings

Type of utility Ventilation system

Areas Concerned According to the accepted standards of civil defence Means of egress and assembly halls Means of egress, underground floors, areas with no windows, workshops, labs, lecture halls (with the exception of study classes) High buildings High buildings According to this chapter and chapter 5 and 6

Lighted guiding signs Emergency lighting

Precaution power source Fire elevator Fire resistant doors

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9.3 Group (C1) Judicial and care occupation

9.3.1 General 9.3.1.1 Definition Judicial occupancies are the buildings that contains different levels of security control and it is occupied by individuals that can't protect their well being, like jails, police stations jails, reformatories with detention cells, mental disruption hospitals with detention cells, quarantine places. 9.3.1.2 Implementation This chapter is about the residence places and sleeping places in judicial occupancy, as for the other occupancies inside these establishments like sports halls and workshops and stores and other they are treated according to its own occupancy type while noting the codes mentioned here when the doors of these establishments is locked. 9.3.1.3 Mixed occupancies When there exist other occupancies with the judicial occupancies then the specific codes for each one should be referred individually, no matter if it is a sport hall or reading hall or a store or a workshop or police office or others, but it should submit to the following codes: 1. Enough means of egress should be available in other occupancies areas and if the security needs the doors to be locked then there should be enough employees at all times that these places are occupied and this is for opening the doors to start the evacuation process during emergencies. The locked doors can be operated either by a system that works remotely in a way that it opens the escape doors automatically or by providing enough security personel that holds the keys and are situated directly at the area that has locked doors. The mentioned areas can be classified as other occupancies according to the following codes: They should not be used for residence or sleeping They should be separated from the judicial occupancies according to table 4.1. If the judicial occupancies are within a building that has other occupancies then the judicial occupancies should be separated completely by elements that have 2 hours of fire resistance as a minimum. When the means of egress of the judicial occupancies passes through other occupancies then these occupancies should submit to the same codes of the judicial occupancies. High hazardous areas are not allowed to exist in the buildings which contains judicial occupancies, for example it is not allowed to put a fast flaming or flammable stores or wood stores inside these buildings and they should be put in another independent building.

2. 3.

4.

5.

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9.3.1.4 Total protection A. The total protection in the detention center should provide the means of in-place protection. To make this strategy work the availability of some special requirements could help in minimizing the need for evacuating the establishment of its residents and this is done by limiting the spreading and growing of the fire and limiting it to its origin. The residents in the establishments are protected by making the suitable arrangements and providing training to the administration staff by improving and making new maintenance, safety and operational standards which are composed of the following: The architectural design for the building: construction, separation into fire compartments. Fire detection and alarm in addition to firefighting, Protection of fire and planning and training and performing virtual exercises for containing fire in its place and limiting its spreading and then moving the prisoners into temporary refuge areas or evacuating the whole building or protecting the prisoners in there places. Security precautions in the needed level to provide the safety of all the people in the establishment

B.

1. 2. 3.

4.

9.3.1.5 Arrival of civil defence equipments and vehicles A. Providing a street or a path around the judicial buildings in way that the vehicles and equipments can access the sites according to codes of chapter 3. (see sketch6) Allocation of parking for the vehicles and equipments of civil defence according to the codes of chapter 3.

B.

9.3.1.6 Level of contents hazard The level of contents hazards is classified according to the codes mentioned in 4.1. 9.3.1.7 Classification of judicial establishments according to the codes of usage The residence areas in the judicial establishments are classified into five types according to the codes of usage according to the freedom of movement for the residents. The five types are as follows, like in figure 9.3.1 1. Codes of usage number 1 (freedom of getting out) The residents can get out of their sleeping rooms and other places freely and without any locked doors. This situation is treated in the same way as hotel and motels, group D1. 2. Codes of usage number 2 (allowed to move thorough compartments) The residents can move freely in sleeping places and other inhabited smoke compartments to another smoke compartment or to many other nearby smoke compartments and for moving outside the building through the final exit situated on the outer wall then it is constrained by closed doors which can be opened manually by keys when needed. Like in figure 9.3.1, the residents have the freedom to move inside the building and through smoke barriers to another smoke compartments, as for the movement outside the building then it is constrained by closed doors on the outer walls that can be opened manually using normal keys. Page 140 of 239

3.Code of usage number 3 (going out is allowed inside the compartment only) The residents has the freedom to move from and to their rooms but they cant get out of the smoke compartment surrounding there rooms. The movement to another smoke compartment is restricted by locked doors situated on the smoke barrier, these doors must have an electronic or mechanical way of opening remotely, the movement outside the building through the final exit situated on the outer wall is restricted by locked doors that can be opened manually using manual keys. 4. Code of usage number 4 (going out is restrained) The residents are held in there sleeping rooms and these rooms have locked doors. The locks in these doors have an electronic mechanism that is remote controlled. The movement toward a nearby smoke compartment is restricted by closed doors that have also an electronic or mechanical mechanism for remote control. The movement to outside the buildings is through the final exit that is situated on the outer wall and it is restricted by locked doors that are opened manually using keys. 5.Codes of usage number 5 (total containment) There is no type of movement freedom where all the locked doors do not open in anyway other than normally keys and each door is opened independently. The people supervising the place hold special keys for all the rooms and smoke compartments, all the doors can be opened manually in case of emergencies. 9.3.1.8 Smoke compartments alternative It is obvious in the codes of usage 2 to 5 that the smoke compartment are used for evacuating the residents from the compartments that they exist in into the nearby compartment, with the existence of a suitable mechanism for opening the doors situated at the smoke barriers. It is possible to give up a smoke compartment then we can give up a smoke compartment if another equal alternative to be used for evacuation the residents like: Another building that is separated from the place using fire resistant barriers or by a suitable safe distance. Open yard outside the building but it should be situated at a suitable and safe distance. 9.3.1.9 Administration and security actions The needed security and administration actions should be taken to evacuate the residents into a safe place (like another smoke compartment, open yard, another building) in emergencies in the fastest possible way. 9.3.1.10 Establishment requirements A.The rules of chapter 6 should be applied in addition to these rules. B.The types of allowed establishments in the judicial buildings are specified in table 9.3.1 C.All the walls and the internal partitions should be made of fire proof materials. D.The openings for the passage of pipes and conductors and condition tunnels and others through fire resistant barriers should be according to the codes of chapter 6.

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Table 9.3.1 The types of allowed establishments in the judicial buildings Type of Super Structure First (443) First (332) Second (222) Second (111) Second (000) Rest of the types Floors Underground Allowed Ground Allowed First Allowed Second Allowed

Not Allowed Not Allowed

Allowed Not Allowed

Allowed Not Allowed

Not Allowed Not Allowed

Not Allowed

9.3.2 Means of egress 9.3.2.1 General The general codes for the means of egress that are mentioned in chapter 5 should be applied in addition to these codes. 9.3.2.2 Occupancy load The occupancy load in any floor is calculated according to the maximum number of individuals that are expected to be in that floor. But it should not be less than one person for every 11 1 square meters of the total area of the floor. 9.3.2.3 Means of egress components The following components can be used in the means of egress: stairs and ramps, doors, horizontal exits, pass ways, balconies, temporary refuge areas and this is according to the codes of chapter 5 in addition to these rules. 9.3.2.3.1 Doors A. The doors can be locked in a way that is suitable for the implemented codes of usage, but the door width in any sleeping room should be no less than 70cm for normal people and no less than 80cm 1 meter for handicapped people. B. It is required to keep the keys of the doors that leads from the temporary refuge area to the outside of the building safe and well, the keys should be available all the time and there should exist a way to open the locked doors from outside of the building. C. The security personeas should be trained on the use of the keys and where are they are situated and it is necessary to give them the needed and clear clearance to directly open the doors that leads from smoke compartments to outside of the building when it is required due to emergency. D. In the cases where a remote controlled opening mechanism is needed then there should be an assured and available mean for opening the door, which should be away from the residence of the residents. Like a watch point that has a mechanism for directly opening the doors either mechanically or electronically. E. The watch point should have a full surveillance system to monitor all the residents in sound and picture; this can be done using cameras and audio system.

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F. G.

All the remotely electronic doors and all the electronic locks should be equipped with additional means of operation in way that they have the following: A manual mechanical mean of opening the door to be used if the electricity is out and it should be installed near the door. Either a secondary power source for operating the door or a manual mechanical way that can be operated remotely. The mechanical sliding and the locks that works mechanically should have a manual mechanical ways that can be used for opening the doors and they should be installed near the doors. All the electronic sliding doors and the electronic lock should have a secondary power source, it is required that the secondary power source works automatically within 10 seconds after the main electricity source is off and it should be enough for at least one hour and a half.

H.

9.3.2.3.2 Horizontal exits and temporary refuge area A. B. The horizontal exit should be according to the codes mentioned in 5.2.4 in addition to these codes. Temporary refuge areas should be available on both sides of the horizontal exits and the area should never be less than 0.56m2/person, in a way that is enough for all the occupants for the nearby compartments. It is allowed for the horizontal exits to form 100% of the total needed exits, but an additional exit that connect to outside of the building without passing through the fire place, like in figure 9.3.2.

C.

9.3.2.4 Number of exits A. There should be no less than two independent exits for each floor but it should be easy to reach the exits from any part of the floor or from any fire or smoke compartment. One of the exits at least should be arranged in each fire or smoke compartment in a way that it is not needed to go back to the fire area to finish the escape process, figure 9.3.2.

B.

9.3.2.5 Arranging the means of egress A. Each sleeping room should have at least one door that leads directly to a main passage which is connected to the exits and this can be overridden in the following cases: If the room is in the ground floor and its door open directly to the outside. If the room door leads directly to an activity hall or similar room, but this room should have a door that lead directly to the main passage. The length of the dead ends and the compulsory movement paths should be no more than the accepted limits according to table 3.5.

B.

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9.3.2.6 Travel distance A. The travel distance between any room and the closest exit should be no more than 30 meters, if the building is completely protected with water sprinklers or by a smoke control system then this length can be increased into 45 meters.(see also sketch 1) The travel distance from any point in the room and the closest exit should be no more than 45 meters, if the building is completely protected with water sprinklers or by a smoke control system then this length can be increased into 60 meters. The travel distance from any point in the room and the door of the room should be no more than 15 meters, but this length can be increased to no more than 30 meters in quarters but the walls of the quarters should be smoke proof and every quarter should have two escape doors that are far apart from each other, like in figure 9.3.3

B.

C.

9.3.2.7 Exit discharge A. It allowed for all the exits to lead to an open yard that is surrounded by fences or walls. But the number of common walls between the building that is evacuated and the yard should be no more than 2 walls. The yards should be designed to contain all the building occupants over a length that is no less than 15 meters from the building and an area of 1.4m2 should be allocated for every person, like in figure 9.3.4 and 9.3.5

B.

9.3.2.8 Means of egress capacity A. B. The capacity of the means of egress is specified according to the codes mention in 5.3.4 in addition to these codes. The net width for the passages used for escape in the means of egress should be no less than 120cm.

9.3.3 Protection 9.3.3.1 Protection of vertical spaces A. All the vertical spaces like the stairs compartment and the ramps and the well of the elevator and the spaces for lighting or ventilation or the tunnels or any other vertical spaces between the floors, should be protected with surrounding barriers that have the following fire resistance: One hour for all the buildings with an super structure that has a one-hour fire resistance and this applies too to the vertical spaces that connects between 3 or more floors. Two hours for the spaces which connects between 4 or more floors The following are exceptions of the rule: The vertical spaces that connects between two nearby floors according to clause 6.3.10.4. The middle space that connects between more than 3 floors according to clause 6.3.10.7

1.

2. B. 1. 2.

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9.3.3.2 Protection from external fire spreading The protection from external fire spread potential is done according to the codes mentioned in 6.3.5. 9.3.3.3 Separation into fire compartments The building should be separated into fire compartments according to the codes mentioned in 6.3 in addition to these codes. 9.3.3.4 Danger protection A. B. The hazardous areas should be protected according to the codes mentioned in 6.5 in addition to these codes. The special hazard areas should be protected according to table 9.3.2, noting that this table applies only to the rooms situated inside residence and residents sleeping areas and the rooms directly connected to it.

Table 9.3.2 The resistance of special hazard places in judicial establishments (in hour). Area or place description Other buildings which are connected to the sleeping places of residents Fuel boilers Commercial kitchens Food courts Employees clothes rooms Workshops/maintenance workshops Laundries with an area of no more than 9m2 Cells filled with flammable materials White goods Stores (blankets and sheets) Flammable materials stores
Area of 4.5-9 m2

Surrounding/protection 2 hour resistance 2 hour resistance 2 hour resistance 1 hour resistance 1 hour resistance 1 hour resistance 2 hour resistance 1 hour resistance 2 hour resistance

1 hour resistance More than 9m2 Trash rooms 2 hour resistance 2 hour resistance Page 145 of 239

9.3.3.5 Interior finish A. B. In addition to these codes the codes mentioned in 6.6 should be applied. The interior finish for the walls and ceilings of passages and the exits of type A and the interior finish of the walls and ceilings of other areas of type A, B, C and the interior finish of the floors of the passages and exits of type 1.

9.3.3.6 Separation into smoke compartments A. Each floor that has more than 50 occupants and each floor that is used for residents sleeping should be separated by smoke barriers forming at least 2 smoke compartments which can be used as temporary refuge area according to the codes mentioned in 9.3.2.3.2. When smoke barriers are requested then it should be arranged as in the following: The occupant of any smoke compartment should be no more than 200 individuals. The travel distance for reaching to a smoke barrier door should be not exceed the following: 30 meters measured from the door any place in the room (45 meters when water sprinklers are used for protection) 45 meters measured from any point in the room (60 meters when water sprinklers are used for protection). There is no need for separation using smoke compartments when there exists a direct exit that leads to the open or into another building separated using fire barriers that has a 2 hours fire resistance (and it should be at least 15 meters away), or into an open yard that is at least 15 meters away and has enough capacity for all the residents of the building, but the arrangement of the exit doors should be according to the codes of this chapter, like in figure 9.3.6. The smoke barriers should be made of sturdy materials and its super structure should be fire resistant according to the codes mentioned in 6.4.1. It is not allowed to use fast flaming materials like plastic boards and other in making the smoke barriers. The openings in smoke barriers can be covered with enforced fire resistance glass. The doors of in the smoke barriers should be of the type, which doesnt allow the passage of smoke and it, should be closed automatically or mechanically.

B. 1. 2. C.

D.

9.3.4 Fire alarm and protection equipments and tools 9.3.4.1 Detection and alarm and communications systems 9.3.4.1.1 General A. B. C. The judicial establishments should have an automatic alarm system for early alarming and detection of fire. The alarm should trigger when any of the manual calling points is used and also by the detectors installed in the building. When there are security personals for continuously monitoring the sleeping places of residents then the manual points of calling inside these rooms is not needed, but calling points should be outside near the security personals. Page 146 of 239

9.3.4.1.2 Residents alarm A. B. The residents should be alarmed automatically in the case of fire or any other emergencies. The alarm system should be connected to civil defence when such a possibility exists, but the alarm signal should be transmitted only when the general alarm is activated. To minimize unneeded alarm possibility positive alarm chain can be used instead of automatic alarm bells, where a time delay is accepted to make sure that the alarm is correct, in a way that if the smoke detector catch some smoke then it sends a direct alarm signal to the guarding point which have a highly trained guards which are available 24 hours so these guard can inspect the signal source. The positive alarm chain contains all the following: The signal needs to be received by the guards in a time span of 15 seconds if this doest happen then the general alarm goes out. The trained personal are given a time margin of 180 seconds, called the inspection time so they can inspect the circumstances of the fire and reset the system to its normal status, if this is not during this time period then the general alarm goes out. When any other detector goes out during the inspection time like a manual calling points (which proves the real alarm) then the general alarm must go out immediately. When any other detector goes out during the inspection time like from manual calling points then the general alarm must go out immediately. The system should have an override for the positive alarm chain Exception to the codes mentioned in clause C, it is allowed to arrange the smoke detectors in a way that the system sends a signal to the permanent guard point without the need for trigering the general alarm, when the guards have direct control over the general alarm and also has the ability of informing civil defence, or they have the ability of directly calling the control room or any other site that is specialized for letting out the general alarm and informing the civil defence.

C.

1. 2.

