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Advertising and Promotion

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Task 1
What is advertising?
Advertising is all about taking information about a product or service and presenting it to the target customer in a way that he or she will be tempted to buy it. The goal is to collect information about the product into a form that is attractive and is able to influence the potential buyer that it is fulfilling an existing need. A customer is usually someone who has already purchased the product or service. However, the potential customer is someone who has not purchased it, but the company believes that will purchase the item depending on a particular set of criteria. Advertising is usually targeted to attract potential customers to the product or service and to keep existing customers loyal to the products of the business.

Customers
Customers are the targeted group who will purchase the products advertised. In general terms this can include both existing and potential customers. The customer has some needs and also disposable income that can be spent to satisfy that need. It is necessary to price the product so that a significant proportion of the customers can afford it.

Advertising agency
Advertising agencies are responsible for accepting work on behalf of the sellers who wish to sell products and create appropriate marketing material in order to get as much information as possible across to the customer in a way that makes the product seem attractive. It is the responsibility of the advertising agency to make the product or service look good by displaying it at its maximum potential and most attractive state. For this they need to find creative methods to highlight the potential of products and attract the customers attention. An advertising agency can have many client accounts and prepare advertising campaigns on behalf of each of them separately and without clash of interest. They can also act as consultants and market researchers to gather information relevant to the product such as market demography and changing trends in customer taste.

Media
Media is the usual method that is used to communicate and broadcast advertising material to the customers and the general public at large. This can include such sources as newspapers, television, the World Wide Web, radio, leaflets, etc.

Task 2
Coca-Cola marketing campaign history
Coca-cola was first introduced in 1886 and has enjoyed strong growth in the market over the years to become the dominant player in the soft drink industry. The below is an overview of its marketing campaign. 1885 The logo is designed for the soft drink. 1886 The product is initially sold as patented medicine due to the belief that carbonated water was good for the health. The founders claimed it was good to cure many diseases including morphine addiction, headaches and impotence. First advertising campaign was conducted in the same year. 1915 The company introduced the now famous curved bottle design. This was done to distinguish the bottle from other drink manufacturers. 1985 In response to the marketing campaigns of Pepsi, Coca Cola Company attempted to change the formula of the drink with the introduction of New Coke. But there was a significant backlash from the general public who were nostalgic for the old formula. Amid this, the company brought back the old formula under the name Coca-cola Classic. 2005 In response to the health concerns of general public, the company introduced Diet Coke which had an artificial sweetener instead of normal sugar based sweeteners. This was targeted to attract the health conscious who would prefer low calorie drinks in order to reduce calorie intake.

Toyota marketing campaign history


Toyota is the worlds leading car manufacturer at the present. Below is a summarised view of its advertising history. 1936 The passenger car is introduced by the competition held to decide on a logo. Company moniker changed from Toyoda to Toyota. 1978 Introduces the tagline Oh, what a feeling!

1986 Introduces the tagline Who could ask for anything more 1990 Introduces the tagline "I love what you do for me, Toyota!" 2004 Introduces the tagline "Moving forward

Task 3
It is possible to use a model such as AIDA for the development of advertising material. Each of the four aspects is discussed below. A Attention This indicates the gaining of attention of the customer. At the time of seeing the advertisement, the customer may be involved in some other tasks in which case it is necessary to attract his or her attention. In the Coca Cola advertisement during the Christmas time, it begins with a number of trucks (Lorries) coming through a forest road in to the town with vibrant lights and colours. This is intended to draw the attention of the customer to inquire about what the advertisement shows. I Interest This is the part where the advertisement is intended to generate interest among the consumers. In the advertisement above mentioned, there is a general sense of celebration as the Lorries role into the town and the colours and lights spread across the town. It indicates the Lorries bringing in a happy atmosphere. D Desire Desire is expected to be created among the consumer for the product advertised by this stage. In the advertisement, the people are happy and overjoyed to see the coca cola Lorries passing through the town. A Action This is the final stage where the advertisement is expected to influence the consumer to act on the desire and purchase the product. In the above advertisement, the last Lorry has an image of Santa Claus which proceeds to drink a bottle of Coca-Cola as the convoy leaves the town. This indicates the desired action of the advertisement.

Task 4
The above advertisement can be compared with an older advertisement by coca cola where a group of polar bears are sitting around a hole in ice with the mother polar bear putting the young ones on floating pieces of ice in order to get them to drifted closer to the bottle of Coca-Cola at the centre. The father bear retrieve the bottle by making waves and has the first sip. But then proceeds to share with the family. In this advertisement again, the bottle of Coca-Cola is not shown at the beginning. Only the bears are shown which can attract the curiosity of the viewer. This then proceeds to the antics of the bears which generate interest in the advertisement itself. The attempt by the father and the retrieval of the bottle which is followed by having a sip generates desire among the consumer. Finally, advertisement shows the family sharing Coca Cola as they enjoy a peaceful time. This is intended to push the customer to make a purchase. In comparison, both advertisements are similar in the way they follow the AIDA model. The Christmas advertisement may have more sentimental value due to the familiarity with the tradition as well as the involvement of humans rather than animals. However this depends on the personal views and circumstances of the observer.

Task 5
There are a number of ways to improve the above second mentioned advertisement. The scenery in the video is quite dark and may be improved by introducing a more jolly atmosphere such as in the earlier advertisement. More focus may have been spent on the young bears and their antics which most people find fascinating as well as interesting. More interest could have been generated on the product by having a more advanced plot rather than where the father simply retrieves the bottle to have a drink. A funny action may have been introduced at this stage preferably with the use of the young ones, which could have attracted more interest.

References
Behm, J. (2009). The AIDA model - Wrong spelling in advertisements as an attention-seeking device. Grin Verlag. Doyle, P., & Stern, P. (2006). Marketing Management and Strategy. Financial Times/ Prentice Hall. Kyle, B. (2010). 7 Pricing Strategies That Improve Profit. Retrieved 04 21, 2010, from WebsiteMarketingPlan.com: http://www.websitemarketingplan.com/techniques/pricing2.htm Omedo, J. (2010). How Culture and Technology Impact Coca-Cola's Advertising Strategies: The Impact of Pop Culture and Technology On Marketing and Advertising Coca-Cola's Brand Products. VDM Verlag. Perner, L. (2009, 02 18). International Marketing. Retrieved 02 18, 2010, from Consumer Psychologist: http://www.consumerpsychologist.com/international_marketing.html Tomino, T., Park, Y., Hong, P., & Roh, J. J. (2009). Market flexible customizing system (MFCS) of Japanese vehicle manufacturers: An analysis of Toyota, Nissan and Mitsubishi. International Journal of Production Economics , 375-386. Youtube. (2006). Coca Cola Christmas Trucks Long Version. Retrieved 11 24, 2010, from Youtube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ogetBqMgau0 Youtube. (2006). Coca Cola Polar Bears . Retrieved 11 24, 2010, from Youtube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Sz56mtQB1M&feature=related