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The Verb Well

The Verb Well


A Thematic Introduction to Verbs, Verb Forms and Verb Use

by Chirawibha Sivell & John Sivell Illustrations by Cynthia DiSimone

Copyright 2000 FULL BLAST Productions

IN CANADA FB Productions Box 408 Virgil, Ontario L0S 1T0

IN THE UNITED STATES FB Productions Box 1297 Lewiston, New York 14092-8297

Photocopying rights are granted to the individual teacher or the single school purchasing the materials. A copy of this book purchased by an individual teacher is that teacher's property and can travel with her from school to school. A single copy of this book may not be kept at a resource center and used to service several schools. To be entitled to copy this book, a teacher in the school or the school itself must own an original copy. Please respect copyright. Canadian Cataloguing in Publication Data Sivell, Chirawibha, 1950The verb well : a thematic introduction to verbs, verb forms and verb use Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 1-895451-36-1 1. English language - Textbooks for second language learners.* 2. English language - Verb. I. Sivell, John, 1946- . II. DiSimone, Cynthia, 1959- . III. Title. PE1271.S58 2000 428.24 C00-932953-6

Printed in Canada.

ISBN 1-895451-36-1

INTRODUCTION
The design of this book
The Verb Well three-book series offers a carefully crafted set of verb-vocabulary materials to cover 450 frequent and useful verbs, 150 verbs per book. Each book in the reproducible series presents thirty easy-to-learn clusters of five verbs each, with each cluster organized according to meaning. Some share a common activity or setting e.g. "Garden": dig - harvest - plant - rake water. Others are governed by a key concept e.g. "Competition": compete - attack - fight - struggle - race. Either way, the organization has a thesaurus-like quality, in that the verbs always appear in a context created through inclusion of other related terms. This organizational plan has two important advantages. First of all, it helps students experience success with the crucial vocabulary-learning strategy of consistently grouping new words to be learned around an easily recalled center of meaning. Such an approach facilitates visualization, verbal association, chaining, and other familiar memory-enhancement techniques that can definitely promote vocabulary learning. Secondly, the structure of the book is designed to underline the necessity of recognizing and mastering distinctions between words that may be generally similar in meaning but that cannot be substituted for each other. Thus, for instance, the "Etiquette" group includes both insult and snub, and the "Liquids" group includes pour, spill, and sprinkle. Introducing this fairly simple but nonetheless eye-opening level of semantic subtlety helps overcome learners' common tendency to take a one-word-fits-all approach to vocabulary learning; that short-sighted expedient can lead to learning just very general expressions which are then overused and over-extended to the detriment of precision and flexibility. The verbs presented in the Verb Well series were chosen for frequency and utility. Three major word-frequency lists were consulted: West's A General Service List of English Words (London: Longman, 1953, rep. 1983), Kucera and Francis' Computational Analysis of Present-Day American English (Providence, Rhode Island: Brown University Press, 1967), and Carroll, Davies and Richman's The American Heritage Word Frequency Book (New York: American Heritage Publishing, 1971). A methodical computer analysis was carried out to determine which verbs tended to appear among the more frequent items on those lists and, from that selection, related items were assembled to form the core of each cluster, sometimes along with a few other high-utility verbs to round out the group. Of course, verbs make up only a part of the total word-store of any speaker, so that a selection of 450 verbs as in the entire three-book series represents a sub-set of a quite extensive vocabulary. Nevertheless, conscientious attention to frequency and utility has made it possible to bring together a very convincing and practical survey of verbs that really are worth either reviewing or learning from scratch.

The following groupings are found in Book 1 of the series:


1 - Making things MAKE - BUILD - COMPOSE - CONSTRUCT - CREATE 2 - Arranging things PLAN - ARRANGE - DESIGN - ORGANIZE - RELATE 3 - Fixing things CORRECT - FIX - REPAIR - MEND - REPLACE 4 - Delivering things BRING - TAKE - DELIVER - DROP OFF - TRANSFER 5 - Buying and selling BUY - SELL - CHARGE - PAY - RENT 6 - Cause and effect CAUSE - BRING ABOUT - EFFECT - AFFECT - RESULT 7 - Beginnings and endings START - BEGIN - STOP - END - FINISH 8 - Comparison and contrast COMPARE - CONTRAST - DIFFER - DISTINGUISH - RESEMBLE 9 - The process of change CHANGE - INCREASE - GROW - DEVELOP - IMPROVE 10 - Existence LIVE- EXIST - BE FOUND - OCCUR - HAPPEN 11 - Knowing and imagining DREAM - IMAGINE - KNOW - SEE THROUGH - WONDER 12 - Belief and hope ACCEPT - AGREE - BELIEVE - HOPE - WISH 13 - Giving advice ADVISE - SUGGEST - PROPOSE - TEACH - WARN 14 - Making comments COMMENT - INFORM - REMARK - TELL - REPORT 15 - Watching WATCH - GLANCE - NOTICE - CONSIDER - STUDY page 1 page 7

page 13 page 19 page 25 page 31 page 37 page 43 page 49 page 55 page 61 page 67 page 73 page 79 page 85

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16 - Leaders and followers GUIDE - LEAD - FOLLOW - COMMAND - YIELD 17 - Competition COMPETE - ATTACK - FIGHT - STRUGGLE - RACE 18 - Pleasure ENJOY - LIKE - PLEASE - DELIGHT - PREFER 19 - Displeasure, discomfort TROUBLE - DISLIKE - MIND - MATTER - SUFFER 20 - Social relations DATE - FLIRT - INTRODUCE - INVITE - VISIT 21 - Etiquette COMPLIMENT - GREET - INSULT - SNUB - THANK 22 - Kitchen HEAT - COOK - BOIL - FRY - ROAST 23 - Liquids POUR - FILL - SPILL - SPRINKLE - STIR 24 - Garden DIG - HARVEST - PLANT - RAKE - WATER 25 - Travel DEPART - TRAVEL - RIDE - DRIVE - FLY 26 - Getting there REACH - ARRIVE - COME - GO - ENTER 27 - Possession HAVE - OWN - BELONG - POSSESS - HOLD 28 - Giving and sharing GIVE - OFFER - PROVIDE - SUPPLY - SHARE 29 - Freedom and limits FREE - RELEASE - RESTRICT - LIMIT - REGULATE 30 - Ability KNOW HOW - BE UP TO - CAN - EMPOWER - ENABLE

page 91 page 97 page 103 page 109 page 115 page 121 page 127 page 133 page 139 page 145 page 151 page 157 page 163 page 169 page 175

ANSWER KEY

page 181 to 210

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Sections of the book and how to use them


Illustrations: Each verb cluster begins with an illustration capturing some thematic dimension of the group. The illustrations not only stimulate useful visualization but also underline the more general point that each lesson exemplifies the principle of learning vocabulary through a focus on patterns of meaning. As well, teachers can make use of the illustrations as jumping-off points for brainstorming activities before attacking the related verb cluster: students may be invited to suggest already-known verbs which are evoked by the illustration; then, when the actual lesson material is studied, those familiar verbs can help provide scaffolding to facilitate new learning. Definitions: The definitions have been written in a relatively informal style, with attention to assuring that the vocabulary of definitions never slips into complexities that are more demanding than the verbs actually being defined! A key feature is the careful ordering of verbs in each cluster, so that a useful verb that has already been defined can then be re-used as part of a subsequent definition. Additionally, it should be noted that one purpose of the example sentences (discussed below) is to extend the definition process by presenting the verbs in contexts further demonstrating their meaning. Verb chart: Next, the principal parts of each verb are given. A concise overview of verb morphology is thus available for student reference; to the extent that teachers judge necessary, based on their knowledge of their own students, it can also be used by teachers as a platform for more extensive grammar teaching in relation to the verbs. While there is a basic expectation that students using this text will already be familiar with the general principles of subject-verb agreement, sequence of tenses and so on, it is also recognized that specific grammatical patterns such as the use, or not, of direct or indirect objects will have to be learned in relation to each new verb. Thus, not only the verb chart but also some of the following examples and exercises are intended to support relevant grammatical learning. Because meaning is central to the effective recall and use of new verbs, there is a strong focus on meaning in this series, but the grammatical dimension receives appropriate attention, too. In designing their own lessons around these materials, teachers will find support for both aspects of the learning challenge. Example sentences: Six example sentences for each verb demonstrate not only the various meanings of the verb but also a selection of different tenses. When there are diverse meanings, these are identified by letters. As well, these sentences demonstrate relevant grammatical patterns, such as the use where appropriate of direct or indirect objects. And each example sentence has been thoughtfully composed so as to be as short as possible while at the same time creating a vivid mini-context in which the meaning will be clear and memorable. It can certainly also be helpful for teachers to encourage students to build on the example sentences by proposing their own personalized ones, which may well be even more memorable for them, but these need to be monitored very carefully and corrected where necessary for accuracy both in grammar and in meaning. Verb-use exercise: Students are given four opportunities to manipulate the various forms of the verbs and also to identify differing meanings according to the sentence-level context. As usual in these materials, while the grammar-morphology aspect is not ignored, there is always a strong focus on meaning. A good extension activity at this stage in the lesson is to ask students to go further and to create some of their own cloze-type verb-use sentences, to challenge their classmates.

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Related words: The final section on each verb is where available a short list of related words that can be derived from the verb by various different transformations. If grouping new words by meaning is the number-one principle of effective vocabulary acquisition, there is little doubt that the second most important rule is to maximize the benefit of new learning through awareness of related words that can easily be derived from items that have just been mastered. Thus, although straightforward past-participle/adjective derivations have been considered too obvious to be worth including, related nouns and adjectives unless they are very eccentric have been listed along with their own brief definitions. And this section not only provides a helpful increase in the number of words that will be learned; it also illustrates, as students work from verb to verb, the most common patterns of derivation that should be mastered and used. Review activities: The review activities at the end of each lesson covering all five verbs in the cluster begin with a table in which students must recognize the missing elements based on just one completed cell. Apart from rapidly revising that aspect of verb grammar, this table also presents the five semantically related verbs all together in one diagram, which offers a comparativemeaning overview as well. Choose the best verb: This review activity focuses primarily on meaning but, since the verbs are presented in various persons and tenses, there is also a grammatical dimension. The exercise itself deliberately offers just three such review sentences, so that the multiple-choice aspect of the work remains challenging because all the verbs will need to be considered at least once, although only three will be applicable). However, teachers may well wish to extend this activity in a number of ways, for instance by: 1) 2) 3) asking students to devise other multiple-choice sentence completions creating their own additional sentence-completion activities, using just a blank with no multiple-choice options (students refer to the five verbs in the group, select one, and adjust it for the correct number, tense and mood) combining verbs from more than one five-verb group in order to review a wider range of items, using either a multiple-choice or a simple gap-filling format.

Write your own sentences using the prompts: In this final review exercise, students move from highly structured cloze or multiple-choice work to considerably freer guided writing. Since prompts are provided, there will be a general comparability among different learners' sentences, so as to set the scene for meaningful discussion. Still, a good deal of individual creativity remains possible. And, of course as noted above in the treatment of the Example sentences exercise there is always the option of expanding work like this even further, inviting students to devise their own illustrative sentences without prompts. Write your own list of words with similar meanings: Each lesson ends with this extension exercise, which directs attention out from the five-verb group to students' broader vocabulary knowledge and interests. This exercise can be done individually if desired, but it will usually be most fruitful when performed as a brainstorming activity either with the whole class working together or probably better with a number of three- or four-student groups first brainstorming their own lists of associated words, which are then presented to the entire class for discussion, amendment, and adoption in the form of a final version comprising the best of all the suggestions. This activity serves the important purpose of leaving students with a legitimate sense of being able to assimilate new verbs to their existing vocabulary store and thus of being in control of the learning process. In a word, the goal is commitment or ownership. v

A final note on the choice of verbs


Although no special attempt was made to include verbs in the Introduction artificially, teachers may be interested to reflect on the fact that in the course of giving practical information in this Introduction the following twenty-eight verbs just from Book 1 of the Verb Well series naturally came into use: build, compose, create, make, design, organize, plan, relate, correct, bring, take, begin, end, compare, differ, know, suggest, consider, guide, lead, follow, attack, go, give, offer, provide, share, and can. This list would of course have been longer if all three books had been taken into account, but the point is already clear: these verbs really do come in handy, and your students will benefit from gaining a firm command of them!

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1: Making Things

Make

Build

Compose

Construct

Create

Make
Definition: Make Make: Produce something either (a) by work or effort, (b) by changing something to get what you want, or (c) by putting parts together. Verb Chart: Make

Infinitive: to make Present: I make Present Continuous: I am making Future: I will make Past: I made Past Continuous: I was making Present Perfect: I have made Past Perfect: I had made
Example sentences 1) Sandra wants to make a dress out of that cloth. (b) 2) Cheryl is a lawyer. She makes a lot of money. (a) 3) Bob is making a bow out of a branch. (b) 4) We made an igloo with blocks of snow. (c) 5) I am very busy but I will make time to see you. (a) 6) John and Susan were making a kite with pieces of paper and wood. (c) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Present) Mother ________________ a cake every time a family member has a birthday. 2) (Pres. Cont.) Do you think Alan ________________ a success of his studies? 3) (Past/negative) We ________________ a mess of the work that you gave us to do. 4) (Pres. Perf.) They ________________ a wonderful garden with just a few flowers and trees. Related word Maker (noun) A person or company that makes something. 1

1: Making Things
Definition: Build

Make

Build

Compose

Construct

Create

Build
Build: Make something by putting parts together or by using materials; this verb is typically used (a) for making places in which to live or work or (b) other objects, but it is also very often used (c) figuratively. Verb Chart: Build

Infinitive: to build Present: I build Present Continuous: I am building Future: I will build Past: I built Past Continuous: I was building Present Perfect: I have built Past Perfect: I had built
Example sentences 1) The mason builds a wall with bricks. (a) 2) Gerald and Marie are building a happy home together. (c) 3) We built our house in the suburbs. (a) 4) That company has built a new factory to contain its modern equipment. (a) 5) It is not easy to build a strong friendship. (c) 6) I would like to build a workstation for my computer equipment. (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Inf.) The company plans ________________ an apartment block near the park. 2) (Present) Cooperative effort ________________ trust among co-workers. 3) (Pres. Cont.) Steve ________________ a swimming pool in his back yard. 4) (Past) Mary is an excellent carpenter; she ________________ a very nice AV center for her living room. Related words Builder (noun) A person who builds things. Building (noun) A house, store, school, factory, apartment block or other place that has been built. 2

1: Making Things
Definition: Compose

Make

Build

Compose

Construct

Create

Compose
Compose: Make or form something by arranging the parts; this verb is typically used for (a) making artistic products, especially music, but it is sometimes also used in the passive voice to refer to (b) the analysis of parts: BE COMPOSED OF. Verb Chart: Compose

Infinitive: to compose Present: I compose Present Continuous: I am composing Future: I will compose Past: I composed Past Continuous: I was composing Present Perfect: I have composed Past Perfect: I had composed
Example sentences 1) That musician had composed five songs by the time she entered high school. (a) 2) He will compose his next symphony in the spring and summer because he enjoys that time of year. (a) 3) Mozart composed several operas. (a) 4) The economy of this country is composed of agriculture, commerce, and manufacturing. (b) 5) The poet was composing the words of the sonnet in her mind before writing them down. (a) 6) This experienced writer has composed speeches for many different politicians and business leaders. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Future) Paul says he ________________ new words for the melody of the old school song. 2) (Past Cont.) I watched her working when she ________________ her most recent ballet. 3) (Present) Some poets ________________ their best work when they are poor and unhappy. 4) (Past) The mixed softball team ________________ six boys and six girls. Related words Composer (noun) A person who composes things (nearly always used for people who compose music). Composition (noun) Something that has been composed (usually music), the action of composing something, or the pattern of organization inside something that has been composed. 3

1: Making Things

Make

Build

Compose

Construct

Create

Construct
Definition: Construct Construct: Make or build a house, machine or any other (a) thing or (b) idea, where the focus is on the expert combination of parts. Verb Chart: Construct

Infinitive: to construct Present: I construct Present Continuous: I am constructing Future: I will construct Past: I constructed Past Continuous: I was constructing Present Perfect: I have constructed Past Perfect: I had constructed
Example sentences 1) George was constructing his new garage all last month.(a) 2) Before my cousins came to stay with us, we had already constructed a swing for them to play on. (a) 3) No doubt he will construct a clever argument to prove that he is right! (b) 4) Henry Ford was the first person who constructed cars on an assembly line. (a) 5) Elaine constructs some of the most imaginative excuses I have ever heard! (b) 6) They are constructing a skyscraper in the center of town. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Past Perf.) Wanda ________________ a perfect model of Fort Niagara. 2) (Future) If I can, I ________________ houses as my profession. 3) (Past) The police officer ________________ a strong case to convict the criminal. 4) (Present) Abdul ________________ scientific apparatus at the university. Related word Construction (noun) The process of constructing something. 4

1: Making Things

Make

Build

Compose

Construct

Create

Create
Definition: Create Create: Basically, this verb means (a) make something new that did not exist before; it is often used to focus on (b) artistic work or (c) the work of God. Verb Chart: Create

Infinitive: to create Present: I create Present Continuous: I am creating Future: I will create Past: I created Past Continuous: I was creating Present Perfect: I have created Past Perfect: I had created
Example sentences 1) When the traffic gets heavy, it often creates a lot of problems. (a) 2) I hear that the dance company is creating a new show. (b) 3) In the beginning, God created the world. (c) 4) Agatha Christie has created many interesting characters in her books. (b) 5) The designer created a new style by combining leather and denim. (b) 6) Heavy workloads will usually create tension. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Past Cont.) The good atmosphere in the office ________________ a great work environment. 2) (Past Perf.) I was excited because my favorite group ________________ a new album. 3) (Future) Although there have been many great novels in the past, I am sure that today's authors ________________ others that are also excellent. 4) (Past) God ________________ Adam and Eve and the garden of Eden. Related words Creator (noun) A person who creates things, often used to refer to God (the Creator). Creation (noun) The process of creating something, also used to refer to the divine origin of the world (the Creation). 5

1: Making Things

Make

Build

Compose

Construct

Create

Review Activities
Complete the table Infinitive: Present: Present Continuous: Future: Past: Past Continuous: Present Perfect: Past Perfect: was making created am building compose to construct

Choose the best verb for each sentence be prepared to justify your choice 1) Bill created/built/composed a pen for his chickens. 2) That piece of music was composed/made/constructed by Beethoven. 3) We should work together to construct/compose/make a society in which everyone is respected. Write your own sentences using the prompts 1) (make / trouble) 2) (build / house) 3) (compose / music) 4) (construct / theory) 5) (create / team) Write your own list of words with similar meanings

2: Arranging Things

Plan

Arrange

Organize

Design

Relate

Plan
Definition: Plan Plan: Decide what to do and how/when to do it. Verb Chart: Plan

Infinitive: to plan Present: I plan Present Continuous: I am planning Future: I will plan Past: I planned Past Continuous: I was planning Present Perfect: I have planned Past Perfect: I had planned
Example sentences 1) Before going on holiday, I think it is fun to plan my trip in detail. 2) Most people just live; they do not really plan their lives. 3) The team of engineers is planning how to supply the town with water. 4) Agatha planned to visit her aunt for New Years eve, but there was an airplane pilots strike. 5) When we know how long our guests will be able to stay with us, we will plan for their visit. 6) Jerry was planning a quiet evening with his friends. Use the forms of the verb 1) (Present) Jessica _____________ her grocery shopping every Friday night. 2) (Pres. Cont./ negative) I________________ to buy a new vacuum cleaner now. 3) (Past) The town council _______________ to issue a by-law about water restrictions last month. 4) (Pres. Perf.) My father ________________ carefully for early retirement. Related words Plan (noun) A written or mental outline of how/when to do something. Planner (noun) A person who plans something. 7

2: Arranging Things

Plan

Arrange

Organize

Design

Relate

Arrange
Definition: Arrange Arrange: Create a desired relationship among (a) things or (b) events. Verb Chart: Arrange

Infinitive: to arrange Present: I arrange Present Continuous: I am arranging Future: I will arrange Past: I arranged Past Continuous: I was arranging Present Perfect: I have arranged Past Perfect: I had arranged
Example sentences 1) Please arrange the flowers in the vase. (a) 2) Sally is arranging for her brother to meet some of her friends. (b) 3) Who arranged the meeting? (b) 4) Dave has arranged everything for our trip to the theatre. (b) 5) When tidying up their room the children have to arrange their toys neatly. (a) 6) Before the party, I will arrange the furniture in a different way. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Inf.) We havent had time ________________ the books on these shelves. 2) (Present) The merchant ________________ his goods according to price. 3) (Pres. Cont.) _________ anybody _______________ for a taxi to come? 4) (Past) She ________________ to greet the new Mayor at the party. Related word Arrangement (noun) The pattern of organization among things that are arranged; or, a plan that people have agreed on. 8

2: Arranging Things

Plan

Arrange

Organize

Design

Relate

Organize
Definition: Organize Organize: Arrange (a) things or (b) events, with a special focus on practical results and on taking responsibility for them. Verb Chart: Organize

Infinitive: to organize Present: I organize Present Continuous: I am organizing Future: I will organize Past: I organized Past Continuous: I was organizing Present Perfect: I have organized Past Perfect: I had organized
Example sentences 1) The conference was not successful because the planners had organized it badly. (b) 2) I hope someone will organize the goods in the stock room because right now I can't find anything! (a) 3) I want to complement you on the way you organized the school outing.(b) 4) Bob organizes all of our staff birthday parties. (b) 5) The office was a great place to work when Anne-Marie was organizing all the supplies. (a) 6) They have organized the cupboard in a way that is a lot more convenient. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Future) Mr. Martinez ________________ a political meeting in Puebla. 2) (Past Cont.) The public relations officer ________________ a tour for the President. 3) (Present) Kim always ________________ her ideas before she begins writing an essay. 4) (Past) The micro-organisms ________________ themselves into a chain after a very short time. Related words Organization (noun) The arrangement of things or events that are organized; or, an office or institution. Organizer (noun) A person who organizes something. 9

2: Arranging Things

Plan

Arrange

Organize

Design

Relate

Design
Definition: Design Design: Either (a) prepare instructions or a picture to show how something should be made, or (b) create a thing or plan for a specific purpose. Verb Chart: Design

Infinitive: to design Present: I design Present Continuous: I am designing Future: I will design Past: I designed Past Continuous: I was designing Present Perfect: I have designed Past Perfect: I had designed
Example sentences 1) Unfortunately, the house was already being designed before the full cost of materials was known. (a) 2) I had trouble with the course because it had been designed for people who knew more about the subject than I did. (b) 3) Marika will design the electrical components for the new laboratory. (a) 4) Joel designed a line of trendy clothing for skateboarders. (b) 5) These tools are designed to be very easy to use. (b) 6) A special team of experts is designing the motor for our next model of car. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Past Perf.) Our office ________________ the system of dams along the Grand River. 2) (Future) I ________________ my own costume for the fancy dress party. 3) (Past/negative) Wilson and Co. ________________ that bridge. 4) (Present) They ________________ sewage systems to accommodate monsoon rains. Related words Design (noun) A plan for making something; or, an intention. Designer (noun) A person who designs things. 10

2: Arranging Things

Plan

Arrange

Organize

Design

Relate

Relate
Definition: Relate Relate: (a) Say or show that there is a connection between two or more things or ideas; also, (b) things or ideas RELATE TO or ARE RELATED TO each other when they seem to have a connection. Verb Chart: Relate

Infinitive: to relate Present: I relate Present Continuous: I am relating Future: I will relate Past: I related Past Continuous: I was relating Present Perfect: I have related Past Perfect: I had related
Example sentences 1) Golda is related to Harry, her second cousin. (b) 2) New medical discoveries are relating diseases to genetic factors. (a) 3) Probably her hockey skills related to her careful training.(b) 4) In this presentation, Junki has related Korea's economic success to the school system there. (a) 5) The detective used fingerprints to relate the suspect to the crime. (a) 6) Futurologists say that job opportunities will relate more and more to computer skills. (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Past Cont./negative) I think the reason why you didnt understand that passage is because you ________________ the events to their real cause. 2) (Future) Do you think that in future health problems ________________ more to the environment? 3) (Past Perf./passive) His parents said that Tims misconduct ________________ to drug addiction. 4) (Past) The police officer ________________ the witness testimony to the evidence at the crime scene. Related word Relationship (noun) Connection between things or people that are related. 11

2: Arranging Things

Plan

Arrange

Organize

Design

Relate

Review Activities
Complete the table Infinitive: Present: Present Continuous: Future: Past: Past Continuous: Present Perfect: Past Perfect: had planned will arrange organized was relating design

Choose the best verb for each sentence be prepared to justify your choice 1) The window was planned/related/designed to open and close automatically according to the temperature. 2) Nicoles father has arranged/designed/organized for a plane ticket for her. 3) Mustafa and Ali are organizing/planning/relating the route for their trip across Canada. Make your own sentences using the prompts 1) (plan / birthday party) 2) (arrange / table) 3) (organize / agricultural fair) 4) (design / building) 5) (relate / soil) Write your own list of words with similar meanings

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3: Fixing Things

Correct

Fix

Repair

Mend

Replace

Correct
Definition: Correct Correct: When a mistake has been made, (a) take out the mistake or (b) say or do something to make things right. Verb Chart: Correct

Infinitive: to correct Present: I correct Present Continuous: I am correcting Future: I will correct Past: I corrected Past Continuous: I was correcting Present Perfect: I have corrected Past Perfect: I had corrected
Example sentences 1) I'm sorry, I should have introduced myself. I'd like to correct that: my name is Gareth Smith. (b) 2) You can correct any false impressions about your honesty by taking a lie detector test. (b) 3) She has corrected the error in the financial statement. (a) 4) He corrected their misunderstanding by explaining that his home town was New York, not New Orleans. (a) 5) Ulrika cannot share in the driving right now but she will correct that problem next week if she passes her test. (b) 6) The teacher was still correcting the students' assignments at 11:30 pm. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Present) The students ________________ their spelling mistakes before handing in their work. 2) (Pres. Cont.) The timing in the cars engine is off so the mechanic ________________ it. 3) (Past) The police ________________ their poor public image by becoming friendlier and more helpful. 4) (Pres. Perf.) Ashley ________________ the students wrong idea that the test would be Tuesday. Related words Correction (noun) The action of correcting something; or, the corrected thing itself. Correct (adj.) Without errors.

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3: Fixing Things

Correct

Fix

Repair

Mend

Replace

Fix
Definition: Fix Fix: Solve the problem with an object or machine (a) that is damaged or (b) that will not work; also, (c) make food ready to be eaten. Verb Chart: Fix

Infinitive: to fix Present: I fix Present Continuous: I am fixing Future: I will fix Past: I fixed Past Continuous: I was fixing Present Perfect: I have fixed Past Perfect: I had fixed
Example sentences 1) Reza fixes any of the machines that break down in the factory. (b) 2) Sonomi is fixing the broken suitcase right now. (a) 3) They stayed for a light supper and I fixed them a nice big salad. (c) 4) Stop complaining; the door handle has been fixed for weeks now. (a) 5) Do you want to fix lunch today, or shall I do it? (c) 6) Who will fix the radio if it stops working again? (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Inf.) I will agree ________________ the dessert if you promise to do the main course. 2) (Present) Kentaro usually ________________ the computer himself when it is down. 3) (Pres. Cont.) The minute hand on the grandfather clock broke. My father ________________ it. 4) (Past) _______ Amy _________ the sewing machine or did she send it back to the store?

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3: Fixing Things

Correct

Fix

Repair

Mend

Replace

Repair
Definition: Repair Repair: Similar to FIX, but with only the first two meanings: solve the problem with an object or machine (a) that is damaged or (b) that will not work. Verb Chart: Repair

Infinitive: to repair Present: I repair Present Continuous: I am repairing Future: I will repair Past: I repaired Past Continuous: I was repairing Present Perfect: I have repaired Past Perfect: I had repaired
Example sentences 1) Look! That body shop has repaired my car's crumpled fender perfectly. (a) 2) If any of the paintings in the gallery get damaged, a skilled worked will repair them. (a) 3) Whenever her computer had a problem, Grace repaired it herself. (b) 4) Graham repairs small engines for a living. (b) 5) I was still repairing the lawn mower when the hedge clippers broke, too! (b) 6) I am glad that you have repaired that scratch on the woodwork so quickly. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Future) Dont worry, Jimmy. Mom ________________ your bicycle tire tomorrow. 2) (Past Cont.) I waited in the store while the man ________________ my VCR. 3) (Present) Mr. Wong ________________ radios. Some weeks he makes a lot of money. 4) (Past) The girls ________________ the chair before anyone noticed.

15

3: Fixing Things

Correct

Fix

Repair

Mend

Replace

Mend
Definition: Mend Mend: A narrower sense of FIX or REPAIR, typically used just for objects that (a) wear out or (b) break or tear, and almost never used for machinery. Verb Chart: Mend

Infinitive: to mend Present: I mend Present Continuous: I am mending Future: I will mend Past: I mended Past Continuous: I was mending Present Perfect: I have mended Past Perfect: I had mended
Example sentences 1) May was mending her torn collar with a new piece of cloth. (b) 2) The shoemaker had mended those shoes five times before I finally threw them away! (a) 3) If a window screen tears, I will mend it. (b) 4) Aaron mended the worn places on the handbag. (a) 5) These days people usually do not mend their old clothes; they just buy new ones. (a) 6) To save money, the team members are mending their own football gear whenever it gets damaged. (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Pres. Perf.) Grandma ________________ two pairs of socks for Heidi. 2) (Future/negative) I ________________ that old racket. I want to buy a new one. 3) (Past) Silvia ________________ the upholstery on her armchair with duct tape. 4) (Present) Some of the nets get ripped every day. The fisherman ________________ them regularly.