3.

4. 5. D.

9.3.4.1.3 Fire detection equipments Smoke detectors should be installed in all the sleeping quarters and the areas connected to it like the activity rooms and the passages and others, it is allowed to arrange the smoke detectors in a way that it cant be tampered with, but it should maintain its functionality and role in smoke detection by putting it inside smoke vacuuming tunnels for example and other similar places, this depends on the acceptance of civil defence. 9.3.4.2 Protection with water sprinklers The judicial buildings need that has using conditions of 2-5 should be protected by water sprinklers with the exception of two floor buildings and buildings with area of no more than 2000m2 for each floor.

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9.3.4.3 Manual extinguishers A. B. Manual extinguishers should be put in strategic locations that are approved by civil defence. When extinguishers are to be put inside cabinets of sleeping quarters then it is allowed to put them inside locked cabinets, but they should be opened directly by the guards. It is allowed to put the extinguishers at the guard points instead of putting them inside the quarters.

C.

9.3.4.4 Rubber hoses Hoses cabinets should be available for all judicial buildings, an exception to this rule applies when there is a water sprinklers system. 9.3.4.5 Wet risers network If the floors are more than 2 then a wet risers network should be installed for all floors. 9.3.4.6 Utility services A. B. The Utility precautions should be taken according to chapter 7 The Utility fire precautions should be taken according to table 9.3.3

Table 9.3.3, Utility services for fire protection in judicial buildings Type of equipment Ventilation system Areas concerned According to the standards accepted by civil defence Basement and means of egress Basement and means of egress and quarters and halls High buildings High buildings According to this chapter and chapter 5 and 6

Lighted guiding signs Emergency lighting network

Secondary electricity source Fire elevator Fire resistant doors

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9.3.5 Operation and monitoring A. B. Enough number of guards and employees should be available 24 hours. Guards should be situated on a horizontal length of no more than 90 meters from the entrance of the residence and sleeping places of the residents, if the building is multi floor then there should be guard every 3 floors at most. In addition when using the conditions of use 3,4 and 5 then the needed arrangements should be done in a way that the guards can open the doors needed for evacuation and rescue during emergencies in a time span of no more than 2 minutes, in addition to other arrangements needed in emergencies, when the ability for opening the doors automatically and remotely then there is no need for the presence of the guards at the distances mentioned before. The needed arrangements should be done so the residents of the building that submit to the conditions of usage 3,4,5 have the ability to inform the guards of any emergencies. This can be done through using electronic monitoring system with picture or sound or by both of them or by other ways.

C.

9.3.5.2 Emergency plan and virtual exercises A. An emergency plan should be written in Arabic and English to guarantee the protection of all residents from fire dangers and to evacuate them to the temporary refuge area or evacuating them outside of the building when needed. The plan has to be distributed to all of the supervising and security staff with the necessity to give the clear instruction for all the employees like security guards and other, it is also required to make virtual trainings that are needed to clarify the responsibilities for each one according to the plan. B. The plan needs to be arranged in coordination with civil defence but it should submit to periodical revising and when it is needed changing, this should be done too with the coordination of civil defence. The plan should include clear and specified actions: Detection and containment of fire. The usage of alarm systems. Response to alarms. Fire fighting.Location of equipment for fire fighting Evacuating the resident that are situated directly in dangerous places. Informing civil defence Evacuation within the compartment. Total evacuation outside the building.-Escape routes The plan should provide clearly and in a way that doesnt leave room for doubt what are the responsibilities of each person, while taking into considerations the needed actions for night shifts and weekends in coordination with civil defence. Virtual periodical trainings should be done for each group alone and the trainings should cover the positions and the uses of the alarm system and the manual extinguishers and other extinguishing and fire protection tools. Page 149 of 239

C. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. D.

E.

f. g.

Training for new employees should be provided, all the employee should have training/retraining on annual bases in accordance with civil defence. Special records are made to keep the emergency plans and the documents for virtual trainings and the trainings given to the employees.

9.3.5.3 Books and clothes All books and clothes and other flammable personal properties should be kept inside closed metal closets or inside fire resistant bins. 9.3.5.4 Heat producing equipments It is not allowed to use heat-producing devices like electronic heater and stoves and iron and others in the bedrooms unless it is accepted and monitored by the administration. 9.3.5.5 Furniture and dcor A. B. C. D. All the curtains and blankets and other hanging fabrics should be according to the codes mentioned in 6.7.1. The furniture should be according to the codes mentioned in 6.7.2 and the beds should be according to the codes mentioned in 6.7.2 and 6.7.3. It is not allowed to use flammable dcor unless it is of the type that has been treated with materials to minimize flame spreading. The bins and trash cans should be made of fire proof materials and it should have a fire proof cover for each bin that has a capacity of more than 76 liters.

9.3.5.6 Keys The suitable arrangements should be done to identify the keys and the doors they open either by touching or by looking.

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9.4 Group C-2 Care Occupancy 9.4.1 General 9.4.1.1 Definition Care occupancies are the buildings where people who needs caring because of their health and mental status (With full freedom) are kept, like care buildings, babies nursing areas and kindergartens (more than 5 babies, age less than two years and a half), retirement houses, hospitals, health units (with sleeping places), rehabilitation and treatment hospitals, reformatories without detention cells, mental hospitals without detention cells. 9.4.1.2 Mixed occupancies A. When there exists other occupancies within the care occupancy then it can be treated in the same way as the occupancy it is within but it should provide all the following: It should not be used for treatment or residence of the patients who cant keep their well beings. It should be separated from the care occupancies according to table 4.1. Clinics and medical centers and other similar occupancies can be classified as in group E but they should not contain sleeping places for there occupants and the number of patients that needs to be transported over a stretcher should not be more than 3 at the same time and they should be separated from other care occupancies with barriers that have a fire resistance of at least 2 hours. When the care occupancies exists within buildings that contains other main occupancies then they should be separated by fire resistant barriers that have a resistance of no less than 2 hours. When the means of egress of the care occupancy passes through other occupancies then these means should submit to the codes of care occupancy. When the health situation of the occupants require the doors of the means of egress to be shut, then there should be an employee that is available 24 hours a day for monitoring and evacuation when it is needed. There should exist means of egress for the lecture halls, prayer places and residential places and other additional occupancies according to the special codes for these occupancies. It is not allowed for high hazardous occupancies that have no connection with the care occupancy to exist within care occupancy buildings.

A.

B.

C. D.

E.

F.

9.4.1.3 Arrival of the vehicles and equipments of civil defence A. In addition to the codes of chapter 3, there should exist a way or street around the care occupancy buildings so the vehicles of civil defence can reach all the sides for the sleeping wings. Parking should be available for the vehicles and equipments of civil defence according to the codes of chapter 3. Page 151 of 239

B.

9.4.1.4 The level of contents hazard The level of contents hazard in care occupancies is classified according to clause 4.1. 9.4.1.5 Construction requirements A. B. C. D. In addition to these codes the codes of chapter 6 should be implemented. The types of constructions in care buildings are specified according to table 9.4.1. All the internal walls and the separators in the buildings of the first and second type should be flame proof or with a limited fire resistance. The openings for the passage of pipes and conditioning tunnels and other should be within fire resistant barriers according to the codes of chapter 6.

Table 9.4.1, The types of allowed constructions within occupancy buildings. Type of architectur al structure Floors concerned

Undergrou nd

Ground

First

Second

Three and more

First (443) First (332) Second (222)

Not allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Second (111)

Not allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Not allowed

Second (000)

Not allowed

Allowed

Not allowed

Not allowed

Not allowed

Rest

Not allowed

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9.4.1.6 Total protection The design and the construction and the maintenance of all the care occupancies should be done to limit fire probabilities, which needs the evacuation of the residents. Since evacuation alone cannot guarantee the safety of the residents so there is a need for fire protection by making the suitable arrangements for the buildings and establishments and providing the needed and enough staff in addition to improving the maintenance and operation measures and they should include the following: 1. The architectural and establishment design of the building: construction and building, fire compartments separation 2. Precautions for detection and alarming and extinguishing.

3. Fire precautions, design, virtual trainings for fire containment and limiting its spread and then transporting the residents into the temporary refuge areas or the total evacuation of the building. 9.4.2 Means of egress 9.4.2.1 General The general codes mentioned in chapter 5 should be implemented in addition to these codes. 9.4.2.2 Occupancy load The occupancy load for any floor should be calculated according to the maximum number of expected residents in the floor and it should not be less than: Sleeping wings: 11m2 /person. Treatment areas (without sleeping quarters): 2m2/person. 9.4.2.3 Means of egress components It is allowed to use the following components in the means of egress: stairs and ramps, doors, horizontal exist, pass ways, smoke compartments, temporary refuge areas and this is according to the codes of chapter 5 in addition to these codes. 9.4.2.3.1 Doors A.It is not allowed to use keys to lock the doors of the sleeping wings and rooms or any mean of egress with the exception of the following cases: 1.When there exists a possibility to open the locked doors from inside without the usage of keys. 2.In the cases that the security and health conditions of the residents needs the doors to be locked then employees for monitoring and evacuation should be available 24 hours. 3.In special cases estimated by civil defence and after taking all the necessary precautions for evacuating the residents in a fast and efficient way like remote controlled locks or by locking all the doors with keys that are available with all the employees at all times, or by any other trusted way and the number of locks installed on a single lock should be no more than one lock per door. 4. At least one main exit should be equipped with panic hardware.

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B.

As for the doors, exits, stairs ,horizontal exits, smoke barriers, doors of the special hazard areas in the means of egress (with the exception of boiler rooms and the heater and the mechanical equipments) are allowed to be left open but they should close automatically. When a fire happens in any floor, all the doors should close automatically on all floors.

C.

9.4.2.3.2 Horizontal exits and areas of temporary refuge The horizontal exits should be according to the codes mentioned in 5.2.4 in addition to these codes. Temporary refuge areas should be provided on both sides of the horizontal exits and this should be done in low hazard level areas like passages and patients rooms and treatment rooms. The area should be no less than 2.8m2/Person in hospitals and 1.4m2/Person in other care occupancies. Floors that dont have sleeping places or patients that cant move, then the area can be decreased to 0.56 m2/Person (like walk-in clinics). If the width of the passage on the sides of the exits is 180cm or more then the opening of the horizontal exit should be protected by a double winged door with the wings opening in opposite directions and each wing net width should be no less than 80cm, or by using a horizontally sliding door with a net width of 160cm. If the net width of the passages is 240cm or more then the net width of each side should be no less than 105cm and when using a horizontally sliding door then its net width should be no less than 210cm. The horizontal exits should have vision openings that are covered by reinforced transparent glass of the accepted type. It is allowed to decrease the needed capacity for other exits like stairs, ramps and outer doors to the half when there exists enough horizontal exit and temporary refuge areas.

9.4.2.3.3 Passages The passages should be separated from the other areas using smoke barriers to limit smoke spreading without being fire resistant and all the passages doors should be of the smoke resistant types. With the exception of the lobby and the waiting places and nursing points and gift shops (with the condition that they are not classified as dangerous). 9.4.2.3.4 External windows An external window or an external door should be available for every room that is used for the sleeping of the residents but the height of the window sill should be no more than 90cm relative to the floor level, the windows that faces the hall can be considered as enough for the external window requirment.

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9.4.2.4 The number of exits 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. C. Floor and fire compartment should have at least two independent exits, taking into considerations the codes mentioned in 5.4 At least one of the exits in each floor or fire compartment should be of the following types: A door that leads directly outside the building. Normal escape stair Smoke protected stair Ramp Final exit passage Each smoke compartment should have at least two exits. The escape can be done through the nearby smoke compartments with the condition of providing continuity of escape without the need for going back to the fire area to complete the escape action.

9.4.2.5 Arrangement of the means of egress A. 1. 2. 3. B. Each inhabited room should have at least one door that leads directly to a main passage that is connected to the exit with the exception of the following cases: Any room that is on the ground floor and has a door that opens directly to the outside. Rooms and other wings that are not used for sleeping of the patients. It is allowed for the doors of the patients sleeping wings to lead to the hall or the nurses room that leads in turn into the main passage. There should exist at least two exits that are far apart from each other for each sleeping room or sleeping wing with an area of no less than 93m2, also for every room of other use with an area of no less than 230m2. The area of any sleeping wing should be no more than 430m2 and the area of any other wing should be no more than 930m2. It is allowed for the wings that are not used for sleeping to lead to a room that leads to the main passage without going over the allowed limits for the compulsory movement passages. Each passage should lead to at least two independent exits according to the codes of chapter 5 without passing through rooms and other places with the exception of the main passages and the lobby. The exits and all the passages that leads to the exits should be arranged in a way that the length of any dead end is not more than what is allowed in table 5.2.

C. D.

E.

F.

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9.4.2.6 Travel distance The travel distance should be no more than the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. From any point of the room the door that leads to the passage for the exit and the exit: 30 meters (45 meter when sprinklers exist) From any point in the room and the closest exit: 45meter (60 meters when sprinklers exist) From any point in the sleeping rooms and the door that leads to the passage for the exit: 15meter. From any point in the sleeping wing and the door that leads to the passage for the exit: 30 meter.

9.4.2.7 Exit discharge Exit discharge should be done according to the codes mentioned in 5.9 9.4.2.8 Means of egress capacity A. B. C. The means of egress capacity is estimated according to the codes mentioned in 5.3 in addition to these codes. The net width of the passages and the ramps used as passages for the exist should be no less than the following: 240cm in hospitals 180cm for the places of other health care facilities. 110cm for other places that are not used for the sleeping and the treatment of patients. The net width of the doors that are used for the means of egress for the sleeping places and the diagnostic and treatment room and the baby care rooms should be no less than the following: 105cm for hospitals. 80cm for other places. 9.4.3 Protection 9.4.3.1 Vertical openings protection A. All the vertical spaces like the stairs compartment and the ramps and the well of the elevator and the and others should be protected with barriers that have the following fire resistance: One hour for all the buildings with an super structure that has a one-hour fire resistance and this applies too to the vertical spaces that connects between 3 or more floors. Two hours for the spaces which connects between 4 or more floors

1.

2.

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B. The following is excluded from this rule: 1. 2. The vertical spaces that connects between two nearby floors according to clause 6.3.10.4. The middle space that connects more than 3 floors according to clause 6.3.10.7

9.4.3.2 Protection from external fire spreading The protection from external fire spreading is done according to the codes mentioned in 6.3.5. 9.4.3.3 Separation into fire compartments The building should be separated into fire compartments according to the codes mentioned in 6.3 in addition to these codes. 9.4.3.4 Danger protection A. B. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The hazardous areas should be protected according to the codes mentioned in 6.5 in addition to these codes. The following areas should be protected with fire barrier that have a resistance of no less than one hour: Boilers and heaters operated by fuel or gas. Laundries that have an area of more than 9m2. Labs where hazardous materials are used. Maintenance workshops. Storing rooms for white clothes and blankets. Storing rooms for normal flammable stuff with an area of more than 9m2. Garbage collection rooms.

9.4.3.4.2 Labs The labs where fast flammable materials or flammable materials or dangerous materials that are considered a big source of danger are used should be protected according to one of the accepted standards. 9.4.3.4.3 Anesthesia rooms Anesthesia rooms should be protected according to the accepted standards. 9.4.3.4.4 Medical gas Medical gases places should be protected including the storage and distribution areas according to one of the accepted standards.

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9.4.3.4.5 Gift shops Gift shops should be protected on the base that they are hazardous areas if they are used to store or show flammable materials in amounts that are considered dangerous. 9.4.3.4.6 Commercial kitchens Commercial kitchens should be protected according to the codes mentioned in 7.10. 9.4.3.4.7 Helipads Helipads should be protected according to one of the accepted standards. 9.4.3.5 Interior finish A. B. In addition to these codes the codes mentioned in 6.6 should be applied. The interior finish for the walls and ceilings of passages of type A or B and the interior finish of the floors of the exits of type 1 or 2.

9.4.3.6 Separation into smoke compartments A. 1. 2. 3. 4. A. The buildings that contains care occupancies should be separated using smoke barriers in the following manner: Each floor that is used for treatment or sleeping of the residents should be separated into at least 2 smoke compartments. Each floor that has a load factor of more than 50 should be separated into at least 2 smoke compartments regardless to what it is used for. It is not allowed for any smoke compartment to be more than 2100m2. The travel distance from any point to the door of the smoke barrier should be no more than 60 30 meters. The smoke barriers should be established according to the codes mentioned in 6.4 and there resistance should be no less than 1 hour, as for the doors then they should have a resistance of no less than 20 minutes 1 hour and each smoke compartment is considered a temporary refuge area.