16

3: Fixing Things

Correct

Fix

Repair

Mend

Replace

Replace
Definition: Replace Replace: (a) Get a new thing instead of something that is damaged, does not work, or has been lost; also, (b) substitute one person for another. Verb Chart: Replace

Infinitive: to replace Present: I replace Present Continuous: I am replacing Future: I will replace Past: I replaced Past Continuous: I was replacing Present Perfect: I have replaced Past Perfect: I had replaced
Example sentences 1) If possible we replace outdated computers immediately. (a) 2) That's the new coach. He's replacing Joe Green, who moved to a different team. (b) 3) She replaced the missing books with new ones that were just the same. (a) 4) Rachida's car was in a collision last week. I think she will replace it with a new one. (a) 5) We really need a better manager to replace the person who is doing the job now. (b) 6) Company policy is to replace old equipment only when it can no longer be repaired. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Past Cont.) During the flu epidemic, the principal ________________ teachers almost every week. 2) (Past Perf.) Elke ________________ the wilted flowers before her guests arrived. 3) (Future) From next year on, the company ________________ only two thirds of retiring workers. 4) (Past) Serge ________________ the batteries in the new radio just a few days ago. Related word Replacement (noun) The act or replacing somebody or something; or, the actual person or thing used for the replacement. 17

3: Fixing Things

Correct

Fix

Repair

Mend

Replace

Review Activities
Complete the table Infinitive: Present: Present Continuous: Future: Past: Past Continuous: Present Perfect: Past Perfect: Choose the best verb for each sentence be prepared to justify your choice 1) Juan is mending/correcting/repairing his old tractor in the field. 2) It took my husband a few days to find the right screw to replace/fix/repair the one that had broken. 3) Mrs. Swamp fixed/mended/corrected her students bad behavior by praising them every time they did the right thing. Make your own sentences using the prompts 1) (correct / speech) 2) (fix / calculator) 3) (repair / photocopier) 4) (mend / silk shirt) 5) (replace / tire) Write your own list of words with similar meanings have fixed had replaced repaired am mending to correct

18

4: Delivering Things

Bring

Take

Deliver

Drop off

Transfer

Bring
Definition: Bring Bring: Come to a place (a) carrying a thing or (b) along with a person; also, (c) cause something to happen. Verb Chart: Bring

Infinitive: to bring Present: I bring Present Continuous: I am bringing Future: I will bring Past: I brought Past Continuous: I was bringing Present Perfect: I have brought Past Perfect: I had brought
Example sentences 1) Ed wants to bring ice-cream to the pot-luck supper. (a) 2) When the air is humid, a cool wind often brings rain. (c) 3) I hear that Sarah is bringing her new boyfriend to the party. (b) 4) The reduction in revenues brought a change in government policy. (c) 5) If there is room for Raoul on the team, I will bring him to the next practice. (b) 6) Paula and Joan were bringing wood for the campfire. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Present) The students ________________ their own lunch to school. 2) (Pres. Cont.) That truck ________________ a load of bricks onto the construction site. 3) (Past) Monique ________________ her little son to her office because the baby-sitter was sick. 4) (Pres. Perf.) The arrival of spring ________________ increased sales of garden supplies.

19

4: Delivering Things

Bring

Take

Deliver

Drop off

Transfer

Take
Definition: Take Take: (a) Get or hold something; (b) remove something from where you found it; or (c) carry or move something or somebody from one place to another. Verb Chart: Take

Infinitive: to take Present: I take Present Continuous: I am taking Future: I will take Past: I took Past Continuous: I was taking Present Perfect: I have taken Past Perfect: I had taken
Example sentences 1) Take whichever dessert you like. (a) 2) I can't find the scissors. Has anybody taken them? (b) 3) Mounia took an extra textbook over to her friend's house. (c) 4) It's okay. We are taking three more people to the meeting in our car. (c) 5) They offered me extra money for working late but I did not want to take it. (a) 6) Gerhard will take the paper work home with him and finish it there. (c) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Inf.) Dont forget ________________ an umbrella with you. 2) (Present) We usually ________________ our partner's hand when we are dancing 3) (Pres. Cont.) Lee-Anne ________________ her tour group on a walk around the Sydney Opera House. 4) (Past) Aziz ________________ a big load of laundry out of the washing machine and put it into the dryer.

20

4: Delivering Things

Bring

Take

Deliver

Drop off

Transfer

Deliver
Definition: Deliver Deliver: Take something to a place or a person. Verb Chart: Deliver

Infinitive: to deliver Present: I deliver Present Continuous: I am delivering Future: I will deliver Past: I delivered Past Continuous: I was delivering Present Perfect: I have delivered Past Perfect: I had delivered
Example sentences 1) Have they already delivered the mail this morning? 2) If you place an order today, we will deliver it to you tomorrow. 3) Marsha delivered the envelope by hand. 4) Sompon delivers parcels for the courier company. 5) It rained all day while I was delivering the newspapers. 6) I agreed to deliver the package to their house. Use the forms of the verb 1) (Future) Next week the company ________________ the books that I ordered on the Internet. 2) (Past Cont.) All last week Mario ________________ files to the office of his boss. 3) (Present) Kelly ________________ supper to Mrs Smiths apartment every Saturday. 4) (Past) The lumber store ________________ ten fence posts to our house. Related word Delivery (noun) The act of delivering something.

21

4: Delivering Things

Bring

Take

Deliver

Drop off

Transfer

Drop off
Definition: Drop off Drop off: (a) Deliver something; also, (b) take someone in your car (etc.) where they want to go and leave them there. Verb Chart: Drop off

Infinitive: to drop off Present: I drop off Present Continuous: I am dropping off Future: I will drop off Past: I dropped off Past Continuous: I was dropping off Present Perfect: I have dropped off Past Perfect: I had dropped off
Example sentences 1) I thought you were dropping her off at the train station. (b) 2) They wanted to know if I had dropped off my resum. (a) 3) If you ask, I'm sure Bill will drop you off at your house. (b) 4) Mary dropped off a note for you when she was on her way to work. (a) 5) That salesman drops off samples every week. (a) 6) I can't come home directly because I am dropping off a friend after the party. (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Past Perf.) Sasha ________________ his autumn coat at the dry cleaners. 2) (Future) Rieko ________________ a video cassette at her parents house, so that they could watch it. 3) (Past) Peter ________________ his son at the nursery. 4) (Present) My wife ________ me______ at my work before continuing to her own office.

22

4: Delivering Things

Bring

Take

Deliver

Drop off

Transfer

Transfer
Definition: Transfer Transfer: (a) Move something from one place or person to another; (b) move somebody from one place to another; or (c) change your own location from one place to another. Verb Chart: Transfer

Infinitive: to transfer Present: I transfer Present Continuous: I am transferring Future: I will transfer Past: I transferred Past Continuous: I was transferring Present Perfect: I have transferred Past Perfect: I had transferred
Example sentences 1) The company rarely transfers its employees to different branches. (b) 2) Did you hear? I have transferred from Buffalo to the factory in Toronto. (c) 3) Because of those problems I transferred my account to a new bank. (a) 4) Vlad has been transferred to the head office. (b) 5) Jane decided to transfer from college to university. (c) 6) If our service goes down, our customers will probably transfer their business to our competitors. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Past) The whole Martinez family moved to Japan when the fathers company _______________ him there. 2) (Pres. Perf.) Some of those recruits ________________ from the navy to the air force. 3) (Future) In that case, I ________________ that file to you as soon as I receive it. 4) (Past/negative) The students found out that wood ________________ heat as well as iron. Related word Transfer (noun) The act of transferring something or somebody, or of being transferred. 23

4: Delivering Things

Bring

Take

Deliver

Drop off

Transfer

Review Activities
Complete the table Infinitive: Present: Present Continuous: Future: Past: Past Continuous: Present Perfect: Past Perfect: had brought was taking will deliver to drop off transfer

Choose the best verb for each sentence be prepared to justify your choice 1) Tina transferred/brought/delivered her little girl from a public school to a private school. 2) Supermarkets in big cities are starting to move/deliver/bring groceries to customers homes. 3) Laura will deliver/move/drop off her friend at the train station. Write your own sentences using the prompts 1) (bring / swimming suit) 2) (take / purse) 3) (deliver / parcel) 4) (drop off / library card) 5) (transfer / new office) Write your own list of words with similar meanings

24

5: Buying and Selling

Buy

Sell

Charge

Pay

Rent

Buy
Definition: Buy Buy: Get something by paying money for it. Verb Chart: Buy

Infinitive: to buy Present: I buy Present Continuous: I am buying Future: I will buy Past: I bought Past Continuous: I was buying Present Perfect: I have bought Past Perfect: I had bought
Example sentences 1) Joanne plans to buy her own house next year. 2) Often I buy fruit at the outdoor market. 3) We are buying our television set on the installment plan: six payments over six months. 4) Albert did not buy the sports car because it was too expensive. 5) He will not buy that piece of land unless he can get a lower price. 6) Somebody said she was buying a big dog but I thought she only liked cats. Use the forms of the verb 1) (Present) In some countries, people dont do much cooking; they simply ________________ ready-to-eat food from vendors along the street. 2) (Pres. Cont./negative) I ________________ this dress! The price is terrible. 3) (Past) Where _______________ you ________________ the new computer in your office? 4) (Future) I think Tim and Terry ________________ this house when they see the recreation room. Related word Buyer (noun) A person who buys something. 25

5: Buying and Selling

Buy

Sell

Charge

Pay

Rent

Sell
Definition: Sell Sell: Transfer something to another person in exchange for an amount of money. Verb Chart: Sell

Infinitive: to sell Present: I sell Present Continuous: I am selling Future: I will sell Past: I sold Past Continuous: I was selling Present Perfect: I have sold Past Perfect: I had sold
Example sentences 1) Marilyn works on commission. She sells steel to manufacturers. 2) Are you selling your car or keeping it? 3) Andr sold his old bicycle for $25. 4) Look! I have already sold five pairs of trousers. 5) They will quickly sell that computer if they reduce the price. 6) We have to sell our apartment in Miami before moving to Vancouver. Use the forms of the verb 1) (Inf.) Do you really want ________________ this ring? 2) (Present) Farmers ________________ their products every Saturday at the open market. 3) (Pres. Cont.) The clerk ________________ tickets for the evening show. 4) (Past) Diana ________________ her property in Houston last month. Related words Seller (noun) A person who sells something. Sale (noun) The act of selling something; or, sometimes, a special time when things are sold at low prices. 26

5: Buying and Selling

Buy

Sell

Charge

Pay

Rent

Charge
Definition: Charge Charge: Ask for a certain amount of money when you (a) sell something or (b) provide a service. Verb Chart: Charge

Infinitive: to charge Present: I charge Present Continuous: I am charging Future: I will charge Past: I charged Past Continuous: I was charging Present Perfect: I have charged Past Perfect: I had charged
Example sentences 1) What happened? You have never charged this much for eggs before. (a) 2) When they come to clean the garden, they will charge by the hour. (b) 3) I was only charged $10 for this beautiful shirt! (a) 4) The daycare center charges $100 per week. (b) 5) In those days the store was charging more for hardware than it does today. (a) 6) They have charged for travel time as well as for time actually on the job. (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Future) They ________________ you that special price if you purchase it before the end of August. 2) (Past Cont.) I heard that Saul ________________ the company for organizing the conference. 3) (Present) The garage ________________ $18 per hour for their labor when they repair cars. 4) (Past) How much ______________ they ________________ you for your new hair cut? Related word Charge (noun) The amount of money requested in return for a thing or a service. 27

5: Buying and Selling

Buy

Sell

Charge

Pay

Rent

Pay
Definition: Pay Pay: Give money to someone when (a) they sell you something or (b) they do work for you. Verb Chart: Pay

Infinitive: to pay Present: I pay Present Continuous: I am paying Future: I will pay Past: I paid Past Continuous: I was paying Present Perfect: I have paid Past Perfect: I had paid
Example sentences 1) I had to stop having the grass mowed because I was paying too much each week. (b) 2) Don't ask for the bill, I have already paid. (a) 3) I think Stella will pay for her swimming lessons by check. (b) 4) We now think that we paid too much for those books. (a) 5) They pay $50 a month to have the snow plowed. (b) 6) Cheng had paid a lot for the car that was stolen from him. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Past Perf.) Wilai ________________ $350 a month for restaurant meals before she moved into her own apartment. 2) (Future) The company ________________ for your gas if you keep the receipts. 3) (Past) Sam ________________ for his new suit with his credit card. 4) (Present) Mrs. Pierce ________________ $20 twice a week to have someone clean her house. Related words Payee (noun) A person to whom money is paid for a thing or a service. Payment (noun) The act of paying; or, the amount that is paid. 28

5: Buying and Selling


Definition: Rent

Buy

Sell

Charge

Pay

Rent

Rent
Rent: (a) Pay an agreed amount of money (usually weekly or monthly) in return for being allowed to use something; also, (b) take an agreed amount of money in return for letting another person use something. Verb Chart: Rent

Infinitive: to rent Present: I rent Present Continuous: I am renting Future: I will rent Past: I rented Past Continuous: I was renting Present Perfect: I have rented Past Perfect: I had rented
Example sentences 1) We rent our apartment for $520 monthly. (a) 2) I am only renting this car; my own car is at the garage. (a) 3) Sammy rented his apartment to me while he was away for a year. (b) 4) Rita has rented storage space for her extra furniture. (a) 5) This August they plan to rent their cottage to a couple from Norwich. (b) 6) If I need money, I will rent my orchard to a local farmer. (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Past Cont.) Ted ________________ a small basement apartment when he lived in Toronto. 2) (Past Perf.) We ________________ our second-floor office space to a lawyer. 3) (Future) My husband ________________ a moving van when we move. 4) (Past) Malee ________________ computers from Johnson Computer Center to use in her new office. Related word Rent (noun) The amount requested or paid to rent something. 29

5: Buying and Selling

Buy

Sell

Charge

Pay

Rent

Review Activities
Complete the table Infinitive: Present: Present Continuous: Future: Past: Past Continuous: Present Perfect: Past Perfect: had sold have charged was renting will buy to pay

Choose the best verb for each sentence be prepared to justify your choice 1) In the winter, the zoo wont pay/charge/sell children any entrance fee. 2) We did not want to buy/charge/rent a place at the Marina for our boat last summer because we were going away. 3) My sister is paying/renting/selling too much for her clothes; thats why she is always broke. Write your own sentences using the prompts 1) (buy / shoes) 2) (sell / insurance) 3) (charge / bottle of wine) 4) (pay / mortgage) 5) (rent / tractor) Write your own list of words with similar meanings

30

6: Cause and Effect

Cause

Bring about

Effect

Affect

Result

Cause
Definition: Cause Cause: (a) Make something happen, either deliberately or by accident; also, (b) make somebody do something. Verb Chart: Cause

Infinitive: to cause Present: I cause Present Continuous: I am causing Future: I will cause Past: I caused Past Continuous: I was causing Present Perfect: I have caused Past Perfect: I had caused
Example sentences 1) A good pitcher can cause batters to strike out quite often. (b) 2) Carelessness causes mistakes. (a) 3) His happy attitude is causing everyone to feel better. (b) 4) It seems that the electrical storm caused those problems with our telephone. (a) 5) She is confident that her excellent performance will cause her boss to raise her salary. (b) 6) We changed the part of the motor that was causing the break-downs. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Present) Heat and humidity ________________ rapid growth of bacteria. 2) (Pres. Cont.) The lack of clean water ________________ the people in this town to get sick. 3) (Past) My sons conduct ________________ me a lot of anxiety. 4) (Pres. Perf.) The results of the course evaluation ________________ Professor Gomez to change her teaching method. Related word Cause (noun) The factor that causes something. 31

6: Cause and Effect

Cause

Bring about

Effect

Affect

Result

Bring about
Definition: Bring about Bring about: Make something happen, either deliberately or by accident (i.e. similar to the first meaning of CAUSE). Verb Chart: Bring about

Infinitive: to bring about Present: I bring about Present Continuous: I am bringing about Future: I will bring about Past: I brought about Past Continuous: I was bringing about Present Perfect: I have brought about Past Perfect: I had brought about
Example sentences 1) The end of winter usually brings about higher temperatures. 2) The poor economy is bringing about many social problems. 3) Pedro brought about a decrease in pollution by starting a recycling program. 4) The change in management has brought about several resignations. 5) If you give her a chance, Lina can bring about many valuable improvements. 6) I fear that unsafe boating practices will bring about several deaths again this summer. Use the forms of the verb 1) (Inf.) Too many strict rules in a classroom can ________________ discipline problems instead of curing them. 2) (Present) Urbanization often ________________ slums. 3) (Pres. Cont.) Industrialization ________________ an enormous increase in wealth in this country. 4) (Past) The new speed-camera used by the police _______________ a big improvement in driving habits.

32

6: Cause and Effect

Cause

Bring about

Effect

Affect

Result

Effect
Definition: Effect Effect: Make something happen deliberately (i.e. similar to BRING ABOUT, but only for deliberate actions). Verb Chart: Effect

Infinitive: to effect Present: I effect Present Continuous: I am effecting Future: I will effect Past: I effected Past Continuous: I was effecting Present Perfect: I have effected Past Perfect: I had effected
Example sentences 1) Before the first month was over, the new supervisor had effected most of the changes that were needed. 2) The bonus system will probably effect an improvement in productivity. 3) The medicine was very good; it effected a rapid cure. 4) A welcoming environment usually effects a transformation of student motivation. 5) We watched carefully to be sure that our actions were effecting the modifications we desired. 6) Since the recent victory, the army has effected a two kilometer advance. Use the forms of the verb 1) (Future) I hope that the new teacher ________________ an increase in discipline. 2) (Past Cont.) Controlling expenses in that department ________________ a real decrease in total costs for the company. 3) (Present/negative) Harsh punishment ________________ any change in the behavior of these prisoners. 4) (Past) The regular use of morphine ________________ a useful reduction in the patients pain level. Related word Effect (noun) The consequence of an action or situation (the cause). 33

6: Cause and Effect

Cause

Bring about

Effect

Affect

Result

Affect
Definition: Affect Affect: (a) Influence the way an event happens, or (b) have an impact on a thing or situation. Verb Chart: Affect

Infinitive: to affect Present: I affect Present Continuous: I am affecting Future: I will affect Past: I affected Past Continuous: I was affecting Present Perfect: I have affected Past Perfect: I had affected
Example sentences 1) For years corruption has been affecting the outcome of the elections. (a) 2) An old injury still affected the movement in his left arm. (b) 3) I am sure that my explanation will affect your decision. (a) 4) The good weather affected the growth of the plants. (a) 5) Hot sunshine affects me badly. (b) 6) The loud home-town crowd affected the result of the game. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Past Perf.) A wrong interpretation of the documents ________________ the witness testimony. 2) (Future) Martha believes that encouraging her son to read a lot ________________ his attitude to school. 3) (Past) The pneumonia I had last Christmas still ________________ my breathing a few months later. 4) (Infinitive) Heavy rains can ________________ the grape harvest negatively.

34

6: Cause and Effect


Definition: Result

Cause

Bring about

Effect

Affect

Result

Result
Result: (a) Happen because of something else that is a cause; also, (b) RESULT IN cause something to happen, either deliberately or by accident. (Note: RESULT and RESULT IN are typically used in the 3rd person. Verb Chart: Result

Infinitive: to result Present: it result Present Continuous: it is resulting Future: it will result Past: it resulted Past Continuous: it was resulting Present Perfect: it has resulted Past Perfect: it had resulted
Example sentences 1) Traffic accidents often result from drunk driving. (a) 2) Global warming is slowly resulting in climate changes. (b) 3) The company's improved sales record resulted from better training. (a) 4) His love of fried potatoes has resulted in high cholesterol levels in his blood. (b) 5) A new government may result in a different foreign policy. (b) 6) If you study more regularly, better grades will probably result. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Present) Sunny days and cool nights ________________ maple leaves turning red. 2) (Past Perf.) Her habit of drinking heavily ________________ alcoholism. 3) (Future) If they dont plan how to spend money carefully now, financial problems ________________. 4) (Past) They cut down a lot of trees along the river, and erosion of the river bank ________________. Related word Result (noun) An effect, the consequence of an action or situation (the cause). 35

6: Cause and Effect

Cause

Bring about

Effect

Affect

Result

Review Activities
Complete the table Infinitive: Present: Present Continuous: Future: Past: Past Continuous: Present Perfect: Past Perfect: Choose the best verb for each sentence be prepared to justify your choice 1) The early frost has affected/resulted/caused fruit damage in many orchards. 2) The dam system on the river affects/effects/causes the speed of water flow 3) The doctor wanted to know if the injections would bring about/result/affect any improvement in the sick persons condition. Write your own sentences using the prompts 1) (cause / cancer) 2) (bring about / poverty) 3) (affect / health) 4) (effect / rise) 5) (result / pollution) Write your own list of words with similar meanings am causing will effect affected to bring about results

36

7: Beginnings and Endings

Start

Begin

Stop

End

Finish

Start
Definition: Start Start: (a) Do an action that you were not doing before; (b) do a project that you were not doing before; or (c) leave on a journey. Verb Chart: Start

Infinitive: to start Present: I start Present Continuous: I am starting Future: I will start Past: I started Past Continuous: I was starting Present Perfect: I have started Past Perfect: I had started
Example sentences 1) If I had enough money, I would like to start a magazine. (b) 2) The baby often starts crying when it is nearly mealtime. (a) 3) Myrna is starting to think about her vacation already! (a) 4) Last year they started a new business in their home. (b) 5) When Aldo has a clear idea for it, he will start his next painting. (b) 6) We should start from the town square no later than 6:30 tomorrow morning. (c) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Present) Because of bad traffic, Nina ________________ for her office very early. 2) (Future) If the temperature changes abruptly, I _______________ getting a headache. 3) (Past) After finishing her Business degree, Marilu ________________ an import-export company in Madrid. 4) (Pres. Perf.) Mike ________________ preparing his thesis proposal even though the summer vacation is not over yet. Related word Start (noun) The act of starting something. 37

7: Beginnings and Endings

Start

Begin

Stop

End

Finish

Begin
Definition: Begin Begin: Similar to START, but normally used only for the first meaning: do an action that you were not doing before. Verb Chart: Begin

Infinitive: to begin Present: I begin Present Continuous: I am beginning Future: I will begin Past: I began Past Continuous: I was beginning Present Perfect: I have begun Past Perfect: I had begun
Example sentences 1) Please begin eating whenever you are ready. 2) I have already begun opening the mail. 3) They began climbing the mountain as soon as daylight came. 4) We are beginning to feel worried. 5) He used to begin complaining wherever he saw his boss. 6) She will begin working as soon as you bring her the materials. Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Inf.) I dont like my husband ________________ vacuuming the floor while I am watching television. 2) (Present) Alex ________________ working on his farm every day as soon as he finishes breakfast. 3) (Pres. Cont.) My little girl ________________ to get used to the idea of going to school every day. 4) (Past) The monkeys ________________ jumping crazily when they saw a big snake. Related words Beginning (noun) The act of beginning something; or, the earliest part of a process. Beginner (noun) A person who is beginning to do or to learn something, and who is therefore not highly skilled. 38

7: Beginnings and Endings


Definition: Stop

Start

Begin

Stop

End

Finish

Stop
Stop: (a) No longer do something that a person or thing was doing before; (b) prevent something from happening that was happening before; or (c) prevent something from moving that was moving before. Verb Chart: Stop

Infinitive: to stop Present: I stop Present Continuous: I am stopping Future: I will stop Past: I stopped Past Continuous: I was stopping Present Perfect: I have stopped Past Perfect: I had stopped
Example sentences 1) By the age of twenty-five Myriam had stopped smoking. (a) 2) The engineer will stop the train at the station. (c) 3) The rain stopped at about noon. (a) 4) This watch stops working whenever I get it wet. (a) 5) The wise coach was stopping the practice session often enough to keep the team rested. (b) 6) The noisy crowd stopped the show three times. (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Future) I ________________ complaining if you stop wearing muddy shoes in the house. 2) (Past Cont.) The police ________________ all the cars that came toward the accident scene. 3) (Present) We usually ________________ for gas at Mr. Alberts gas station. 4) (Past) By blowing her whistle, Miss Williams ________________ the chaotic scramble on the football field. Related word Stop (noun) The fact or process of stopping; or, the official place where a bus (etc.) stops for passengers. 39

7: Beginnings and Endings

Start

Begin

Stop

End

Finish

End
Definition: End End: Similar to STOP, but only with the first two meanings: (a) no longer do something that a person or thing was doing before; or, (b) prevent something from happening that was happening before. Verb Chart: End

Infinitive: to end Present: I end Present Continuous: I am ending Future: I will end Past: I ended Past Continuous: I was ending Present Perfect: I have ended Past Perfect: I had ended
Example sentences 1) The supervisor is ending the policy of heavy overtime. (b) 2) These new spark plugs have ended the problems I had with my car. (b) 3) Glenda knew that the storm would end before nightfall. (a) 4) Ted ended the water damage in his living room by installing a new roof. (b) 5) Our conversation was ending just as the others arrived. (a) 6) The first section of the music ends quietly. (a). Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Past Perf.) The Ministry of Education _______________ its policy of entrance exams for highschool. 2) (Future) We hope that these new regulations ________________ the traffic problems in Bangkok. 3) (Past) The movie ________________ earlier than usual. 4) (Present) According to the ad, this new drug ________________ migraine headaches within fifteen minutes. Related words End (noun) The act of ending; or, the place where something ends. Ending (noun) The part of a story or a piece of music (etc.) that brings it to an end. 40

7: Beginnings and Endings

Start

Begin

Stop

End

Finish

Finish
Definition: Finish Finish: (a) Complete some action and then stop doing it, with nothing left to do, or (b) complete some project and then stop doing it, with nothing left to do. Verb Chart: Finish

Infinitive: to finish Present: I finish Present Continuous: I am finishing Future: I will finish Past: I finished Past Continuous: I was finishing Present Perfect: I have finished Past Perfect: I had finished
Example sentences 1) I'll come and watch television when I finish washing the dishes. (a) 2) I was finishing my homework when my friend telephoned. (b) 3) Julio finished painting the kitchen at midnight. (a) 4) I could not go because I had not finished my chores. (b) 5) Kaoru will try to finish her exercises by 5:00 pm. (b) 6) We will finish decorating for the party tomorrow afternoon. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Past Cont.) Miki ________________ getting dressed when her boyfriend knocked at the door. 2) (Past Perf.) The farmer ________________ milking the cows by 7:30 am. 3) (Future) Bob ________________ the next chapter of his book before the weekend. 4) (Past) They ________________ wrapping their daughters presents just before the guests arrived. Related word Finish (noun) The last stage of a process. 41

7: Beginnings and Endings

Start

Begin

Stop

End

Finish

Review Activities
Complete the table Infinitive: Present: Present Continuous: Future: Past: Past Continuous: Present Perfect: Past Perfect: had ended will start begin am stopping to finish

Choose the best verb for each sentence be prepared to justify your choice 1) The tragic event finished/ended/began the laughter and joy among the family members. 2) Tassanee will get married as soon as she ends/stops/finishes her degree. 3) They started/began/stopped the newspaper when they had enough money to print the first ten issues. Write your own sentences using the prompts 1) (start / journey) 2) (begin / shouting) 3) (stop / medicine) 4) (end / party) 5) (finish / ice-cream) Write your own list of words with similar meanings

42

8: Comparison and Contrast Compare Contrast Differ Distinguish Resemble

Compare
Definition: Compare Compare: Examine or describe two things or people, to see both how they are the same and how they are different. Verb Chart: Compare

Infinitive: to compare Present: I compare Present Continuous: I am comparing Future: I will compare Past: I compared Past Continuous: I was comparing Present Perfect: I have compared Past Perfect: I had compared
Example sentences 1) Most parents do not like to compare their children; they love them all equally. 2) The scientist compares the litmus paper with the reference table. 3) In his essay Barny is comparing Canadian and US government structures. 4) Before I bought my car, I compared the various models in detail. 5) Sharon will compare the two designs and tell us which is preferable. 6) I have been comparing these two diamonds for twenty minutes, but I cannot decide between them. Use the forms of the verb 1) (Present) Most people ________________ carefully when they are choosing a holiday destination. 2) (Pres. Cont.) Ken and Bonnie want to buy a house; they ________________ the advantages and disadvantages of different parts of town. 3) (Past) The chef ________________ all the different tomatoes in order to select the best ones. 4) (Pres. Perf.) I feel good about working here because I ________________ this job with several others. Related word Comparison (noun) The action of comparing things; or, the information got by comparing things. 43

8: Comparison and Contrast Compare Contrast Differ Distinguish Resemble

Contrast
Definition: Contrast Contrast: (a) Examine or describe two things or people, to see how they are different; also, (b) look different from something or somebody else in at least one way. Verb Chart: Contrast

Infinitive: to contrast Present: I contrast Present Continuous: I am contrasting Future: I will contrast Past: I contrasted Past Continuous: I was contrasting Present Perfect: I have contrasted Past Perfect: I had contrasted
Example sentences 1) These shoes contrast with those ones because their toes are rounder. (b) 2) The politician is contrasting her own policies with those of her opponent. (a) 3) The green wallpaper contrasts nicely with the pink drapes. (b) 4) That terrible singer contrasts completely with the other one, whose CD just went gold. (b) 5) We want to contrast our plan with the one proposed by the other advisors. (a) 6) Good marketers will always contrast their company's products with any competing ones. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Inf.) It is easy ________________ those two basketball players because their styles are so different. 2) (Present) Although they have the same chemical origin, coal ________________ strongly with diamonds. 3) (Pres. Cont.) The judges ________________ the first-placed and second-placed entries in order to explain their decision. 4) (Past) The black and white tiles ________________ very clearly. Related word Contrast (noun) The action of contrasting things; or, the information got by contrasting things. 44

8: Comparison and Contrast Compare Contrast Differ Distinguish Resemble

Differ
Definition: Differ Differ: Be different from some other thing or person in at least one way. Verb Chart: Differ

Infinitive: to differ Present: I differ Present Continuous: I am differing Future: I will differ Past: I differed Past Continuous: I was differing Present Perfect: I have differed Past Perfect: I had differed
Example sentences 1) The weather here has never differed much from the regional average. 2) Even though people may seem similar at first, over time their characters will usually differ. 3) Last year our company's performance differed from all previous years. 4) This coat differs from that one because it is much warmer. 5) As a singer, Marla's range differs greatly from Roy's. 6) I do not trust this gauge; every time I have taken a reading, it has differed from the time before. Use the forms of the verb 1) (Future) If we go fishing again tomorrow, do you think our luck ________________ from yesterday? 2) (Past Cont.) As they watched the results come in, their numbers ________________ more and more from all of their competitors. 3) (Present) A really good teacher ________________ in important ways from a weaker one. 4) (Past) My opinion on that matter ________________ greatly from the rest of my group. Related word Difference (noun) The way in which either people or things differ from each other, or the extent to which they differ. 45

8: Comparison and Contrast Compare Contrast Differ Distinguish Resemble

Distinguish
Definition: Distinguish Distinguish: (a) See the difference between two different people or things; (b) cause a difference that makes a person or a thing special. Verb Chart: Distinguish

Infinitive: to distinguish Present: I distinguish Present Continuous: I am distinguishing Future: I will distinguish Past: I distinguished Past Continuous: I was distinguishing Present Perfect: I have distinguished Past Perfect: I had distinguished
Example sentences 1) The team was distinguished by its outstanding endurance. (b) 2) If you bring in all the evidence, the lawyer will distinguish what is central to the case and what is not. (a) 3) Jake can easily distinguish between computers that most people would think were the same. (a) 4) In fact I had distinguished between the good carpets and the bad ones even before you loaned me your book. (a) 5) Ella's intelligence really distinguishes her. (b) 6) Those engineers have been distinguishing themselves by their excellent designs for years. (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Past Perf.) That student leader ________________ himself by his honesty and hard work. 2) (Future) The mechanic ________________ between the reliable parts and the ones that must be changed. 3) (Past) Her outstanding artistic gift ________________ her from all others in the painting class. 4) (Present) Its very hard surface ________________ this paint from cheaper brands. Related words Distinction (noun) A feature that makes one person or one thing differ from another; or, a special feature that makes a person or thing remarkable. Distinct (adj.) Clearly noticeable; or, separate (because different). 46

8: Comparison and Contrast Compare Contrast Differ Distinguish Resemble

Resemble
Definition: Resemble Resemble: Be similar to another person or thing in at least one way. Verb Chart: Resemble

Infinitive: to resemble Present: I resemble Present Continuous: I am resembling Future: I will resemble Past: I resembled Past Continuous: I was resembling Present Perfect: I have resembled Past Perfect: I had resembled
Example sentences 1) Identical twins resemble each other perfectly. 2) The boy is resembling his father more and more. 3) My new house resembled my old house except that the kitchen was bigger. 4) Every picture you have painted has resembled something by Van Gogh. 5) I want the dog I buy to resemble the one I had when I was a child. 6) He hopes his daughter will resemble her mother when she grows up. Use the forms of the verb 1) (Present) People say that I ________________ my grandfather. 2) (Past Perf.) I would have recognized her at the airport if she ________________ the picture you gave me. 3) (Future) If my carpentry is good, this table ________________ the one at your house very closely. 4) (Past) The story he told me ________________ something I had read in a book. Related word Resemblance (noun) The way in which either people or things resemble each other, or the extent to which they are similar. 47

8: Comparison and Contrast Compare Contrast Differ Distinguish Resemble

Review Activities
Complete the table Infinitive: Present: Present Continuous: Future: Past: Past Continuous: Present Perfect: Past Perfect: Choose the best verb for each sentence be prepared to justify your choice 1) The razor-edged new knife compared/contrasted/distinguished very obviously with the dull old one. 2) Please compare/differ/distinguish the two offers and tell me which one I should accept. 3) That watch contrasts/resembles/compares the one that I lost, but it is not exactly the same. Write your own sentences using the prompts 1) (compare / flower) 2) (contrast / pencil) 3) (differ / slightly) 4) (champion / distinguish) 5) (resemble / ghost) Write your own list of words with similar meanings was differing will compare resembled to contrast distinguish

48

9: The Process of Change

Change

Increase

Grow

Develop

Improve

Change
Definition: Change Change: (a) Become different, or (b) make something or someone different. Verb Chart: Change

Infinitive: to change Present: I change Present Continuous: I am changing Future: I will change Past: I changed Past Continuous: I was changing Present Perfect: I have changed Past Perfect: I had changed
Example sentences 1) Bad habits are not easy to change. (b) 2) Mika changes her hair style almost every week. (b) 3) The clouds are changing before our eyes. (a) 4) The vegetation changed when the cold weather came. (a) 5) Victor thinks he will change his girlfriend's behavior. (b) 6) The temperature was changing from minute to minute. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Present) The fur of some rabbits ________________ color to match the seasons. 2) (Pres. Cont.) We ________________ our living room entirely. 3) (Past) Last year I ________________ the shape of the flower beds in the front garden. 4) (Pres. Perf.) Last year's child ________________ into today's adult. Related word Change (noun) The fact of changing, or the process of changing. 49

9: The Process of Change

Change

Increase

Grow

Develop

Improve

Increase
Definition: Increase Increase: (a) Become bigger, or (b) make something bigger. Verb Chart: Increase

Infinitive: to increase Present: I increase Present Continuous: I am increasing Future: I will increase Past: I increased Past Continuous: I was increasing Present Perfect: I have increased Past Perfect: I had increased
Example sentences 1) Prices increase when there is inflation. (a) 2) Loubia is increasing her involvement in the social club. (b) 3) The wind increased when the storm began. (a) 4) We noticed that juvenile delinquency had increased since the rise in unemployment. (a) 5) John is trying to increase his income by doing odd jobs. (b) 6) We will increase our exercise when the swimming pool opens. (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Inf.) It would be good ________________ output at the factory. 2) (Present) The risk of rain ________________ as the temperature drops. 3) (Past Cont.) I thought the speed of the air plane ________________ . 4) (Past) Their loud singing ________________ the noise at the party. Related word Increase (noun) The fact of increasing. 50

9: The Process of Change

Change

Increase

Grow

Develop

Improve

Grow
Definition: Grow Grow: (a) Become bigger (similar to the first meaning for INCREASE); (b) live and change while becoming older; (c) cultivate. Verb Chart: Grow

Infinitive: to grow Present: I grow Present Continuous: I am growing Future: I will grow Past: I grew Past Continuous: I was growing Present Perfect: I have grown Past Perfect: I had grown
Example sentences 1) Over the past decade Alma's investments have grown a lot. (a) 2) Those flowers will grow better if you pull out the weeds. (b) 3) Last year I grew potatoes in my garden. (c) 4) Oranges only grow where the winters are mild. (b) 5) Juan was growing basil and thyme in pots on his balcony. (c) 6) We found that the problem had grown over several months. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Future) She ________________ only vegetables in her garden next year. 2) (Past Cont.) The trees ________________ very well. 3) (Present) You will find that your worries ________________ as you get more possessions. 4) (Past) In the moments after the accident, the bump on his head ________________ quickly. Related words Growth (noun) The fact or process of growing. Grower (noun) Someone who grows things. 51

9: The Process of Change

Change

Increase

Grow

Develop

Improve

Develop
Definition: Develop Develop: (a) Change through time, or (b) cause something to change through time. Verb Chart: Develop

Infinitive: to develop Present: I develop Present Continuous: I am developing Future: I will develop Past: I developed Past Continuous: I was developing Present Perfect: I have developed Past Perfect: I had developed
Example sentences 1) The designers were developing a new prototype. (b) 2) His cough had developed over a period of at least one month. (a) 3) It's amazing, but this little acorn really will develop into a giant oak tree. (a) 4) We developed a good plan for defeating the other team. (b) 5) Phil develops building projects for construction companies. (b) 6) Since she began her ballet lessons, Martha's skills have developed wonderfully. (a) Use the forms of the verb 1) (Past Perf.) She was promoted because she ________________ a highly successful business strategy. 2) (Future) In time he probably ________________ into an excellent player. 3) (Past) That attitude ________________ in him throughout the summer. 4) (Present) This part of the medical research lab ________________ vaccines. Related words Development (noun) An event; also, the process of developing. Developer (noun) A person who develops things. Developmental (adj.) Related to the process of developing. 52

9: The Process of Change

Change

Increase

Grow

Develop

Improve

Improve
Definition: Improve Improve: (a) Become better, or (b) make something or somebody become better. Verb Chart: Improve

Infinitive: to improve Present: I improve Present Continuous: I am improving Future: I will improve Past: I improved Past Continuous: I was improving Present Perfect: I have improved Past Perfect: I had improved
Example sentences 1) Most readers improve quickly when they read a lot. (a) 2) Giuseppe is improving his back-hand by practicing every day. (b) 3) Pearl improved a lot when she started asking more questions about how to do her job. (a) 4) My time improved once I decided to run every day. (a) 5) The cook is adding herbs to improve the flavor of the soup. (b) 6) If you increase the budget, we will improve the quality of work. (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Past Cont.) He said that the wine ________________ every year. 2) (Past Perf.) They ________________ their cottage by installing a new shower. 3) (Future) Next year we will change our television antenna; that ________________ the quality of reception. 4) (Past) The lawn ________________ a lot after I hired an expert to look after it. Related word Improvement (noun) The fact or process of improving; or, a particular change that is better. 53

9: The Process of Change

Change

Increase

Grow

Develop

Improve

Review Activities
Complete the table Infinitive: Present: Present Continuous: Future: Past: Past Continuous: Present Perfect: Past Perfect: Choose the best verb for each sentence be prepared to justify your choice 1) Nothing stays exactly the same; everything develops/changes/improves over time. 2) They developed/grew/increased the plan during the autumn months. 3) We should probably grow/improve/increase the thickness of the insulation in the roof. Write your own sentences using the prompts 1) (change / slowly) 2) (develop / pneumonia) 3) (grow / cabbages) 4) (improve / next winter) 5) (increase / weight) Write your own list of words with similar meanings was changing will increase developed am growing to improve

54

10: Existence

Live

Exist

Be found

Occur

Happen

Live
Definition: Live Live: (a) Be alive; (b) have a home in a place; (c) grow in a place. Verb Chart: Live

Infinitive: to live Present: I live Present Continuous: I am living Future: I will live Past: I lived Past Continuous: I was living Present Perfect: I have lived Past Perfect: I had lived
Example sentences 1) Most people would like to live in California. (b) 2) Many flowers and trees live on those hills. (c) 3) The car has been badly damaged but the driver is still living. (a) 4) Gord lived in the Mid-West before moving to Ohio. (b) 5) Although many things will change, I believe our basic culture will live on. (a) 6) Mary-Jane was living in a small cottage beside a lake. (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Present) Orchids and ferns ________________ in humid forests. 2) (Pres. Cont.) They ________________ in a nice little apartment on Main Street. 3) (Infinitive /negative) That teacher planned to retire but he found that he could ________________ without seeing his students. 4) (Pres. Perf.) Because she is a diplomat, she ________________ in many different countries. Related word Life (noun) The time when a plant, animal or person is alive. 55

10: Existence

Live

Exist

Be found

Occur

Happen

Exist
Definition: Exist Exist: (a) Be present; also, (b) live or continue living. Verb Chart: Exist

Infinitive: to exist Present: I exist Present Continuous: I am existing Future: I will exist Past: I existed Past Continuous: I was existing Present Perfect: I have existed Past Perfect: I had existed
Example sentences 1) Plants cannot exist without oxygen. (b) 2) Deer have existed for centuries in North America despite being hunted. (b) 3) The Roman Empire existed thousands of years ago. (a) 4) Social injustice has always existed. (a) 5) That family has to exist with very little money. (b) 6) Do you think the family unit will still exist in another 100 years? (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Inf.) Scientists say that life may ________________ on some of the other planets. 2) (Present) Special fish ________________ at the bottom of even the deepest oceans. 3) (Future) The problem ________________ as long as you keep the same technology. 4) (Past Cont.) The poor farmers ________________ in very bad conditions. Related word Existence (noun) The fact of existing, or a way of existing. 56

10: Existence

Live

Exist

Be found

Occur

Happen

Be found
Definition: Be found Be found: Similar to LIVE (above), but only with the last two meanings: (a) have a home in a place, or (b) grow in a place. (Note: BE FOUND is used mainly in the 3rd person.) Verb Chart: Be found

Infinitive: to be found Present: is found Present Continuous: --------------Future: will be found Past: was found Past Continuous: --------------Present Perfect: has been found Past Perfect: had been found
Example sentences 1) Bears have been found in Canada since the arrival of the pioneers. (a) 2) I doubt that much plant life will be found in places where desert sands have covered the soil. (b) 3) Before settlement, huge white pines were found all over Eastern North America. (b) 4) Poor people are found in every large city. (a) 5) The bald eagle is found only in forested areas. (a) 6) He said that excellent mushrooms were found wherever fir trees grew. (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Future) Do you think that butterflies ________________ in that garden once more when the flowers are growing well again? 2) (Pres. Perf.) ________________ deer ever ________________ in that area? 3) (Present) Wild tulips ________________ on every continent. 4) (Past) Until about 1970, elm trees ________________ throughout Eastern Canada and the USA. 57

10: Existence
Definition: Occur

Live

Exist

Be found

Occur

Happen

Occur
Occur: (a) Take place, normally without being planned; also, similar to either meaning of BE FOUND: (b) have a home in a place, or (c) grow in a place. (OCCUR is used mainly in the 3rd person.) Verb Chart: Occur

Infinitive: to occur Present: occurs Present Continuous: is occurring Future: will occur Past: occurred Past Continuous: was occurring Present Perfect: has occurred Past Perfect: had occurred
Example sentences 1) Accidents were occurring too often. (a) 2) The incident had already occurred before we arrived. (a) 3) We know that other storms will occur after this one. (a) 4) Poison ivy occurred all over this area until we cleared it away. (c). 5) Rattlesnakes occur in many large parks. (b) 6) The crime was still occurring when the police got there. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Future) Despite the new safety regulations, we expect that a few fires ________________. 2) (Past) The report was very careless; errors ________________ on almost every page. 3) (Pres. Perf.) Although they are very rare, wild orchids ________________ here from time to time. 4) (Present) Foxes ________________ in the city more often than most people would believe. Related word Occurrence (noun) An event; a time when something occurs. 58

10: Existence

Live

Exist

Be found

Occur

Happen

Happen
Definition: Happen Happen: Similar to just the first meaning of OCCUR: take place, normally without being planned. (Note: HAPPEN is used mainly in the 3rd person.) Verb Chart: Happen

Infinitive: to happen Present: happens Present Continuous: is happening Future: will happen Past: happened Past Continuous: was happening Present Perfect: has happened Past Perfect: had happened
Example sentences 1) Collisions happen quite often on that stretch of road. 2) The argument is happening right now. 3) The eclipse happened in the afternoon. 4) That same problem has happened every day this week. 5) I don't want this to happen any more! 6) If you make that mistake again, the same thing will happen. Use the forms of the verb 1) (Past Cont.) The flood ________________ on the very afternoon we arrived. 2) (Past Perf.) How did you know that the kidnapping ________________? 3) (Future) I hope that the same thing ________________ to me as to my friend yesterday. 4) (Past) The biggest surprise ________________ after I had opened all the presents. Related word Happening (noun) A social event that attracts a lot of attention. 59

10: Existence

Live

Exist

Be found

Occur

Happen

Review Activities
Complete the table Infinitive: Present: Present Continuous: Future: Past: Past Continuous: Present Perfect: Past Perfect: had lived has occurred existed is found to happen

Choose the best verb for each sentence be prepared to justify your choice 1) We exist/live/occur in West Virginia. 2) The hailstorm existed/was found/happened on Thursday morning. 3) Artists often have to exist/occur/happen for a long time without a secure income. Write your own sentences using the prompts 1) (squirrels / be found) 2) (traffic jam / happen) 3) (exist / outer space) 4) (live / suburbs) 5) (confusion / occur) Write your own list of words with similar meanings

60

11: Knowing and Imagining

Dream

Imagine

Know

See through

Wonder

Dream
Definition: Dream Dream: (a) While sleeping, see imaginary pictures or stories in your mind; also, (b) while awake, think about events that are either very unlikely to happen or else very far away. Verb Chart: Dream

Infinitive: to dream Present: I dream Present Continuous: I am dreaming Future: I will dream Past: I dreamed/dreamt Past Continuous: I was dreaming Present Perfect: I have dreamed/dreamt Past Perfect: I had dreamed/dreamt
Example sentences 1) Michel likes to dream about the day when he will be able to afford an apartment on the West Coast. (b) 2) Whenever I dream, it is always in color. (a) 3) Maybe I'll win the lottery this week. No chance; you're just dreaming! (b) 4) Pierrette says she dreamed of her grandfather again last night. (a) 5) Good night. Dream of me and you will dream of an angel! (a) 6) They've been dreaming of a car like that for years. (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Pres. Cont.) He ________________ away his time, day in and day out. 2) (Present) Every night Felicia ________________ of her future in a mansion somewhere in Monaco. 3) (Past) When he was studying abroad, Glen often ________________ of his ailing father. 4) (Pres. Perf.) For weeks Rosa ________________ about getting a big research grant. Related words Dream (noun) The images or thoughts in a person's mind when dreaming, as in either of the two senses above. Dreamer (noun) Somebody who dreams (usually as in the second meaning, above). 61

11: Knowing and Imagining

Dream

Imagine

Know

See through

Wonder

Imagine
Definition: Imagine Imagine: (a) Think about something that is unreal, or that has not yet occurred, and develop a clear picture or idea of it; also, (b) make a guess about something that you do not actually know. Verb Chart: Imagine

Infinitive: to imagine Present: I imagine Present Continuous: I am imagining Future: I will imagine Past: I imagined Past Continuous: I was imagining Present Perfect: I have imagined Past Perfect: I had imagined
Example sentences 1) It's already seven o'clock. I imagine that they will be here soon. (b) 2) Irfan is always imagining what it would be like to live somewhere else. (a) 3) For a moment after I woke up, I imagined I was back in my home. (a) 4) Maki told me she imagined her papers would be ready in another week. (b) 5) Are there any seats left for the play? I don't imagine so. (b) 6) I can just imagine how happy they will be with this present. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Inf.) Its not hard ________________ why the committee turned down the proposal. 2) (Present) At this time of year I ________________ that the restaurant is full of tourists. 3) (Past Cont.) Little Chris ________________ what it would be like if he got on the merry-goround. 4) (Past) Nora closed her eyes and ________________ that she was in the garden with her mother again. Related words Imagination (noun) Ability to imagine things. Imaginary (adj.) Simply imagined and not real. Imaginative (adj.) Good at imagining things. 62

11: Knowing and Imagining


Definition: Know

Dream

Imagine

Know

See through

Wonder

Know
Know: (a) Feel certain about a fact or a piece of information because you have learned it, experienced it, or figured it out; also, (b) be acquainted with or be able to recognize a person, a place or a thing. Verb Chart: Know

Infinitive: to know Present: I know Present Continuous: --------------Future: I will know Past: I knew Past Continuous: --------------Present Perfect: I have known Past Perfect: I had known
Example sentences 1) They had known each other for three years before getting married. (b) 2) There is not exact rule about this but, when the meat is cooked, I'll know it. (a) 3) My father knew a great hockey player when he saw one. (b) 4) The owner of that store really knows wine. (b) 5) I knew all the answers on the test. (a) 6) If you complete that course on gardening, you will know all about plants. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Future) I am going to wear a red coat. That way, the people waiting at the airport ________________ me. 2) (Infinitive) Penny got ________________ her husband while she was studying in France. 3) (Present) The pupils in the grade three class ________________ the names of the Great Lakes. 4) (Past) We ________________ it was very cold because the pond was frozen. Related words Knowledge (noun) The total of all that a person knows. 63

11: Knowing and Imagining

Dream

Imagine

Know

See through

Wonder

See through
Definition: See through See through: Understand the real meaning of somebody's words or actions, even though they are trying to hide it. Verb Chart: See through

Infinitive: to see through Present: I see through Present Continuous: I am seeing through Future: I will see through Past: I saw through Past Continuous: I was seeing through Present Perfect: I have seen through Past Perfect: I had seen through
Example sentences 1) By the time of the crime, we were already seeing through him. 2) She stopped associating with him after she had seen through his friendly appearance. 3) If you are insincere, people will probably see through you quite quickly. 4) Many voters did not see through the government's dishonest policies. 5) Even very young children usually see through their parents' little tricks without difficulty. 6) Is he still crazy about her? No, I think he's seeing through her now. Use the forms of the verb 1) (Infinitive) Real scientists can ________________ the false data of faked experiments. 2) (Future) The conservation group _______________ any secret plan to continue polluting the lake. 3) (Past) The committee ________________ Dylans casual manner in the interview. 4) (Present) Effective managers ________________ excuses and unreasonable complaints quickly.

64

11: Knowing and Imagining

Dream

Imagine

Know

See through

Wonder

Wonder
Definition: Wonder Wonder: (a) Feel curious about something, or (b) ask yourself about something. Verb Chart: wonder

Infinitive: to wonder Present: I wonder Present Continuous: I am wondering Future: I will wonder Past: I wondered Past Continuous: I was wondering Present Perfect: I have wondered Past Perfect: I had wondered
Example sentences 1) I wonder why they did that. (a) 2) I was wondering how I could earn more money. (b) 3) Daranee wondered what was in the envelope. (a) 4) We have often wondered when they first fell in love. (a) 5) Ohashi is starting to wonder if History is the right subject for him. (b) 6) The resort has many attractions. I bet, when I get there, I'll wonder what I should do first. (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Past Cont.) Orissa ________________ whether she could join the school track team. 2) (Past Perf.) The farmers ________________ how soon the frost would come. 3) (Future) Youll be in a place where the culture is totally different from your own and you _______________ what you can do to fit in. 4) (Past) Arun ________________ how the magician made the rabbit disappear. Related words Wonder (noun) Something that makes people wonder, or the actual feeling of wondering about something (both as in the second meaning, above). Wonderful (adj.) Excellent. 65

11: Knowing and Imagining

Dream

Imagine

Know

See through

Wonder

Review Activities
Complete the chart Infinitive: Present: Present Continuous: Future: Past: Past Continuous: Present Perfect: Past Perfect: had dreamed will know saw through to imagine wonder

Choose the best verb for each sentence be prepared to justify your choice 1) Erika was dreaming/seeing through/wondering when she could introduce her boyfriend to her parents. 2) The jeweller imagines/knows/sees through a good diamond when he sees one. 3) Mark still dreamed/knew/wondered about the terrible crime even a few months later. Write your own sentences using the prompts 1) (dream / sports car) 2) (imagine / desert) 3) (know / write) 4) (see through / intention) 5) (wonder / examination) Write your own list of words with similar meanings

66

12: Belief and Hope

Accept

Agree

Believe

Hope

Wish

Accept
Definition: Accept Accept: Say yes to (a) a thing, (b) a person, or (c) an idea when that thing, person or idea is offered to you. Verb Chart: Accept

Infinitive: to accept Present: I accept Present Continuous: I am accepting Future: I will accept Past: I accepted Past Continuous: I was accepting Present Perfect: I have accepted Past Perfect: I had accepted
Example sentences 1) He's sure that they are going to accept him on the team. (b) 2) Osamu is very easy-going. He gladly accepts whatever work you give him. (a) 3) The trainer is accepting the prize for her star athlete, who cannot be present at the ceremony. (a) 4) Once it had been fully explained to her, Elaine accepted the plan. (c) 5) After they know you, I'm sure the family will accept you. (b) 6) I have never been able to accept the idea of throwing away things that could be recycled. (c) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Present) That publisher ________________ very few novels each year. 2) (Pres. Cont.) The other children ________________ their new little sister very well. 3) (Past) They apologized and I ________________. 4) (Pres. Perf.) That athlete ________________ a contract for $6,000,000 over three years. Related words Acceptance (noun) The action (or the attitude) of accepting something or somebody. Acceptable (adj.) Having qualities that make people accept it. 67

12: Belief and Hope

Accept

Agree

Believe

Hope

Wish

Agree
Definition: Agree Agree: (a) Say yes to a request or a proposal; or (b) have the same opinion or idea as somebody else. Verb Chart: Agree

Infinitive: to agree Present: I agree Present Continuous: I am agreeing Future: I will agree Past: I agreed Past Continuous: I was agreeing Present Perfect: I have agreed Past Perfect: I had agreed
Example sentences 1) Michiyo thinks that chair is really ugly, and I agree. (b) 2) Good news! I hear the company is agreeing to increase our wages. (a) 3) Marco agreed to help me prepare for the party. (a) 4) So far they have agreed with everything that I have suggested. (a) 5) He always wants people to agree with his political views. (b) 6) Don't be too sure that I will agree with all your ideas. (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Infinitive) Is it so hard ________________ to my request? 2) (Present) They ________________ with my opinion about the new building. 3) (Pres. Cont.) The newspaper says the oil companies ________________ to reduce gas prices. 4) (Past / negative) I suggested we should go to the movies but the rest of the group ________________. Related word Agreement (noun) The act of agreeing, or the written document recording it. 68

12: Belief and Hope

Accept

Agree

Believe

Hope

Wish

Believe
Definition: Believe Believe: Think that (a) something is true or that (b) somebody is telling the truth, usually even though there is little or no exact proof; also (c) when we BELIEVE IN somebody, we trust them. Verb Chart: Believe

Infinitive: to believe Present: I believe Present Continuous: I am believing Future: I will believe Past: I believed Past Continuous: I was believing Present Perfect: I have believed Past Perfect: I had believed
Example sentences 1) Randy had always believed that his family came from Scotland. (a) 2) If you do what you think is right, people will usually believe in you. (c) 3) We believed them after they explained how the accident had happened. (b) 4) Okay, I believe your story, but it does sound strange! (a) 5) We were believing them less and less, even before we received the new evidence. (b) 6) Karen has certainly not believed everything the teacher told her. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Future) Many people ________________ anyone who is wearing expensive clothes. 2) (Past Cont.) We thought she ________________ what we said because she kept listening carefully. 3) (Present) He always ________________ a sad story, no matter how unlikely. 4) (Past) We ________________ the returning explorers because they had excellent reputations. Related words Believer (noun) A person who believes. Belief (noun) Something that is believed, or the feeling of believing something. Believable (adj.) Able to be believed. 69

12: Belief and Hope

Accept

Agree

Believe

Hope

Wish

Hope
Definition: Hope Hope: Expect that something you want will happen or is true, usually with some reason to think that the desired outcome may occur (compare to WISH, below). Verb Chart: Hope

Infinitive: to hope Present: I hope Present Continuous: I am hoping Future: I will hope Past: I hoped Past Continuous: I was hoping Present Perfect: I have hoped Past Perfect: I had hoped
Example sentences 1) We were hoping we would find the right house. 2) I know that you have hoped to be on the team since last fall. 3) If the weather turns cold, they just have to hope that the train is not late. 4) Vera hoped that her lottery ticket would be a winner. 5) I hope I am right about Joseph. 6) They have been hoping for that result for a long time. Use the forms of the verb 1) (Past Perf.) We ________________ our team would win, but we were disappointed. 2) (Future) They _____ still ___________ for a happy outcome, no matter what happens. 3) (Past) I ________________ to meet new friends when we moved here. 4) (Present) She ________________ the painting is genuine. Related words Hope (noun) The act of hoping. Hopeful (adj.) Having features that make people have hope. Hopefully (adv.) Means about the same as, "I hope that..."

70

12: Belief and Hope

Accept

Agree

Believe

Hope

Wish

Wish
Definition: Wish Wish: Want something to happen or to be true, with no particular reason to think that the desired outcome can be controlled or will occur (compare to HOPE, above). Verb Chart: Wish

Infinitive: to wish Present: I wish Present Continuous: I am wishing Future: I will wish Past: I wished Past Continuous: I was wishing Present Perfect: I have wished Past Perfect: I had wished
Example sentences 1) I wish I could hear what they are saying. 2) I have been wishing for a change in my luck for a long time now. 3) After the snowstorm, Karim wished he was back in Malaysia. 4) Betty is not wishing that she could go to film school any more. She has found a great job in television production. 5) When we saw how happy our friends were with their dog, we started to wish we had a pet, too, but it's not possible in our apartment building. 6) When you see my new car, you will wish you owned it! Use the forms of the verb 1) (Past Cont.) He _____ always ___________ for things that he could not have. 2) (Past Perf.) The bike I got was even better than what I ________________ for. 3) (Present) I ________________ I was a lot taller, so that I could play basketball. 4) (Past) We all ________________ her luck before she left. Related words Wish (noun) The act of wishing. Wishful (adj.) Related more to dreams than to reality: used most often in the expression "wishful thinking". 71

12: Belief and Hope

Accept

Agree

Believe

Hope

Wish

Review Activities
Complete the table Infinitive: Present: Present Continuous: Future: Past: Past Continuous: Present Perfect: Past Perfect: had believed will accept agreed was hoping to wish

Choose the best verb for each sentence be prepared to justify your choice 1) We readily accepted/agreed/wished his explanation of what had happened. 2) Her honest face made them agree/believe/wish what she said. 3) If you get an offer in Hollywood, I will be the first to agree/hope/wish you luck. Write your own sentences using the prompts 1) (accept / check) 2) (agree / plan) 3) (hope / better weather) 4) (believe / luck) 5) (wish / swimming pool) Write your own list of words with similar meanings

72

13: Giving Advice


Definition: Advise

Advise

Suggest

Propose

Teach

Warn

Advise
Advise: Tell somebody what you think should or should not be done in a situation. Note: ADVISE often gives the feeling that the person advising may have more expertise than the person being advised; SUGGEST (below) usually gives the feeling that the two people are about equal; and PROPOSE (below) usually gives the feeling that the person who is proposing something has less decision-making authority than the other person. Verb Chart: Advise

Infinitive: to advise Present: I advise Present Continuous: I am advising Future: I will advise Past: I advised Past Continuous: I was advising Present Perfect: I have advised Past Perfect: I had advised
Example sentences 1) A good doctor can advise you about the best possible diet. 2) My partner advises that we close that store, but I do not agree. 3) Alexi has a new job. He's advising the town council on educational issues. 4) I am here because my neighbor advised me to come. 5) If you have any other problems, drop in and I will advise you again. 6) We were advising Adrianna to change jobs, but she decided to stay with the same company. Use the forms of the verb 1) (Present) What _____ you ___________, doctor? 2) (Pres. Cont.) She understands the stock market better than I do; so, she ________________ me on my investments. 3) (Past) He ________________ that I take a little time off. 4) (Pres. Perf.) Those consultants ________________ the company for many years. Related words Advisor (noun) Person who advises. Advice (noun) The decision or action that an advisor recommends. 73

13: Giving Advice

Advise

Suggest

Propose

Teach

Warn

Suggest
Definition: Suggest Suggest: Give an idea about a possible action or a possible way to do something. (See note on ADVISE SUGGEST PROPOSE, above) Verb Chart: Suggest

Infinitive: to suggest Present: I suggest Present Continuous: I am suggesting Future: I will suggest Past: I suggested Past Continuous: I was suggesting Present Perfect: I have suggested Past Perfect: I had suggested
Example sentences 1) I suggest that we take time off for lunch. 2) The board is suggesting a change in management. 3) I like the plan that Helmut has suggested. 4) What kind of restaurant has Irandukht suggested for this evening? 5) I'm afraid they will suggest doing a completely new study of the problem. 6) So, what else have you got to suggest? Use the forms of the verb 1) (Inf.) In the circumstances, it is not easy ________________ anything better. 2) (Present) How ____ you ____________ solving this problem? 3) (Pres. Cont.) What exactly _____ you ___________? 4) (Past) That was only one of the ideas that he ________________. Related word Suggestion (noun) An idea that has been suggested.