9.4.4 Fire protection equipment sand tools 9.4.1.1 Protection with sprinklers All the care occupancy buildings should be protected with water sprinklers with the exception of buildings that are composed of two or less floors and with an area of no more than 2000m2 for each floor. 9.4.4.2 Other equipment for alarm and fire extinguishing The alarm and fire extinguishing equipments should be provided according to table 9.4.2.

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9.4.4.3 Utility services A. The necessary precautions utility services according to the codes of chapter 7. B. Utility services for fire precautions should be available according to table 9.4.3.

Table 9.4.2, Alarm and fire extinguishing equipments for the care buildings.

Type of equipments 1-manual extinguishing equipments Manual extinguisher 2-fixed equipments Rubber hoses network

Areas concerned

All floors

All floors if the total area is more than 2000 m2 According to 8.3.1 According to 8.4.1 For big complexes

Dry riser network Wet riser network External fire hydrants 3-fire alarm equipments Manual and Automatic alarm system

All floors

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Table 9.4.3, Utility services for fire protection in care buildings Type of equipment Ventilation system Areas concerned According to the accepted standards of civil defence Means of egress Means of egress, underground floors, sleeping places and halls All care occupancies that contains equipments and devices for life support High buildings According to this chapter and chapter 5 and 6

Lighted guiding signs Emergency lighting

Secondary power source

Fire elevator Fire resistant doors

9.4.5 Operation and monitoring 9.4.5.1 Emergency plan and virtual trainings A. An emergency plan should be written in Arabic and English to guarantee the protection of all residents from fire dangers and to evacuate them to the temporary refuge area or evacuating them outside of the building when needed. The plan has to be distributed to all of the supervising and security staff with the necessity to give the clear instruction for all the employees like security guards and other, a copy should be provided for the phone division employee and another for the security division. All the employees should be told in a periodical manner about there responsibilities in the plan. B. Virtual evacuation trainings should be done once every 3 months for each group. C. All the employees should be trained on the fire safety precautions and they should be trained on the safety equipments too. 9.4.5.2 Necessary precaution during the fire All the employees need to be trained on fast response for any fire emergency in a way that all the people who are located in the danger area are removed to safety. Then sending the needed alarm signal to warn the other people remaining in the building, in addition to closing all the doors to isolate the fire area and to limit its spreading, then implementing the missions mentioned in the emergency plan. The plan should include clear and specified actions all in Arabic and English and when suitable - pictograms.

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The plan should include the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Detection of fire. The usage of alarm systems. Informing civil defence. Response to alarms. Fire containment. Evacuating the fire area. Preparing the building for evacuation. Fire fighting.

9.4.5.3 Exits maintenance The exits need to be maintained in a good way. When approval by civil defence is granted for locking the exits doors then the required staff must be available for evacuation of the residents. 9.4.5.4 Smoking Smoking should be regulated and the following minimum requirements needs to be implemented: 1. 2. 3. 4. Smoking is prohibited in any place that is used for using or storing fast flammable liquids and gases or oxygen in addition to other hazardous places. Smoking is prohibited for the people who cant be responsible for their well being without the help of others unless direct monitoring is provided. No smoking signs should be hanged in places where smoking is prohibited. Smoke ashtrays should be made from fire proof materials with the necessity to provide metal bins that have auto closing covers to discharge the remaining of the cigarettes and they should be distributed in every place that smoking is allowed in. All smoking permissions must be in accordance with the latest guidelines given by the government of UAE

5.

9.4.5.5 Furniture and dcor A. B. C. D. E. All the curtains, blankets and other fabrics should be according to the codes mentioned in 6.7.1. All the furniture should be according to the codes mentioned in 6.7.2 All the beds should be according to the codes mentioned in 6.7.2 and 6.7.3. It is not allowed to use flammable dcor unless it is of a type that is treated with flame retardant materials. It is not allowed for the capacity of the garbage bins and the baskets for blankets and white fabrics to be more than 121 liter and if the capacity goes over this then they should be placed in places that are classified and protected as being hazardous area.

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9.5 Group D-1 Hotel and motel occupancy 9.5.1 General 9.5.1.1 Definitions Hotel and motel occupancy They are the buildings used for temporary residence and are listed under group D-1 which is clarified in clause 4.2.4. Sleeping room It is a room in the hotel that is used for sleeping and living. It includes the sanitary and storing facilities . Sleeping wing It is a wing in the hotel that is composed from two or more rooms for sleeping and living and it contains the sanitary and storing facilities. 9.5.1.2 Mixed occupancies A. When other occupancies exist within the same residential hotel building then the codes mentioned in 4.5 are applied unless something else was mentioned in this chapter. As for the residential hotel occupancies mixed with assembly occupancies then the codes mentioned in 9.1.1.2 and if it is mixed with commercial occupancies then the codes mentioned in 9.9.1.2 are applied and if it is mixed with administrative occupancies then the codes of clause 9.8.1.2 are applied.

B.

9.5.1.3 Arrival of the vehicles and equipments of civil defence A. B. The ability for the vehicles and equipments of civil defence should be available according to the codes of chapter 3 in addition to these codes. Parking should be available for the vehicles and equipments of civil defence according to the codes of chapter 3.(see also sketch 6)

9.5.1.4 Level of contents hazard The level of contents hazard in the residence hotel occupation as being a normal hazard and this doesnt apply for the designs and special calculations for the sprinkler system if it exists. 9.5.1.5 Construction requirements A. B. C. The codes of chapter 6 should be applied in addition to these codes. The types of allowed constructions in hotels are specified by table 9.5.1. The opening for pipes and tunnels and conditioning tunnels and other through the fire resistant barriers should be according to chapter 6.

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Table 9.5.1 Possible structures for hotels and motels

Type of super structure

Floor Undergrou nd Ground Upper floors 1 2 3 or more Allowed

First (443) First (332) Second(222)

Allowed but no residence use Not allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Second(111)

Allowed

Allowed, area no more than 1400m2 Allowed, area no more than 800 m2 Allowed, area no more than 1200 m2 Not allowed

Allowed, area no more than 1400 m2 Not allowed

Not allowed

Second(000)

Not allowed

Allowed, area no more than 800 m2 Allowed, area no more than 1200 m2 Allowed, area no more than 800 m2 Allowed, area no more than 400 m2

Not allowed

Third(211) Fourth(2WW) Fifth(111)

Not allowed

Not allowed

Not allowed

Third(200)

Not allowed

Not allowed

Not allowed

Fifth(000)

Not allowed

Not allowed

Not allowed

Not allowed

443 and other are a short-term for the fire resistance of the constructional element in hours and they where cleared in the table

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9.5.2 Means of egress 9.5.2.1 General A. B. The general codes for the means of egress should be applied according to the codes of chapter 5 in addition to these codes. Enough and suitable means of egress should be available in all the sleeping wings and rooms and they should lead outside the building according to the codes of chapter 5 in addition to these codes.

9.5.2.2 Occupancy load The occupancy load should be specified on the base of 1 person for every 18.5 M2 of the total area of the place or on the base of the maximum number of expected occupants or whatever is bigger. 9.5.2.3 Means of egress components it is allowed to use doors and stairs and horizontal exits and ramps and passages and temporary refuge areas in the means of egress and this is done according to the codes of chapter 5 in addition to these codes. 9.5.2.4 Number of exits At least two independent exits should be a available for each floor and they should submit to the codes of clause 5.4 and one exit can be enough if all the following is available if the second exit is provided by the fire brigades ladders: 1. 2. 3. There is no more than 3 floors The overall occupancy load for each floor should be no more than 30 persons. The maximum travel distance is no more than 51 25 meter or 45 if sprinklered.

9.5.2.5 Arrangement of the means of egress A. B. The means of egress should be arranged according to the codes mentioned in 5.5. The maximum limits for the travel distance and the dead end and the compulsory movement paths which is mentioned in 5.2 should be considered. To measure the length of the compulsory movement path the movement path inside the residential unit is not considered. At least two exit doors should exist for every sleeping wing or room that have an area of more than 185 m2 and they should be far apart from each other.

C.

9.5.2.6 Travel distance The travel distance should be no more than the following: 1. From any point in the sleeping room or wing to the door that leads to the passage: 20 meters and this can be increased upto 30 meters if the buildings are protected by sprinklers. From the door leading to the passage and to the nearest exit: 25 meter and this can be increased to 45meters in the buildings protected with sprinklers, or when the paths for reaching the exits are an external balcony. Page 164 of 239

2.

9.5.2.7 Exits discharge Exits discharge should be done according to the codes mentioned in 5.9. 9.5.2.8 Means of egress capacity A. B. The means of egress capacity is estimated according to the codes mentioned in 5.3 in addition to these codes. The passages should have enough width to facilitate the passage of the expected occupancy load and it should be no less than 110cm.

9.5.3 Protection 9.5.3.1 Vertical openings protection A. All the vertical spaces like the stairs compartment and the ramps and the well of the elevator and the and others should be protected according to the codes mentioned in 6.3.10 and it may be accepted to use all the allowable exceptions mentioned in 6.3.10 but the building should have at least two exits. All the openings connecting between the underground floor and the ground floor should be surrounded with fire resistant barriers if the underground floors are used for storing or if they contain heating devices or boilers or car parking.

B.

9.5.3.2 Protection of external fire spreading The protection from the external fire spreading is according to the codes mentioned in 6.3.5. 9.5.3.3 Separation into fire compartments A. B. Hotels should be separated into fire compartments according to the codes mentioned in 6.3 in addition to the codes mentioned in this chapter. Walls of all paths leading to the exits should be fire resistant with a resistance of at least one hour, resistance can be decreased into half an hour if the building is totally protected with sprinklers, it is not allowed to leave any unprotected opening in the walls of these passages including the conditioning openings and the doors resistance in these passages should be no less than 20 minutes and they should close automatically.

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9.5.3.4 Protection from dangers A. B. All the dangerous areas should be protected according to the codes mentioned in 6.5 in addition to these codes. It is not allowed to place rooms that contain high-pressure boilers or other dangerous equipments. big cooling devices or big electric adapters or others of exploding equipments near the exits or directly below them and these rooms needs to be separated from the rest of the building according to the codes mentioned in 6.5. The dangerous areas should be separated from the rest of the building using fire resistant barriers or by sprinklers or by both as in table 9.5.2 and when it is allowed to protect the place using sprinklers without asking for fire resistant barriers then it is needed to use smoke barriers to place separation according to the codes mentioned in 6.4.

C.

9.5.3.5 Interior finishing The codes mentioned in 6.6 should be applied in addition to these codes. A. The interior finishing for the walls and the ceilings should be as the following: of type A for the exits, from type A and B for the passages and the lobby, of type A or B or C for other places. The interior finishing for the grounds of the exits and passages should be of type 1 or 2.

B.

9.5.3.6 Furniture and decor A. B. All the curtains and blankets and other hanging fabrics should be according to the codes mentioned in 6.71. It is not allowed to use flammable decor unless it is treated with flame retardant material.

9.5.4 Fire protection equipments and devices 9.5.4.1 Protection with water sprinklers Hotels should be protected by water sprinklers with the exception of the following: 1. 2. The buildings consisting of no more than 3 floors and the area of one fire compartment should be no more than 1000 m2. The buildings where every sleeping room or wing has a door that opens directly to the outside or to an external balcony that leads to the exits.

9.5.4.2 Alarm and extinguishing equipments Alarms and fire extinguishing equipments should be supplied according to table 9.5.3

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9.5.4.3 Utility services A. B. The necessary precautions in the field of utility services should be available according to the codes mentioned in chapter 7. The fire protection utility services should be according to table 9.5.4.

9.5.5 Operation and monitoring 9.5.5.1 Emergency plan and virtual trainings A. B. All the employees should be trained on the necessary actions to be taken during fire and panic and other emergencies. Virtual trainings should be done once every 3 months and it should cover the main points like evacuation, operation and maintenance of basic extinguishing equipments in the building, how to deal with alarm systems, studying and reviewing the instructions of emergencies.

9.5.5.2 Necessary precautions during fire When fire is detected the employees needs to do the following: Sounding the general alarm if it exists. Informing civil defence. Doing other necessary precautions.

9.5.5.3 Instructions for the safety of the residents A layout of each floor should be done and it should show the shape of the floor and the positions of the exist and the rooms and the sketch should be hanged on the entrances of the rooms and wings, all the residents should be supplied with a flyer about fire safety instructions in Arabic and English.

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Table 9.5.2, The resistance average for high hazardous places in hotel and motel occupancies for fire in hour. Area or place description Fuel boilers which serves more than sleeping room or wing Commercial kitchens Shops including gift shops Employees clothes rooms Workshops/maintenance workshops Central Laundries Laundries with an area of no more than 9.3 m2 that are outside the rooms or wings Laundries with an area of more than 9.3 m2 that are outside the rooms or wings Store rooms Trash rooms Surrounding/protection 1 hour resistance + sprinklers According to the codes mentioned in 7.10 1 hour resistance or sprinklers 1 hour resistance or sprinklers 1 hour resistance or sprinklers 1 hour resistance + sprinklers 1 hour resistance or sprinklers

1 hour resistance + sprinklers

1 hour resistance or sprinklers 1 hour resistance or sprinklers

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Table 9.5.3, Alarm and fire extinguishing equipments for the hotels and motels Type of equipment 1-manual extinguishing equipments Manual extinguisher 2-fixed equipments Rubber hoses network All floors with the exception of the two floored buildings, are of the floor less than 2000m2 According to 8.3.1 According to 8.4.1 For big complexes All floors Areas concerned

Dry riser network Wet riser network External fire hydrants 3-fire alarm equipments Manual and Automatic alarm system

All floors

Table 9.5.4, Utility services for fire protection in the hotels and motels. Type of equipment Ventilation system Lighted guiding signs Emergency lighting Secondary power source Fire elevator Fire resistant doors Areas concerned According to the accepted standards of civil defence Means of egress and the basement Means of egress and the basement High buildings High buildings According to this chapter and chapter 5 and 6

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9.6 Group D-2 Residential apartments occupancy

9.6.1 General 9.6.1.1 Residential apartments occupancies The residential apartment are all the buildings of group D-2 which that have no less than 3 independent residential units for permanent residence and each residence unit should have a kitchen and a bathroom. This group also contains the furnished apartments used for permanent residence. 9.6.1.2 Mixed occupancies A. B. When other occupancies exist within the same residential building then the codes mentioned in 4.5 are applied unless something else was mentioned in this chapter. As for the residential occupancies mixed with assembly occupancies then the codes mentioned in 9.1.1.2 and if it is mixed with commercial occupancies then the codes mentioned in 9.9.1.2 are applied and if it is mixed with administrative occupancies then the codes of clause 9.8.1.2 are applied.

9.6.1.3 Arrival of the vehicles and equipments of civil defence A. B. The access for the vehicles and equipments of civil defence should be available according to the codes of chapter 3 in addition to these codes.(see sketch 6) Parking should be available for the vehicles and equipments of civil defence according to the codes of chapter 3.

9.6.1.4 Level of contents hazard The level of contents hazard in the residence occupation as being a normal hazard 9.6.1.5 Construction requirements A. B. C. The codes of chapter 6 should be applied in addition to these codes. The types of allowed constructions in residential buildings are specified by table 9.6.1. The opening for pipes and tunnels and conditioning tunnels and other through the fire resistant barriers should be according to chapter 6.

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Table 9.6.1 The types of allowed constructions in residential buildings Type of super structure Floor Undergroun d Ground Upper floors 1 2 3 or more Allowed

First (443) First (332)


Second(222)

Allowed but no residence use Not allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Second(111)

Allowed

Allowed, area no more than 1400 m2 Allowed, area no more than 800 m2 Allowed, area no more than 1200 m2 Not allowed

Allowed, area no more than 1400 m2 Not allowed

Not allowed

Second(000)

Not allowed

Allowed, area no more than 800 m2 Allowed, area no more than 1200 m2 Allowed, area no more than 800 m2 Allowed, area no more than 400 m2

Not allowed

Third(211)
Fourth(2WW)

Not allowed

Not allowed

Not allowed

Fifth(111)

Third(200)

Not allowed

Not allowed

Not allowed

Fifth(000)

Not allowed

Not allowed

Not allowed

Not allowed

443 and other are a short-term for the fire resistance of the constructional element in hours and they where cleared in the table 2WW means wood.

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9.6.2 Means of egress 9.6.2.1 General A. B. The general codes for the means of egress should be applied according to the codes of chapter 5 in addition to these codes. Enough and suitable means of egress should be available in all the residential buildings and they should lead outside the building according to the codes of chapter 5 in addition to these codes.

9.6.2.2 Occupancy load The occupancy load should be specified on the base of 1 person for every 18.5 m2 of the total area of the place or on the base of the maximum number of expected occupants or whatever is bigger. 9.6.2.3 Means of egress components It is allowed to use doors and stairs and horizontal exits and ramps and passages and temporary refuge areas in the means of egress and this is done according to the codes of chapter 5 in addition to these codes. 9.6.2.4 The number of exits At least two independent exits should be available for each floor and they should submit to the codes of clause 5.4 and one exit can be enough in one of the following two cases: A. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Buildings which the floor of its last inhabited floor is no more than 21 meters of height relative to the side way and all the following should be provided The number of the residential units in one floor should be no more than 6. The area of one floor should be no more than 500 m2 The distance from any residential unit entrance and the door of the stairs is no more than 9 meters. The stair should face one of the external sides of the buildings and it should have natural ventilation using open-able windows. Each residential unit should have at least one window for ventilation and rescue according to the codes mentioned in 5.2.9.4, while providing the ability for the civil defence vehicles to reach them. The net width of the stairs should be no less than 110 cm.

6.

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B. Buildings which the floor of its last inhabited floor is between 21 and 28 meters of height relative to the side way and all the following should be provided 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The number of the residential units in one floor should be no more than 4. The area of one floor should be no more than 500m2. The distance between any residential unit entrance and the door of the stairs should be no more than 6 meters. The stair should face one of the external sides of the buildings and it should have natural ventilation using operable windows. Each residential unit should have at least one window for ventilation and rescue according to the codes mentioned in 5.2.9.4, while providing the ability for the civil defence vehicles to reach them. The net width of the stairs should be no less than 120 cm. The building should be totally protected by sprinklers on the bases of total coverage.

6. 7.

9.6.2.5 Arrangement of the means of egress A. B. The means of egress should be arranged according to the codes mentioned in 5.5. The maximum limits for the travel distance and the dead end and the compulsory movement paths which is mentioned in 5.2 should be considered. To measure the length of the compulsory movement path the movement path inside the residential unit is not considered.

9.6.2.6 Travel distance The travel distance should be no more than the following: 1. 2. From any point in the residential unit to the door that leads to the passage: 20 meters and this can be increased into 30 meters in the buildings protected with sprinklers. From the door leading to the passage and to the nearest exit: 25 meter and this can be increased to 45meters in the buildings protected with sprinklers, or when the paths for reaching the exits are an external balcony.

9.6.2.7 Exits discharge Exits discharge should be done according to the codes mentioned in 5.9. 9.6.2.8 Means of egress capacity A. B. The means of egress capacity is estimated according to the codes mentioned in 5.3 in addition to these codes. The passages should have enough width to facilitate the passage of the expected occupancy load and it should be no less than 110cm.

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9.6.3 Protection 9.6.3.1 Vertical openings protection A. All the vertical spaces like the stairs compartment and the ramps and the well of the elevator and the and others should be protected according to the codes mentioned in 6.3.10 and it is allowed to use all the allowed exception mentioned in 6.3.10 but the building should have at least two exits. All the openings connecting between the underground floor and the ground floor should be surrounded with fire resistant barriers if the underground floors are used for storing or if they contain heating devices or boilers or car parking.

B.

9.6.3.2 Protection of external fire spreading The protection from the external fire spreading is according to the codes mentioned in 6.3.5. 9.6.3.3 Separation into fire compartments A. B. The residential buildings of should be separated into fire compartments according to the codes mentioned in 6.3 in addition to the codes mentioned in this chapter. The walls of all the paths leading to the exits should be fire resistant with a resistance of at least one hour and the resistance can be decreased into half an hour if the building is totally protected with sprinklers, it is not allowed to leave any unprotected opening in the walls of these passages including the conditioning openings and the doors resistance in these passages should be no less than 20 minutes and they should close automatically. The residential units should be separated from each other using barriers that have a resistance of at least half an hour.

C.

9.6.3.4 Protection from dangers All the dangerous places should be protected according to the codes mentioned in 6.5 in addition to these codes. 9.6.3.5 Interior finishing A. B. The codes mentioned in 6.6 should be applied in addition to these codes. The interior finishing for the walls and the ceilings should be as the following: of type A for the exits, from type A and B for the passages and the lobby, of type A or B or C for other places. The interior finishing for the grounds of the exits and passages should be of type 1 or 2.

C.

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9.6.4 Fire protection equipments and devices 9.6.4.1 Protection with water sprinklers All the residential apartments are exempt from the use of water sprinklers with the exception of the requirements mentioned in 9.6.2.4. 9.6.4.2 Alarm and extinguishing equipments Alarms and fire extinguishing equipments should be supplied according to table 9.6.2. 9.6.4.3 Utility services A. B. The necessary precautions in the field of utility services should be available according to the codes mentioned in chapter 7. The fire protection utility services should be according to table 9.6.3.

9.6.5 Emergency instructions for the residents All the residential units should be supplied with yearly emergency instructions that shows the position of the manual alarm point, the means of egress and exits, as well as the actions that needs to be taken in case of a fire inside the unit or outside it and also when hearing the alarm bell. Table 9.6.2, Alarm and fire extinguishing equipments for residential buildings Type of equipment 1-manual extinguishing equipments Manual extinguisher 2-fixed equipments Rubber hoses network All floors with the exception of the two floored buildings, are of the floor less than 2000m2 According to 8.3.1 According to 8.4.1 For big complexes All floors Areas concerned

Dry riser network Wet riser network External fire hydrants 3-fire alarm equipments Manual and Automatic alarm system

All floors

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Table 9.6.3, Utility services for fire protection in residential buildings Type of equipment Areas concerned

Ventilation system

According to the accepted standards of civil defence

Lighted guiding signs

Means of egress and the basement

Emergency lighting

Means of egress and the basement

Secondary power source

High buildings

Fire elevator

High buildings

Fire resistant doors

According to this chapter and chapter 5 and 6

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9.7 Group D-3 Single Family buildings/two families 9.7.1 General 9.7.1.1 Implementation These codes covers the buildings that have no more than 2 residential units used for permanent residence and people from the same family occupy each unit, like the local residences and villas. 9.7.1.2 Mixed occupancies When other occupancies exist within the same residential building then the codes mentioned in 4.5 are applied. 9.7.1.3 Arrival of the vehicles and equipments of civil defence A. B. Access for the vehicles and equipments of civil defence should be available according to the codes of chapter 3 in addition to these codes. Parking should be available for the vehicles and equipments of civil defence according to the codes of chapter 3.(see sketch 6)

9.7.1.4 Level of contents hazard The level of contents hazard in the residence occupation as being a normal hazard 9.7.1.5 Construction requirements A. B. The codes of chapter 6 should be applied in addition to these codes. All the types of constructions mentioned in chapter 6 can be used in the buildings for one or two families while committing to the following: Second Type (000) and third type (200): two floors only and the area of the floor should be no more than 600m2. Fifth type (000): one floor only and its area should be no more than 400m2. Rest of the types: allowed without constraints.

9.7.2 Means of egress 9.7.2.1 General Enough and suitable means of egress should be available according to the codes of chapter 5 as well as these codes. 9.7.2.2 Types and number of the means of egress A. There should exist at least one primary mean of egress in addition to one secondary mean of egress in each sleeping room and in each living room in any residential unit that has more than two rooms, the secondary mean of egress can be ignored if the room has a door that leads directly outside or the residential unit is protected with sprinklers. It is needed to provide two main means of egress for each floor that have an area of more than 185m2, or if the travel distance to reach a main egress route is more than 23 meters. Page 177 of 239

B.

9.7.2.2.1 Primary escape route The main escape route can be a door or a stair or a ramp, but the continuity of escape should be provided from the residential unit and into the open. 9.7.2.2.2 Secondary escape route The secondary escape route can be one of the following types: 1. 2. 3. Door,stair or a passage that are independent in away from the main escape route should lead to the open. A passage through any nearby and passable and independent of the main escape route and it should lead into an accepted mean of egress. An external door or an external window that opens from inside without the need for using keys and the external windows should submit to the codes mentioned in 5.2.9.5, they are considered accepted when the provide one of the following requirements: The height of the window or the door should be no more than 6 meter relevant to the level of the side way. The ladders of civil defence can reach the window or the door. The door or the window faces an external balcony.

9.7.2.3 Arrangement of the means of egress A. B. C. D. The means of egress should be passable all the time and the ability to open all the doors from inside without the usage of keys should be available. The ability to unlock the bathrooms doors from outside in emergency should be available when needed. The net width of the doors should be no less than 70cm. The stairs and ramps and the fall protection barriers and handrails should be according to the codes of chapter 5 and the net width for the stairs and the ramps and the balconies should be no less than 90cm. It is allowed to use the spiral stairs according to the codes mentioned in 5.2.2.4.

E.

9.7.3 Protection 9.7.3.1 Vertical openings protection The vertical openings can be left unprotected with the exception of the openings connecting between the underground floor and the ground floor they should be surrounded by protection barriers with a resistance of no less than 1 hour. 9.7.3.2 Protection of external fire spreading The protection from the external fire spreading is according to the codes mentioned in 6.3.5.

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9.7.3.3 Separation into fire compartments A. B. The residential units should be separated from each other using barriers that have a resistance of at least half an hour. The underground floor should be separated from the ground floor by barriers that have a resistance of at least one hour.

9.7.3.4 Interior finishing The interior finishing of the walls and the ceiling should be of type A or B or C and according to the codes mentioned in 6.6. 9.7.3.5 Protection from fire A. B. At least two fire extinguishers should be available, one at the kitchen and another near the main entrance. The necessary precautions in the field of utility services according to the codes of chapter 7.

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9.8 Group E Administrative occupancy

9.8.1 General 9.8.1.1 Definition of administrative occupancies Look clause 4.2.8 Page 14. 9.8.1.2 Mixed occupancies A. B. C. When other occupancies exist with the administration occupancies then the codes mentioned in 4.5 are applied in addition to these codes. The administrative occupancy should be separated from the rest of the occupancies according to table 4.1. When there exists a residential occupancy (Group D) over the administrative occupancy then it should be separated along with its exits of the administrative occupancy by barriers that have a resistance of at least 1 hour. The escape routes of any residential unit should not pass through any administrative occupancy in the same building. When car parking is shared between the administrative and residential occupancy then they should be separated with barriers of at least 2 hours resistance. It is allowed to use shared exits between the administrative and residential and other occupancies but they should have enough capacity to facilitate the load of all the occupancies at the same time.

D. E. F.

9.8.1.3 Arrival of the vehicles and equipments of civil defence A. B. The ability for the vehicles and equipments of civil defence should be available according to the codes of chapter 3 in addition to these codes. Parking should be available for the vehicles and equipments of civil defence according to the codes of chapter 3.(see sketch 6)

9.8.1.4 Level of contents hazard The level of contents hazard in the residence occupation are classified as being a normal hazard and this doesnt apply for the designs and special calculations for the sprinkler system. 9.8.1.5 Construction requirements A. B. C. The codes of chapter 6 should be applied in addition to these codes. The types of allowed constructions in administrative buildings are specified by table 9.8.1. The opening for pipes and tunnels and conditioning channels and others through the fire resistant barriers should be according to chapter 6.

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Table 9.8.1 Types of allowed constructions in Administrative buildings

Type of super structure

Floor
Undergroun d

Ground

Upper floors 1 2 3 or more Allowed

First (443) First (332)


Second(222) Second(111)

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed but only one floor

Allowed

Allowed, area no more than 2100m2 Allowed, area no more than 1400m2 Allowed, area no more than 1400m2 Not allowed

Allowed, area no more than 2100m2 Not allowed

Not allowed

Second(000)

Not allowed

Allowed, area no more than 1400m2 Allowed, area no more than 1400m2 Allowed, area no more than 1000m2 Allowed, area no more than 500m2

Not allowed

Third(211)
Fourth(2WW)

Not allowed

Not allowed

Not allowed

Fifth(111)

Third(200)

Not allowed

Not allowed

Not allowed

Fifth(000)

Not allowed

Not allowed

Not allowed

Not allowed

443 and other are a short-term for the fire resistance of the constructional element in hours and they where cleared in the table

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9.8.2 Means of egress

9.8.2.1 General A. B. The general codes for the means of egress should be applied according to the codes of chapter 5 in addition to these codes. Enough and suitable means of egress should be available from all the parts of the building and they should lead outside the building according to the codes of chapter 5 in addition to these codes.

9.8.2.2 Occupancy load The occupancy load should be specified on the base of 1 person for every 9.5 m2 of the total area of the place as for the area used for another uses it is calculated according to each occupancy type alone.

9.8.2.3 Means of egress components It is allowed to use doors and stairs and horizontal exits and ramps and passages and temporary refuge areas in the means of egress and this is done according to the codes of chapter 5 in addition to these codes.

9.8.2.4 The number of exits A. With the exception of what is allowed in these codes, at least two independent exits should be available for each floor and they should submit to the codes of clause 5.4 and the ability to reach those exits should be available from all the floor parts.

B.

One exit can be enough in the following cases: see previous paragraphs 9.5.2

1.

Buildings where is no more than 4 floors and the total occupancy load for the floor is no more than 50 and the maximum travel distances to the exits is no more than 23 meter (30 meters if the building is totally protected with sprinklers). Every room or area that has a occupancy load of no more than 100 and it should have one exit at least which leads outside and the total travel distance from any point in the building until reaching the outside of the building should be no more than 30 meters and the height of the stairs if it exists should be no more than 4.5 meters relative to the side ways unless the stair is external and submits to the codes mentioned in 5.2.2.8.2. Mezzanine, but the compulsory travel distance should be no more than 23 meters (30 meters if the building is totally protected by sprinklers).

2.

3.

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9.8.2.5 Arrangement of the means of egress A. B. The means of egress should be arranged according to the codes mentioned in 5.5. The maximum limits for the travel distance and the dead end and the compulsory movement paths that are mentioned in table 5.2 should be considered.

9.8.2.6 Travel distance The travel distance from any point until the closest exit should be no more than 50 30 meters (75 50 meters when the building is protected completely with sprinklers)

9.8.2.7 Exits discharge Exits discharge should be done according to the codes mentioned in 5.9.

9.8.2.8 Means of egress capacity A. B. The means of egress capacity is estimated according to the codes mentioned in 5.3.4 in addition to these codes. The passages should have enough width to facilitate the passage of the expected occupancy load and it should be no less than 110cm.

9.8.3 Protection 9.8.3.1 Vertical openings protection A. All the vertical spaces like the stairs compartment and the ramps and the well of the elevator and the and others should be protected according to the codes mentioned in 6.3.10 and it is allowed to use all the allowed exception mentioned in 6.3.10 but the building should have at least two exits. All the openings connecting between the underground floor and the ground floor should be surrounded with fire resistant barriers if the underground floors are used for storing or if they contain heating devices or boilers or car parking.

B.

9.8.3.2 Protection of external fire spreading The protection from the external fire spreading is according to the codes mentioned in 6.3.5. 9.8.3.3 Separation into fire compartments A. B. The administrative buildings should be separated into fire compartments according to the codes mentioned in 6.3 in addition to the codes mentioned in this chapter. The walls of all the paths leading to the exits should be fire resistant with a resistance of at least one hour and the doors resistance in these passages should be no less than 20 60 minutes with the exception of the following cases: When one renter (tenant)uses the place or the floor only. When the building is protected with sprinklers. Page 183 of 239

9.8.3.4 Protection from dangers All the dangerous places, like store rooms, boilers and heater which work by fuel, electric generator, maintenance workshops including wood workshops and painting place, should be protected using separators that have a resistance of at least one hour or by using water sprinklers and in general all the dangerous places should be protected according to the codes mentioned in 6.5 in addition to these codes. 9.8.3.5 Interior finishing A. B. C. The codes mentioned in 6.6 should be applied in addition to these codes. The interior finishing for the walls and the ceilings should be as the following: of type A or B for the exits and the passages, of type A or B or C for other places. The interior finishing for the grounds of the exits and passages should be of type 1 or 2.