74

13: Giving Advice

Advise

Suggest

Propose

Teach

Warn

Propose
Definition: Propose Propose: Suggest an idea or plan so that somebody else can decide if it should be used. (See note on ADVISE SUGGEST PROPOSE, above) Verb Chart: Propose

Infinitive: to propose Present: I propose Present Continuous: I am proposing Future: I will propose Past: I proposed Past Continuous: I was proposing Present Perfect: I have proposed Past Perfect: I had proposed
Example sentences 1) The students have proposed a new date for the final examination. 2) If you do not like the way I do things, I hope you will propose constructive changes. 3) The committee did not accept what I proposed. 4) The Prime Minister's job is to propose government programs to the Parliament. 5) Jamil proposed marriage to Ellen. 6) They have agreed with most of what I have proposed. Use the forms of the verb 1) (Future) If you ask, I'm sure they ________________ improvements. 2) (Past Cont.) The project they ________________ was simply too expensive. 3) (Present) I'm not in control. I just ________________ things and then she makes the final decisions. 4) (Past) She ________________ the only plan that made sense. Related word Proposal (noun) The action of proposing something; or, an action or a decision that has been proposed. 75

13: Giving Advice

Advise

Suggest

Propose

Teach

Warn

Teach
Definition: Teach Teach: Explain or demonstrate something so that another person will (a) know about it, or will (b) know how to do it. Verb Chart: Teach

Infinitive: to teach Present: I teach Present Continuous: I am teaching Future: I will teach Past: I taught Past Continuous: I was teaching Present Perfect: I have taught Past Perfect: I had taught
Example sentences 1) Giuseppe was teaching geography at a high school in his home town. (a) 2) Haven't your parents taught you to behave?! (b) 3) I hope my teacher will teach me the main dates in the history of the USA. (a) 4) Madellena taught me to dance the tango. (b) 5) He teaches tennis at the country club. (b) 6) In the art course, she is teaching one new painter each week. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Past Perf.) I was angry because I ________________ him that golf stroke at least three times. 2) (Future) He says he ________________ botany next term. 3) (Past) The teacher I have now also ________________ my sister five years ago. 4) (Present) We want to find a place where they ________________ carpentry. Related word Teacher (noun) A person who teaches. 76

13: Giving Advice

Advise

Suggest

Propose

Teach

Warn

Warn
Definition: Warn Warn: Tell somebody about something that may be dangerous or unpleasant, so that they know about it. Verb Chart: Warn

Infinitive: to warn Present: I warn Present Continuous: I am warning Future: I will warn Past: I warned Past Continuous: I was warning Present Perfect: I have warned Past Perfect: I had warned
Example sentences 1) The sign warns swimmers about dangerous waves. 2) I'm warning you! Don't touch that wire. 3) Stephanie warned us that there were bears in the forest. 4) Has nobody warned you against driving without a seat-belt? 5) Please ask the supervisor to warn all employees about careless work. 6) Rick will warn the students to get their assignments in on time. Use the forms of the verb 1) (Past Cont.) The conservation officer ________________ campers to watch out for poison ivy. 2) (Past Perf.) The accident happened even though the police ________________ people about the dangerous corner. 3) (Future) I hope the newspaper report ________________ others to take care. 4) (Past) They ________________ us not to go too near the edge of the cliff. Related words Warning (noun) Advice that warns somebody about something, or the actual speech or writing that warns them. 77

13: Giving Advice

Advise

Suggest

Propose

Teach

Warn

Review Activities
Complete the table Infinitive: Present: Present Continuous: Future: Past: Past Continuous: Present Perfect: Past Perfect: had proposed will advise suggested was teaching have warned

Choose the best verb for each sentence be prepared to justify your choice 1) That experience did not advise/teach/warn me anything I did not already know. 2) The committee proposed/suggested/warned against being too ambitious at the beginning. 3) If I need help, will you be there to advise/suggest/propose me? Write your own sentences using the prompts 1) (my father / advise) 2) (my boyfriend or girlfriend / propose) 3) (my teacher / suggest) 4) (my first job / taught) 5) (my mother / warn) Write your own list of words with similar meanings

78

14: Making Comments

Comment

Inform

Remark

Tell

Report

Comment
Definition: Comment Comment: Give (a) an opinion about something or (b) an explanation of it. Verb Chart: Comment

Infinitive: to comment Present: I comment Present Continuous: I am commenting Future: I will comment Past: I commented Past Continuous: I was commenting Present Perfect: I have commented Past Perfect: I had commented
Example sentences 1) I hesitate to comment until I have heard more about the accident. (a) 2) Whenever something goes wrong, Brian always comments that he is not in charge. (b) 3) The boss has frequently commented on the excellent work done by this section. (a) 4) Hideko commented that her lateness was because of the bus strike. (b) 5) Probably the team captain will comment on the factors which contributed to their victory. (b) 6) In my report tomorrow, I am definitely commenting about the great success of the project. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Infinitive) We would like __________________ about the reasons for our problem with that coworker. 2) (Pres. Cont.) The judges __________________ on all the entries in the show. 3) (Past) Patanee __________________ that the weather had been excellent. 4) (Pres. Perf.) _____ anyone _____________ on the cost of the repairs? Related words Comment (noun) The act of commenting on something, or the actual opinion or explanation given. Commentator (noun) A person who has the official role of commenting about a topic (for instance, on the radio). 79

14: Making Comments

Comment

Inform

Remark

Tell

Report

Inform
Definition: Inform Inform: Make somebody know about something. Verb Chart: Inform

Infinitive: to inform Present: I inform Present Continuous: I am informing Future: I will inform Past: I informed Past Continuous: I was informing Present Perfect: I have informed Past Perfect: I had informed
Example sentences 1) My assistant always informs me of problems that come up in the factory. 2) The President's public relations officer is informing the press about the new Cabinet. 3) Panida informed us that she was moving to London. 4) Pirooz has informed his boss that he will leave the company next month. 5) You ought to inform yourself before making a decision. 6) I will inform you if there is any change. Use the forms of the verb 1) (Present) Kindly __________________ me when she arrives. 2) (Inf.) I will be sure __________________ the others if I hear anything. 3) (Pres. Cont.) Kate __________________ her friends about the jobs that are available. 4) (Past) Don __________________ the personnel department about his plan to retire early. Related words Informant (noun) A person who informs. Information The details given by an informant; or, more generally, what is known about a person, thing or event. 80

14: Making Comments

Comment

Inform

Remark

Tell

Report

Remark
Definition: Remark Remark: Say what you think or know about something. Verb Chart: Remark

Infinitive: to remark Present: I remark Present Continuous: I am remarking Future: I will remark Past: I remarked Past Continuous: I was remarking Present Perfect: I have remarked Past Perfect: I had remarked
Example sentences 1) We were relieved that our parents had not remarked on the mess after the party. 2) I doubt anyone will remark on the boss' mistake. 3) Alphonse remarked that the garden was one of the most beautiful he had ever seen. 4) Please have some cool drinks ready in case our visitor remarks on the hot weather. 5) The mayor was remarking on the flood plan when the dam broke. 6) Mona has often remarked that she does not like living in Washington. Use the forms of the verb 1) (Future / negative) I __________________ on the welcome I received on my first day here. 2) (Pres. Perf.) Tom __________________ many times that Canada is a great place for a holiday. 3) (Present) I bet Alice __________________ on the problem with the air conditioning. 4) (Past) After the meeting someone __________________ that they had been in the wrong room! Related word Remark (noun) Thoughts or information expressed by a person who is remarking on something. 81

14: Making Comments

Comment

Inform

Remark

Tell

Report

Tell
Definition: Tell Tell: (a) Give information about a particular subject; also, (b) give some or all details of something that has happened. Verb Chart: Tell

Infinitive: to tell Present: I tell Present Continuous: I am telling Future: I will tell Past: I told Past Continuous: I was telling Present Perfect: I have told Past Perfect: I had told
Example sentences 1) You have to tell the truth about the accident even if it causes trouble for you. (b) 2) Taro had just told me the price of the computer when we learned that the last one was sold. (a) 3) When she gets back, I'm sure she'll tell us how the meeting went. (b) 4) He told me he was left-handed. (a) 5) That clock is broken. It does not tell the time correctly. (a) 6) This is very interesting. Gloria is telling us about her trip to Morocco. (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Past Perf.) My father _____ never _____________ me about his experiences in the war. 2) (Future) ______ you ____________ us what happens? 3) (Past) I __________________ them that I did not want to return. 4) (Present) They subscribe to an e-mail service that __________________ them the latest weather forecast each morning. Related word Teller (noun) Somebody who tells something (most often found in expressions like story-teller or fortune-teller). 82

14: Making Comments

Comment

Inform

Remark

Tell

Report

Report
Definition: Report Report: Similar to TELL, but with only the second meaning: give some or all details of something that has happened. Verb Chart: Report

Infinitive: to report Present: I report Present Continuous: I am reporting Future: I will report Past: I reported Past Continuous: I was reporting Present Perfect: I have reported Past Perfect: I had reported
Example sentences 1) Every week Alice reports the latest results of her research. 2) All last summer the newspapers were reporting terrible thunderstorms. 3) Raffi reported the incident as soon as it occurred. 4) Have you reported how you solved the problem? 5) It is my pleasure to report that the team has finally had its first victory. 6) They will report on their journey as soon as they get back. Use the forms of the verb 1) (Past Cont.) Who __________________ traffic conditions yesterday? 2) (Past Perf.) Before the big earthquake, scientists ______ already ____________ six smaller tremors. 3) (Future) I expect that the television news __________________ this tomorrow. 4) (Past) We __________________ that everything was quiet. Related words Report (noun) Information that is reported, or the written or spoken words used when someone reports. Reporter (noun) Somebody with the official role of reporting on a subject (for instance, for a newspaper). 83

14: Making Comments

Comment

Inform

Remark

Tell

Report

Review Activities
Complete the table Infinitive: Present: Present Continuous: Future: Past: Past Continuous: Present Perfect: Past Perfect: Choose the best verb for each sentence be prepared to justify your choice 1) My cousin commented/remarked/told me what they were saying about me. 2) This paper informs/reports/comments the scores every week. 3) You are in the best position to remark/inform/report us about the latest developments. Write your own sentences using the prompts 1) (comment / clothes) 2) (inform / grades) 3) (remark / behavior) 4) (tell / secret) 5) (report / news) Write your own list of words with similar meanings have told will inform remarked comment to report

84

15: Watching
Definition: Watch

Watch

Glance

Notice

Consider

Study

Watch
Watch: Look at something carefully, usually for quite a long time; WATCH is typically used when looking at (a) things that move or change, or (b) things that might either move or change or else be moved or changed. Verb Chart: Watch

Infinitive: to watch Present: I watch Present Continuous: I am watching Future: I will watch Past: I watched Past Continuous: I was watching Present Perfect: I have watched Past Perfect: I had watched
Example sentences 1) Please watch the temperature to see if it changes. (b) 2) On weekends Roy watches birds with other club members. (a) 3) Marisa is watching the television and does not want to go out right now. (a) 4) I watched her suitcase for her while she went to buy a magazine. (b) 5) His sister says he will watch any sport you can name. (a) 6) They were watching the door when the inspector came in. (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Present) __________________ the way that dog is walking. Does it look okay to you? 2) (Pres. Cont.) He __________________ the kettle until it boils. 3) (Past) I __________________ a really good movie last week. 4) (Pres. Perf.) She __________________ every game played by her favorite team. Related word Watch (noun) A small clock that people usually wear on their wrist. 85

15: Watching

Watch

Glance

Notice

Consider

Study

Glance
Definition: Glance Glance: Look at something or somebody for a very short time and then look away. Verb Chart: Glance

Infinitive: to glance Present: I glance Present Continuous: I am glancing Future: I will glance Past: I glanced Past Continuous: I was glancing Present Perfect: I have glanced Past Perfect: I had glanced
Example sentences 1) When you are driving, glance into the rearview mirror from time to time. 2) Veronica has glanced my way at least ten times this morning. Is that a good sign? 3) Bernie glanced at his watch before getting on the bus. 4) I can't really judge that book yet. I've only had time to glance at it very briefly. 5) See if you can take a shot on goal while the goalie is glancing away. 6) Will you glance at my homework for me before I hand it in? Use the forms of the verb 1) (Inf.) We hope you will have an opportunity __________________ at the file tomorrow. 2) (Present) If he __________________ our way again, I'm afraid it means he has seen us. 3) (Past Cont.) I __________________ over the script of your new play and so far I like it a lot. 4) (Past) She __________________ into the mirror before going out. Related word Glance (noun) The action of glancing at somebody or something. 86

15: Watching

Watch

Glance

Notice

Consider

Study

Notice
Definition: Notice Notice: (a) Unexpectedly see something or somebody, or (b) become aware of them/it through some other sense; also, (c) pay attention to somebody or something. Verb Chart: Notice

Infinitive: to notice Present: I notice Present Continuous: I am noticing Future: I will notice Past: I noticed Past Continuous: I was noticing Present Perfect: I have noticed Past Perfect: I had noticed
Example sentences 1) We had noticed the damage to the car before you said anything about it. (a) 2) Have you noticed a strange smell? (b) 3) I did not notice the waiter much. Was there anything special about him? (c) 4) Now that Peter has become a movie star, he is too proud to notice his old friends.(c) 5) We were noticing changes in her conduct every day. (a) 6) Jackie is from a very distinguished family and I am just an ordinary person; so, I doubt she will notice me. (c) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Future) _____ you still _____________ us when you become rich and famous? 2) (Past / negative) Did you see that car? Sorry, I __________________ it. 3) (Present) He __________________ everything when he checks a report. 4) (Past) I __________________ unusual vibrations in my car yesterday. Related word Notice (noun) A sign put up to let people know something. 87

15: Watching

Watch

Glance

Notice

Consider

Study

Consider
Definition: Consider Consider: (a) Think about somebody or something, to judge their/its qualities or value; or, (b) have an opinion about the qualities or value of somebody or something. Verb Chart: Consider

Infinitive: to consider Present: I consider Present Continuous: I am considering Future: I will consider Past: I considered Past Continuous: I was considering Present Perfect: I have considered Past Perfect: I had considered
Example sentences 1) They have always considered Janice to be the ideal daughter. (b) 2) I was considering a move to a bigger city, but then I found a perfect job right where I was. (a) 3) Emilio says he will always consider that mistake to be the worst error in his life. (b) 4) She considered the offer of a new job but decided not to change. (a) 5) Trust me, the time will come when you consider this decision as very fortunate. (b) 6) By their late teens people should be considering their future quite carefully. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Pres. Perf.) I __________________ all my options and now I must choose. 2) (Future) They __________________ their plans over the weekend. 3) (Past) He __________________ himself lucky to have survived the accident. 4) (Present) Most people __________________ New York to be a very exciting city. Related words Consideration (noun) The act of considering something or somebody; or, an idea about somebody or something, which deserves attention. Considerable (adj.) Deserving attention. 88

15: Watching

Watch

Glance

Notice

Consider

Study

Study
Definition: Study Study: (a) Spend time and effort in trying to learn or understand something, often by reading about it or by taking lessons; or, (b) look at something or somebody very carefully. Verb Chart: Study

Infinitive: to study Present: I study Present Continuous: I am studying Future: I will study Past: I studied Past Continuous: I was studying Present Perfect: I have studied Past Perfect: I had studied
Example sentences 1) Hassan studies hard every evening. (a) 2) I hear Rachel is studying psychology. (a) 3) I studied her face but I could not figure out what she was thinking. (b) 4) We have studied your proposal carefully and we are going to accept it. (b) 5) Amateur biology is very enjoyable; you get to study animal behavior. (a) 6) After studying his watch intently for a moment he said, "It's broken for sure." (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Past Cont.) He __________________ his new haircut in the mirror. 2) (Past Perf.) I __________________ engineering in my own country before coming here. 3) (Future) If I get enough free time, I think I __________________ the habits of birds as my hobby. 4) (Past) She __________________ the airplane ticket to find the flight number. Related words Study (noun) A room that somebody uses regularly when studying; or, the subject(s) that a person studies (usually in the plural: studies). Student (noun) A person who studies. 89

15: Watching

Watch

Glance

Notice

Consider

Study

Review Activities
Complete the table Infinitive: Present: Present Continuous: Future: Past: Past Continuous: Present Perfect: Past Perfect: had watched will notice to glance consider am studying

Choose the best verb for each sentence be prepared to justify your choice 1) I watched/noticed/considered a sudden flash of light from the mountain top. 2) If you glance/notice/study that old stamp with a magnifying glass, you will see that it is in perfect condition. 3) They plan to watch/glance/notice every major film by Hitchcock over the next month or so. Write your own sentences using the prompts 1) (watch / sunset) 2) (glance / reflection) 3) (notice / stranger) 4) (consider / suggestion) 5) (study / English) Write your own list of words with similar meanings

90

16: Leaders and followers

Guide

Lead

Follow

Command

Yield

Guide
Definition: Guide Guide: (a) Show other people the way to a place and/or show them the main features of that place, or (b) show people how to do something. Verb Chart: Guide

Infinitive: to guide Present: I guide Present Continuous: I am guiding Future: I will guide Past: I guided Past Continuous: I was guiding Present Perfect: I have guided Past Perfect: I had guided
Example sentences 1) Good teachers like to guide their students through the difficult parts of the lesson. (b) 2) Mario guides tourists at the Colosseum. (a) 3) Marina will guide everyone around the campus just before the first day of classes. (a) 4) My mother guided my hand when I was learning to write. (b) 5) Try to find the answer yourself. If you have trouble, I will guide you. (b) 6) We found a local expert who guided us to the best fishing holes. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Present) In a small town, people often __________________ travellers who get lost. 2) (Pres. Cont.) She __________________ the weaker pupils and letting the others work on their own. 3) (Past) My big brother __________________ me through the process of tying a trout fly. 4) (Pres. Perf.) I __________________ museum visitors for the past four years. Related word Guide (noun) A person who guides others to and/or around a place; a book (or CD, or videocassette) that explains how to use a piece of equipment or how to do something. 91

16: Leaders and followers


Definition: Lead

Guide

Lead

Follow

Command

Yield

Lead
Lead: (a) Go first, with others coming after you (sometimes used like the first meaning of GUIDE, above); (b) physically guide a person (e.g. by taking their hand), or guide an animal by holding a leash or cord; (c) set an example and encourage others to act. Verb Chart: Lead

Infinitive: to lead Present: I lead Present Continuous: I am leading Future: I will lead Past: I led Past Continuous: I was leading Present Perfect: I have led Past Perfect: I had led
Example sentences 1) The captain we have now does not lead the team very well. (c) 2) Arnold is leading a tour around the art gallery. (a) 3) In fact nobody led the mission; we all worked independently. (c) 4) I'll shoe the horse if you lead it into the barn for me. (b) 5) Since I'm the only one who knows the way to the campsite, I'll lead the way. (a) 6) If you can't see well in the cave, put out your hand and Louise will guide you along the trail. (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Inf.) Who do we have __________________ the new political party? 2) (Present) Mick __________________ all other players in the points standings. 3) (Pres. Cont.) Sally __________________ a camel in the parade. 4) (Past) A big truck __________________ the convoy through the desert. Related words Leader (noun) A person who leads (especially as in the first and third meanings, above). Leadership (noun) Personal qualities that make somebody a leader; also, the act of being a leader. 92

16: Leaders and followers

Guide

Lead

Follow

Command

Yield

Follow
Definition: Follow Follow: (a) Move behind somebody or something that is going first; (b) happen at a later time than something else or live at a later time; (c) do the same as somebody else or do what they ask. Verb Chart: Follow

Infinitive: to follow Present: I follow Present Continuous: I am following Future: I will follow Past: I followed Past Continuous: I was following Present Perfect: I have followed Past Perfect: I had followed
Example sentences 1) Every time we have had a thunder storm, a dry period has followed. (b) 2) If you sing the song, the rest of us will follow along as best we can. (c) 3) Don't ask me! I just followed his orders. (c) 4) The red racing car had followed the blue one for eight laps before finally passing it. (a) 5) In the literary history of England, Milton follows Shakespeare, not the reverse. (b) 6) The detective was following the trail of a criminal. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Future) I am sure that everyone __________________ her good example. 2) (Past Cont.) The accident happened because that car __________________ too closely. 3) (Present) You can assemble the table without difficulty if you __________________ the instructions. 4) (Past) Bill Clinton __________________ George Bush as President of the United States. Related word Follower (noun) Somebody who follows (as in the third meaning above). 93

16: Leaders and followers


Definition: Command

Guide

Lead

Follow

Command

Yield

Command
Command: (a) Tell one or more people what they have to do; (b) say that something has to happen (both of the previous two meanings are used mainly in military-type contexts); or (c) require something that has to be given. Verb Chart: Command

Infinitive: to command Present: I command Present Continuous: I am commanding Future: I will command Past: I commanded Past Continuous: I was commanding Present Perfect: I have commanded Past Perfect: I had commanded
Example sentences 1) The general commanded that the disobedient soldier should be arrested. (b) 2) Such excellent music always commands attention from the critics. (c) 3) The captain will command the sailors to get into the lifeboats. (a) 4) In those days gold was commanding a much higher price than today. (c) 5) The captain commanded that the attack should be delayed. (b) 6) A new sergeant is commanding the platoon now. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Pres. Perf.) The admiral __________________ the fleet to turn back. 2) (Future) When it is properly aged, that bottle of wine __________________ at least $150. 3) (Past) The police chief __________________ that the whole building should be searched. 4) (Present) Although she lost the race, she __________________ respect for her exceptional courage. Related words Command (noun) The instruction(s) given by somebody who commands (as in the first two meanings, above). Commander (noun) A person who has official responsibility for commanding others. 94

16: Leaders and followers

Guide

Lead

Follow

Command

Yield

Yield
Definition: Yield Yield: (a) Stop resisting somebody or something that is going against you; (b) give something that is desirable or valuable. Verb Chart: Yield

Infinitive: to yield Present: I yield Present Continuous: I am yielding Future: I will yield Past: I yielded Past Continuous: I was yielding Present Perfect: I have yielded Past Perfect: I had yielded
Example sentences 1) Good farmland yields many bushels of wheat per acre (b) 2) The lawn was a mess when we moved in, but now it is slowly yielding to careful attention. (a) 3) At last the campers yielded to the bad weather and came home early. (a) 4) That mine has yielded a lot of gold over the years. (b) 5) Hanako is rich! Her hard work has finally yielded results. (b) 6) Oscar certainly is stubborn but if you give him good reasons, he will yield. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Past Cont.) In the nineteenth century the North Atlantic __________________ enough fish to supply all of Europe. 2) (Pres. Perf.) I do not really agree but I __________________ to their pressure. 3) (Future) Keep studying and in the end your efforts __________________ the high grades you want. 4) (Past) The store held out for years but eventually it __________________ to the economic decline of the entire neighborhood. Related word Yield (noun) The thing (or the amount of the thing) that is yielded (as in the second meaning, above). 95

16: Leaders and followers

Guide

Lead

Follow

Command

Yield

Review Activities
Complete the table Infinitive: Present: Present Continuous: Future: Past: Past Continuous: Present Perfect: Past Perfect: Choose the best verb for each sentence be prepared to justify your choice 1) Pure silk still follows/commands/yields a high price. 2) I would be happy to guide/lead/follow your advice. 3) Because my parents really wanted me to stay in school, I led/followed/yielded to them. Write your own sentences using the prompts 1) (guide / home town) 2) (lead / orchestra) 3) (follow / advice) 4) (command / loyalty) 5) (yield / profit) Write your own list of words with similar meanings was guiding led will follow to command yield

96

17: Competition
Definition: Compete

Compete

Attack

Fight

Struggle

Race

Compete
Compete: (a)Take part in a contest (etc.) to show your ability compared to others; also, (b) try to get people to buy your company's products or use your company's services, instead of another company's. Verb Chart: Compete

Infinitive: to compete Present: I compete Present Continuous: I am competing Future: I will compete Past: I competed Past Continuous: I was competing Present Perfect: I have competed Past Perfect: I had competed
Example sentences 1) Geraldine hopes to compete in the Olympics next year. (a) 2) Herb competes tirelessly with the other salespeople in his area. (b) 3) I can report that the company is now competing very well indeed. (b) 4) She is out of cycling now, but she did compete professionally for several years. (a) 5) Our new snowboard will compete with the most popular models on the market. (b) 6) When the movie studio found him, he was competing as a bronco rider in rodeos. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Present) American car makers now __________________ with imports from around the world. 2) (Pres. Cont.) Geraldine's training is going well; she __________________ better and better every day. 3) (Past) In those days we __________________ with four other companies. 4) (Pres. Perf.) Alain _____ never _____________ in a professional race. Related words Competitor (noun) Somebody who competes. Competition (noun) An event in which people compete with each other; also, the act of competing, or the participants competing. 97

17: Competition
Definition: Attack

Compete

Attack

Fight

Struggle

Race

Attack
Attack: (a) Use violence to hurt somebody; also, (b) use strategy to win a game or solve a problem; also, (c) criticize somebody harshly. Verb Chart: Attack

Infinitive: to attack Present: I attack Present Continuous: I am attacking Future: I will attack Past: I attacked Past Continuous: I was attacking Present Perfect: I have attacked Past Perfect: I had attacked
Example sentences 1) That newspaper regularly attacks the Prime Minister. (c) 2) The forwards are attacking the other team's goal. (b) 3) Last evening somebody attacked Luis and stole his wallet. (a) 4) I have attacked this algebra question every way I can think of, but it's too much for me! (b) 5) Although Camilla is really angry, she will try not to attack her boss publicly. (c) 6) We think the enemy will attack in the next day or two. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Inf.) Good tennis players know when __________________ with their forehand or backhand. 2) (Present) Some journalists __________________ public figures unreasonably. 3) (Pres. Cont.) The climbers __________________ Mount Everest. 4) (Past) The watchdog __________________ the intruder. Related words Attack (noun) The action or the event of attacking. Attacker (noun) Somebody who attacks. 98

17: Competition
Definition: Fight

Compete

Attack

Fight

Struggle

Race

Fight
Fight: (a) Use physical force in a conflict with another person; (b) have a verbal conflict with another person; (c) try hard to stop something from happening or to make it happen. Verb Chart: Fight

Infinitive: to fight Present: I fight Present Continuous: I am fighting Future: I will fight Past: I fought Past Continuous: I was fighting Present Perfect: I have fought Past Perfect: I had fought
Example sentences 1) Your clothes are dirty; have you been fighting with your brother again? (a) 2) We strongly oppose the new law. We will fight it all the way. (c) 3) Martin Luther King fought for the rights of African Americans. (c) 4) Those two neighbors constantly fight over the garden fence. (b) 5) The two armies were fighting outside the capital city. (a) 6) Since agreeing not to discuss politics, Toyoko and her husband have never fought about anything. (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Future) If we let both of them into the discussion, I am sure they __________________. 2) (Past Cont.) Two small boys __________________ in the schoolyard. 3) (Present) We may still win if we __________________ for what we want. 4) (Past) They __________________ to end pollution of the river. Related words Fight (noun) A physical or verbal conflict. Fighter (noun) A person who fights. 99

17: Competition
Definition: Struggle

Compete

Attack

Fight

Struggle

Race

Struggle
Struggle: (a) Fight physically with another person; or, (b) work very hard to deal with a person or a situation, to make something happen, or to prevent something, when it is very difficult to succeed. Verb Chart: Struggle

Infinitive: to struggle Present: I struggle Present Continuous: I am struggling Future: I will struggle Past: I struggled Past Continuous: I was struggling Present Perfect: I have struggled Past Perfect: I had struggled
Example sentences 1) The doorman was struggling with a person who did not want to leave the bar. (a) 2) All this year the teacher has been struggling to help two very weak students. (b) 3) The police officer is struggling with the cornered robber. (a) 4) Petra struggled for a long time to train her dog properly. (b) 5) Whenever those two players meet on the ice, they struggle over the puck. (a) 6) How is Tim doing in his physics class now? He's still struggling. (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Past Perf.) He __________________ with deafness for years before his condition was diagnosed. 2) (Future) If he tries to escape from this jail, I certainly __________________ with him but I doubt I will be able to hold him for long. 3) (Past) She __________________ to make a living as an artist. 4) (Present) Most people __________________ with their feelings about at least one member of their own family. Related word Struggle (noun) The process of struggling or a situation in which one or more people struggle. 100

17: Competition
Definition: Race

Compete

Attack

Fight

Struggle

Race

Race
Race: (a) Compete with one or more others to do something or to reach a destination the most quickly; (b) walk, run or travel very quickly. Verb Chart: Race

Infinitive: to race Present: I race Present Continuous: I am racing Future: I will race Past: I raced Past Continuous: I was racing Present Perfect: I have raced Past Perfect: I had raced
Example sentences 1) When you give them both something to do, they often race each other. (a ) 2) Our horse is racing against very stiff competition next week. (a) 3) Rita raced up to the house about five minutes late. (b) 4) Carlos was racing down the highway when he heard the police siren. (b) 5) People who like to race through their work are usually careless. (b) 6) I'll race you to the corner! (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Past Cont.) The teacher saw him when he __________________ out the back door of the schoolhouse. 2) (Present Perf.) That runner __________________ on four continents. 3) (Future) They __________________ home to catch the game on television right after work. 4) (Past) I __________________ my sister to see who could get dressed first. Related words Race (noun) A situation or event in which people are racing (as in meaning one, above); also, an election or a competition more generally. Racer (noun) A person who competes in a race. 101

17: Competition

Compete

Attack

Fight

Struggle

Race

Review Activities
Complete the table

Infinitive: Present: Present Continuous: Future: Past: Past Continuous: Present Perfect: Past Perfect: had attacked was fighting have raced will compete struggle

Choose the best verb for each sentence be prepared to justify your choice 1) Hal will probably compete/attack/fight in the chess tournament next week. 2) Suda fought/struggled/raced her friend to the end of the pool. 3) They have been competing/attacking/fighting to stop the town council from tearing down that beautiful old building. Write your own sentences using the prompts 1) (compete / television) 2) (attack / corruption) 3) (fight / battle) 4) (struggle / conscience) 5) (race / deadline) Write your own list of words with similar meanings

102

18: Pleasure

Enjoy

Like

Please

Delight

Prefer

Enjoy
Definition: Enjoy Enjoy: (a) Find pleasure in a thing or an activity, or (b) have something that is good for you; also (c) ENJOY YOURSELF, have fun. Verb Chart: Enjoy

Infinitive: to enjoy Present: I enjoy Present Continuous: I am enjoying Future: I will enjoy Past: I enjoyed Past Continuous: I was enjoying Present Perfect: I have enjoyed Past Perfect: I had enjoyed
Example sentences 1) Somchai expects to enjoy an excellent salary when he starts his new job. (b) 2) I enjoy going to movies. (a) 3) We were enjoying ourselves until the storm started. (c) 4) Yuko always enjoyed good health. (b) 5) The chef was sure we would enjoy the roast chicken. (a) 6) I can see from their smiles that they are enjoying themselves. (c) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Present) Marni ________________ a high reputation as a square-dancer. 2) (Pres. Cont.) They ________________ their new barbecue very much. 3) (Past) He really ________________ on his holiday in the mountains. 4) (Pres. Perf.) Thanks for coming. We ________________ meeting you. Related word Enjoyment (noun) Pleasure given by a thing or activity. 103

18: Pleasure
Definition: Like

Enjoy

Like

Please

Delight

Prefer

Like
Like: (a) Find pleasure in a thing or activity (similar to first meaning of ENJOY, above); (b) find something or somebody attractive; (c) be satisfied when something happens or hope for it to happen. Verb Chart: Like

Infinitive: to like Present: I like Present Continuous: I am liking Future: I will like Past: I liked Past Continuous: I was liking Present Perfect: I have liked Past Perfect: I had liked
Example sentences 1) I'm sure that Steve likes her a lot but I don't think he loves her. (b) 2) They are really liking their new house. (a) 3) Marie likes it when people tell her the truth. (c) 4) I used to like green cars better than red ones. (b) 5) I don't like milk at all. (a) 6) We would like you to come early, please. (c) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Inf.) Joe thinks that all people from England ________________ fish and chips. 2) (Present) Most teachers ________________ students who work quietly. 3) (Pres. Cont.) How ______ they __________ their new dog? 4) (Past) My boss ________________ employees to be on time. Related word Likable (adj.) A person or thing that is LIKABLE has features that you like. 104

18: Pleasure

Enjoy

Like

Please

Delight

Prefer

Please
Definition: Please Please: Make somebody satisfied or happy. Verb Chart: Please

Infinitive: to please Present: I please Present Continuous: I am pleasing Future: I will please Past: I pleased Past Continuous: I was pleasing Present Perfect: I have pleased Past Perfect: I had pleased
Example sentences 1) The recent change in the weather has pleased me a lot. 2) I'm sure this recipe will please you. 3) Greg pleased his new employers immediately. 4) Chefs know that quite simple food pleases the largest number of customers. 5) Parvin thought she was pleasing her parents by taking a job near home. 6) This bicycle is pleasing me more and more as I use it each day. Use the forms of the verb 1) (Future) He hopes these flowers ________________ his girlfriend. 2) (Past Cont.) Our new employee ________________ us completely until she started getting into arguments so often. 3) (Present) When I am really tired, restful music ________________ me a lot. 4) (Past) The kitchen ________________ him more than any other part of the apartment. Related word Pleasure (noun) The feeling of being happy and satisfied. 105

18: Pleasure
Definition: Delight

Enjoy

Like

Please

Delight

Prefer

Delight
Delight: (a) Make somebody extremely happy or satisfied (similar to PLEASE, above, but stronger); (b) DELIGHT IN: find very great pleasure in a thing or activity (similar to the first meaning of LIKE, above, but stronger). Verb Chart: Delight

Infinitive: to delight Present: I delight Present Continuous: I am delighting Future: I will delight Past: I delighted Past Continuous: I was delighting Present Perfect: I have delighted Past Perfect: I had delighted
Example sentences 1) Hilda delights in going for a swim first thing every morning. (b) 2) Why did she fight with you all the time? I don't know, but she was really delighting in the effect she had. (b) 3) Sunsets like that delight me. (a) 4) Don't worry. I'm sure he'll delight in wearing that shirt once he gets used to the color. (b) 5) Chuck has delighted everyone by giving away his noisy dog. (a) 6) The more we look at it, the more our new furniture is delighting us. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Past Perf.) John ________________ fishing for years before he moved to British Columbia. 2) (Future) When we finish repairing it, that old CD player ________________ you again. 3) (Past) Marlene ________________ her friends by throwing a surprise party for them. 4) (Present) Some people ________________ making others unhappy. Related words Delight (noun) The feeling of being extremely happy and satisfied. Delightful (adjective) Giving very great pleasure or satisfaction. 106

18: Pleasure

Enjoy

Like

Please

Delight

Prefer

Prefer
Definition: Prefer Prefer: Like one thing, event or person better than another (with the suggestion that this is what you would choose if possible). Verb Chart: Prefer

Infinitive: to prefer Present: I prefer Present Continuous: I am preferring Future: I will prefer Past: I preferred Past Continuous: I was preferring Present Perfect: I have preferred Past Perfect: I had preferred
Example sentences 1) My friend prefers not to eat broccoli or spinach. 2) At first we liked figure skating best but now we are gradually preferring tennis. 3) Raj preferred Chopin to Beethoven. 4) I think that referee has always preferred the other team over ours. 5) Sima might prefer to take the car if the weather is doubtful. 6) We would prefer a movie to a play, if possible. Use the forms of the verb 1) (Present) When I can, I ________________ to work at home. 2) (Past Perf.) They argued that the committee ________________ the other plan even before presentations were made. 3) (Future) If you try both, I expect you ________________ the cake my mother made. 4) (Past) When was a child, I ________________ going to school by bike rather than on foot. Related words Preference (noun) A feeling of liking one thing, event or person better than another; also, the act of choosing one rather than the other. Preferable (adj.) A person or thing that is PREFERABLE has features that you like better than another. 107

18: Pleasure

Enjoy

Like

Please

Delight

Prefer

Review Activities
Complete the table Infinitive: Present: Present Continuous: Future: Past: Past Continuous: Present Perfect: Past Perfect: have enjoyed had liked am pleasing will delight preferred

Choose the best verb for each sentence be prepared to justify your choice 1) If I know Sandrine, she will probably delight/prefer/like chemistry over sociology. 2) Rob enjoys/likes/prefers a lot of respect in his position as team captain. 3) People usually please/like/delight cold drinks on a hot day. Write your own sentences using the prompts 1) (enjoy / volleyball) 2) (like / goulash) 3) (please / me) 4) (delight / opera) 5) (prefer / working / relaxing) Write your own list of words with similar meanings

108

19: Displeasure and discomfort

Trouble

Dislike

Mind

Matter

Suffer

Trouble
Definition: Trouble Trouble: (a) Cause worry or doubt; (b) cause pain; or (c) cause inconvenience. Verb Chart: Trouble

Infinitive: to trouble Present: I trouble Present Continuous: I am troubling Future: I will trouble Past: I troubled Past Continuous: I was troubling Present Perfect: I have troubled Past Perfect: I had troubled
Example sentences 1) I did not want to trouble you with this request, but I cannot avoid it. (c) 2) His unexpected defeat in the last election still troubles him. (a) 3) Howard's old war wound is troubling him again. (b) 4) Yesterday my tooth troubled me very much. (b) 5) The loss of her house keys will probably trouble Alia until he finds them. (a) 6) Even as an adult, their son was always troubling them with childish requests for help. (c) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Infinitive) Can I ________________ you to give me a ride to the train station? 2) (Pres. Cont.) The weather is getting cool, and her rheumatism _______________ my mother badly. 3) (Past) The argument with her colleague ________________ Maria for a few days. 4) (Pres. Perf.) His bad back ________________ Mr. Morrison since he was quite young. Related words Trouble (noun) An experience that troubles. Troublesome (adjective) Likely to cause trouble. 109

19: Displeasure and discomfort

Trouble

Dislike

Mind

Matter

Suffer

Dislike
Definition: Dislike Dislike: (a) Find a thing or activity unpleasant; (b) find something or somebody unattractive (opposite to the first two meanings of LIKE). Verb Chart: Dislike

Infinitive: to dislike Present: I dislike Present Continuous: I am disliking Future: I will dislike Past: I disliked Past Continuous: I was disliking Present Perfect: I have disliked Past Perfect: I had disliked
Example sentences 1) Cal dislikes his teacher because the two of them have very different work styles. (b) 2) How is Susan getting on in Halifax? Actually, I think she's disliking life there. (b) 3) I dislike the feeling of humidity when the weather is very hot. (a) 4) I have disliked chocolate ever since I was a child. (b) 5) By all means try these shoes, but I'm sure you will dislike the way they fit. (a) 6) Most people dislike getting injections. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Inf.) Im starting ________________ being transferred from place to place every few years or so. 2) (Present) Freddie _______________ swimming in the sea. 3) (Pres. Cont.) Her mother can see that little Tomomi _______________ her new teacher. 4) (Past) People ________________ the mayor for his plan to bring a casino into the town. Related word Dislike (noun) Feeling of disliking something. 110

19: Displeasure and discomfort


Definition: Mind

Trouble

Dislike

Mind

Matter

Suffer

Mind
Mind: (a) Object to or feel troubled (by something or somebody) (Note: for this first meaning, MIND is used mainly in the interrogative, negative or conditional forms, and in the positive chiefly when answering a question); also, (b) look after or pay attention to something or somebody. Verb Chart: Mind

Infinitive: to mind Present: I mind Present Continuous: I am minding Future: I will mind Past: I minded Past Continuous: I was minding Present Perfect: I have minded Past Perfect: I had minded
Example sentences 1) Would you mind turning off the radio? (a) 2) I will be happy to mind the baby while you are away. (b) 3) I did not mind the cold weather when I was on holiday. (a) 4) Mind your fingers when you use that machine. (b) 5) Who was minding the store when the robbery took place? (b) 6) Do you mind if I close the window? Yes, I mind. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Future) Andrea _______________ the farm while her parents go on vacation for a few days. 2) (Past Cont.) The babysitter ________________ our daughter while we were out last night. 3) (Present) _________ you ________________ if I smoke? 4) (Past/negative) The president said that she ________________ being interviewed.

111

19: Displeasure and discomfort


Definition: Matter

Trouble

Dislike

Mind

Matter

Suffer

Matter
Matter: Be important or cause concern (Note: MATTER is used mainly in the interrogative, negative or conditional forms, and in the positive chiefly when answering a question. MATTER is used mainly in the 3rd person). Verb Chart: Matter

Infinitive: to matter Present: it matters Present Continuous: --------------Future: it will matter Past: it mattered Past Continuous: --------------Present Perfect: it has mattered Past Perfect: it had mattered
Example sentences 1) What does it matter if we get there late? 2) Would it matter if the price went up? 3) When the rain started, it did not matter because we were ready to go inside anyway. 4) He only cares about his work; recreation has never mattered to him. 5) Does it matter to you if I smoke? Yes, it matters. 6) Your income will matter more to you when you have a family. Use the forms of the verb 1) (Past Perf./negative) A heavy workload ________________ to him before. 2) (Future) Multicultural awareness ________________ to you a lot once you start working in this international company. 3) (Past/negative) It ________________ that we left the ice cream in the car because the weather was very cold. 4) (Present) Mother, ____________ it _________________ to you if I invite Henrique to my birthday party? 112

19: Displeasure and discomfort

Trouble

Dislike

Mind

Matter

Suffer

Suffer
Definition: Suffer Suffer: (a) Feel inconvenience, pain or loss; also, (b) SUFFER FROM, have an unpleasant or painful medical condition. Verb Chart: Suffer

Infinitive: to suffer Present: I suffer Present Continuous: I am suffering Future: I will suffer Past: I suffered Past Continuous: I was suffering Present Perfect: I have suffered Past Perfect: I had suffered
Example sentences 1) We were both suffering from nasty colds. (b) 2) Maureen has suffered from migraine headaches for years. (b) 3) If that factory closes, the company will suffer a serious reduction in profits. (a) 4) Gholam suffered a shock when his father died. (a) 5) The project suffers a delay every time one of the team members is absent. (a) 6) The accident victim was suffering badly before the doctor got there. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Past Cont.) The bear population ________________ a decrease because of the loss of habitat. 2) (Past Perf.) The land ________________ from topsoil erosion; so, a team of researchers came to work on the problem. 3) (Future) If we dont do anything now, the business ________________ a decline within the next year or so. 4) (Past) I ________________ flu the first year I lived in North America. Related Word Suffering (noun) The experience of suffering something (as in meaning one, above). 113

19: Displeasure and discomfort

Trouble

Dislike

Mind

Matter

Suffer

Review Activities
Complete the table Infinitive: Present: Present Continuous: Future: Past: Past Continuous: Present Perfect: Past Perfect: Choose the best verb for each sentence be prepared to justify your choice 1) Do you dislike/mind/matter if I go for a walk with you? 2) The poverty and hardship that she saw suffered/minded/troubled the rich woman a great deal. 3) Does it matter/suffer/trouble if I forget to put corn starch in the pie filling? Write your own sentences using the prompts 1) (trouble / Susanna) 2) (dislike / photograph) 3) (mind / speak Spanish) 4) (matter / on time) 5) (suffer / allergies) Write your own list of words with similar meanings has mattered disliked to trouble mind am suffering

114

20: Social Relations

Date

Flirt

Introduce

Invite

Visit

Date
Definition: Date Date: Go out regularly with a person (usually with the suggestion that the two people are or may become more than just friends). Verb Chart: Date

Infinitive: to date Present: I date Present Continuous: I am dating Future: I will date Past: I dated Past Continuous: I was dating Present Perfect: I have dated Past Perfect: I had dated
Example sentences 1) I think my brother is old enough to date now. 2) She always dates very handsome men. 3) Sheila and Ron have been dating for over a year. 4) They only dated once before they decided to get married! 5) There is no way that Paula will date Jeremy unless he stops smoking. 6) I did not know that they were dating. Use the forms of the verb 1) (Present) I never ________________ a stranger. 2) (Pres. Cont.) Nancy and Mark have known each other for a few months and now they ________________. 3) (Past) My father ________________ my mother for the first time in the spring of 1950. 4) (Pres. Perf.) Laura ________________ Nick for almost a year; now they are talking about getting married. Related word Date (noun) Social meeting arranged between two people who may or may not be regularly DATING, as above. 115

20: Social Relations

Date

Flirt

Introduce

Invite

Visit

Flirt
Definition: Flirt Flirt: (a) Behave in a playful way that shows or pretends romantic attraction to another person; also, (b) behave carelessly when there is a risk of danger or trouble. Verb Chart: Flirt

Infinitive: to flirt Present: I flirt Present Continuous: I am flirting Future: I will flirt Past: I flirted Past Continuous: I was flirting Present Perfect: I have flirted Past Perfect: I had flirted
Example sentences 1) Matt gets on my nerves! He flirts with every girl he meets! (a) 2) People who drink and drive are flirting with disaster. (b) 3) Akiko flirted with Gabriel for weeks, but he never showed any interest. (a) 4) I doubt they like each other. Anyway, they have never flirted. (a) 5) Always watch the campfire carefully: we don't want to flirt with anything as terrible as a forest fire! (b) 6) Will they install better locks now, or will they flirt with the risk of another robbery? (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Inf.) Some people believe that women are not supposed ________________. 2) (Present) Pam ________________ with Joel, but she has no wish to go out with him. 3) (Pres. Cont.) The company ________________ with bankruptcy by keeping that marketing manager. 4) (Past Cont.) Bob didnt realize that he ________________ with having a heart attack when he ate so much fatty food. Related words Flirt (noun) Somebody who flirts (in the sense of the first meaning, above). 116

20: Social Relations


Definition: Introduce

Date

Flirt

Introduce

Invite

Visit

Introduce
Introduce: (a) Present a person to others, who do not know that person, giving details about the person's name etc.; also, (b) more generally, present a new idea or a new thing to others, giving basic information about it; or (c) get people to begin a new activity or to use a new thing. Verb Chart: Introduce

Infinitive: to introduce Present: I introduce Present Continuous: I am introducing Future: I will introduce Past: I introduced Past Continuous: I was introducing Present Perfect: I have introduced Past Perfect: I had introduced
Example sentences 1) The government has introduced a new two-dollar coin. (c) 2) Come along; I will introduce you to my family. (a) 3) They introduced their sales plan by showing how it would differ from what had gone before. (b) 4) When there is a new member of the club, it is helpful if the president introduces them formally. (a) 5) We were just introducing our counter-proposal when time ran out and the meeting ended. (b) 6) The supermarket had introduced a new line of fresh fruit juices. (c) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Future) We ________________ our new product at the trade fair next week. 2) (Past Cont.) The Ministry of Public Health ________________ a new drug to treat Malaria. 3) (Pres. Cont.) The principal ________________ the mayor to the school alumni. 4) (Past) I know you ________________ me to that gentleman, but I have already forgotten his name! Related word Introduction (noun) The action of introducing a person, idea or thing, or the words used to do that. 117

20: Social Relations

Date

Flirt

Introduce

Invite

Visit

Invite
Definition: Invite Invite: (a) Ask somebody to come to a social or business event; also, (b) more generally, encourage somebody to do something or to give an opinion. Verb Chart: Invite

Infinitive: to invite Present: I invite Present Continuous: I am inviting Future: I will invite Past: I invited Past Continuous: I was inviting Present Perfect: I have invited Past Perfect: I had invited
Example sentences 1) Why are you looking so happy? Bart has invited me out to supper again. (a) 2) She is an effective boss because she has always invited ideas from her employees. (b) 3) As soon as the first results come in, we will invite suggestions about what to do next. (b) 4) Bertha invited most of her neighbors to the party. (a) 5) The school is inviting all students to participate in the clean-up effort. (b) 6) At New Years I usually invite the whole office to a big celebration. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Past Perf.) The hospital ________________ people to volunteer for its new program. 2) (Future) The university ________________ all the international students to a barbecue. 3) (Past) Mr. and Mrs. Claude _______________ 50 guests to their anniversary celebration. 4) (Present) The chair of the board always ________________ new ideas from members. Related word Invitation (noun) The action of inviting somebody, or the words or document (e.g. a card) used to invite them. 118

20: Social Relations


Definition: Visit

Date

Flirt

Introduce

Invite

Visit

Visit
Visit: (a) Go and see somebody, usually for a fairly short time, in order to be friendly with them; or, (b), go to a place, for a short time, to look at the place or to work (e.g. to do business, for an inspection, or as a tourist). Verb Chart: Visit

Infinitive: to visit Present: I visit Present Continuous: I am visiting Future: I will visit Past: I visited Past Continuous: I was visiting Present Perfect: I have visited Past Perfect: I had visited
Example sentences 1) The general manager visits every branch of the company at least once a year. (b) 2) My aunt is visiting us right now. She'll be here for a week. (a) 3) Last night I visited my brother for about an our. (a) 4) The inspector has not visited this office yet. (b) 5) I really want to visit Paris some day. (b) 6) I'm going to be in the hospital next week. Will you visit me? (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Past Cont.) The Prime Minister ________________ a small town near the shore of Lake Erie. 2) (Past Perf.) Kimiko said that she ________________ Athens on her way back to Japan. 3) (Future) Freddie ________________ his grandmother in Germany this summer. 4) (Past) The doctor ________________ his hospital room three times on the day after his heart surgery. Related words Visit (noun) The action of visiting. Visitor (noun) A person who visits (especially as in the first meaning, above). 119

20: Social Relations

Date

Flirt

Introduce

Invite

Visit

Review Activities
Complete the table Infinitive: Present: Present Continuous: Future: Past: Past Continuous: Present Perfect: Past Perfect: have dated had invited flirted introduce am visiting

Choose the best verb for each sentence be prepared to justify your choice 1) Maggie did not start introducing/dating/inviting Tim until she got to know him quite well. 2) The inspector might visit/invite/introduce the school playground unannounced. 3) An outdoors group is flirting/inviting/introducing wild turkeys into Southern Ontario. Write your own sentences using the prompts 1) (date / movie star) 2) (flirt / boyfriend) 3) (introduce / the President) 4) (invite / reporters) 5) (visit / Niagara Falls) Write your own list of words with similar meanings

120

21: Etiquette

Compliment

Greet

Insult

Snub

Thank

Compliment
Definition: Compliment Compliment: Tell somebody that you like their appearance, skills or actions. Verb Chart: Compliment

Infinitive: to compliment Present: I compliment Present Continuous: I am complimenting Future: I will compliment Past: I complimented Past Continuous: I was complimenting Present Perfect: I have complimented Past Perfect: I had complimented
Example sentences 1) When I see Saori again, I will compliment her on her great results in the competition. 2) Your hair looks fabulous. I compliment you. 3) My boss is always complimenting me on my accounting skills. 4) We all complimented Iraj on the delicious meal he had cooked. 5) They wanted to compliment the designer on his work, but he had already left. 6) Even before all the results were in, he was already complimenting her on her election victory. Use the forms of the verb 1) (Present) The mayor usually _________________ the winning athlete on his or her performance. 2) (Pres. Cont.) What's keeping Eric? He ____ still _____________ the hostess on her wonderful party. 3) (Past) His new beard looks terrible. Why _____ you ____________ him so heartily? 4) (Pres. Perf.) Johanna _________________ the violinist on her solo already, but I want to do so, too. Related words Compliment (noun) The action of complimenting someone, or the words used to compliment them. Complimentary (adj.) Expressing a compliment. 121

21: Etiquette

Compliment

Greet

Insult

Snub

Thank

Greet
Definition: Greet Greet: (a) Say or do things that show your feelings toward somebody when they arrive somewhere; or, (b) say or do things that show how you feel about something when it happens. Verb Chart: Greet

Infinitive: to greet Present: I greet Present Continuous: I am greeting Future: I will greet Past: I greeted Past Continuous: I was greeting Present Perfect: I have greeted Past Perfect: I had greeted
Example sentences 1) That merchant greets every customer who comes into his store. (a) 2) Most people are greeting the improved bus service with enthusiasm. (b) 3) Alicia greeted the group's new CD with indifference. (b) 4) Have you greeted all our guests? (a) 5) I would like Giorgio to greet the inspector when she arrives at the factory. (a) 6) At 5:30 a.m. a loud chorus of birds will greet the dawn. (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Inf.) I can't join you tomorrow afternoon. I have _________________ my boss when she gets back from Capetown. 2) (Present) Kindly _________________ my brother for me when he arrives. 3) (Pres. Cont.) I hear that the farmers _________________ the cold weather with real worry. 4) (Past) A stony silence _________________ my invitation to them. Related word Greeting (noun) The action of greeting someone or the words used to greet someone (as in the first meaning, above). 122

21: Etiquette
Definition: Insult

Compliment

Greet

Insult

Snub

Thank

Insult
Insult: (a) Accidentally or intentionally say something to somebody, or do something, that shows you do not respect that person; (b) accidentally or intentionally say or do something that shows you do not respect an institution. Verb Chart: Insult

Infinitive: to insult Present: I insult Present Continuous: I am insulting Future: I will insult Past: I insulted Past Continuous: I was insulting Present Perfect: I have insulted Past Perfect: I had insulted
Example sentences 1) Later, I found out that my early departure had insulted them. (a) 2) I will not insult my country by damaging the national flag. (b) 3) Myra will be surprised if you say that her words insulted you. (a) 4) The dean says that anyone who behaves badly during convocation insults the university. (b) 5) Ricardo complained that one of his co-workers was always insulting him. (a) 6) Please allow me to apologize if my little joke insulted the dignity of the court. (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Future) He is so thoughtless that he _________________ anyone, no matter who it is. 2) (Past Cont.) Their approach was hopeless. They _________________ the boss at the same time as they were trying to say that they should not be blamed for the mistake. 3) (Present) Some people believe that putting a postage stamp on upside down _________________ the government. 4) (Past) She said that the very easy test _________________ the intelligence of good students. Related word Insult (noun) The act of insulting someone or something, or the words or actions used to insult someone or something (as in either of the meanings, above). 123

21: Etiquette

Compliment

Greet

Insult

Snub

Thank

Snub
Definition: Snub Snub: (a) Show you think you are better than somebody through words or actions that very deliberately insult them; (b) refuse an offer or a greeting in that same deliberately insulting way. Verb Chart: Snub

Infinitive: to snub Present: I snub Present Continuous: I am snubbing Future: I will snub Past: I snubbed Past Continuous: I was snubbing Present Perfect: I have snubbed Past Perfect: I had snubbed
Example sentences 1) You see? When he did not return my greetings, he was snubbing me. (b) 2) I stopped asking Lea to dance after she had snubbed my offers three times. (b) 3) I'll try if you wish, but I'm sure he will snub my invitation as usual. (b) 4) Abdu snubbed his competitors by not mentioning them at all in his victory speech. (a) 5) He's furious. I'll bet he tries to snub them by not sending them a Christmas card this year. (a) 6) Calm down. She is not snubbing you; she just has not had a chance to come over yet. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Pres. Perf.) He _________________ her for the last time. She is leaving and she will not be back. 2) (Future) If you greet him now, he certainly _________________ you. 3) (Past) She _________________ every one of his attempts to be helpful. 4) (Present) I never _________________ anyone if I can avoid it. Related word Snub (noun) The act of snubbing somebody, or the words or actions that snub somebody (as in either of the two meanings, above). 124

21: Etiquette

Compliment

Greet

Insult

Snub

Thank

Thank
Definition: Thank Thank: (a) Say that you are grateful for something that somebody has given you or done for you, or has offered to give you or to do for you; or (b) do something to show that you are grateful. Verb Chart: Thank

Infinitive: to thank Present: I thank Present Continuous: I am thanking Future: I will thank Past: I thanked Past Continuous: I was thanking Present Perfect: I have thanked Past Perfect: I had thanked
Example sentences 1) Always thank the people who assist you. (a) 2) She'll be here soon. I think she is still thanking her parents for their help. (a) 3) He thanked them for their hospitality by shoveling the snow. (b) 4) Has Suchat thanked his coach for the excellent training he received? (a) 5) Paulette sent a card to thank her sister for the present. (b) 6) As soon as the donation arrives, I will thank them by adding their name to the official list of sponsors. (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Past Cont.) I just saw Li-Po. She _________________ her teacher at the end of the last lesson. 2) (Past Perf.) They said I _________________ them enough by making such good use of their gift. 3) (Infinitive) Breaking the table was a fine way _________________ me for letting you stay here! 4) (Past) Gene _________________ me for my offer but said he could not accept. Related word Thanks (noun) The act of thanking someone, or the words used to thank someone. 125

21: Etiquette

Compliment

Greet

Insult

Snub

Thank

Review Activities
Complete the table Infinitive: Present: Present Continuous: Future: Past: Past Continuous: Present Perfect: Past Perfect: Choose the best verb for each sentence be prepared to justify your choice 1) We thanked/complimented/greeted them on their beautiful new house. 2) I plan to snub/greet/insult her by shaking her hand. 3) He does not want to go and, if you suggest it, he will compliment/snub/insult you. Write your own sentences using the prompts 1) (compliment / promotion) 2) (greet / door) 3) (insult / behavior) 4) (snub / try) 5) (thank / suggestion) Write your own list of words with similar meanings complimented will greet am insulting snub to thank

126

22: Kitchen

Heat

Cook

Boil

Fry

Roast

Heat
Definition: Heat Heat: (a) Raise the temperature of something; (b) become hot; also, (c) HEAT UP, heat something a second time, or (d) become serious or dangerous. Verb Chart: Heat

Infinitive: to heat Present: I heat Present Continuous: I am heating Future: I will heat Past: I heated Past Continuous: I was heating Present Perfect: I have heated Past Perfect: I had heated
Example sentences 1) Please roll the window down a bit. I do not want the milk to heat too much in the car. (b) 2) I usually heat up my lunch in the staff room microwave oven. (c) 3) The war zone is heating up. (d) 4) We heated some water in the kettle. (a) 5) Soon the sun will heat the water in the swimming pool. (a) 6) If the economy goes badly, inflation may heat up. (d) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Present) Tony ________________ his house with natural gas. 2) (Pres. Cont. / neg.) Please check that electrical wire. I hope it ________________ too much. 3) (Past) Political tensions ________________ before the election. 4) (Pres. Perf.) Oh no! I think he ________________ that same pot of soup again! Related word Heater (noun) A machine for heating something. 127

22: Kitchen

Heat

Cook

Boil

Fry

Roast

Cook
Definition: Cook Cook: Prepare food by heating it (as in the first meaning of HEAT above). Verb Chart: Cook

Infinitive: to cook Present: I cook Present Continuous: I am cooking Future: I will cook Past: I cooked Past Continuous: I was cooking Present Perfect: I have cooked Past Perfect: I had cooked
Example sentences 1) Max has lived alone for years. Oh, so that must mean he cooks for himself. 2) Kate is cooking dinner tonight. 3) Who cooked this excellent meal? 4) I have just cooked the last of our potatoes. We'll have to get more. 5) When I moved away from home, I had to learn to cook. 6) Don't worry. If I catch any fish, I will cook them myself. Use the forms of the verb 1) (Inf.) I really have ________________ that meat before it goes bad. 2) (Present) Mostly, he ________________ and she does the dishes. 3) (Pres. Cont.) Which chef ________________ at the restaurant today? 4) (Past) In my home country we ________________ many vegetables that are not available here. Related word Cook (noun) A person who cooks things or who knows how to cook. 128

22: Kitchen
Definition: Boil

Heat

Cook

Boil

Fry

Roast

Boil
Boil: (a) Heat a liquid so much that it gets bubbles in it; (b) become so hot that bubbles appear; (c) cook something by putting it in water that is boiling (as in the second meaning); (d) put anything in water that is boiling; (e) be uncomfortably hot. Verb Chart: Boil

Infinitive: to boil Present: I boil Present Continuous: I am boiling Future: I will boil Past: I boiled Past Continuous: I was boiling Present Perfect: I have boiled Past Perfect: I had boiled
Example sentences 1) I have boiled the water. Please pass me a tea bag. (a) 2) After you wash the beans, I will boil them. (c) 3) We boiled the instruments in order to sterilize them. (d) 4) Water boils at 100o C, or 212o F. (b) 5) Good grief! It's boiling out there in the sun! (e) 6) The coffee tasted really bad but they claimed that they had not boiled it. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Future) I ________________ the baby bottle before using it again. 2) (Past Cont.) I had to open the window. The air conditioner was broken and the whole house ________________. 3) (Present) ________________ the corn for no more than three minutes. 4) (Past) In our experiment, the red liquid ________________ before the green one. Related word Boiling (adj.) At a very high temperature (in expressions like 'boiling hot' or 'boiling water'). 129

22: Kitchen

Heat

Cook

Boil

Fry

Roast

Fry
Definition: Fry Fry: Cook something in hot oil or fat. Verb Chart: Fry

Infinitive: to fry Present: I fry Present Continuous: I am frying Future: I will fry Past: I fried Past Continuous: I was frying Present Perfect: I have fried Past Perfect: I had fried
Example sentences 1) He was frying a chicken when the fire started. 2) I threw out the oil after I had fried all the fish. 3) I will fry some of the potatoes and boil the rest. 4) Jordan stir-fried the vegetables in a wok. 5) Celia almost never fries food when she is cooking for herself. 6) Try not to distract her while she is frying things in that big pan. Use the forms of the verb 1) (Pres. Perf.) _____ you ever ___________ carrots instead of boiling them? 2) (Future) Whatever food he finds in the kitchen, he _____ always ___________ it! 3) (Past) I ________________ the onions until they were light brown. 4) (Present) Now that they are so concerned about cholesterol, people ________________ things a lot less than before.