9.8.4 Fire protection equipments and devices 9.8.4.1 Protection with water sprinklers A. B. All the underground floors should be protected using water sprinklers when they apply to the codes mentioned in 10.1.3. The administrative buildings should be protected with water sprinklers if the area of the fire compartment is more than 2000m2 with the exception of one-floored buildings.

9.8.4.2 Alarm and extinguishing equipments Alarms and fire extinguishing equipments should be supplied according to table 9.8.2. 9.8.4.3 Utility services A. B. The necessary precautions by the utility services should be available according to the codes mentioned in chapter 7. The fire protection utility services should be according to table 9.8.3.

9.8.5 Operation and monitoring 9.8.5.1 Emergency plan and virtual trainings If there is more than 500 occupant of the administrative buildings or if the occupants of the high floors or the underground floor are more than 100 then employees should be trained on the evacuations the building due to fire. In addition to the necessity to perform virtual evacuation training in a periodical way if it is practical. 9.8.5.2 Basic extinguishing equipments All the employees of the administrative buildings should be trained on using the basic extinguishing equipments available in the buildings.

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Table 9.8.2, Alarm and fire extinguishing equipments for Administrative buildings Type of equipment Areas concerned

1-Manual extinguishing equipments

Manual extinguisher

All floors

2-Fixed equipments

Rubber hoses network

All floors with the exception of the two floored buildings, are of the floor less than 2000M2 According to 8.3.1

Dry riser

Wet riser

According to 8.4.1

External fire hydrants

For big complexes

3-fire alarm equipments

Manual and Automatic alarm system

All floors (with the exception of the buildings that has a floor area of no more than 2000m2 and the offices that open directly to the outside or to an open balcony which is connected to the outside)

Page 185 of 239

Table 9.8.4, engineering services for fire protection in Administrative buildings

Type of equipment

Areas concerned

Ventilation system

According to the accepted standards of civil defence

Lighted guiding signs

Means of egress

Emergency lighting

Means of egress and the basement

Secondary power source

High buildings

Fire elevator

High buildings

Fire resistant doors

According to this chapter and chapter 5 and 6

Page 186 of 239

9.9 Group F Commercial occupancy 9.9.1 General 9.9.1.1 Definitions Commercial occupancies They are the buildings or part of them where goods are shown and sold, like shops, markets, malls, commercial exhibitions, supermarket, grocery stores, car service stations. Covered mall It is a passage for people and is connected to many commercial shops inside a building of central assembled shopping. Covered mall building It is a building that contains the covered mall and it contains many tenants and many occupations like supermarkets and other commercial shops and restaurants and entertainment establishments and offices and other, but the number of tenants places that are connected to the covered mall should be no less than 2. Anchor store (Building connected to the mall) It is a main commercial shop that is situated at the side of the covered mall and it has entrances to the mall and it should have independent means of egress.

9.9.1.2 Mixed occupancies A. B. C. The mixed occupancies should they should submit to the codes mentioned in 4.5 in addition to these codes. The commercial occupancy should be separated from the rest of the occupancies according to table 4.1. When there exists a residential occupancy (Group D) over the commercial occupancy then it should be separated along with its exits of the administrative occupancy by barriers that have a resistance of at least 1 hour. When car parking is shared between the administrative and residential occupancy then they should be separated with barriers of at least 2 hours resistance. It is not allowed for group I occupations to be with the commercial occupancies.

D. E.

9.9.1.3 Classification of commercial occupancies The commercial occupancies are classified into secondary types in the following manner: Type (1): All the commercial shops used for selling or have a total area of more than 2800m2 or which have more than 3 floors with the exception of the mezzanine. Type (2): All the commercial shops used for selling or have a total area of 280m2-2800m2 or which have 2 floors with the exception of the mezzanine. Type (3): All the commercial shops used for selling and are one floored and have a total area of less than 280m2. Page 187 of 239

9.9.1.4 Arrival of the vehicles and equipments of civil defence A. In addition to the codes mentioned in chapter 3, a road or a way around the buildings of the malls so the ability for civil defence to reach the building from all sides is available. Parking should be available for the vehicles and equipments of civil defence according to the codes of chapter 3.

B.

9.9.1.5 Level of contents hazard The level of contents hazard in the commercial occupation is classified as being a normal hazard according to the codes mentioned in 4.1. 9.9.1.6 Construction requirements A. B. C. The codes of chapter 6 should be applied in addition to these codes. The types of allowed constructions in commercial buildings are specified by table 9.9.1. The opening for pipes and tunnels and conditioning tunnels and other through the fire resistant barriers should be according to chapter 6.

9.9.2 Means of egress 9.9.2.1 General A. B. The general codes for the means of egress should be applied according to the codes of chapter 5 in addition to these codes. Enough and suitable means of egress should be available in all the residential buildings and they should lead outside the building according to the codes of chapter 5 in addition to these codes.

9.9.2.2 Occupancy load The allowed occupancy load in the commercial buildings is specified according to the occupancy load factors mentioned in table 5.1 9.9.2.3 Means of egress components Is allowed to use doors and stairs and horizontal exits and ramps and passages and temporary refuge areas in the means of egress and this is done according to the codes of chapter 5 in addition to these codes. 9.9.2.4 Number of exits At least two independent exits should be a available for each floor or fire compartment in the building and they should be easy to reach from any point in the floor or in the mezzanine and they should submit to the codes of clause 5.4 and one exit can be enough in commercial occupancy of type 3 if the travel distance from any point in the commercial shop to the exit or to the main path in the malls is no more than 23 30 meter.

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9.9.2.5 Arrangement of the means of egress A. B. C. The means of egress should be arranged according to the codes mentioned in 5.5. The maximum limits for the travel distance and the dead end and the compulsory movement paths which is mentioned in table 5.2 should be considered. The width of the passages leading to the exits should be no less than 110cm, in the shops of type 1 there should be one passage at least with a 150cm width and this passage should lead directly to one exit at least.

9.9.2.6 Exits discharge A. B. Exit discharge should be according to the codes mentioned in 5.9 in addition to these codes. It is allowed for half of the required number of exits to lead into the lobby in the ground floor according to the codes mentioned in 5.9.

9.9.2.7 Means of egress capacity A. B. The means of egress capacity is estimated according to the codes mentioned in 5.3.4 in addition to these codes. In the commercial buildings of type 1 or 2 the exist in the ground floor should be enough to facilitate for all the occupancy load of the ground floor in addition to facilitating the occupancy load for the stairs and ramps of the other floors which leads to these exits.

9.9.3 Protection 9.9.3.1 Vertical openings protection A. All the vertical spaces like the stairs compartment and the ramps and the well of the elevator and the and others should be protected according to the codes mentioned in 6.3.10, with the following exceptions: Between two nearby floors(see sketch 12) Between the ground floor and the floor below it or the floor directly above it (or the mezzanine). The middle space connecting more than 3 floors according to clause 6.3.10.6. In the commercial shops of type 3 it is allowed to leave vertical openings between the ground floor and the mezzanine without protection. It is allowed for a middle space that connects between 3 floors to exist according to clause 6.3.10.7.

1. 2. 3. A. B.

9.9.3.2 Protection of external fire spreading The protection from the external fire spreading is according to the codes mentioned in 6.3.5.

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9.9.3.3 Separation into fire compartments The commercials buildings of should be separated into fire compartments according to the codes mentioned in 6.3 in addition to the codes mentioned in this chapter. 9.9.3.4 Protection from dangers A. B. All the dangerous areas should be protected according to the codes mentioned in 6.5 in addition to these codes. The dangerous areas like boiler rooms and heater and ovens and maintenance workshops including the carpenter workshops and the places of paint and other should be protected. The protection is done by separation from the rest of the building by barriers with at least one hour of resistance or by covering the areas with water sprinklers.

9.9.3.5 Interior finishing A. B. C. The codes mentioned in 6.6 should be applied in addition to these codes. The interior finishing for the walls and the ceilings should be as the following: of type A Or B for the exits, from type A or B or C for the passages. The interior finishing for the grounds of the exits and passages should be of type 1 or 2.

9.9.4 Special arrangements 9.9.4.1 Commercial operations in open air When commercial operations are done in open air, like in open markets and gas stations, then the necessary arrangements should be done to keep the means of egress passable and vacant of any barriers at all times without the existence of any dead ends. 9.9.4.2 Buildings of malls The target of this clause is to specify the minimum safety measures for the mall that have a height of no more than 3 floors. If the mall needs to be more than 3 floors, then it should submit to the acceptance of civil defence, where each case is considered individually. After providing a full study for protection of souls and property, it is the right of civil defence to reject or ask for additional precautions. 9.9.4.2.1 Means of egress in malls A. When calculating the means of egress in shopping building is treated as a single building that applies to the general conditions mentioned in this chapter. The width of the covered mall should be enough to facilitate for all the occupants

Page 190 of 239

B.

Contradicting with the first clause it is allowed for the covered mall to be used as a passage for people where it is possible for the maximum limit for the travel distance from any point in a shop to the closest exit or to the covered mall is 45 meters (or any other number according to the type of the occupation and an additional 45 meters that are allowed for traveling from inside the covered mall butt all the following should be provided: The width of the passage should be enough to facilitate for all the occupants of the place and it should be no less than 6 meters. The net width between the showcase of the shops and any obstacle in the covered mall like chairs and display case or shakes and others, should be at least 3 meters and the passage should continue to at least one exit and its width should be no less than 165cm. The needed exist should be distributed equally over the length of the covered mall. Protection of the covered mall and all the buildings connected to it using sprinklers. The sprinklers should be arranged in a way that if any part of the sprinkler system that covers the shops goes out of service then it wont affect the rest of the other part of the system which covers the covered mall. The separation walls between the rented shops should continue from the ground and up into the ceiling, with the exception of the sides facing the cesarean passage and with the exception of the walls of the shops that contains a smoke control system. Providing the covered mall with smoke control system.

1. 2.

3. 4.

5.

6.

9.9.4.2.2 Means of egress details A. B. It is not allowed to store or show high hazardous goods in the range of 30 meters of the exits unless they are situated within protection bins. The needed number of means of egress should be provided according to the codes mentioned in 5.4 and this should apply for every floor in the malls and they should be no less than two exits. The number of means of egress for the shops of type 1 and 2 that are connected to the covered mall should be no less than 2. Every primary shop that is attached to the mall should have an independent means of egress or it should be taken into account when calculating the total occupancy load for the mall.

C. D.

9.9.5 fire protection equipments and devices 9.9.5.1 Protection with water sprinklers The following commercial occupancies should be protected with water sprinklers: Commercial occupancies of type 1 unless the contents are of low hazard level. All the commercial buildings where the area of one Fire compartments is more than 2000m2 for the buildings that are composed from one ground floor only and 1200m2 for the multi floored buildings, unless the contents are of low hazard level. Malls according to clause 9.9.4.2.1. Underground floor if it has an area of more than 250M2 and it was used for selling or storing or treating the flammable goods. Page 191 of 239

9.5.5.2 Alarm and extinguishing equipments Alarms and fire extinguishing equipments should be supplied according to table 9.9.2. 9.9.5.3 Utility services A. B. The necessary precautions for utility services should be available according to the codes mentioned in chapter 7. The fire protection utility services should be according to table 9.9.3.

9.9.6 Operation and monitoring A. B. The periodical training should be done for the evacuation actions and virtual trainings should be done for every employee of the commercial occupancy. All the employees of all the commercial occupancies should be trained on using the manual extinguisher and other basic extinguishing equipments.

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Table 9.9.1, Types of allowed constructions in commercial buildings Type of super structure Floor

Undergroun d

Ground

Upper floors

3 or more Allowed

First (443) First (332) Second(222)

Allowed but only for two floors Allowed but only one floor Not allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Second(111)

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Not allowed

Second(000)

Allowed, area no more than 1000m2 Allowed, area no more than 1000m2 Allowed, area no more than 800m2 Allowed, area no more than 400m2

Allowed, area no more than 1000m2 Allowed, area no more than 1000m2 Not allowed

Not allowed

Not allowed

Third(211) Fourth(2WW) Fifth(111)

Not allowed

Not allowed

Not allowed

Third(200)

Not allowed

Not allowed

Not allowed

Fifth(000)

Not allowed

Not allowed

Not allowed

Not allowed

443 and other are a short-term for the fire resistance of the constructional element in hours and they where cleared in the table 2WW is a shortcut for wood. Page 193 of 239

Table 9.9.2 Alarm and fire extinguishing equipments for commercial buildings

Type of equipment

Type

Areas concerned

1-Manual extinguishing equipments

Manual extinguisher

All Types

All floors

2-Fixed equipments

Rubber hoses

1,2

All floors if the total area is more than 2000m2 According to 8.3.1

Dry riser

1,2

Wet riser

According to 8.4.1, for all the commercial malls For big complexes

External fire hydrants

3-fire alarm equipments

Manual and Automatic alarm system

1,2

All floors if the total area is more than 2000m2

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Table 9.9.3 Utility services for fire protection in commercial buildings

Type of equipment

Areas concerned

Ventilation system

According to the accepted standards of civil defence

Lighted guiding signs

Means of egress

Emergency lighting

All floors

Secondary power source

High buildings

Fire elevator

High buildings

Fire resistant doors

According to this chapter and chapter 5 and 6

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9.10 Group G Industrial occupations

9.10.1 General 9.10.1.1 Definitions 9.10.1.1.1 Normal industrial occupations It is the buildings and establishments where people do production, assembling, producing operation inside normal buildings that are specialized for these operations and the density of the workers and employees is high. The industrial occupations are split into two secondary groups according to the danger level (in addition to the high hazardous industrial occupancies according to chapter 9-12): 1.Group G-1 Industrial occupations with normal level of hazard Like laboratories that contains materials and liquids that are flammable, like power stations, laundries, dry-cleaners, bakeries, bicycles industry, ships and boats building, industry of equipments and office equipments, cameras production, canning including food goods, clothes, milk production both concentrated and dry, disinfectants production, electronics production, the industry of machinery and engines, plants of cotton and carpets and tents and sackcloth and fabric, calyx industry, industry of vegetarian oils, carton industry, furniture spraying and upholstery , tobacco industry, vehicles industry, photographic films industry, food making, clothes laundries, industry of woodworks, cartoon movie making, musical instruments industry, paper mills, plastic industry, printing press, garbage burning ovens, shoes industry, soap industry, sugar recycling plants, airplanes industry, sport equipments industry and others. 2. Group G-2 Industrial occupancy with low hazard level, Like the industry of mineral water, ice industry, gypsum and cement and bricks and porcelain and glass materials, blacksmithing, production and assembly of metals, small workshops(electronic workshops, plumper, lathes), water pumping stations and others. 9.10.1.1.2 Special industrial occupancies It contains the industrial operations of low and normal level of hazard that are done within special buildings which are suitable only for a certain type of industrial operations. These occupancies have a low number of workers and employees and the most part of the area is occupied with machines and big equipments like Iron factories and power generation stations and others. 9.10.1.1.3 Industrial establishments in open air Refer to clause 4.2.7.

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9.10.1.2 Implementation A. The codes mentioned in this chapter on the normal or special industrial occupancy The high hazardous occupations are exempted from this chapter codes and they apply to the codes of chapter 9.12. If the industrial establishments are in open air, then they should be built and have the minimum level of fire protection and safety according to the general accepted engineering standards and when there exists an accepted standards then they can be referred and they are relived from the codes mentioned in this chapter. The industrial buildings which are open from every side that are according to the definition mentioned in 2.1 are relived from the codes mentioned in this chapter that are about protection using water sprinklers and rubber hoses and alarm systems and they are relived from the codes about the super structure if they were constructed from fire proof materials.

B.

C.

9.10.1.3 Mixed occupancies When other occupancies exist within the same industrial building then the codes mentioned in 4.5 are applied.

9.10.1.4 Arrival of the vehicles and equipments of civil defence A. B. The access for the vehicles and equipments of civil defence should be available according to the codes of chapter 3 in addition to these codes. Parking should be available for the vehicles and equipments of civil defence according to the codes of chapter 3.(see also sketch 6)

9.10.1.5 Construction requirements A. B. C. The codes of chapter 6 should be applied in addition to these codes. The types of allowed constructions in the industrial buildings are specified according to table 9.10.1 The openings for the passage of the pipes and the conditioning tunnels and others should be protected by being put in fire resistant barriers.

9.10.2 Means of egress 9.10.2.1 General The means of egress should be available according to the codes of chapter 5 as well as these codes. 9.10.2.2 Occupancy load The occupancy load should be specified on the base of the number of people expected to be in the building and it should be at least 1 person for every 9.5 m2 of the total area of the place.

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9.10.2.3 Means of egress components It is allowed to use doors and stairs and horizontal exits and ramps and passages and temporary refuge areas in the means of egress. This is done according to the codes of chapter 5 in addition to these codes. 9.10.2.4 Number of exits A. At least two independent exits should be available for every floor or section or area. The ability to travel directly to one exit at least in the same floor without needing to move to another floor. It is allowed using one mean of egress in the floor or the area or the section but the travel distance for reaching the exit should be no less than 15m (30 meters if the building is fully protected with sprinklers). The number of means of egress for the floors or the areas that have an occupancy load of more than 500 should be no lower than the limits set in table 5.4.

B.

C.

9.10.2.5 Arrangement of the means of egress A. B. C. The means of egress should be arranged according to the codes mentioned in 5.5. The maximum limits for the travel distance and the dead end and the compulsory movement paths which is mentioned in table 5.2 should be considered. When the places for the industrial operations are not clearly fixed which could lead into having obstacles and confusion in the paths, then a reflecting paint should be used to line the paths and the places of the production area and the storage places and others.

9.10.2.6 Travel distance The travel distance from any point to the closest exit should be no more than the following: Normal industrial occupations: 60 meters (75 meters when the building is covered with sprinklers) Special industrial occupations: 90meters (120 meters when the building is covered with sprinklers).

9.10.2.7 Exits discharge It is allowed to discharge exits according to the codes mentioned in 5.9. 9.10.2.8 Means of egress capacity A. B. The means of egress capacity is estimated according to the codes mentioned in 5.3.4 in addition to these codes. The width of the passage should be enough to facilitate for all the expected load occupancy and the width should be no less than 110cm.

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9.10.3 Protection 9.10.3.1 Vertical openings protection A. All the vertical spaces like the stairs compartment and the ramps and the well of the elevator and others should be protected according to the codes mentioned in 6.3.10and it is possible to use all the exceptions mentioned in 6.3.10. The special industrial occupations are excluded from the rules of this clause when the presence of the unprotected vertical spaces is needed for the industrial process, but there should be at least one exit chance or more from every floor and it should lead to one stair or more that is separated from the rest of the buildings by fire resistant barriers according to the codes mentioned in 5.1.4.

B.

9.10.3.2 Protection of external fire spreading The protection from the external fire spreading is according to the codes mentioned in 6.3.5. 9.10.3.3 Separation into fire compartments A. The offices and the stores and the dangerous areas and the high hazardous occupancies should be separated from each other and from the industrial processes by fire resistant barriers that has a resistance of no less than 1 hour (45 minutes for the doors) according to the coeds mentioned in 6.3 in addition to the codes of this chapter. It is allowed no to separate the mezzanine and other areas that are needed for completing the industrial operations.

B.

9.10.3.4 Protection from dangers All the dangerous places should be separated from the rest of the building using barriers with a resistance of at least one hour. 9.10.3.5 Interior finishing A. B. The codes mentioned in 6.5 should be applied in addition to these codes. The interior finishing for the walls and the ceilings should be as the following: of type A Or B for the exits and passages, from type A or B or C for the places of industrial operations. The interior finishing for the grounds of the exits and passages should be of type 1 or 2.

C.

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9.10.4 Fire protection equipments and devices 9.10.4.1 Protection with water sprinklers All the industrial buildings with normal hazard level (Group G-1) should be protected with water sprinklers and for the area that have an fire compartment are of more than 200m2 for multi floored buildings and 3000m2 for one floored buildings. 9.10.4.2 Alarm and other extinguishing equipments Alarms and fire extinguishing equipments should be supplied according to table 9.10.2. 9.10.4.3 Utility services A. The necessary precautions in the field of utility services should be Available according to the codes mentioned in chapter 7. B. The fire protection utility services should be according to table 9.6.3.

9.10.5 Operation and monitoring 9.10.5.1 Emergency plan In the cases specified by civil defence an emergency plan should be done for the establishment with coordination with civil defence. All the employees should know the plan and they should be trained on the action that needs to be taken during emergencies. 9.10.5.2 Basic extinguishing equipments All the employees of the industrial buildings should be trained on using the basic extinguishing equipments available in the buildings.

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Table 9.10.1, Types of allowed constructions in industrial buildings

Type of super structure

Floor
Underground

Ground

Upper floors 1 2 or more Allowed

First (443) First (332) Second(222)

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Second(111)

Allowed but only one floor Not allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Not Allowed

Second(000)

Allowed

Allowed, area no more than 1000m2 for group G-1, or 2000m2 for group G-2

Not allowed

Third(211) Fourth(2WW) Fifth(111)

Allowed Not allowed Not , area allowed no more than 800m2 Third(200) Not Allowed Not allowed Not allowed , area allowed no more than 400m2 Fifth(000) Not Allowed Not allowed Not allowed , area allowed no more than 400m2 443 and other are a short-term for the fire resistance of the constructional element in hours and they where cleared in the table 2WW is a shortcut for wood.

Not allowed

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Table 9.10.2, alarm and fire extinguishing equipments for industrial buildings

Type of equipment 1-Manual extinguishing equipments Manual extinguisher 2-Fixed equipments Rubber hoses

Areas concerned

All floors

-Buildings of group G-2, (with the exception of the single floored buildings with an area of less than 800m2 and the multi-floored buildings if the total area of the building is less than 1000m2.) -The buildings of group G-2, (with the exception of the single floored buildings with an area of less than 2000m2 and the multi-floored buildings if the total area of the building is less than 3000m2. -Open sided buildings are relived from these requirements.

Dry riser Wet riser External fire hydrants 3-Fire alarm equipments Manual and Automatic alarm system

According to 8.3.1 According to 8.4.1 For big industrial complexes

All closed floors (with the exception of the buildings where the area of one fire compartment is no more than 600m2 and multi floored buildings if the total are of the building is less than 1200m2) and it is allowed to not use fire detectors in sprinklers protected areas.

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Table 9.10.3, Utility services for fire protection in industrial buildings

Type of equipment Ventilation system

Areas concerned Group G-1 if the area of one smoke compartment is more than 2000m2 according to the accepted standards Means of egress with the exception of open air industrial establishments All places and floors, with the exception of the special industrial occupations and the side open industrial buildings and the open air industrial establishments High buildings

Lighted guiding signs

Emergency lighting

Secondary power source

Fire elevator Fire resistant doors

High buildings According to this chapter and chapter 5 and 6

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9.11 Group H Store occupancy 9.11.1 General 9.11.1.1 Definition of partial store occupations It is the buildings used for storing of goods, products, cars or animals and is categorized into the following groups (while taking into considerations the codes of clause 9.11.1.3 into considerations): H-1 Store occupancy with ordinary hazard level It is the buildings used to store products which have ordinary hazard level, like plastic bags, fabric, paper, jute, reed, chains, leather and fabric belts, books, shoes, carton, clothes, ropes, furniture, fur, glue, leather, sheep skin, used furniture stores, cars repair workshops, lubes stores with flash point of 93OC or more, closed parking, silk, soap, sugar, tobaccos and smoking cigarettes, beds, candles and others. H-2 Store occupancy with Low hazard level It is the buildings used to store low hazardous products( it is possible that these products are stored in carton boxes or carried on wood crates/pallets, but plastic covers should be kept minimal and should not surpass the level of thin plastic covers and plastic handles), like juice and mineral waters, bagged cement, chalk, cheese and yogurt products, dry batteries, electric coils, electric engines, food products and food products in non-flammable containers, vegetables and fruits in non-plastic containers, frozen foods, glass, glass bottles that empty or full with nonflammable liquids, gypsum boards, meats, metal safes, metal tables, metals, mirrors, empty metal cans, electric converters, open parking from the sides, porcelain, electronic washers and others. 9.11.1.2 Definitions A. B. The codes mentioned in this chapter are applied to the main store occupancies. When there exist a store occupancies that are not listed explicitly under 9.11.1.1 then they are classified by the same bases mentioned in 9.11.1.1 and this is after studying the nature of the stored materials and the covering materials and the hazard level and other elements. When the buildings of store occupancy or parts of it are used for canning, for labeling, classification, re-packing or other operations that needs a higher occupancy load than what is expected from the store occupancy then they should be classified as industrial occupancy (Group I) while applying the codes mentioned in chapter 9.10. When there exist secondary store occupancies within the buildings that contain another main non-storage occupancy then those buildings should be classified according to their primary occupancies.

C.

D.

9.11.1.3 High hazard store occupancies The high hazardous store occupancies are exempt from the codes of this chapter because they apply to the codes of chapter 9.12. Page 204 of 239

9.11.1.4 Open store buildings The stores that are opened from the side according to the definition mentioned in 1.2 are relived from all the codes mentioned in this chapter like water sprinklers and hoses and alarm systems. These buildings are exempt from the codes of super structure too if they are constructed from fireproof materials. 9.11.1.5 Mixed occupancies When other occupancies exist within the same store occupancies then the codes mentioned in 4.5 are applied. 9.11.1.6 Arrival of the vehicles and equipments of civil defence A. B. The access for the vehicles and equipments of civil defence should be available according to the codes of chapter 3 in addition to these codes. Parking should be available for the vehicles and equipments of civil defence according to the codes of chapter 3(see also sketch 6).

9.11.1.7 Construction requirements A. B. C. The codes of chapter 6 should be applied in addition to these codes. The types of allowed constructions in hotels are specified by table 9.11.1. The opening for pipes and tunnels and conditioning tunnels and other through the fire resistant barriers should be according to chapter 6.

9.11.2 Means of egress 9.11.2.1 General The general codes for the means of egress should be applied according to the codes of chapter 5 in addition to these codes. 9.11.2.2 Occupancy load The occupancy load should be specified on the base of the maximum number of people that could be present in the building and it should be no less than 1 person for every 28m2 of the total area for the normal and 1 person for every 18.5m2 for parking. 9.11.2.3 Means of egress components it is allowed to use doors, stairs including spiral, smoke protected stairs, horizontal exits, ramps, passages, temporary refuge areas in the means of egress.This is done according to the codes of chapter 5 in addition to these codes.

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9.11.2.4 Number of exits A. B. C. At least two independent exits should be a available for each floor, part or area One exit can be enough in the following cases: Group H-2. Group H-1 and the travel distance for reaching the exit is no more than 15 meters (30 meters if the building is completely protected with sprinklers) The number of the means of egress for the floors or the areas that has an occupancy load of more than 500 should be no less than the minimum requirement mentioned in table 5.4.

9.11.2.5 Arrangement of the means of egress A. B. C. The means of egress should be arranged according to the codes mentioned in 5.5. The maximum limits for the travel distance and the dead end and the compulsory movement paths that are mentioned in 5.2 should be considered. When the store places are not fixed which could lead for the paths to not be clear then reflective paint should be used for lining the paths.

9.11.2.6 Travel distance The travel distance from any point to the nearest exit should be no more than the values mentioned in table 5.2. 9.11.2.7 Exits discharge Exits discharge should be done according to the codes mentioned in 5.9. 9.11.2.8 Means of egress capacity A. B. The means of egress capacity is estimated according to the codes mentioned in 5.3.4 in addition to these codes. The passages should have enough width to facilitate the passage of the expected occupancy load and it should be no less than 90cm.

9.11.3 Protection 9.11.3.1 Vertical openings protection All the vertical spaces like the stairs compartment and the ramps and the well of the elevator and the and others should be protected according to the codes mentioned in 6.3.10, with the exception of open sided buildings and the mezzanine and other vertical spaces that connects between two floors only according to clause 6.3.10.4.

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9.11.3.2 Protection of external fire spreading The protection from the external fire spreading is according to the codes mentioned in 6.3.5. 9.11.3.3 Separation into fire compartments A. The offices and the industrial operation areas and the hazardous places and the high hazardous places should be separated from each other and from the store places with barriers that have a resistance of no less than one hour (45 60minutes for the doors) and according to the codes mentioned in 6.3 in addition to these codes. The incompatible materials should be separated from each other by making special places for each material or by storing them in metal closets according to one of the accepted standards.

B.

9.11.3.4 Protection from dangers All dangerous areas should be separated from the rest of the building by barriers that have a resistance of no less than one hour. 9.11.3.5 Interior finishing A. B. The codes mentioned in 6.6 should be applied in addition to these codes. The interior finishing for the walls and the ceilings should be as the following: of type A or B for the exits and the passages, from type A and B or C for the store areas. The interior finishing for the grounds of the exits and passages should be of type 1 or 2.

C.

9.11.4 Additional codes for the car parking 9.11.4.1 Implementation The following additional codes are applied to the buildings of car parking whether they are open from the sides or closed or above the ground or below it and for the codes mentioned before in this chapter then they are applied to the car parking without contradicting with the additional codes. 9.11.4.2 Mixed occupancies A. When performing car maintenance operations side to side, in addition to car parking in the same place, then the codes mentioned in 9.10 that are for the industrial occupancies are applied. But when the car parking is separated from the maintenance area by barriers with at least one hour resistance then it is considered as an independent part. Enough and suitable means of egress should be available for all the car maintenance areas according to the codes of chapter 9.10.

B.

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9.11.4.3 Open side car parking Building structures use for car storing and/or parking, the following codes must apply: a. b. c. Regular openings distributed over the outer walls from two sides at least and over a length of no less that 40% from the border of the building. The total area for these openings in each floor should be no less than 20% of the total outer walls area for that floor. The walls and the internal separators should have openings with a percentage of no less than 20% and the openings should be distributed in a way that will ease natural ventilation.

9.11.4.4 Classification of occupation When there exist a secondly car parking within main occupations the classification is done according to the main occupancy. 9.11.4.5 Means of egress A. B. C. The means of egress should be according to the codes mentioned in 9.11.2 in addition to these codes. It is allowed to use the car passage gate from and to the building as exits on the ground floor, but they should be left open without installing a door or a gate on it. It is allowed to use the car ramps as an alternative means of egress in the open car parking, but there is a need for another main mean of egress and the ramp should lead directly outside and it should no submit to gate closing. For the car parking that extends to at least one underground floor then it is allowed to use a car ramp as an alternative for one of the means of egress. But there is a need for another mean of egress and the ramp should lead directly to the outside and it should no submit to gate closing status.

D.

9.11.4.6 Ventilation and smoke discharging Natural and mechanical ventilation should be provided for car parking with an air changing average of no less than 6 times/hour. 9.11.5 Fire protection equipments and devices 9.11.5.1 Protection with water sprinklers A. The buildings of store occupancy of normal hazard level (Group H-1) and the buildings of closed parking protected, should be protected with water sprinklers and this is when the area of the fire compartment is more than 2000m2 for multi floored buildings and 3000m2 for one floored buildings. The side opened buildings and the side opened parking and the buildings of group H-2 are exempt from the sprinklers code.

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9.11.5.2 Alarm and other extinguishing equipments Alarms and fire extinguishing equipments should be supplied according to table 9.11.2 9.11.5.3 Utility services A. B. The necessary precautions in the field of utility services should be available according to the codes mentioned in chapter 7. The fire protection utility services should be according to table 9.11.3.

9.11.6 Operation and monitoring All the employees of the store buildings should be trained on using the basic extinguishing equipments available in the building

Page 209 of 239

Table 9.11.1, Allowed constructions in store buildings

Type of super structure

Floor
Underground

Ground

Upper floors 1 2 or more Allowed

First (443) First (332)


Second(222)

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Second(111)

Allowed but only one floor Not allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Not Allowed Not allowed

Second(000)

Allowed

Allowed, area no more than 1000m2 for group H-1, or 2000m2 for group H-2

Third(211) Fourt(2WW) Fifth(111)

Allowed, Not allowed Not area no allowed more than 800m2 Third(200) Not Allowed, Not allowed Not allowed area no allowed more than 400m2 Fifth(000) Not Allowed, Not allowed Not allowed area no allowed more than 400m2 443 and other are a short-term for the fire resistance of the constructional element in hours and they where cleared in the table 2WW is a shortcut for wood.