130

22: Kitchen
Definition: Roast

Heat

Cook

Boil

Fry

Roast

Roast
Roast: (a) Cook something in an oven or near a fire, without using water; (b) become cooked and ready to eat, in the way described in the first meaning; (c) be uncomfortably hot (similar to the last meaning of BOIL, above). Verb Chart: Roast

Infinitive: to roast Present: I roast Present Continuous: I am roasting Future: I will roast Past: I roasted Past Continuous: I was roasting Present Perfect: I have roasted Past Perfect: I had roasted
Example sentences 1) If you do not roast the meat long enough, it will still be red inside. (a) 2) When is supper? In another hour. The beef is still roasting. (b) 3) We roasted some chestnuts in the ashes. (a) 4) Barny had to move back from the fire because he was roasting. (c) 5) Jenny likes to roast turkeys very slowly. (a) 6) That meat will roast best if you do not cover it with aluminum foil. (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Past Cont.) The kabobs ________________ on the barbeque. 2) (Past Perf.) I got the vegetables ready because I thought you ____ already ____________ the meat. 3) (Future) If you sit beside that sunny window too long, I'm sure you ________________. 4) (Past) Somehow they ________________ the chicken for too long and it got burned. Related word Roast (noun) A large piece of meat that is suitable to be roasted, or that has been roasted. 131

22: Kitchen

Heat

Cook

Boil

Fry

Roast

Review Activities
Complete the table Infinitive: Present: Present Continuous: Future: Past: Past Continuous: Present Perfect: Past Perfect: have heated had boiled was roasting am cooking to fry

Choose the best verb for each sentence be prepared to justify your choice 1) Please cook/boil/roast some milk to put in the caf au lait. 2) Don't worry. If you arrive late, I'll just heat up/boil/fry your dinner for you. 3) How long do you think it will take me to learn how to heat/cook/roast? Write your own sentences using the prompts 1) (heat / room) 2) (cook / Chinese food) 3) (boil / egg) 4) (fry / steak) 5) (roast / marshmallows) Write your own list of words with similar meanings

132

23: Liquids
Definition: Pour

Pour

Fill

Spill

Sprinkle

Stir

Pour
Pour: (a) Make a liquid run out of the top of a bottle or other container by deliberately holding the container at an angle, or (b) deliberately make any other substance (e.g. sugar, sand) move in the same way; also, (c) rain very hard. Verb Chart: Pour

Infinitive: to pour Present: I pour Present Continuous: I am pouring Future: I will pour Past: I poured Past Continuous: I was pouring Present Perfect: I have poured Past Perfect: I had poured
Example sentences 1) Izzy complained that he had to pour tea all afternoon at the party. (a) 2) When it is mixed, pour the wet cement into the hole. (a) 3) Look. It's pouring out. (c) 4) Yoko poured sugar onto her cereal. (b) 5) If I forget my umbrella, Im sure that it will pour for certain. (c) 6) I was pouring salt into the shaker when the box ran out. (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Present) It never rains but it ________________. 2) (Pres. Cont.) He ________________ milk for the two children. 3) (Past) She ________________ flour into a mixing bowl. 4) (Pres. Perf.) I ________________ the juice. Is there anything else I can do?

133

23: Liquids
Definition: Fill

Pour

Fill

Spill

Sprinkle

Stir

Fill
Fill: (a) Pour a substance into a container or space until there is no more room; or, (b) put things into a container or space until there is no more room; (c) also, receive things or a substance until there is no more room. All three may be seen either as either FILL or as FILL UP. Verb Chart: Fill

Infinitive: to fill Present: I fill Present Continuous: I am filling Future: I will fill Past: I filled Past Continuous: I was filling Present Perfect: I have filled Past Perfect: I had filled
Example sentences 1) You had better reserve seats. That theatre fills up quite quickly. (c) 2) Where is Ella? She is still filling the milk jug. (a) 3) Nabil filled up his closet with new shirts. (b) 4) The bucket was slowly filling with rainwater. (c) 5) They have a bigger house now but I bet they find a way to fill it with junk, just like the old one. (b) 6) After drilling your tooth, the dentist will fill it. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Inf.) The puddle was so deep that my boots began ________________ with water. 2) (Present) She ________________ her free time with all sorts of interesting activities. 3) (Pres. Cont.) He ________________ the gas tank because he used the car a lot yesterday. 4) (Past) We ________________ the holes in the wall with new bricks. Related word Filling (noun) A substance used to fill a food item, e.g. cherries in a pie. 134

23: Liquids
Definition: Spill

Pour

Fill

Spill

Sprinkle

Stir

Spill
Spill: (a) Make a liquid run out of the top of a bottle or other container by accidentally holding the container at an angle, or (b) accidentally make any other substance (e.g. sugar, sand) move in the same way. (Contrast to the first two meanings of POUR, above.); also, (c) when a liquid or other substance comes out of the top of a container in that way, we say that it SPILLS. Verb Chart: Spill

Infinitive: to spill Present: I spill Present Continuous: I am spilling Future: I will spill Past: I spilled Past Continuous: I was spilling Present Perfect: I have spilled Past Perfect: I had spilled
Example sentences 1) The open truck had spilled gravel all along the way. (b) 2) If you do not carry it carefully, that bowl of soup will spill. (c) 3) Fritz spilled frozen peas all over the kitchen floor. (b) 4) The baby hardly ever spills her juice any more. (a) 5) Gabriella stopped working when she got so tired that she was spilling paint every few moments. (a) 6) Oops! I've spilled the pepper! (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Future) This glass is so full that I ________________ it if I lift it. 2) (Past Cont.) He complained that I _____ always ___________ the ashtray onto the carpet. 3) (Infinitive) Watch it! That vase is easy ________________. 4) (Past) Some of the water ________________ out of the jug when I bumped the table.

135

23: Liquids

Pour

Fill

Spill

Sprinkle

Stir

Sprinkle
Definition: Sprinkle Sprinkle: (a) Lightly cover something with small drops of a liquid or small pieces of a thing (e.g. sugar or sand; also, (b) rain slightly. Verb Chart: Sprinkle

Infinitive: to sprinkle Present: I sprinkle Present Continuous: I am sprinkling Future: I will sprinkle Past: I sprinkled Past Continuous: I was sprinkling Present Perfect: I have sprinkled Past Perfect: I had sprinkled
Example sentences 1) It was just sprinkling a bit when we left the house, but five minutes later it was pouring! (b) 2) Eileen thought she had sprinkled too much sugar on the fruit. (a) 3) Clark will sprinkle the new plants, to keep them fresh. (a) 4) I sprinkled a little topsoil over the whole lawn. (a) 5) Nowadays, there is a system that automatically sprinkles water on the vegetables in big stores. (a) 6) Do I need a raincoat? No, it's hardly sprinkling now. (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Past Perf.) We were relieved when the sun came out because it ________________ rain for an hour before that. 2) (Infinitive) This afternoon I have to turn on the tap and ________________ the lawn for about thirty minutes. 3) (Past) He ________________ his food with salt. 4) (Present) Many gardeners ________________ sand on the soil to make it lighter.

136

23: Liquids

Pour

Fill

Spill

Sprinkle

Stir

Stir
Definition: Stir Stir: (a) Move a spoon or other object in a container of a liquid, so as to mix the liquid; also, (b) STIR UP, cause an emotion or a problem to become active. Verb Chart: Stir

Infinitive: to stir Present: I stir Present Continuous: I am stirring Future: I will stir Past: I stirred Past Continuous: I was stirring Present Perfect: I have stirred Past Perfect: I had stirred
Example sentences 1) One good thing about the new boss is that she never stirs up problems unnecessarily. (b) 2) He has been stirring that cup of tea for at least a minute! (a) 3) Kim stirred the cake batter until there were no lumps in it. (a) 4) Mustafa has stirred up a real controversy with his suggestions about changing the rules. (b) 5) To make mayonnaise, you have to stir egg yolks into olive oil. (a) 6) I expect the public housing project will stir up hostility among home-owners in the area. (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Past Cont.) I'm glad he has left the company. He ____ always ____________ arguments. 2) (Past Perf.) She told me that she ________________ the paint carefully before using it. 3) (Future) The punch should be fine now but, just to be sure, I ________________ it again. 4) (Pres. Perf.) ________ you _____________ any sugar into your coffee?

137

23: Liquids

Pour

Fill

Spill

Sprinkle

Stir

Review Activities
Complete the table Infinitive: Present: Present Continuous: Future: Past: Past Continuous: Present Perfect: Past Perfect: had spilled was filling am pouring will stir to sprinkle

Choose the best verb for each sentence be prepared to justify your choice 1) She filled/spilled/sprinkled vinegar onto her chips. 2) How's the weather now? It's pouring/filling/stirring. 3) Put the lid on the jar or it will probably pour/spill/sprinkle Write your own sentences using the prompts 1) (pour / beer) 2) (fill / cupboard) 3) (spill / milk) 4) (sprinkle / sugar) 5) (stir / opposition) Write your own list of words with similar meanings

138

24: Garden
Definition: Dig

Dig

Harvest

Plant

Rake

Water

Dig
Dig: (a) Make a hole in the ground (or some other substance) and put the earth (or substance) somewhere else; also (b) DIG UP, uncover something and take it out of the ground, or (c) find something that is surprising or old. Verb Chart: Dig

Infinitive: to dig Present: I dig Present Continuous: I am digging Future: I will dig Past: I dug Past Continuous: I was digging Present Perfect: I have dug Past Perfect: I had dug
Example sentences 1) Could you help me to dig a hole for this new shrub? (a) 2) Cheng has hired a contractor to dig the foundation for the addition to his house. (a) 3) That newspaper was always digging up information about big corporations. (c) 4) This afternoon we will go out and dig up some potatoes for supper. (b) 5) How did Nalini find her lost earring? She dug into the pile of leaves until she got it. (a) 6) They hit an underground wire when they were digging the new sewer line. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Present) I'll be surprised if she ________________ anything new. 2) (Pres. Cont.) He ________________ the whole crop of carrots. 3) (Past) It was hard work, but we ________________ a hole for a tree in the middle of the patio. 4) (Pres. Perf.) The archeologists ________________ several old coins this week.

139

24: Garden

Dig

Harvest

Plant

Rake

Water

Harvest
Definition: Harvest Harvest: Gather fruits or vegetables from their plants when they are ready to use. Verb Chart: Harvest

Infinitive: to harvest Present: I harvest Present Continuous: I am harvesting Future: I will harvest Past: I harvested Past Continuous: I was harvesting Present Perfect: I have harvested Past Perfect: I had harvested
Example sentences 1) Farmers around here harvest their wheat in July. 2) They are harvesting beets this week. 3) Last year we harvested more apples than this year. 4) Has she harvested all of her tomatoes yet? 5) I hope I have time to harvest the strawberries before the birds get them! 6) They will not harvest the grapes for ice wine until the weather turns very cold. Use the forms of the verb 1) (Inf.) It's time ________________ the grapes. 2) (Present) That farmer ________________ his crops all by himself. 3) (Pres. Cont.) They ________________ the wheat with a combine. 4) (Past) In those days people still ________________ rice with a sickle. Related word Harvest (noun) The combined total of things that are harvested, the action of harvesting things, or the time when things are harvested. 140

24: Garden

Dig

Harvest

Plant

Rake

Water

Plant
Definition: Plant Plant: (a) Put a seed or a plant into the ground so that it will grow; also, (b) put something in or on the ground so that it will stand up strongly. Verb Chart: Plant

Infinitive: to plant Present: I plant Present Continuous: I am planting Future: I will plant Past: I planted Past Continuous: I was planting Present Perfect: I have planted Past Perfect: I had planted
Example sentences 1) It started raining right after we had planted our peas this spring. (a) 2) I expect we will plant a cedar hedge along that sidewalk. (a) 3) After climbing to the peak, Jalal planted the flag on the top of the mountain. (b) 4) Nowadays, farmers plant their fields with machines, never by hand. (a) 5) Unfortunately, the storm began when they were still planting their crops. (a) 6) Raisa is planting her feet firmly on the ground so as not to be moved by the strong wind. (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Future) She ________________ those bulbs in the autumn. 2) (Pres. Cont.) We ________________ a bigger garden this year. 3) (Present) They ________________ only the best quality seeds. 4) (Past) He ________________ a stick in the ground to mark the place. Related words Plant (noun) Small vegetation, such as a flower or vegetable. Planter (noun) Container in which to plant flowers etc. 141

24: Garden
Definition: Rake

Dig

Harvest

Plant

Rake

Water

Rake
Rake: (a) Move small things like leaves etc. together using a tool (see RAKE, noun, below) that has a long handle with several fingers on the end (may be RAKE or RAKE UP), or (b) use the same tool to move and level the surface of the soil or of any other material. Verb Chart: Rake

Infinitive: to rake Present: I rake Present Continuous: I am raking Future: I will rake Past: I raked Past Continuous: I was raking Present Perfect: I have raked Past Perfect: I had raked
Example sentences 1) We raked up all the grass clippings. (a) 2) I was pleased to see that you had raked the beds so that they were ready for planting. (b) 3) Sada will rake the leaves into the corner of the garden. (a) 4) They raked the beach before the volleyball game. (b) 5) Jason raked the campsite nice and smooth. (b) 6) Somebody is raking the fallen apples into a big basket. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Pres. Perf.) I ________________ all the pine cones. 2) (Future) ____ you ____________ the lawn for me, please? 3) (Past) He ________________ the gravel path until it looked very neat. 4) (Present) First, we ________________ the hay into piles; then, we bring it into the barn. Related word Rake (noun) A long-handled garden tool with several metal or wooden fingers on the end. 142

24: Garden

Dig

Harvest

Plant

Rake

Water

Water
Definition: Water Water: Pour water on plants so as to make them grow well. Verb Chart: Water

Infinitive: to water Present: I water Present Continuous: I am watering Future: I will water Past: I watered Past Continuous: I was watering Present Perfect: I have watered Past Perfect: I had watered
Example sentences 1) Fouad waters his houseplants every day. 2) I usually listen to my transistor radio while I am watering the lawn. 3) They watered the garden regularly during the dry weather. 4) I will come in for supper as soon as I have watered the flowers. 5) Raina really likes to water the vegetable patch. 6) Who will water the new plants until they start growing well? Use the forms of the verb 1) (Past Cont.) It rained hard while he ________________ his garden, but he did not stop! 2) (Past Perf.) The tree dried up and died even though I ________________ it faithfully twice a day. 3) (Future) She says she ________________ your roses for you while you are away. 4) (Past) Nobody ________________ the seedlings but they grew anyway.

143

24: Garden

Dig

Harvest

Plant

Rake

Water

Review Activities
Complete the table Infinitive: Present: Present Continuous: Future: Past: Past Continuous: Present Perfect: Past Perfect: had planted was digging have raked harvested will water

Choose the best verb for each sentence be prepared to justify your choice 1) She carefully dug/harvested/planted the seeds in good soil. 2) I would like to harvest/rake/water a really good crop this autumn. 3) Those new plants will die if you do not dig/plant/water them. Write your own sentences using the prompts 1) (dig / canal) 2) (harvest / oranges) 3) (plant / chile peppers) 4) (rake / driveway) 5) (water / shrubs) Write your own list of words with similar meanings

144

25: Travel

Depart

Travel

Ride

Drive

Fly

Depart
Definition: Depart Depart: (a) Go away from somewhere; also, (b) act or speak in a way that differs from a normal custom or from an opinion or claim. Verb Chart: Depart

Infinitive: to depart Present: I depart Present Continuous: I am departing Future: I will depart Past: I departed Past Continuous: I was departing Present Perfect: I have departed Past Perfect: I had departed
Example sentences 1) It is not like her to depart from the safety policy. (b) 2) The train departs from New Orleans at noon. (a) 3) Has the bus departed yet? (a) 4) He was fired because he had departed from the company rules on fair competition. (b) 5) Neither of them will depart from the explanation they have already given for the accident. (b) 6) When is your airplane departing? (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Present) If they ________________ from the rules of the game, the referee will give them a penalty. 2) (Pres. Cont.) The airplane ________________ from Terminal II. 3) (Past) He ________________ before we had time to say goodbye. 4) (Pres. Perf. / negative) You can still catch her. She ________________ yet. Related word Departure (noun) The act of departing (as in either of the two meanings, above). 145

25: Travel

Depart

Travel

Ride

Drive

Fly

Travel
Definition: Travel Travel: (a) Go from one place to another place, by train, car, airplane, etc.; or (b) make a long journey; also (c) move from one position to another position. Verb Chart: Travel

Infinitive: to travel Present: I travel Present Continuous: I am travelling Future: I will travel Past: I travelled Past Continuous: I was travelling Present Perfect: I have travelled Past Perfect: I had travelled
Example sentences 1) Sound travels very well through water. (c) 2) How are you travelling between Moscow and Helsinki? (a) 3) Katja travelled for more than a year before coming back home to start college. (b) 4) You look very tired. Have you been travelling all day? (a) 5) By the time light from the sun hits the earth, it has only travelled for nine minutes. (c) 6) If possible, James will travel every year when he retires. (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Inf.) The most beautiful way ________________ across Europe is by train. 2) (Present) The space shuttle ________________ much faster than an ordinary air plane. 3) (Pres. Perf.) They ________________ a lot in Latin America. 4) (Past) After work last Friday we ________________ to Mexico City for the long weekend holiday. Related words Travel(s) (noun) The action or experience of travelling (usually used in the plural) (as in either of the first two meanings, above). Traveller (noun) Somebody who travels (as in either of the first two meanings, above). 146

25: Travel

Depart

Travel

Ride

Drive

Fly

Ride
Definition: Ride Ride: (a) Travel in a car, on a bus or on a bicycle, etc. while someone else directs it; (b) sit on a bicycle, horse etc. and direct it as it moves. Verb Chart: Ride

Infinitive: to ride Present: I ride Present Continuous: I am riding Future: I will ride Past: I rode Past Continuous: I was riding Present Perfect: I have ridden Past Perfect: I had ridden
Example sentences 1) I was tired because I had ridden in the back of the truck for almost six hours. (a) 2) This weekend Jill will ride her horse in a competition. (b) 3) Yesterday evening I rode over to the lake in Jack's car. (a) 4) They both ride bicycles to work. (b) 5) We were riding in the very front seat when the bus went off the road. (a) 6) The President has ridden to Capitol Hill by limousine many times. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Infinitive) He let me ________________ on the back of his motorcycle. 2) (Past Cont.) They filmed our group when we ________________ our bicycles up the mountain road. 3) (Present) She ________________ her horse every weekend. 4) (Past) Just for fun, we ________________ to the wedding in an antique Cadillac. Related word Rider (noun) Somebody who rides (as in either of the two meanings, above). Ride (noun) A trip in a car etc. or on a bicycle etc. 147

25: Travel

Depart

Travel

Ride

Drive

Fly

Drive
Definition: Drive Drive: (a) Go somewhere by car or truck; (b), sit at the steering wheel of a car, truck, bus or small motorboat and direct it while it moves; (c) take somebody somewhere by car or truck. Verb Chart: Drive

Infinitive: to drive Present: I drive Present Continuous: I am driving Future: I will drive Past: I drove Past Continuous: I was driving Present Perfect: I have driven Past Perfect: I had driven
Example sentences 1) I was driving my car up to the house when they came out. (b) 2) He said he had driven his family to the Finger Lakes. (c) 3) How is Gloria planning to go to Ottawa? She'll drive. (a) 4) Each year we drove to a different holiday resort. (a) 5) Can Liu drive a power boat? Yes, he learned to drive one last summer. (b) 6) These days she is driving her husband to work every day. (c) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Past Perf.) The jeep broke down after they ________________ almost all the way across the desert. 2) (Future) I ________________ you home if you wish. 3) (Past) We ________________ to the city to do the shopping. 4) (Present) He ________________ a remarkable old Packard. Related words Drive (noun) A trip made by driving (as in either of the two meanings, above). Driver (noun) Somebody who drives (as in either of the two meanings, above). 148

25: Travel
Definition: Fly

Depart

Travel

Ride

Drive

Fly

Fly
Fly: (a) Go somewhere by airplane, helicopter, etc.; (b), sit at the controls of an airplane, helicopter, etc. and direct it while it is in the air; (c) take someone or something somewhere by airplane; (d) move through the air. Verb Chart: Fly

Infinitive: to fly Present: I fly Present Continuous: I am flying Future: I will fly Past: I flew Past Continuous: I was flying Present Perfect: I have flown Past Perfect: I had flown
Example sentences 1) Raphael is a pilot. He flies the San Francisco - Los Angeles route. (b) 2) They are flying to Mexico this winter. (a) 3) The wild geese flew over the town in a large flock. (d) 4) Have you ever flown a helicopter? (b) 5) This delivery is urgent; so, the company will fly the parcel to Brisbane. (c) 6) Can we fly the patient to a bigger hospital in the city? (c) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Past Cont.) The airplane ________________ over Minneapolis when the problem started. 2) (Past Perf.) By the time I changed jobs, I ________________ a distance greater than six times around the world. 3) (Future) After passing all her tests, she ________________ a jet plane in the air force. 4) (Past) The rich family ________________ their guests to their house in the mountains. Related words Flier (noun) Somebody who flies (as in either of the first two meanings, above). Flight (noun) A trip made by flying (as in any of the first two or the fourth meanings, above). 149

25: Travel

Depart

Travel

Ride

Drive

Fly

Review Activities
Complete the table Infinitive: Present: Present Continuous: Future: Past: Past Continuous: Present Perfect: Past Perfect: Choose the best verb for each sentence be prepared to justify your choice 1) When are you leaving? We depart/ride/drive at 7:00 am. 2) Don't worry. He will gladly depart/travel/drive you to the mall. 3) In a big, busy city it is often most convenient to travel/drive/fly by subway. Write your own sentences using the prompts 1) (depart / politeness) 2) (travel / first class) 3) (ride / camel) 4) (drive / speedboat) 5) (fly / moon) Write your own list of words with similar meanings had flown will depart travelled was driving ride

150

26: Getting There

Reach

Arrive

Come

Go

Enter

Reach
Definition: Reach Reach: (a) Get to a place after travelling; (b) get to a place or a degree on a scale after movement of some other kind; also, (c) get to the end of a logical process. Verb Chart: Reach

Infinitive: to reach Present: I reach Present Continuous: I am reaching Future: I will reach Past: I reached Past Continuous: I was reaching Present Perfect: I have reached Past Perfect: I had reached
Example sentences 1) It will be at least another hour before we reach the edge of the forest. (a) 2) The trouble with Stefan is that he tends to reach his conclusions too rapidly. (c) 3) After a difficult climb, she reached the bird's nest in the treetop. (b) 4) On the coldest nights last month, the temperature reached ten or more degrees below zero. (b) 5) The jury will only reach a decision after hearing all the evidence. (c) 6) I'm afraid that Zohra has reached the end of her patience. (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Present) The first bus ______________Toronto at 6:30 am. 2) (Inf.) Can you _______________ that apple? No, the branch is too high. 3) (Past) She entered elementary school before she ________________ the age of five. 4) (Pres. Perf.) The judge ________________ a verdict.

151

26: Getting There

Reach

Arrive

Come

Go

Enter

Arrive
Definition: Arrive Arrive: Similar to the first and third meanings of REACH, above: (a) get to a place after travelling ,or (b) get to the end of a logical process; also, (c) be born. Verb Chart: Arrive

Infinitive: to arrive Present: I arrive Present Continuous: I am arriving Future: I will arrive Past: I arrived Past Continuous: I was arriving Present Perfect: I have arrived Past Perfect: I had arrived
Example sentences 1) The train arrives in Baton Rouge at 2:00 pm. (a) 2) I think they have arrived at the wrong explanation for what they saw. (b) 3) Her first baby arrived at three in the morning. (c) 4) Because of the storm, no planes are arriving at this airport today. (a) 5) I hope the baby will arrive before the hot weather begins. (c) 6) It is not always easy to arrive at a fair compromise after a serious disagreement. (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Inf.) She wants _______________ at the airport before noon. 2) (Present) Laura ______________ at her office at 8:30 every morning. 3) (Pres. Cont.) Bobby _______________ at a very effective way of getting along with his boss. 4) (Past) As soon as she got to the hospital, the baby _______________. Related word Arrival (noun) The act of arriving; also, the act of being born, or the baby itself (a 'new arrival'). 152

26: Getting There


Definition: Come

Reach

Arrive

Come

Go

Enter

Come
Come: (a) Move from one place to another, typically emphasizing that the movement is toward you, toward a place, or toward another person: may also be similar to two of the meanings of ARRIVE, above; also, (b) get to the end of a logical process, or (c) be born. Verb Chart: Come

Infinitive: to come Present: I come Present Continuous: I am coming Future: I will come Past: I came Past Continuous: I was coming Present Perfect: I have come Past Perfect: I had come
Example sentences 1) So, what judgment have you come to? (b) 2) Do you think the baby will come before the doctor gets here? (c) 3) Nahid came to see me yesterday afternoon. (a) 4) Preston comes to town whenever he has a chance. (a) 5) In those days she was always coming to us when she needed advice. (a) 6) They were glad that he had come to their party. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Future) Our daughter _______________ to visit us next summer. 2) (Past Cont.) Even though she was tired, Nikki _____ still __________ to work in the lab with her friends. 3) (Present) Not all babies _______________ on the day they are expected. 4) (Past) Some people _______________ to the conclusion that the government was not serious about reforms. 153

26: Getting There


Definition: Go

Reach

Arrive

Come

Go

Enter

Go
Go: (a) Move from one place to another, typically emphasizing that the movement is away from you, from a place, or from another person generally the opposite of the first meaning of COME, above; or, (b) move along or develop; or, (c) participate in something; (d) change (usually for the worse). Verb Chart: Go

Infinitive: to go Present: I go Present Continuous: I am going Future: I will go Past: I went Past Continuous: I was going Present Perfect: I have gone Past Perfect: I had gone
Example sentences 1) In those days she was going to work at an office downtown. (c) 2) This milk has gone sour. (d) 3) Are you staying here? No, I plan to go to Paris tomorrow. (a) 4) The car went really fast. (b) 5) I go up north for a few days of relaxation whenever I can. (a) 6) How is your schoolwork going? (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Past Perf.) The plan _______________ wrong before Kino saw the problem. 2) (Future) Susan _______________ to Madrid to study Spanish. 3) (Past) The students were pleased because their project _______________ well. 4) (Present) My father _______________ grocery shopping every Saturday.