Not allowed

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Table 9.11.2 Alarm and fire extinguishing equipments for store buildings Type of equipment Areas concerned

1-Manual extinguishing equipments

Manual extinguisher

All floors

2-Fixed equipments

Rubber hoses

-Buildings of group H-2 and parking, (with the exception of the single floored buildings with an area of less than 800m2 and the multifloored buildings if the total area of the building is less than 1000m2.) -The buildings of group H-2, (with the exception of the single floored buildings with an area of less than 2000m2 and the multifloored buildings if the total area of the building is less than 3000m2. -Open sided buildings are relived from these requirements. According to 8.3.1

Dry riser

Wet riser

According to 8.4.1

External fire hydrants

For big store complexes, group H-1 only

3-Fire alarm equipments

Manual and Automatic alarm system

All closed floors (with the exception of the buildings where the area of one fire compartment is no more than 600m2 and multi floored buildings if the total are of the building is less than 1200m2) and it is allowed to not use fire detectors in sprinklers protected areas.

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Table 9.11.3, Utility services for fire protection in store buildings Type of equipment Areas concerned

Ventilation system

Group H-1 if the area of one smoke compartment is more than 2000m2 according to the accepted standards+ closed car parking

Lighted guiding signs

Means of egress

Emergency lighting

All places and floors, with the exception of the open store buildings, all parking

Secondary power source

High buildings

Fire elevator

High buildings

Fire resistant doors

According to this chapter and chapter 5 and 6

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9.12 Group I High Hazard occupancy

9.12.1 General 9.12.1.1 Definitions High hazardous occupancy It is the buildings used for the occupancy of production or usage or storing of hazardous materials in high quantities, like explosives, oxides, plant and stores of gases and flammable or fast flaming liquids in high quantities, stores for dangerous materials in high quantities, flammable dust, flammable fibers, fast flaming solid materials, radiating materials, poisonous materials, production and treatment of chemicals, alcohol materials filtering, mills, harvest cells, plants of paint and varnish, treatment of rubber and plastic, spraying paint, paper recycling establishments, rubber tiers in high quantities and others. Open-air establishments They are the establishments that the industrial and store occupations are done in open air like some of the chemical establishments and oil refineries. 9.12.1.2 Implementation A. B. The codes of this chapter need to be applied for buildings that contain a main occupancy that is highly hazardous. The following cases are relived from the codes of this chapter, where they can be classified within the closest occupancy group after taking the necessary precautions: Secondary high hazard occupancies within other occupancies All the buildings and establishment that contains small amounts of hazardous materials must be in accordance with accepted standard. Any building where the number of rubber tires stored inside is less than 10000 tires and the weight of each tire is no more than 11 kg but the building must be completely protected by sprinklers. The places that contains fast flammable liquids, which are stored in small quantity of no more than 3.8 liter per container. Amount must be no more than 82 liter/m2 within the total area. The paints in retail shops must be no more than 82 liter/m2 within the total area. Closed systems that contain liquids and fast flaming gases or flammable and are used for the operation of the machines and the devices. Cleaning companies where flammable liquids with a flashpoint point of 600C or more must be separated from the rest of the building by fire resistant barriers of at least one-hour.

1. 2. 3.

4.

5. 6. 7.

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8. 9. 10. 11. 12. C.

Other cleaning companies where liquids which have the a flash point of no less than 930C. Cooling systems. Fixed batteries used to provide the building with secondary power, sufficient ventilation should be provided for the battery room. Dissolving , agitating and sensitive materials present within there original container and are used for selling in parts or for home use. Buildings used for the production or storage of the aerosols but these occupancies should be classified as H-1 or G-1 according to the usage type. For open-air establishments, should meet the requirements of safety and fire protection according to the accepted engineering standards. When there is an accepted standard, they are exempt from the codes mentioned in this chapter. The open sided buildings according to definition 1.2 are excluded from these codes for water sprinkler, rubber hoses and alarm system. These buildings are exempt from the condition about the super structure if they are constructed from fireproof materials.

D.

9.12.1.3 Necessary information A detailed plan should be provided for all the main high hazardous occupancies. This plan should should include the assumed positions for the high hazardous contents to be reviewed and accepted. The information of the future production operations to be added to the plan, also an explaining report should be provided about the hazardous materials that will be used or treated or stored and the hazards connected to it and the protection methods of those hazards. 9.12.1.4 General requirements A. It is not allowed to store dangerous materials which has a tendency to interact with each other, if so, a special storage facility should be provided or they should stored in special metal closets The flammable finishing materials should be minimized as well as other unnecessary materials which could emphasize the spread of fire. The high hazardous materials are to be transported, dealt with and stored according to the special accepted standards for each material alone. For radiating materials and explosives are referred to the special codes which are specified by civil defence. Smoking is prohibited in high hazardous occupancies. It is not allowed to use heat-producing equipments within the high hazardous occupancies unless it is necessary due to the nature of the production process but only after the necessary precautions are taken and approval of civil defence. The cables and electric devices should be of intrinsically safe and the electric cables should be in conduits, while providing the necessary electric grounding in addition to connections between the equipment.

B. C. D. E. F.

G.

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9.12.1.5 Mixed occupancies When other occupancies exist within the same high hazardous occupancies then the codes mentioned in 4.5 are applied. 9.12.1.6 Arrival of the vehicles and equipments of civil defence A. The access for the vehicles and equipments of civil defence should be available to all the areas of the high hazardous occupancies according to the codes of chapter 3 in addition to these codes. Parking should be available for the vehicles and equipments of civil defence according to the codes of chapter 3 (see also sketch 6)

B.

9.11.1.7 Construction requirements A. B. C. 1. The codes of chapter 6 should be applied in addition to these codes. The opening for pipes and tunnels and conditioning tunnels and other through the fire resistant barriers should be according to chapter 6. The types of allowed constructions in high hazardous areas are specified by table 9.12.1 while taking into considerations the following: It is not allowed for occupancies which contains exploding materials in buildings that has a height of more than one floor and these buildings should be made of fire proof materials. It is not allowed for underground occupancies to contain exploding or fast flaming materials.

2.

9.12.2 Means of egress 9.12.2.1 General The general codes for the means of egress should be applied according to the codes of chapter 5 in addition to these codes. 9.12.2.2 Occupancy load The occupancy load should be specified on the base of the maximum number of people that could be present in the building and it should be no less than 1 person for every 28 m2 of the total area in the store places and 1 person for every 9.5m2 for production area. 9.12.2.3 Means of egress components It is allowed to use doors and stairs including the spiral and smoke protected stairs and horizontal exits and ramps and passages and temporary refuge areas in the means of egress and this is done according to the codes of chapter 5 in addition to these codes.

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9.12.2.4 Number of exits A. At least two independent exits should be available for each floor, part or area. At least one exit in the same floor must be reached, without the need to move to another floor. One exit can be enough if all the following is available: One floor only. Total occupancy load is no more than 5. Maximum travel distance is no more than 10 meters. The number of the means of egress for the floors or the areas that has an occupancy load of more than 500 should be no less than the minimum requirement mentioned in table 5.4.

B. C.

9.12.2.5 Arrangement of the means of egress A. B. C. The means of egress should be arranged according to the codes mentioned in 5.5. It is not allowed for dead ends or compulsory movement paths in the high hazardous occupancies. Reflective paint should be used for marking the escape paths in production and store areas.

9.12.2.6 Travel distance The travel distance from any point to the nearest exit should be no more than 23 25 meters. 9.12.2.7 Exits discharge Exits discharge should be done according to the codes mentioned in 5.9. 9.12.2.8 means of egress capacity A. B. The means of egress capacity is estimated according to the codes mentioned in 5.3.4 in addition to these codes. The passages must be wide enough to facilitate the passage of the expected occupancy load and it must be no less than 110cm.

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9.12.3 Protection 9.12.3.1 Openings protection A. B. All the openings like stairs, ramps, elevator wells and others should be protected according to the codes mentioned in 6.3.10. It is allowed to leave the openings without protection if they are not used as exits and connects only between two nearby floors in a way that it passes through one ceiling. Where the presence of unprotected openings that is necessary for the industrial operations, at least one direct mean of egress should be available from any floor and it should lead to a stair that is separated from the rest of the building by fire resistant barriers according to the codes mentioned in 5.1.4.

C.

9.12.3.2 Protection of external fire spreading The protection from the external fire spreading is according to the codes mentioned in 6.3.5. 9.12.3.3 Separation into fire compartments A. The office and store areas should be separated from each other, as well as separated from industrial areas with fire resistant barriers according to the codes mentioned in 6.3 in addition to these codes. It is allowed to include the mezzanine and other areas necessary for completing the industrial operations.

B.

9.12.3.4 Interior finishing A. B. C. The codes mentioned in 6.6 should be applied in addition to these codes. The interior finishing for the walls and the ceilings should be as the following: of type A or B for the exits and the passages, from type A and B or C for other areas. The interior finishing for the grounds of the exits and passages should be of type 1 or 2.

9.12.4 Fire protection equipments and devices 9.12.4.1 Protection with water sprinklers A. Every high hazard occupancy should be protected whether it is used for storing or for productive operations and this should be done with sprinklers if the area of one fire compartment is more than 1000m2 for the multi floored buildings and 2000m2 for the single floor buildings. When the sprinklers are not enough or incompatible then they are replaced by alternative protection systems that are compatible with the danger like ventilation for discharging the flammable or exploding dusts and powders and also the ventilation for discharging the explosive vapours and other necessary precautions, by an accepted standard.

B.

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9.12.4.2 Alarm and other extinguishing equipments Alarms and fire extinguishing equipments should be supplied according to table 9.12.2 9.12.4.3 Utility services A. B. The necessary precautions in the field of utility services should be available according to the codes mentioned in chapter 7. The fire protection for utility services should be according to table 9.12.3.

9.12.5 Operation and monitoring 9.12.5.1 Emergency plan An emergency plan should be available for the establishment in coordination with civil defence. The employees should have knowledge of the plan and be trained on the necessary precautions to be taken during any emergency. All in Arabic and English or pictograms 9.12.5.2 Basic extinguishing equipments All the employees of the high hazardous establishments should be trained on using the extinguishing equipments available in the building.

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Table 9.12.1 Allowed constructions in high hazard buildings Type of super structure Floor
Underground

Ground

Upper floors 1 2 or more Allowed

First (443) First (332) Second (222)

Allowed but clause 9.12.1.7 should be


considered

Allowed

Allowed

Second (111)

Allowed but clause 9.12.1.7 should be


considered

Allowed

Allowed, the area of the floor is no more than 2000m2.

Not Allowed

Second (000)

Not allowed

Allowed, the area of the floor is no more than 1000m2.

Allowed, the area of the floor is no more than 1000m2.

Not allowed

Rest of types

Not allowed

443 and other are a short-term for the fire resistance of the constructional element in hours and they where cleared in the table

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Table 9.12.2 Alarm and fire extinguishing equipments for high hazard buildings

Type of equipment

Areas of concerned

1-Manual extinguishing equipments

Manual extinguisher

All floors

2-Fixed equipments

Rubber hoses

All the floors (with the exception of the single floored buildings with an area of less than 800m2 and the multi-floored buildings if the total area of the building is less than 1000m2 and with the exception of the cases that water is not allowed for extinguishing.) According to 8.3.1

Dry riser

Wet riser

According to 8.4.1

External fire hydrants

For big store complexes

3-Fire alarm equipments

Manual and Automatic alarm system

All floors (with the exception of the buildings where the area of one fire compartment is no more than 1000m2 and multi floored buildings if the total are of the building is less than 1500m2)

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Table 9.12.3 Utility services for fire protection in store buildings

Type of equipment

Areas of concerned

Ventilation system

If the area of one fire compartment is more than 1000m2 according to the accepted standards+ noting clause (9.12.4.1) Means of egress

Lighted guiding signs

Emergency lighting

All places and floors, with the exception of the open buildings and open-air buildings. High buildings

Secondary power source

Fire elevator

High buildings

Fire resistant doors

According to this chapter and chapter 5 and 6

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Index of chapter 10 Special buildings

Subject 10.1 Underground buildings 10.1.1 Implementation 10.1.2 Definitions 10.1.2.1 Underground building 10.1.2.2 Entrance opening 10.1.3 Special requirements 10.1.4 Exits 10.1.5 Smoke discharge system 10.2 High Rise Buildings 10.2.1 General 10.2.1.1 Implementation 10.2.1.2 Safety employees 10.2.2 Fire extinguishing 10.2.3 Detection and alarming of fire 10.2.4 Ventilation and smoke control 10.2.5 Elevators 10.2.6 Secondary power source 10.2.7 Main surveillance room

Page 223 223 223 223 223 223 223 223 224 224 224 224 224 224 225 225 225 226

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Chapter 10 Special buildings 10.1 Underground buildings

10.1.1 Implementation These codes are applied to all underground buildings while committing to the codes mentioned in chapter 9 according to the type of occupancy in addition to the additions and modifications mentioned in this chapter. 10.1.2 Definitions 10.1.2.1 Underground building Refer page 4. 10.1.2.2 Entrance opening It is any window or door or similar inspection openings like in the following: The dimensions should be no less than 60x60 cm and they should open in full so they can be used for rescue and ventilation. The height of the sill should be no more than 110 cm relative to the ground. They should open from inside and outside.

10.1.3 Special requirements A. B. If the occupancy load in any underground part of the building goes over 50 persons then the underground part should be protected with sprinklers. Emergency lighting should be installed for all the underground floors.

10.1.4 Exits If the occupancy load for the underground floor goes over 100 persons and the count of the underground floors is 2 or more then all the following is taking place: A. B. Separation of the exits of the underground floor of the ground floor according to clause 5.1.4. Supporting these exits with smoke ventilation (mechanical or natural) or by a pressure system.

10.1.5 Smoke discharge system The underground floors should be supported with an accepted smoke discharge system when the following criteria are met: 1. 2. 3. The occupancy load of the underground floors is no less than 100. The number of the underground floors equals two or more. The contents of the underground floors and flammable.

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10.2 High Rise Buildings 10.2.1 General 10.2.1.1 Implementation A. The codes of this chapter should be applied to all the buildings mentioned in chapter 9 and that contains inhabited floors that are more than 28 meters if height from the sideway until the last inhabited floor, while committing to the codes mentioned in chapter 9 according to the type of occupancy in addition to the supplements and modifications mentioned in this chapter. The following buildings and establishments are excluded from the codes of this chapter: Air Traffic Control towers in airports Open car parking Open-air assembly occupancy, group (A-5). Transition towers and electric towers and similar buildings. The mosques high parts.

B. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

10.2.1.2 Safety employees At least one employee trained in safety procedures must be available. provided for every high building. and this is according to the estimation of civil defence, for monitoring the safety precautions from fire and evacuations while providing the necessary training. 10.2.2 Fire extinguishing A. High buildings should be completely protected with sprinklers with the exception of residential apartments (group D-2). Every floor should have a control valve equipped with a temper switch electrically connected to an alarm board in addition to a flow key equipped with a flow switch which is also connected to an alarm board. All high buildings have wet fire risers and the diameter should be minimum of 2.5 inch or in accordance with the requirements of the building

B.

10.2.3 Detection and alarming of fire A. B. C. A manual or automatic alarm system should be installed in all the floors of high buildings. When there is the possibility of connecting directly with civil defence then the main alarm board should be connected to the closest civil defence center. A sound communication system that is connected to the main alarm board and the surveillance room should be installed and it should cover all the floors in addition to the elevators, to be used in emergencies for the safety employees of the buildings and by civil defence personnel. The alarm system should be connected to other utility services like ventilation system and elevators and fire extinguishing equipments and others according to the codes of civil defence. Page 224 of 239

D.