154

26: Getting There

Reach

Arrive

Come

Go

Enter

Enter
Definition: Enter Enter: (a) Come into or go into a place; or, (b) take part in a competition or other process; or (c) become a member. Verb Chart: Enter

Infinitive: to enter Present: I enter Present Continuous: I am entering Future: I will enter Past: I entered Past Continuous: I was entering Present Perfect: I have entered Past Perfect: I had entered
Example sentences 1) If he enters the conversation, nobody else will have a chance to say anything. (b) 2) Who would like to enter the cave first? (a) 3) Sylvia entered the club executive committee after two years as an ordinary member. (c) 4) When she called for help, I entered the house to look for her. (a) 5) My two brothers are entering the army. (c) 6) Do you think Yoshio will enter the poetry contest? (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Past Cont.) The children ______________ the zoo when I met them. 2) (Past Perf.) Her youngest daughter _______________ the university before the new buildings were complete. 3) (Future) My husband says that he _______________ the boat race. 4) (Past) We _______________ the drama club as stage hands. Related word Entrance (noun) A place where you can enter or the act of entering (particularly as in the first meaning, above). 155

26: Getting There

Reach

Arrive

Come

Go

Enter

Review Activities
Complete the table Infinitive: Present: Present Continuous: Future: Past: Past Continuous: Present Perfect: Past Perfect: Choose the best verb for each sentence be prepared to justify your choice 1) In the autumn, the sumac leaves come/go/reach red. 2) The police tried to arrive/come/enter the house where the robber was hiding. 3) Finally the constitutional reforms have reached/come/gone their final stage. Write your own sentences using the prompts 1) (reach / decision) 2) (arrive / hotel) 3) (come / office) 4) (go / wild) 5) (enter / politics) Write your own list of words with similar meanings will reach went am arriving to come enter

156

27: Possession
Definition: Have

Have

Own

Belong

Possess

Hold

Have
Have: (a) Basically, if you HAVE something, it is yours; but (b) what you HAVE may sometimes be a thing that is with you only temporarily; additionally, (c) something you HAVE may be some object or personal characteristic that is connected with you; (d) HAVE may also mean suffer from a disease or other medical condition; and (e) HAVE may mean eat. Verb Chart: Have

Infinitive: to have Present: I have Present Continuous: I am having Future: I will have Past: I had Past Continuous: I was having Present Perfect: I have had Past Perfect: I had had
Example sentences 1) Would you like to have a million dollars? (a) 2) Kegan has a cold. (d) 3) We are both having the buffet tonight. (e) 4) I noticed that Georgina had a very nice smile. (c) 5) Will you lend me your bicycle? Sure. You can have it over the weekend. (b) 6) As a result of their fall, they both have sprained ankles. (d) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Present) I think they ________________ a house in the suburbs. 2) (Past) Jason _______________ a cast on his leg. 3) (Future) If you buy some pork, we ________________ sauerkraut for supper tomorrow. 4) (Pres. Perf.) She _______________ great success since she came to work with this company. Related expression Haves and have-nots (noun expression) People who do and who do not have money or other desirable things. 157

27: Possession

Have

Own

Belong

Possess

Hold

Own
Definition: Own Own: Have something that is yours (you may OWN it because somebody gave you it, or because you made or bought it for yourself). Verb Chart: Own

Infinitive: to own Present: I own Present Continuous: --------------Future: I will own Past: I owned Past Continuous: --------------Present Perfect: I have owned Past Perfect: I had owned
Example sentences 1) I am only renting this car; I do not own it. 2) Debebrata had owned that big house for seven years before he got married. 3) She told me that she owned a bungalow on the beach, but I never actually went there. 4) Karen has never owned a dog. 5) It would be nice to own a private jet! 6) We hope we will own a downtown condominium not too long after we turn thirty. Use the forms of the verb 1) (Inf.) With this amount of money, it is possible ______________ a mansion on the Riviera. 2) (Present) The university ______________ a vineyard on the mountainside. 3) (Pres. Perf.) As well as that cottage, she _______________ a big yacht for the past year or so. 4) (Past) He _______________ a banana plantation before coming to Canada. Related word Owner (noun) Somebody who owns something. 158

27: Possession
Definition: Belong

Have

Own

Belong

Possess

Hold

Belong
Belong: (a) Something that BELONGS to a person is owned by them; (b) a person who BELONGS to a group is a member of it; and (c) somebody or something that BELONGS in a place is comfortable there or is supposed to be there. Verb Chart: Belong

Infinitive: to belong Present: I belong Present Continuous: --------------Future: I will belong Past: I belonged Past Continuous: --------------Present Perfect: I have belonged Past Perfect: I had belonged
Example sentences 1) That old coat has belonged to me for as long as I can remember. (a) 2) After you have lived in this country for a year or so, you will really belong here (c) 3) For some reason, Derek belonged to two different political parties at once! (b) 4) Those tools belong in the workshop. (c) 5) Candida wants to belong to a sorority. (b) 6) My mother left me a watch that had belonged to her since her marriage. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Future) When they move to live in the north, this house ______________ to their children. 2) (Past) Nina _______________ to the university rowing team in 1990. 3) (Present / negative) Crows _______________ in cages; they are wild birds. 4) (Present) That antique table _______________ in a very elegant living room. Related word Belongings (noun) Things that a person owns. 159

27: Possession
Definition: Possess

Have

Own

Belong

Possess

Hold

Possess
Possess: (a) Similar to OWN, or the first meaning of HAVE, above: something that you POSSESS belongs to you; also, (b) similar to the third meaning of HAVE, above: something you POSSESS may be some object or personal characteristic that is connected with you. Verb Chart: Possess

Infinitive: to possess Present: I possess Present Continuous: --------------Future: I will possess Past: I possessed Past Continuous: --------------Present Perfect: I have possessed Past Perfect: I had possessed
Example sentences 1) He can't wait to possess his first motorcycle. (a) 2) We have never possessed such a big bank account as right now. (a) 3) She had always possessed a fabulous head of red hair. (b) 4) Feridoon possessed a successful import-export company by the time he had reached twenty-four. (a) 5) Tricia possesses a remarkable range of inter-personal skills. (b) 6) The twin brothers are competing to see who will possess the most beautiful sailboat. (a) Use the forms of the verb 1) (Past) My grandmother _______________ a silky smooth skin when she was young. 2) (Future) Rafael is determined that next year he _______________ a red sports car. 3) (Past Perf.) Eve didnt remember that she _______________ three big Teddy bears when she was a little girl. 4) (Present) The president _______________ an eloquent style of addressing meetings. Related word Possession (noun) Something that is possessed (in the plural, it often refers to the total of everything that a person possesses). 160

27: Possession

Have

Own

Belong

Possess

Hold

Hold
Definition: Hold Hold: (a) Keep something in your hand(s) or your arms; (b) contain; (c) keep something safe; also, (d) take responsibility for making an event happen. Verb Chart: Hold

Infinitive: to hold Present: I hold Present Continuous: I am holding Future: I will hold Past: I held Past Continuous: I was holding Present Perfect: I have held Past Perfect: I had held
Example sentences 1) The company holds a staff meeting once a month. (d) 2) When Juliette finally came in, she was holding the airplane ticket that her sister needed. (a) 3) The biggest bottle held three gallons. (b) 4) The firefighters need a rest. They have been holding that heavy hose for a long time now. (a) 5) This barnyard is too small to hold all of our animals. (b) 6) If I find the book that you want, I will hold it for you until next week. (c) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Past Cont.) The nurse ______________ the injured boy in her arms. 2) (Pres. Perf.) The Engineers Society ______________ an annual convention since 1900. 3) (Future) The company _______________ her position while she is on maternity leave. 4) (Past) The old auditorium only _______________ 100 people. Related word Holder A person or thing that holds something (as in the second or third meanings, above). 161

27: Possession

Have

Own

Belong

Possess

Hold

Review Activities
Complete the table Infinitive: Present: Present Continuous: Future: Past: Past Continuous: Present Perfect: Past Perfect: have had had belonged will own possessed was holding

Choose the best verb for each sentence be prepared to justify your choice 1) Eva held/had/owned a big smile on her face when she met her fianc at the airport. 2) Wild elephants do not own/belong/possess in a circus. 3) My brother will belong/possess/hold my place in the line while I go to check the time. Write your own sentences using the prompts 1) (have / bright eyes) 2) (own / a helicopter) 3) (belong / motorcycle club) 4) ( possess / ranch) 5) (hold / conference) Write your own list of words with similar meanings

162

28: Giving and Sharing


Definition: Give

Give

Offer

Provide

Supply

Share

Give
Give: (a) Transfer something to somebody else, without asking for anything in return; (b) transfer something to somebody else in return for something; or (c) require or allow somebody else to look after something; also, (d) produce. Verb Chart: Give

Infinitive: to give Present: I give Present Continuous: I am giving Future: I will give Past: I gave Past Continuous: I was giving Present Perfect: I have given Past Perfect: I had given
Example sentences 1) Just a minute. I want to give my hat to the coat-check attendant. (c) 2) These cows give excellent milk. (d). 3) Wilf is giving all of his stocks and bonds to a charity. (a) 4) Anita gave me ten dollars for my used textbook. (b) 5) I will give you half of any strawberries that I pick. (a) 6) They gave me this fishing rod to use over the weekend. (c) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Present) Their daughter is a student; so, they ________________ her money when she needs it. 2) (Pres. Cont.) I think he ________________ too much for that carpet, but he really wants it. 3) (Past) The tomato plants in our garden ________________ lots of fruit this year. 4) (Pres. Perf.) ____ you ____________ your baggage to the porter? Related words Giver (noun) A person who gives (as in the first meaning, above). Gift (noun) Something that is given (as in the first meaning, above). 163

28: Giving and Sharing

Give

Offer

Provide

Supply

Share

Offer
Definition: Offer Offer: (a) Ask somebody if they would like to have or to borrow something; (b) ask somebody if they would like to do something or if they would like you to do something. Verb Chart: Offer

Infinitive: to offer Present: I offer Present Continuous: I am offering Future: I will offer Past: I offered Past Continuous: I was offering Present Perfect: I have offered Past Perfect: I had offered
Example sentences 1) Pedro usually offers to stay late when there is work to finish. (b) 2) Don't panic. I am offering you a loan if you need it. (a) 3) We offered Yanisa a ride to the shopping center. (b) 4) He has offered her flowers every Valentine's Day for the past four years. (a) 5) There is no obligation. Don't feel that you have to offer anything in return. (a) 6) I'm sure the club will offer to give her a membership. (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Inf.) If you ask, she is likely ________________ you a pair of skis for the week. 2) (Present) The airline ________________ to cover all costs for anyone who is bumped from a flight. 3) (Pres. Cont.) She ________________ a statue to the museum for its modern art collection. 4) (Past) He ________________ to trim the hedge for the elderly couple. Related word Offer (noun) The act of offering something or the words used to offer something. 164

28: Giving and Sharing


Definition: Provide

Give

Offer

Provide

Supply

Share

Provide
Provide: (a) Let somebody have something, borrow something or use something that they need or want; also (b), PROVIDE FOR, let somebody have what they need to live, or get something ready for when you will need it yourself. Verb Chart: Provide

Infinitive: to provide Present: I provide Present Continuous: I am providing Future: I will provide Past: I provided Past Continuous: I was providing Present Perfect: I have provided Past Perfect: I had provided
Example sentences 1) Rob provided for his wife and large family by holding down two jobs. (b) 2) That sports store is providing equipment for the team. (a) 3) When her parents died, Delia had to provide for her younger brothers and sisters. (b) 4) The city provides funding for some health services. (a) 5) Who has been providing the children with pocket money? (a) 6) By saving each month, we were providing for our retirement. (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Future) Careful parents ________________ the time when their children are at college or university. 2) (Past Cont.) The farmer ________________ his animals with the best possible food. 3) (Present) The company ________________ its workers when they are sick. 4) (Past) She ________________ a wonderful education for all her pupils. Related words Provider (noun) A person who provides things (often as in the second meaning, above). Provisions (noun) Things that are made ready for use when they are needed (often but not always used to refer to food). 165

28: Giving and Sharing

Give

Offer

Provide

Supply

Share

Supply
Definition: Supply Supply: Similar to the first meaning of PROVIDE, above: let somebody have something, borrow something or use something that they need or want. Verb Chart: Supply

Infinitive: to supply Present: I supply Present Continuous: I am supplying Future: I will supply Past: I supplied Past Continuous: I was supplying Present Perfect: I have supplied Past Perfect: I had supplied
Example sentences 1) That company is supplying better products now. 2) They thanked her heartily because she had supplied all of the signs to advertise the event. 3) We can only go for a picnic if you supply transportation. 4) Alonso supplied the children with paper and paints for their art work. 5) June supplies bread and cakes for several restaurants. 6) Who is supplying the money to get the project started? Use the forms of the verb 1) (Pres. Perf.) He ________________ scorecards for the competition every year since it began. 2) (Future) ____ you ____________ us with food for the party? 3) (Past) She ________________ flowers to decorate the room. 4) (Present) That factory ________________ parts for the computers we assemble. Related words Supplier (noun) Somebody who supplies something. Supplies (noun) Similar to PROVISIONS, above (but without the particular emphasis on food). 166

28: Giving and Sharing

Give

Offer

Provide

Supply

Share

Share
Definition: Share Share: (a) Allow one or more others to have part of something that you have; (b) allow one or more others to use something along with you. Verb Chart: Share

Infinitive: to share Present: I share Present Continuous: I am sharing Future: I will share Past: I shared Past Continuous: I was sharing Present Perfect: I have shared Past Perfect: I had shared
Example sentences 1) Please share your chocolate bar with your brother. (a) 2) The friends are sharing the ice cream cone. (a) 3) Connor shared his fries with me and in return I let him share my popcorn. (a) 4) Kathleen agreed to share her office with me. (b) 5) We have shared this textbook for two weeks now. It's time we both had our own copy. (b) 6) Will you share your apartment with me until I find my own? (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Inf.) When the family was poor, all the children had ________________ one bicycle. 2) (Future) At the end of the day, they ________________ all the fish they have caught. 3) (Past Perf.) We praised the children because they ________________ the toys so nicely. 4) (Past) Wild animals ________________ the huge valley with tourists who came there every summer. Related word Share (noun) A part of something that is shared (as in the first meaning, above). 167

28: Giving and Sharing

Give

Offer

Provide

Supply

Share

Review Activities
Complete the table Infinitive: Present: Present Continuous: Future: Past: Past Continuous: Present Perfect: Past Perfect: had provided offered was sharing give to supply

Choose the best verb for each sentence be prepared to justify your choice 1) We gave him/provided him with/offered him a room for the night but he did not accept. 2) The club cannot give/offer/share its meeting room with any other group. 3) They said they would offer/supply/share me with the equipment I needed. Write your own sentences using the prompts 1) (give / donation) 2) (offer / service) 3) (provide / space) 4) (supply / electricity) 5) (share / television) Write your own list of words with similar meanings

168

29: Freedom and Limits

Free

Release

Restrict

Limit

Regulate

Free
Definition: Free Free: (a) Take away things that may or will stop somebody from doing what they want; (b) take away a danger, a worry or a responsibility. Verb Chart: Free

Infinitive: to free Present: I free Present Continuous: I am freeing Future: I will free Past: I freed Past Continuous: I was freeing Present Perfect: I have freed Past Perfect: I had freed
Example sentences 1) Prapai hopes to free her family from debt by earning high wages. (b) 2) Having someone come in to do the housework frees me to spend more time on writing. (a) 3) Effective vaccinations have freed the world from smallpox. (b) 4) Is he still in jail? No the police freed him yesterday. (a) 5) Passing the examination will free you from anxiety. (b) 6) Julio's new passport frees him to travel wherever he wants. (a) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Future) Voice recognition software ________________ people from having to learn how to type. 2) (Pres. Cont.) The terrorists ________________ one or two hostages each day. 3) (Past / Passive) That player _____ only ___________ from the penalty box at the end of the game. 4) (Pres. Perf.) We ________________ our daughter from always asking us for the car by helping her buy one for herself. Related word Freedom (noun) The situation or the feeling of having nothing that stops you from doing what you want, or that endangers or worries you. 169

29: Freedom and Limits


Definition: Release

Free

Release

Restrict

Limit

Regulate

Release
Release: (a) Similar to the first meaning of FREE, above: take away things that may or will stop somebody from doing what they want; also, (b) deliberately make public some information that you have. Verb Chart: Release

Infinitive: to release Present: I release Present Continuous: I am releasing Future: I will release Past: I released Past Continuous: I was releasing Present Perfect: I have released Past Perfect: I had released
Example sentences 1) When something important happens in the company, who releases the story to the press? (b) 2) Malee is releasing all the details about the discovery this afternoon. (b) 3) Hiyoshi released his dog from its leash. (a) 4) Please let me know when you have released the pupils for the day. (a) 5) The judge decided that the prisoner should be released. (a) 6) They will only release the names of the accident victims when the families have been informed. (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Inf.) Once your experiment is complete, it is important ________________ the results promptly. 2) (Present) The government ________________ hundreds of trout into that lake each spring. 3) (Pres. Cont.) Turn up the radio! They ________________ this week's lottery numbers. 4) (Past) After winning the point, the wrestler ________________ his opponent. Related word Release (noun) As in press release or news release, an official statement or document that is intended to release information. 170

29: Freedom and Limits

Free

Release

Restrict

Limit

Regulate

Restrict
Definition: Restrict Restrict: (a) Stop something from becoming as big as it would otherwise be; (b) make something become smaller; (c) use rules or laws to control the way in which something happens. Verb Chart: Restrict

Infinitive: to restrict Present: I restrict Present Continuous: I am restricting Future: I will restrict Past: I restricted Past Continuous: I was restricting Present Perfect: I have restricted Past Perfect: I had restricted
Example sentences 1) So far the bad weather has not restricted outdoor events at the festival. (a) 2) If you do not cut them down, those trees will soon restrict the view from your house. (b) 3) The government restricted the activity of the largest companies in order to increase overall competition. (b) 4) Access to that bar is restricted by law to people aged twenty or older. (c) 5) The icy roads restricted our ability to drive quickly. (a) 6) She was angry because the chairperson had tried to restrict her questions at the meeting. (c) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Inf.) Sixty is too many. From now on, we have ________________ the number of people allowed in the room. 2) (Past Cont.) Conservation officials ________________ the growth of the commercial fishery. 3) (Present) The hockey regulations ________________ the kind of play that is or is not permitted. 4) (Past) After the open competition, they ________________ the final round to just the six best athletes. Related word Restriction (noun) The act of restricting something, or the words used to restrict something, or the impact of restricting something. 171

29: Freedom and Limits

Free

Release

Restrict

Limit

Regulate

Limit
Definition: Limit Limit: Similar to the first two meanings of RESTRICT, above: (a) stop something from becoming as big as it would otherwise be; (b) make something become smaller. Verb Chart: Limit

Infinitive: to limit Present: I limit Present Continuous: I am limiting Future: I will limit Past: I limited Past Continuous: I was limiting Present Perfect: I have limited Past Perfect: I had limited
Example sentences 1) Weak winds were limiting the speed of the sailboat. (a) 2) By the end of the year inflation had seriously limited the rise in the increase in savings. (a) 3) If it rains, that will limit visibility. (b) 4) Because she needed more time for her homework, Golda limited her television viewing to just two hours a week. (b) 5) Superstition limits the capacity for rational thinking. (a) 6) After a month of heavy spending, Mukhtar limited his expenses by bringing his lunch from home each day. (b) Use the forms of the verb 1) (Future) They ________________ the competition to children under age eight. 2) (Past) At first we just loved the fireworks display but then the weather turned very cold, which ________________ our pleasure. 3) (Past Perf.) They regretted that poor organization ________________ the success of the event that year compared to previous years. 4) (Present) The cost of lessons ________________ the number of people who take up flying as a hobby. Related word Limitation (noun) Something that limits, or the situation of being limited, or the effect of being limited. 172

29: Freedom and Limits

Free

Release

Restrict

Limit

Regulate

Regulate
Definition: Regulate Regulate: (a) Similar to the third meaning of RESTRICT, above: use rules or laws to control the way in which something happens; or (b) generally control a situation or process in other ways. Verb Chart: Regulate

Infinitive: to regulate Present: I regulate Present Continuous: I am regulating Future: I will regulate Past: I regulated Past Continuous: I was regulating Present Perfect: I have regulated Past Perfect: I had regulated
Example sentences 1) That tap regulates the flow of water in the system. (b) 2) New laws are now regulating trade between states. (a) 3) Mezyed's pace-maker regulated the beating of his heart very effectively. (b) 4) The local government has always regulated parking on city streets. (a) 5) In her essay Shawna argues that it is not necessary for parents to regulate every aspect of their children's lives. (a) 6) That one thermostat will regulate the temperature in the whole apartment. (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Past Cont.) Discipline improved because strict rules ________________ behavior in school corridors. 2) (Past Perf.) Until computers were invented, simple mechanical controls ________________ the activity of all machines. 3) (Future) From now on a governing board ________________ the profession. 4) (Past) She ________________ the speed of the car by pressing more or less on the accelerator. Related words Regulator (noun) Person or thing that regulates. Regulation (noun) Rule used to regulate the way something happens; or (as in either of the two meanings, above) the process of regulating. 173

29: Freedom and Limits

Free

Release

Restrict

Limit

Regulate

Review Activities
Complete the table Infinitive: Present: Present Continuous: Future: Past: Past Continuous: Present Perfect: Past Perfect: Choose the best verb for each sentence be prepared to justify your choice 1) We need to free/release/limit the size of the project to something that we can handle. 2) I do not think we should free/restrict/regulate students from responsibility for keeping the classroom tidy. 3) The new laws released/restricted/regulated ownership of guns to people who had passed a special test. Write your own sentences using the prompts 1) (free / concern) 2) (release / obligation) 3) (restrict / membership) 4) (limit / enjoyment) 5) (regulate / football) Write your own list of words with similar meanings have freed restricted was limiting release to regulate

174

30: Ability

Know how

Be up to

Can

Empower

Enable

Know how
Definition: Know how Know how: Have the knowledge or skills necessary for doing something. Verb Chart: Know how

Infinitive: to know how Present: I know how Present Continuous: --------------Future: I will know how Past: I knew how Past Continuous: --------------Present Perfect: I have known how Past Perfect: I had known how
Example sentences 1) For this job, is it necessary to know how to type? 2) That house-painter knows how to make an old building look brand new. 3) You would have been more popular at the party if you had known how to dance. 4) We all admired Daeng because she knew how to hammer in nails. 5) By the time you finish this course, you will know how to cook every kind of pie or cake. 6) Jethro could sing all right but he did not know how to play the guitar. Use the forms of the verb 1) (Present) Nowadays I doubt that most people from the American West still ________________ to ride a horse. 2) (Inf.) I watched her closely because I wanted ________________ to do it, too. 3) (Past) That company got the contract because they ________________ to combine quality with low prices. 4) (Pres. Perf.) He ________________ to whistle since he was three years old. Related words Know-how (noun) Practical knowledge of how to do something. 175

30: Ability

Know how

Be up to

Can

Empower

Enable

Be up to
Definition: Be up to Be up to: Feel healthy enough, energetic enough or prepared enough to do something. Verb Chart: Be up to

Infinitive: to be up to Present: I am up to Present Continuous: --------------Future: I will be up to Past: I was up to Past Continuous: --------------Present Perfect: I have been up to Past Perfect: I had been up to
Example sentences 1) Bev is not up to a five-mile run but she would like to try two miles. 2) Are you up to a full meal today? 3) Josh was up to taking the test a whole month early. 4) I think I should change jobs. I have never really been up to the challenge of this position. 5) There's no rush. You should not start mowing the lawn again until you are up to it. 6) Once I've had time to practice, I'm sure I will be up to entering the competition. Use the forms of the verb 1) (Inf.) After another week of medication, he may ________________ getting out of bed. 2) (Present) I'm getting tired but I ___ still _____________ working for another thirty minutes or so. 3) (Past) Good news! She told me she ________________ returning to work. 4) (Past Perf.) Although they only started playing again yesterday, I believe they ________________ it for at least a week by then.

176

30: Ability
Definition: Can

Know how

Be up to

Can

Empower

Enable

Can
Can: (a) When you CAN do something, it is possible for you to do it; (b) when something CAN happen, it is possible for it to happen; also, (c) in casual speech CAN often means have permission. Note CAN is a modal verb, and so several normal parts of the verb do not exist; for the first meaning, some missing parts are often supplied by using forms of TO BE ABLE. Verb Chart: Can

Infinitive: (to be able to) Present: I can Present Continuous: --------------Future: (I will be able to) Past: I could Past Continuous: --------------Present Perfect: (I have been able to) Past Perfect: (I had been able to)
Example sentences 1) Can I have another piece of toast, please? (c) 2) Last year I could only drive a car. This year I can drive a truck, too. (a) 3) No matter how careful you are, accidents can happen. (b) 4) I can't buy that jacket because I have not been able to save enough money yet. (a) 5) We can't join you this evening but we will probably be able to on the weekend. (a) 6) The teacher said I could leave early. (c) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Present) If I ________________ find a cork-screw, I will open the wine. 2) (Past) They told us that it ________________ rain at any time. 3) (Present) Okay, you ________________ borrow the car. 4) (Past) She was a great help on the camping trip because she ________________ pitch a tent faster than anyone else.

177

30: Ability
Definition: Empower

Know how

Be up to

Can

Empower

Enable

Empower
Empower: (a) Give a person or group the official right to do something; also, more generally, (b) help a person or group understand that they can do things which they have felt were impossible or not permitted. Verb Chart: Empower

Infinitive: to empower Present: I empower Present Continuous: I am empowering Future: I will empower Past: I empowered Past Continuous: I was empowering Present Perfect: I have empowered Past Perfect: I had empowered
Example sentences 1) Backing from the workers' empowered the union to call a strike. (a) 2) That teacher's friendly style has empowered her students to ask questions whenever they do not understand something. (b) 3) Getting registered as a psychologist will empower Gaetan to take a job at the clinic. (a) 4) Sonia was empowered to improve her speed on the track by a coach who believed in her. (b) 5) This university degree empowers you to work as a lawyer. (a) 6) Access to education is empowering poor farmers to improve their lives. (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Pres. Cont.) It seems that being made to feel welcome ________________ them to accept much more responsibility than ever before. 2) (Future) The sheriff ________________ his deputies to arrest suspects. 3) (Past) That first success ________________ her to take on other projects. 4) (Present) Your conference committee badge ________________ you to insist that all speakers keep to the schedule. Related word Empowerment (noun) The act of empowering a person or group (especially as in the second meaning, above), or the feeling of being empowered (as in the second meaning, above). 178

30: Ability

Know how

Be up to

Can

Empower

Enable

Enable
Definition: Enable Enable: (a) Give a person or group the ability or opportunity to do something; or, (b) give a person or group the right or permission to do something (similar to the first meaning of EMPOWER, above). Verb Chart: Enable

Infinitive: to enable Present: I enable Present Continuous: I am enabling Future: I will enable Past: I enabled Past Continuous: I was enabling Present Perfect: I have enabled Past Perfect: I had enabled
Example sentences 1) This good weather enables us to swim in the ocean whenever we want. (a) 2) Constant orchestra practice is enabling them to play better every day. (a) 3) Getting my citizenship will enable me to vote. (b) 4) Seeing her investments grow month by month enabled Ying to continue saving. (a) 5) His family's agreement to the match has finally enabled Youssif to marry his sweetheart. (b) 6) An election victory will enable our party to change the laws on banking and finance. (b) Use the forms of the verb after writing each sentence, identify which specific part of the definition it matches 1) (Past Cont.) Over the weeks, rest and good food ________________ him to recover from his wounds. 2) (Present Perf.) By sharing her wages with him, she ________________ her brother to stay in school. 3) (Future) They hope that support from the board ________________ them to bring in a better policy on sales commissions. 4) (Past) The new regulations on mergers ________________ us to unite our two companies. 179

30: Ability

Know how

Be up to

Can

Empower

Enable

Review Activities
Complete the table Infinitive: Present: Present Continuous: Future: Past: Past Continuous: Present Perfect: Past Perfect: Choose the best verb for each sentence be prepared to justify your choice 1) The nice weather on the weekend was up to/empowered/enabled me to plant the whole garden. 2) After getting plenty of rest she knew how/was up to/could doing another complete day of heavy work. 3) By being named supervisor, he knew how to/was up to/was empowered to direct work in the entire section. Write your own sentences using the prompts 1) (know how / make bread) 2) (be up to / marathon race) 3) (can / 2:00 a.m.) 4) (empower / give orders) 5) (enable / extra week) Write your own list of words with similar meanings had enabled was up to will empower to know how can

180

1 Making Things Use the forms of the verb Make 1) makes (c) 2) is making (a) 3) did not make (b) 4) have made (c) Build 1) to build (a) 2) builds (c) 3) is building (b) 4) built (b) Compose 1) will compose (a) 2) was composing (a) 3) compose (a) 4) was composed of (b) Construct 1) has constructed (a) 2) will construct (a) 3) constructed (b) 4) constructs (a) Create 1) was creating (a) 2) had created (b) 3) will create (b) 4) created (c)

ANSWER KEY

Review Complete the table Make: to make, make, am making, will make, made, was making, have made, had made Build: to build, build, am building, will build, built, was building, have built, had built Compose: to compose, compose, am composing, will compose, composed, was composing, have composed, had composed Construct: to construct, construct, am constructing, will construct, constructed, was constructing, have constructed, had constructed Create: to create, create, am creating, will create, created, was creating, have created, had created Choose the best verb may depend slightly on imagined context; suggested best choices: 1) built 2) composed 3) construct

181

2 Arranging Things Use the forms of the verb Plan 1) plans 2) was not planning 3) planned 4) has planned Arrange 1) to arrange (a) 2) arranges (a) 3) is ... arranging (b) 4) arranged (b) Organize 1) will organize (a) 2) was organizing (b) 3) organizes (a) 4) organized (a) Design 1) had designed (a) 2) will design (b) 3) did not design (a) 4) design (b) Relate 1) were not relating (a) 2) will relate (b) 3) had been related (b) 4) related (a)

ANSWER KEY

Review Complete the table Plan: to plan, plan, am planning, will plan, planned, was planning, have planned, had planned Arrange: to arrange, arrange, am arranging, will arrange, arranged, was arranging, have arranged, had arranged Organize: to organize, organize, am organizing, will organize, organized, was organizing, have organized, had organized Design: to design, design, am designing, will design, designed, was designing, have designed, had designed Relate: to relate, relate, am relating, will relate, related, was relating, have related, had related Choose the best verb may depend slightly on imagined context; suggested best choices: 1) designed 2) arranged 3) planning 182

3 Fixing Things Use the forms of the verb Correct 1) correct (a) 2) is correcting (a) 3) corrected (b) 4) has corrected (b) Fix 1) to fix (c) 2) fixes (b) 3) is fixing (a) 4) Did ... fix (b) Repair 1) will repair (a) 2) was repairing (b) 3) repairs (b) 4) repaired (a) Mend 1) has mended (a) 2) will not mend (a) 3) mended (a) 4) mend (b) Replace 1) was replacing (b) 2) had replaced (a) 3) will replace (b) 4) replaced (a)

ANSWER KEY

Review Complete the table Correct: to correct, correct, am correcting, will correct, corrected, was correcting, have corrected, had corrected Fix: to fix, fix, am fixing, will fix, fixed, was fixing, have fixed, had fixed Repair: to repair, repair, am repairing, will repair, repaired, was repairing, have repaired, had repaired Mend: to mend, mend, am mending, will mend, mended, was mending, have mended, had mended Replace: to replace, replace, am replacing, will replace, replaced, was replacing, have replaced, had replaced Choose the best verb may depend slightly on imagined context; suggested best choices: 1) repairing 2) replace 3) corrected 183

4 Delivering things Use the forms of the verb Bring 1) bring (a) 2) is bringing (a) 3) brought (b) 4) has brought (c) Take 1) to take (c) 2) take (a) 3) is taking (c) 4) took (b) Deliver 1) will deliver 2) was delivering 3) delivers 4) delivered Drop off 1) had dropped off (a) 2) will drop off (a) 3) dropped off (b) 4) drops ... off (b) Transfer 1) transferred (b) 2) have transferred (c) 3) will transfer (a) 4) did not transfer (a)

ANSWER KEY

Review Complete the table Bring: to bring, bring, am bringing, will bring, brought, was bringing, have brought, had brought Take: to take, take, am taking, will take, took, was taking, have taken, had taken Deliver: to deliver, deliver, am delivering, will deliver, delivered, was delivering, have delivered, had delivered Drop off: to drop off, drop off, am dropping off, will drop off, dropped off, was dropping off, have dropped off, had dropped off Transfer: to transfer, transfer, am transferring, will transfer, transferred, was transferring, have transferred, had transferred Choose the best verb may depend slightly on imagined context; suggested best choices: 1) transferred 2) deliver 3) drop off 184

5 Buying and Selling Use the forms of the verb Buy 1) buy 2) am not buying 3) did ... buy 4) will buy Sell 1) to sell 2) sell 3) is selling 4) sold Charge 1) will charge (a) 2) was charging (b) 3) charges (b) 4) did .. charge (b) Pay 1) had paid (a) 2) will pay (a) 3) paid (a) 4) pays (b) Rent 1) was renting (a) 2) had rented (b) 3) will rent (a) 4) rented (a)

ANSWER KEY

Review Complete the table Buy: to buy, buy, am buying, will buy, bought, was buying, have bought, had bought Sell: to sell, sell, am selling, will sell, sold, was selling, have sold, had sold Charge: to charge, charge, am charging, will charge, charged, was charging, have charged, had charged Pay: to pay, pay, am paying, will pay, paid, was paying, have paid, had paid Rent: to rent, rent, am renting, will rent, rented, was renting, have rented, had rented Choose the best verb may depend slightly on imagined context; suggested best choices: 1) charge 2) rent 3) paying

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6 Cause and Effect Use the forms of the verb Cause 1) cause (a) 2) is causing (b) 3) caused (a) 4) have caused (b) Bring about 1) bring about 2) brings about 3) is bringing about 4) brought about Effect 1) will effect 2) was effecting 3) does not effect 4) effected Affect 1) had affected (a) 2) will affect (b) 3) affected (b) 4) affect (a) Result 1) result in (b) 2) had resulted in (b) 3) will result (a) 4) resulted (a)

ANSWER KEY

Review Complete the table Cause: to cause, cause, am causing, will cause, caused, was causing, have caused, had caused Bring about: to bring about, bring about, am bringing about, will bring about, brought about, was bringing about, have brought about, had brought about Effect: to effect, effect, am effecting, will effect, effected, was effecting, have effected, had effected Affect: to affect, affect, am affecting, will affect, affected, was affecting, have affected, had affected Result: to result, results, is resulting, will result, resulted, was resulting, has resulted, had resulted Choose the best verb may depend slightly on imagined context; suggested best choices: 1) caused 2) affects 3) bring about

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7 Beginnings and Endings Use the forms of the verb Start 1) starts (c) 2) will start (a) 3) started (b) 4) has started (a) Begin 1) to begin 2) begins 3) is beginning 4) began Stop 1) will stop (a) 2) were stopping (c) 3) stop (c) 4) stopped (b) End 1) had ended (a) 2) will end (b) 3) ended (a) 4) ends (b) Finish 1) was finishing (a) 2) had finished (a) 3) will finish (b) 4) finished (a)

ANSWER KEY

Review Complete the table Start: to start, start, am starting, will start, started, was starting, have started, had started Begin: to begin, begin, am beginning, will begin, began, was beginning, have begun, had begun Stop: to stop, stop, am stopping, will stop, stopped, was stopping, have stopped, had stopped End: to end, end, am ending, will end, ended, was ending, have ended, had ended Finish: to finish, finish, am finishing, will finish, finished, was finishing, have finished, had finished Choose the best verb may depend slightly on imagined context; suggested best choices: 1) ended 2) finishes 3) started

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8 Comparison and Contrast Use the forms of the verb Compare 1) compare 2) are comparing 3) compared 4) have compared Contrast 1) to contrast (a) 2) contrasts (b) 3) are contrasting (a) 4) contrasted (b) Differ 1) will differ 2) were differing 3) differs 4) differed Distinguish 1) had distinguished (b) 2) will distinguish (a) 3) distinguished (b) 4) distinguishes (b) Resemble 1) resemble 2) had resembled 3) will resemble 4) resembled

ANSWER KEY

Review Complete the table Compare: to compare, compare, am comparing, will compare, compared, was comparing, have compared, had compared Contrast: to contrast, contrast, am contrasting, will contrast, contrasted, was contrasting, have contrasted, had contrasted Differ: to differ, differ, am differing, will differ, differed, was differing, have differed, had differed Distinguish: to distinguish, distinguish, am distinguishing, will distinguish, distinguished, was distinguishing, have distinguished, had distinguished Resemble: to resemble, resemble, am resembling, will resemble, resembled, was resembling, have resembled, had resembled Choose the best verb may depend slightly on imagined context; suggested best choices: 1) contrasted 2) compare 3) resembles 188

9 Change Use the forms of the verb Change 1) changes (a) 2) are changing (b) 3) changed (b) 4) has changed (a) Increase 1) to increase (b) 2) increases (a) 3) was increasing (a) 4) increased (b) Grow 1) will grow (c) 2) were growing (b) 3) grow (a) 4) grew (a) Develop 1) had developed (b) 2) will develop (a) 3) developed (a) 4) develops (b) Improve 1) was improving (a) 2) had improved (b) 3) will improve (b) 4) improved (a)

ANSWER KEY

Review Complete the table Change: to change, change, am changing, will change, changed, was changing, have changed, had changed Increase: to increase, increase, am increasing, will increase, increased, was increasing, have increased, had increased Grow: to grow, grow, am growing, will grow, grew, was growing, have grown, had grown Develop: to develop, develop, am developing, will develop, developed, was developing, have developed, had developed Improve: to improve, improve, am improving, will improve, improved, was improving, have improved, had improved Choose the best verb may depend slightly on imagined context; suggested best choices: 1) changes 2) developed 3) increase 189

10 Existence Use the forms of the verb Live 1) live (c) 2) are living (b) 3) not live (a) 4) has lived (b) Exist 1) exist (a) 2) exist (b) 3) will exist (a) 4) were existing (b) Be found 1) will be found (a) 2) Have ... been found (a) 3) are found (b) 4) were found (b) Occur 1) will occur (a) 2) occurred (a) 3) have occurred (c) 4) occur (b) Happen 1) was happening 2) had happened 3) will happen 4) happened

ANSWER KEY

Review Complete the table Live: to live, live, am living, will live, lived, was living, have lived, had lived Exist: to exist, exist, am existing, will exist, existed, was existing, have existed, had existed Be found: to be found, is found, ---------------, will be found, was found, ---------------, has been found, had been found Occur: to occur, occurs, is occurring, will occur, occurred, was occurring, has occurred, had occurred Happen: to happen, happens, is happening, will happen, happened, was happening, has happened, had happened Choose the best verb may depend slightly on imagined context; suggested best choices: 1) live 2) happened 3) exist

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11 Knowing and Imagining Use the forms of the verb Dream 1) is dreaming (b) 2) dreams (a) 3) dreamed OR dreamt (a) 4) has dreamed OR has dreamt (b) Imagine 1) to imagine (b) 2) imagine (b) 3) was imagining (a) 4) imagined (a) Know 1) will know (b) 2) to know (b) 3) know (a) 4) knew (a) See through 1) see through 2) will see through 3) saw through 4) see through Wonder 1) was wondering (b) 2) had wondered (a) 3) will wonder (b) 4) wondered (a)

ANSWER KEY

Review Complete the table Dream: to dream, dream, am dreaming, will dream, dreamed/dreamt, was dreaming, have dreamed/dreamt, had dreamed/dreamt Imagine: to imagine, imagine, am imagining, will imagine, imagined, was imagining, have imagined, had imagined Know: to know, know, ---------------, will know, knew, ---------------, have known, had known See through: to see through, see through, am seeing through, will see through, saw through, was seeing through, have seen through, had seen through Wonder: to wonder, wonder, am wondering, will wonder, wondered, was wondering, have wondered, had wondered Choose the best verb may depend slightly on imagined context; suggested best choices: 1) wondering 2) knows 3) dreamed 191

12 Belief and Hope Use the forms of the verb Accept 1) accepts (a) 2) are accepting (b) 3) accepted (c) 4) has accepted (a) Agree 1) to agree (a) 2) agree (b) 3) are agreeing (a) 4) did not agree (a) Believe 1) will believe (b) 2) was believing (a) 3) believes (c) 4) believed (b) Hope 1) had hoped 2) will ... hope 3) hoped 4) hopes Wish 1) was ... wishing 2) had wished 3) wish 4) wished

ANSWER KEY

Review Complete the table Accept: to accept, accept, am accepting, will accept, accepted, was accepting, have accepted, had accepted Agree: to agree, agree, am agreeing, will agree, agreed, was agreeing, have agreed, had agreed Believe: to believe, believe, am believing, will believe, believed, was believing, have believed, had believed Hope: to hope, hope, am hoping, will hope, hoped, was hoping, have hoped, had hoped Wish: to wish, wish, am wishing, will wish, wished, was wishing, have wished, had wished Choose the best verb may depend slightly on imagined context; suggested best choices: 1) accepted 2) believe 3) wish

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13 Giving Advice Use the forms of the verb Advise 1) do ... advise 2) is advising 3) advised 4) have advised Suggest 1) to suggest 2) do ... suggest 3) are ... suggesting 4) suggested Propose 1) will propose 2) were proposing 3) propose 4) proposed Teach 1) had taught (b) 2) will teach (a) 3) taught (a) 4) teach (b) Warn 1) was warning 2) had warned 3) will warn 4) warned

ANSWER KEY

Review Complete the table Advise: to advise, advise, am advising, will advise, advised, was advising, have advised, had advised Suggest: to suggest, suggest, am suggesting, will suggest, suggested, was suggesting, have suggested, had suggested Propose: to propose, propose, am proposing, will propose, proposed, was proposing, have proposed, had proposed Teach: to teach, teach, am teaching, will teach, taught, was teaching, have taught, had taught Warn: to warn, warn, am warning, will warn, warned, was warning, have warned, had warned Choose the best verb may depend slightly on imagined context; suggested best choices: 1) teach 2) warned 3) advise 193

14 Making Comments Use the forms of the verb Comment 1) to comment (b) 2) are commenting (a) 3) commented (a) 4) has ... commented (a) Inform 1) inform 2) to inform 3) is informing 4) informed Remark 1) will not remark 2) has remarked 3) remarks 4) remarked Tell 1) had ... told (b) 2) Will ... tell (b) 3) told (a) 4) tells (a) Report 1) was reporting 2) had ... reported 3) will report 4) reported

ANSWER KEY

Review Complete the table Comment: to comment, comment, am commenting, will comment, commented, was commenting, have commented, had commented Inform: to inform, inform, am informing, will inform, informed, was informing, have informed, had informed Remark: to remark, remark, am remarking, will remark, remarked, was remarking, have remarked, had remarked Tell: to tell, tell, am telling, will tell, told, was telling, have told, had told Report: to report, report, am reporting, will report, reported, was reporting, have reported, had reported Choose the best verb may depend slightly on imagined context; suggested best choices: 1) told 2) reports 3) inform 194

15 Watching Use the forms of the verb Watch 1) Watch (a) 2) is watching (b) 3) watched (a) 4) has watched (a) Glance 1) to glance 2) glances 3) was glancing 4) glanced Notice 1) Will ... notice (c) 2) did not notice (a) 3) notices (c) 4) noticed (b) Consider 1) have considered (a) 2) will consider (a) 3) considered (b) 4) consider (b) Study 1) was studying (b) 2) had studied (a) 3) will study (a) 4) studied (b)

ANSWER KEY

Review Complete the table Watch: to watch, watch, am watching, will watch, watched, was watching, have watched, had watched Glance: to glance, glance, am glancing, will glance, glanced, was glancing, have glanced, had glanced Notice: to notice, notice, am noticing, will notice, noticed, was noticing, have noticed, had noticed Consider: to consider, consider, am considering, will consider, considered, was considering, have considered, had considered Study: to study, study, am studying, will study, studied, was studying, have studied, had studied Choose the best verb may depend slightly on imagined context; suggested best choices: 1) noticed 2) study 3) watch 195

16 Leaders and Followers Use the forms of the verb Guide 1) guide (a) 2) is guiding (b) 3) guided (b) 4) have guided (a) Lead 1) to lead (c) 2) leads (a) 3) is leading (b) 4) led (a) Follow 1) will follow (c) 2) was following (a) 3) follow (c) 4) followed (b) Command 1) has commanded (a) 2) will command (c) 3) commanded (b) 4) commands (c) Yield 1) was yielding (b) 2) have yielded (a) 3) will yield (b) 4) yielded (a)

ANSWER KEY

Review Complete the table Guide: to guide, guide, am guiding, will guide, guided, was guiding, have guided, had guided Lead: to lead, lead, am leading, will lead, led, was leading, have led, had led Follow: to follow, follow, am following, will follow, followed, was following, have followed, had followed Command: to command, command, am commanding, will command, commanded, was commanding, have commanded, had commanded Yield: to yield, yield, am yielding, will yield, yielded, was yielding, have yielded, had yielded Choose the best verb may depend slightly on imagined context; suggested best choices: 1) commands 2) follow 3) yielded

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17 Competition Use the forms of the verb Compete 1) compete (b) 2) is competing (a) 3) competed (b) 4) has ... competed (a) Attack 1) to attack (b) 2) attack (c) 3) are attacking (b) 4) attacked (a) Fight 1) will fight (b) 2) were fighting (a) 3) fight (c) 4) fought (c) Struggle 1) had struggled (b) 2) will struggle (a) 3) struggled (b) 4) struggle (b) Race 1) was racing (b) 2) has raced (a) 3) will race (b) 4) raced (a)

ANSWER KEY

Review Complete the table Compete: to compete, compete, am competing, will compete, competed, was competing, have competed, had competed Attack: to attack, attack, am attacking, will attack, attacked, was attacking, have attacked, had attacked Fight: to fight, fight, am fighting, will fight, fought, was fighting, have fought, had fought Struggle: to struggle, struggle, am struggling, will struggle, struggled, was struggling, have struggled, had struggled Race: to race, race, am racing, will race, raced, was racing, have raced, had raced Choose the best verb may depend slightly on imagined context; suggested best choices: 1) compete 2) raced 3) fighting 197

18 Pleasure Use the forms of the verb Enjoy 1) enjoys (b) 2) are enjoying (a) 3) enjoyed himself (c) 4) have enjoyed (a) Like 1) like (a) 2) like (b) 3) are ... liking (a) 4) liked (c) Please 1) will please 2) was pleasing 3) pleases 4) pleased Delight 1) had delighted in (b) 2) will delight (a) 3) delighted (a) 4) delight in (b) Prefer 1) prefer 2) had preferred 3) will prefer 4) preferred

ANSWER KEY

Review Complete the table Enjoy: to enjoy, enjoy, am enjoying, will enjoy, enjoyed, was enjoying, have enjoyed, had enjoyed Like: to like, like, am liking, will like, liked, was liking, have liked, had liked Please: to please, please, am pleasing, will please, pleased, was pleasing, have pleased, had pleased Delight: to delight, delight, am delighting, will delight, delighted, was delighting, have delighted, had delighted Prefer: to prefer, prefer, am preferring, will prefer, preferred, was preferring, have preferred, had preferred Choose the best verb may depend slightly on imagined context; suggested best choices: 1) prefer 2) enjoys 3) like 198

19 Displeasure and Discomfort Use the forms of the verb Trouble 1) trouble (c) 2) is troubling (b) 3) troubled (a) 4) has troubled (b) Dislike 1) to dislike (a) 2) dislikes (a) 3) is disliking (b) 4) disliked (b) Mind 1) will mind (b) 2) was minding (b) 3) Do ... mind (a) 4) did not mind (a) Matter 1) had not mattered 2) will matter 3) did not matter 4) does ... matter Suffer 1) was suffering (a) 2) had suffered (a) 3) will suffer (a) 4) suffered from (b)

ANSWER KEY

Review Complete the table Trouble: to trouble, trouble, am troubling, will trouble, troubled, was troubling, have troubled, had troubled Dislike: to dislike, dislike, am disliking, will dislike, disliked, was disliking, have disliked, had disliked Mind: to mind, mind, am minding, will mind, minded, was minding, have minded, had minded Matter: to matter, matters, ---------------, will matter, mattered, ---------------, has mattered, had mattered Suffer: to suffer, suffer, am suffering, will suffer, suffered, was suffering, have suffered, had suffered Choose the best verb may depend slightly on imagined context; suggested best choices: 1) mind 2) troubled 3) matter

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20 Social Relations Use the forms of the verb Date 1) date 2) are dating 3) dated 4) has dated Flirt 1) to flirt (a) 2) flirts (a) 3) is flirting (b) 4) was flirting (b) Introduce 1) will introduce (b) 2) was introducing (c) 3) is introducing (a) 4) introduced (a) Invite 1) had invited (b) 2) will invite (a) 3) invited (a) 4) invites (b) Visit 1) was visiting (b) 2) had visited (b) 3) will visit (a) 4) visited (b)

ANSWER KEY

Review Complete the table Date: to date, date, am dating, will date, dated, was dating, have dated, had dated Flirt: to flirt, flirt, am flirting, will flirt, flirted, was flirting, have flirted, had flirted Introduce: to introduce, introduce, am introducing, will introduce, introduced, was introducing, have introduced, had introduced Invite: to invite, invite, am inviting, will invite, invited, was inviting, have invited, had invited Visit: to visit, visit, am visiting, will visit, visited, was visiting, have visited, had visited Choose the best verb may depend slightly on imagined context; suggested best choices: 1) dating 2) visit 3) introducing

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21 Etiquette Use the forms of the verb Compliment 1) compliments 2) is ... complimenting 3) did ... compliment 4) has complimented Greet 1) to greet (a) 2) greet (a) 3) are greeting (b) 4) greeted (b) Insult 1) will insult (a) 2) were insulting (a) 3) insults (b) 4) insulted (a) Snub 1) has snubbed (a) 2) will snub (b) 3) snubbed (b) 4) snub (a) Thank 1) was thanking (a) 2) had thanked (b) 3) to thank (b) 4) thanked (a)

ANSWER KEY

Review Complete the table Compliment: to compliment, compliment, am complimenting, will compliment, complimented, was complimenting, have complimented, had complimented Greet: to greet, greet, am greeting, will greet, greeted, was greeting, have greeted, had greeted Insult: to insult, insult, am insulting, will insult, insulted, was insulting, have insulted, had insulted Snub: to snub, snub, am snubbing, will snub, snubbed, was snubbing, have snubbed, had snubbed Thank: to thank, thank, am thanking, will thank, thanked, was thanking, have thanked, had thanked Choose the best verb may depend slightly on imagined context; suggested best choices: 1) complimented 2) greet 3) snub

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22 Kitchen Use the forms of the verb Heat 1) heats (a) 2) is not heating (b) 3) heated up (d) 4) has heated up (c) Cook 1) to cook 2) cooks 3) is cooking 4) cooked Boil 1) will boil (d) 2) was boiling (e) 3) Boil (c) 4) boiled (b) Fry 1) Have ... fried 2) will ... fry 3) fried 4) fry Roast 1) were roasting (b) 2) had ... roasted (a) 3) will roast (c) 4) roasted (a)

ANSWER KEY

Review Complete the table Heat: to heat, heat, am heating, will heat, heated, was heating, have heated, had heated Cook: to cook, cook, am cooking, will cook, cooked, was cooking, have cooked, had cooked Boil: to boil, boil, am boiling, will boil, boiled, was boiling, have boiled, had boiled Fry: to fry, fry, am frying, will fry, fried, was frying, have fried, had fried Roast: to roast, roast, am roasting, will roast, roasted, was roasting, have roasted, had roasted Choose the best verb may depend slightly on imagined context; suggested best choices: 1) boil 2) heat up 3) cook

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23 Liquids Use the forms of the verb Pour 1) pours (c) 2) is pouring (a) 3) poured (b) 4) have poured (a) Fill 1) to fill or to fill up (c) 2) fills or fills up (b) 3) is filling or is filling up (a) 4) filled or filled up (b) Spill 1) will spill (a) 2) was ... spilling (b) 3) to spill (a) 4) spilled (c) Sprinkle 1) had sprinkled (b) 2) sprinkle (a) 3) sprinkled (a) 4) sprinkle (a) Stir 1) was ... stirring up (b) 2) had stirred (a) 3) will stir (a) 4) Have ... stirred (a)

ANSWER KEY

Review Complete the table Pour: to pour, pour, am pouring, will pour, poured, was pouring, have poured, had poured Fill: to fill, fill, am filling, will fill, filled, was filling, have filled, had filled Spill: to spill, spill, am spilling, will spill, spilled, was spilling, have spilled, had spilled Sprinkle: to sprinkle, sprinkle, am sprinkling, will sprinkle, sprinkled, was sprinkling, have sprinkled, had sprinkled Stir: to stir, stir, am stirring, will stir, stirred, was stirring, have stirred, had stirred Choose the best verb may depend slightly on imagined context; suggested best choices: 1) sprinkled 2) pouring 3) spill

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24 Garden Use the forms of the verb Dig 1) digs up (c) 2) is digging up (b) 3) dug (a) 4) have dug up (b) Harvest 1) to harvest 2) harvests 3) are harvesting 4) harvested Plant 1) will plant (a) 2) are planting (a) 3) plant (a) 4) planted (b) Rake 1) have raked up (a) 2) Will ... rake (a) 3) raked (b) 4) rake (a) Water 1) was watering 2) had watered 3) will water 4) watered

ANSWER KEY

Review Complete the table Dig: to dig, dig, am digging, will dig, dug, was digging, have dug, had dug Harvest: to harvest, harvest, am harvesting, will harvest, harvested, was harvesting, have harvested, had harvested Plant: to plant, plant, am planting, will plant, planted, was planting, have planted, had planted Rake: to rake, rake, am raking, will rake, raked, was raking, have raked, had raked Water: to water, water, am watering, will water, watered, was watering, have watered, had watered Choose the best verb may depend slightly on imagined context; suggested best choices: 1) planted 2) harvest 3) water

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25 Travel Use the forms of the verb Depart 1) depart (b) 2) is departing (a) 3) departed (a) 4) has not departed (a) Travel 1) to travel (a) 2) travels (c) 3) have travelled (b) 4) travelled (a) Ride 1) ride (a) 2) were riding (b) 3) rides (b) 4) rode (a) Drive 1) had driven (a) 2) will drive (c) 3) drove (a) 4) drives (b) Fly 1) was flying (d) 2) had flown (a) 3) will fly (b) 4) flew (c)

ANSWER KEY

Review Complete the table Depart: to depart, depart, am departing, will depart, departed, was departing, have departed, had departed Travel: to travel, travel, am travelling, will travel, travelled, was travelling, have travelled, had travelled Ride: to ride, ride, am riding, will ride, rode, was riding, have ridden, had ridden Drive: to drive, drive, am driving, will drive, drove, was driving, have driven, had driven Fly: to fly, fly, am flying, will fly, flew, was flying, have flown, had flown Choose the best verb may depend slightly on imagined context; suggested best choices: 1) depart 2) drive 3) travel

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26 Getting There Use the forms of the verb Reach 1) reaches (a) 2) reach (b) 3) reached (b) 4) has reached (c) Arrive 1) to arrive (a) 2) arrives (a) 3) is arriving (b) 4) arrived (c) Come 1) will come (a) 2) was ... coming (a) 3) come (c) 4) came (b) Go 1) had gone (d) 2) will go (a) 3) went (b) 4) goes (c) Enter 1) were entering (a) 2) had entered (b) 3) will enter (b) 4) entered (c)

ANSWER KEY

Review Complete the table Reach: to reach, reach, am reaching, will reach, reached, was reaching, have reached, had reached Arrive: to arrive, arrive, am arriving, will arrive, arrived, was arriving, have arrived, had arrived Come: to come, come, am coming, will come, came, was coming, have come, had come Go: to go, go, am going, will go, went, was going, have gone, had gone Enter: to enter, enter, am entering, will enter, entered, was entering, have entered, had entered Choose the best verb may depend slightly on imagined context; suggested best choices: 1) go 2) enter 3) reached

206

27 Possession Use the forms of the verb Have 1) have (a) 2) had (c) 3) will have (e) 4) has had (b) Own 1) to own 2) owns 3) has owned 4) owned Belong 1) will belong (a) 2) belonged (b) 3) do not belong (c) 4) belongs (c) Possess 1) possessed (b) 2) will possess (a) 3) had possessed (a) 4) possesses (b) Hold 1) was holding (a) 2) has held (d) 3) will hold (c) 4) held (b)

ANSWER KEY

Review Complete the table Have: to have, have, am having, will have, had, was having, have had, had had Own: to own, own, ---------------, will own, owned, ---------------, have owned, had owned Belong: to belong, belong, ---------------, will belong, belonged, ---------------, have belonged, had belonged Possess: to possess, possess, ---------------, will possess, possessed, ---------------, have possessed, had possessed Hold: to hold, hold, am holding, will hold, held, was holding, have held, had held Choose the best verb may depend slightly on imagined context; suggested best choices: 1) had 2) belong 3) hold

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28 Giving and Sharing Use the forms of the verb Give 1) give (a) 2) is giving (b) 3) gave (d) 4) Have ... given (c) Offer 1) to offer (a) 2) offers (b) 3) is offering (a) 4) offered (b) Provide 1) will provide for (b) 2) was providing (a) 3) provides for (b) 4) provided (a) Supply 1) has supplied 2) Will ... supply 3) supplied 4) supplies Share 1) to share (b) 2) will share (a) 3) had shared (b) 4) shared (b)

ANSWER KEY

Review Complete the table Give: to give, give, am giving, will give, gave, was giving, have given, had given Offer: to offer, offer, am offering, will offer, offered, was offering, have offered, had offered Provide: to provide, provide, am providing, will provide, provided, was providing, have provided, had provided Supply: to supply, supply, am supplying, will supply, supplied, was supplying, have supplied, had supplied Share: to share, share, am sharing, will share, shared, was sharing, have shared, had shared Choose the best verb may depend slightly on imagined context; suggested best choices: 1) offered him 2) share 3) supply

208

29 Freedom and Limits Use the forms of the verb Free 1) will free (b) 2) are freeing (a) 3) was ... freed (a) 4) have freed (b) Release 1) to release (b) 2) releases (a) 3) are releasing (b) 4) released (a) Restrict 1) to restrict (b) 2) were restricting (a) 3) restrict (c) 4) restricted (b) Limit 1) will limit (a) 2) limited (b) 3) had limited (b) 4) limits (a) Regulate 1) were regulating (a) 2) had regulated (b) 3) will regulate (a) 4) regulated (b)

ANSWER KEY

Review Complete the table Free: to free, free, am freeing, will free, freed, was freeing, have freed, had freed Release: to release, release, am releasing, will release, released, was releasing, have released, had released Restrict: to restrict, restrict, am restricting, will restrict, restricted, was restricting, have restricted, had restricted Limit: to limit, limit, am limiting, will limit, limited, was limiting, have limited, had limited Regulate: to regulate, regulate, am regulating, will regulate, regulated, was regulating, have regulated, had regulated Choose the best verb may depend slightly on imagined context; suggested best choices: 1) limit 2) free 3) restricted 209

30 Ability Use the forms of the verb Know how 1) know how 2) to know how 3) knew how 4) has known how Be up to 1) be up to 2) am ... up to 3) was up to 4) had been up to Can 1) can (a) 2) could (b) 3) can (c) 4) could (a) Empower 1) is empowering (b) 2) will empower (a) 3) empowered (b) 4) empowers (a) Enable 1) were enabling (a) 2) has enabled (a) 3) will enable (b) 4) enabled (b)

ANSWER KEY

Review Complete the table Know how: to know how, know how, ---------------, will know how, knew how, ---------------, have known how, had known how Be up to: to be up to, am up to, ---------------, will be up to, was up to, ---------------, have been up to, had been up to Can: (to be able to), can, ---------------, (will be able to), could, ---------------, (have been able to), (had been able to) Empower: to empower, empower, am empowering, will empower, empowered, was empowering, have empowered, had empowered Enable: to enable, enable, am enabling, will enable, enabled, was enabling, have enabled, had enabled Choose the best verb may depend slightly on imagined context; suggested best choices: 1) enabled 2) was up to 3) was empowered to 210