10.2.4 Ventilation and smoke control A. B. C. 1. 2. 3. 4. D. All the escape stairs should be protected from smoke according to the codes mentioned in 5.2.3. All the floors should have ventilation and smoke discharge through the ventilation windows or by using a mechanical ventilation system. When the ventilation windows are used the following should be provided: They should be distributed on the outer walls of each floor. Its area should be no less than 1% of the outer walls area for each floor. They should able to open from inside without any special equipments. They should be safely designed. so that they dont make dangers on the people present outside the building when they are opened during fire. When using a mechanical ventilation system the system should be independent or a part of the ventilation and conditioning system of the building but in all cases the system should provide the following: It should be enough for changing the air in any floor or area with an average of 6 times/hour. It should be provided with a secondary power source in addition to the main source. It should be connected to the alarm system.

1. 2. 3.

10.2.5 Elevators The elevators should be according to the codes of civil defence in general and they should undergo periodical inspection and maintenance. There should be no less than one elevator for the use of civil defence personal and it should be according to the accepted standards with all its special protection for the shaft,cabins and installations.

10.2.6 Secondary power source A secondary power source should be provided. It should be in accordance with the accepted standards and it should have enough power for operating all the needed equipments at the same time for at least two hours and it should be connected to the surveillance room. If the secondary power source is a generator then the room of the generator should be separated with fire resistant barrier with at least two-hour resistance. The secondary power source should be connected with all the following: Emergency lighting and guiding signs in Arabic and English. Fire elevator. Alarm system and voice communications. Electric fire pumps.

1. 2. 3. 4.

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5. 6.

Ventilation and smoke discharge equipments and devices. Main surveillance room and its equipments including the lighting equipments and other equipments.

10.2.7 Main surveillance room 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. A main surveillance room should be available and its location is specified in coordination with civil defence. The main surveillance room should have the following: Main alarm board and main communication boards. Elevator monitoring board. Sprinklers valves monitoring board and flow keys monitored by temper switches. Secondary power source monitoring board. The doors for the stairs control board if they are electrically connected, Fire pumps monitoring board. Control board for smokes and pressure systems. Gas supply monitoring board All signs, written in Arabic and English or pictograms

Page 226 of 239

Index of Chapter 11
Fire Safety Precautions in construction and demolition sites and tents

Subject 11.1 Temporary buildings for site offices and workers residence 11.1.1 Implementation 11.1.2 General requirements 11.1.3 Protection from external fire spreading 11.1.4 Means of egress 11.1.5 Super structure 11.1.6 Protection from dangers 11.1.7 Utility services 11.1.8 Alarm and fire extinguishing equipments 11.1.9 Operation and monitoring 11.2.1 Buildings under construction 11.2.1 Implementation 11.2.2 General requirements 11.2.3 Site arrangement 11.2.4 Electric cables 11.2.5 Alarm and fire extinguishing equipments 11.2.6 Operation and monitoring 11.3 Codes of fire safetyDuring building demolition

Page 229 229 229 229 230 230 230 230 231 231 232 232 232 232 233 233 233 234

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11.3.1 General requirements 11.3.2 Demolition using explosives 11.4 Codes of Safety from fire in tents 11.4.1 Implementation 11.4.2 General requirements 11.4.3 Means of egress

234 234 235 235 235 235

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Chapter 11 Fire Safety Precautions in construction and demolition sites and tents 11.1 Temporary buildings for site offices and workers residence

11.1.1 Implementation The codes of this chapter are applied on the temporary buildings and the construction sites (whether they are ready or assembled at the site), for special uses like temporary offices and temporary workers residence. 11.1.2 General requirements A. The construction sites including the temporary buildings should be arranged to provide access for civil defence vehicle and equipments to reach all the buildings and establishments according to the codes mentioned in chapter 3. The plans of the temporary buildings site should be provided explaining the roads and the nearby street and the services. An emergency phone should be provided. The area of the building can be no more than 200m2, unless it is separated into fire compartments and each compartment area is no more than 200m2 and fire resistant barriers should separate those compartments from each other with a resistance of no less than one hour. The residential units should be separated from each other and from the rest of the parts of the building by fire resistant barriers with a minimum resistance of half an hour. The ground floor should be separated from the first floor by a ceiling that has a fire resistance of no less than half an hour. It is not allowed to use the temporary buildings mentioned in this chapter for storing.

B. C. D.

E.

F. G.

11.1.3 Protection from external fire spreading A. To limit external fire spreading, enough distance should be provided between the buildings and separation with fire resistant walls and should be done according to the codes mentioned in 6.3.5, Temporary buildings should be separated from each other and from other buildings like stores and workshops and the buildings under construction. In all cases the separating distance between the temporary buildings mentioned in this chapter and the hazardous places should be no less than 6 meters. An empty space should be without any grass or trash or any flammable materials and it should be away at least 3 meters from the nearby temporary buildings.

B.

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11.1.4 Means of egress A. B. At least one main door should be available for every residential unit and it should lead directly out and it should open from inside easily and without usage of keys. Also one external window should be available according to the codes mentioned in 5.2.9.4 and this should apply for every sleeping room and every living room in every residential unit that contains two or more rooms and the window should open from inside without needing to use keys, the window can be ignored if the room has at least one door that lead directly to the outside. The travel distance from any point until the main road outside the buildings should be no more than the following: 15 meter when one mean of egress exists. 30 meters when two independent means of egress exists.

C.

11.1.5 Super structure The number of floors should be no more than 2 It is allowed to use any of the constructions mentioned in table 6.1 for the buildings of temporary offices and the temporary residential buildings.

11.1.6 Protection from dangers A building should be specified for the kitchen if it exist and it should be away from the rest of the buildings with 6 meter distance and it should have fire proof materials from inside. If gas cylinders exist then they should be in the open and they should be in a cage with a locked door to prevent tampering. It is not allowed to use any heat producing equipments like ovens and heater inside the residential unit or inside the offices. The temporary buildings should be away from other heat sources.

11.1.7 Utility services All the electric cables should be placed inside conduits while committing to the standards and the instructions of the ministry of electricity. The necessary grounding point and the automatic electric breakers should be provided but it is needed to notice the electric load on those breakers. The breakers should be put inside a metal box that is easy to reach and one breaker should be available in every residential unit or office and a separate breaker should be available for every conditioning unit. Other utility services should be according to the codes mentioned in chapter

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11.1.8 Alarm and fire extinguishing equipments A. When there exist an internal passage that connects between many sleeping rooms in the same residential unit and the occupancy load for the unit is no more than 30 individual, then smoke detectors that are connected to the general alarm system of the site for all these passages. B. All the buildings should have manual extinguisher according to clause 8.2. C. A rubber hose cabinets should be provided for the big complexes according to clause 8.6. D. A mean for alarming the workers when fire happens should be available, like a whistle or a bell or any other suitable means. 11.1.9 Operation and monitoring A. The workers should be trained on using the basic manual extinguishing equipments available in the site. B. Guiding and warning signs in Arabic and English or pictograms should be hanged in the project site and inside the temporary buildings and they should clarify the following: 1. No cooking and no usage for other cooking ovens and other heat producing devices may not be used inside the temporary buildings. 2. No smoking inside the sleeping rooms. 3. Precautions actions that needs to be taken to limit the fire dangers. 4. Clarifications of the safety precautions that needs to be taken in case of fire.

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11.2.1 Buildings under construction 11.2.1 Implementation The codes of this chapter are applied to the buildings under construction and its secondary buildings on the site that are necessary for the construction operations. 11.2.2 General requirements A. The projects sites should include the temporary buildings and the workshops and the buildings under construction should be arranged to provide access of civil defence vehicle and equipments to reach all the buildings and establishments according to the codes mentioned in chapter 3. B. The plans of the temporary buildings site should be provided explaining the position of the permanent and temporary buildings and the roads and the nearby street and the services. C. An emergency phone should be provided. D. Enough and suitable means of egress should be available for the buildings under construction and temporary buildings at all times. The means of egress can be composed of doors, passages, stairs, ramps, ladders and other accepted means of egress that are mentioned in chapter 5. E. All the storage and dealing with hazardous and fast flaming materials and gases and other works should be according to one of the accepted standards in addition to the instructions of civil defence. F. The industrial operations like electric cutting and joining and other dangerous operations should be according to the accepted standards in addition to the instructions of civil defence in a way that they dont create great dangers and they should be done in places specified for those operations and If it is needed to be inside the under construction buildings then a special approval should be sought. 11.2.3 Site arrangement A. Paths and ways for the civil defence equipments and vehicles should be provided before starting the project according to the codes mentioned in chapter 3. B. At least one working stair should be provided at al times and it should rise above the building during the construction. C. Special places should be available for storing and others for the workshops and maintenance and other operations and those buildings should be made of fire proof materials and they should be separated from each other according to the codes mentioned in 6.3.5. D. The hazardous areas should be separated from other places by leaving a distance according to the codes mentioned in 6.3.5, in all situations the separation distance should be no less than 6 meters. E. The site should be cleaned and trash and wood and other flammable materials accumulation should be minimized and the ways and paths should be kept passable at all times. The flammable materials should be removed when they exist in high amount that can pose a threat and this is done by either transporting them to a safe place inside the project or by transporting them completely outside the project

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The temporary buildings used for the residence of the worker and the offices should submit to the codes of chapter 11.1. H. It is not allowed for the workers to the under construction buildings as living quarters. I. Fall barriers should be made around the vertical spaces and the holes and other places that have the danger of falling. 11.2.4 Electric cables The electric equipments should be protected from shocks and others while committing to the standards and the instructions of the ministry of electricity, the necessary grounding point and the automatic electric breakers should be provided but it is needed to notice the electric load on those breakers. 11.2.5 Alarm and fire extinguishing equipments A. All the buildings should have manual extinguisher according to clause 8.2. B. A water tank or a permanent water source should be available for fire extinguishing in big complexes should be available. C. In the buildings that require a dry or wet risers then the rising pipe the risers should be installed while building the establishment, so it should rise with the building and at least one riser should be available for every floor and it is allowed to install one temporary rising pipe with the necessary risers. D. A mean for alarming the workers when fire happens should be available, like a whistle or a bell or any other suitable means. 11.2.6 Operation and monitoring A. The workers should be trained on using the basic manual extinguishing equipments available in the site. B. Guiding and warning signs in Arabic and English and the languish spoken by the majority of the worker or pictograms should be hanged in the project site and inside the temporary buildings and they should clarify the following: C. Precautions actions that needs to be taken to limit the fire dangers, including the precautions for dangerous materials and hazardous materials. D. Clarifications of the safety precautions that needs to be taken in case of fire.

G.

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11.3 Codes of fire safety During building demolition 11.3.1 General requirements A. The means of egress at the site of demolition should be kept passable and suitable during the demolition process, while putting the suitable guiding signs in Arabic and English. B. The permanent guarding should be available at all the time of official work and the guards should be given the necessary instructions about fire protection actions and basic extinguishing equipments available at the site. C. An emergency phone line for calling civil defence should be available. D. A surround for the building should be done and the surrounding materials should be fire proof or of slow flaming type. E. The necessary precaution conditions should be done while committing dangerous operations like cutting and joining. F. The fixed fire extinguishing equipments should be kept for the longest possible time and they should be removed from the site one floor at a time. G. A special pipe outside the building should be done for trash and derbies transportation from the high floors/ and the trash and flammable materials should be discharged from the site before they pile up in big quantities and they should not be burned within the site. 11.3.2 Demolition using explosives A. When using explosives for demolition then the approval of the concerned authorities in the ministry of interior including the civil defence should be given. B. The necessary precaution to prevent the passage of people and cars and others to get close to the explosion area. C. The site should have no less than two rubber hoses before committing the explosion according to the codes of chapter 8.6 and they should have enough length to reach any fire that can happen in the site directly after the explosion.

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11.4 Codes Safety from fire in tents 11.4.1 Implementation The codes in this chapter applies for the tents with all there types and sizes and uses. 11.4.2 General requirements A. The tents should have the needed flexibility to provide the needed safety for its occupants. B. It is not allowed to use tents for storage. C. It is not allowed to use any heat producing equipments like ovens, heaters, ovens and other inside the tents. D. The internal conditioning should be done by putting the air treating units outside the tents and providing the tent with air through a conditioning tunnel with a length of no less than 1.5 meters from the condition to the tent. E. The electrical lights used for internal lighting should be away from the fabric of the tent with at least 50cm. F. The electric cabling should be put inside conduits in addition to providing an electric breaker while taking into considerations the distributions of the electric load on the automatic breaker. As for the conditioning systems then they should be provided with an automatic electric breaker for each of them. G. The internal decors and the show fabrics should be treated with fire slowing materials. H. The fabrics and materials used for making the tents should be fire resistant and should submit to the accepted standards for that. I. Enough number of manual extinguishers should be available and with the needed capacity. J. A safety watcher or more should be available from the authorized party for tent installment to monitor the emergency situations and he should know how to use fire extinguishers and other emergency actions and he should have a direct mean of calling civil defence in emergencies or when a consultation is needed. K. A separation distance between the tents should be provided which is no less than 4 meters, while leaving the same distance between the tents and the nearby buildings. L. A space should be left without any trash or grass or any flammable materials on a range of 3 meters at least from all the sites around the tent. M. The super structure of the tent should be sturdy and the tent needs to be fixed in the right way so it can resist falling down due to winds and other expected loads. N. It is not allowed to deliver electric current to the tents in all their types and sizes unless the acceptance of civil defence is taken. 11.4.3 Means of egress A. Enough and suitable means of egress from the point of number, capacity, arrangement and width of the passages should be available according to the codes of chapter 5 and these codes as well. B. If the occupancy load foes over 50 individuals then the codes of clause 9.1.2 in addition to emergency lighting. C. At least two independent exits should be provided at least and they should lead directly to the outside and the doors should open from inside easily without the need for keys. D. The travel distance from any point to the main road outside the tent should be no more than 30 25 meters. Page 235 of 239

E. F.

For the parties and restaurant tents the chairs and tables should be arranged in a way that allows for the occupants to get out of the tent easily in emergencies. The means of egress should have the suitable guiding signs in Arabic and English and pictograms that should be placed at the doors of the exits and in the paths leading outside and they should be lighted at all the times when the tent is occupied.

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Index of Chapter 12
Fireman elevator

Subject 12.1 Buildings of concern 12.1.1 Structural requirements for the elevator shaft 12.1.2 Structural requirements for the elevator cabin 12.1.3 Technical safety and security measures 12.1.4 Means of egress 12.1.5 Signs 12.1.6 Exceptions

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12.1 A. B.

Building of concern The codes of this chapter are applied to buildings with 40 meters or more in high from the level of the sidewalk up to the level of the last resident floor. The fireman's elevator may be used for normal usage for the building services.

12.1.1 Structural requirements for the elevator shaft A. The firemans elevator shaft must be separated from all other shafts, openings, elevators, chutes or shafts used for other purposes except for the smoke release and air supply flap. B. The entire shaft must be constructed with a fire resistance rating of 120 min. including super structure, rails, anchorage. C. All doors,power supply and emergency light system must have 90 min. fire resistance. D. The shaft must have an air supply opening (bottom of the shaft 0.25m2) and smoke exhaust opening (top of the shaft 0.25m2) The opening must function automatically on heat detectors. 12.1.2 Structural requirements for the elevator cabin A. The cabin must be constructed of none inflammable materials. B. The floor size must be 3m2 minimum. C. The load bearing capacity must be designed for 6 persons (90kg each) plus 200 kg equipment. D. The cabin roof must have a flap opening of min. 60x60 cm. E. Each cabin must contain an aluminum ladder 2m high , 50cm width, properly stored. 12.1.3 Technical safety and security measures. A. The power supply and all cabling must have a fire protection encasement and must resist up to 340oC. B. The separate emergency power supply must be provided without interruption. C. The shaft as well as the cabin must have emergency lights. D. A special fireman's key must override all other switching functions. E. A firemans key control access must be available at each floor outside of the elevator door. F. The firemans keys must be identical for all buildings within the the City of Abu Dhabi. 12.1.4 Means of Egress All elevator doors must have a quick opening device to be operated manually from the inside of the shaft. 12.1.5 Signs The firemans elevator must be clearly marked (in Arabic and English) on each floor level. Inside the shaft, each floor must be clearly numbered with florescent paint for emergency purpose. 12.1.6 Exception In cases of lack of space for existing buildings or for architectural design reasons, the cabin may be located on the outside of the building, having no shaft at all.

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Sketch 13 Firemans elevator

C L

C L

C L

C L

Three cabins are permitted within one shaft, however the fireman's elevator must be in a separate shaft.

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