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Respiratory System Primary function is to obtain oxygen for use by body's cells & eliminate carbon dioxide that

t cells produce Includes respiratory airways leading into (& out of) lungs plus the lungs themselves

RESPIRATORY STRUCTURE: Thoracic Cavity Cone-shaped structure containing the conducting system gas exchange system, pleura and mediastinal and pericardial structures. Primary Bronchi the right and left primary bronchi are formed by the division of the trachea the right primary bronchus is wider, shorter and straighter than the left Lungs Paired cone-shaped organs lying in the entire thoracic cavity except for the ost central area, the mediastinum. Apex is the narrow superior portion of each lung Base is the broad lung area resting on the diaphragm

The surface of each lung is covered with a visceral serosa called the pulmonary or visceral pleura and the walls of the thoracic cavity are lined by the parietal pleura The left lung also contains a concavity, the cardiac notch in which the heart lies; it has 2 lobes and 8 bronchopulmonary segments The right lung is thicker and broader; and contains 3 lobes and 10 bronchopulmonary segments Pleurae Membranes protectively covering each lung and lining the thoracic cavity. Has 2 layers, parietal pleura ( lining the inner surface of the chest wall and covering the costal, diaphragmatic and mediastinal surfaces of the thorax); visceral pleura ( it hugs the contours of the lung tissue including the fissures between the lobes of the lungs) Has a small amount of pleural fluid as lubricant Bronchioles Often referred to as bronchial or respiratory tree the terminal bronchioles is subdivided into small conduits called respiratory bronchioles Diaphragm the major muscle for respiration, innervated by the phrenic nerve The right side is higher than the left because of the space occupied by the liver. The normal excursion of the diaphragm is 1.5 cm, with deep breathing this may increase to 7 or 8 cm. Other muscles for respiration external and internal intercostals muscles parasternal, scalene, sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis muscles



Respiratory Center located in the brainstem ( medulla oblongata) It is stimulated by an increased concentration of CO2 and to a lesser degree by decreased amounts of O2 in arterial blood. Stimulation of the respiratory center causes an increase in the rate and depth of breathing, thus blowing off excess CO2 and reducing blood acidity. Respiratory Conducting System Upper airway it conducts air to the lower airway, protects it from foreign matter and it warms, filter and humidify the inspired air. Consists of nose, pharynx, epiglottis and larynx Lower airway - also called as the tracheobronchial tree Functions: Conduction of air through the many branches of airways to the alveolar level. Mucociliary clearance Production of pulmonary surfactant. Lung Parenchyma the working area of the lung tissue consisting of millions of alveolar units

It is the passage and exchange of molecular oxygen and carbon dioxide from the pulmonary capillaries and alveoli.

Protective mechanisms for normal respiration Mucus blanket Cilia Macrophages Surfactant Cough Reflex bronchoconstriction Physiology of Respiration Respiration- exchange of CO2 and O2 within the lungs, between the cells and their environment and in intracellular metabolism Pulmonary Ventilation- a process by which gases are exchanged between the external environment and alveoli External Respiration- the exchange of gas between the air in the alveoli and the blood within the pulmonary capillaries Respiratory Gas Transport- O2 and CO2 must be transported to and from the lungs and tissue cells of the body via the bloodstream Internal Respiration- exchange of O2 and CO2 at the tissue- cellular level Mechanics of Breathing Inspiration- is initiated by contraction of the diaphragm and external intercostals Expiration- a passive process and does not require muscles to work Elastic properties of the Lung and Chest Wall - permit expansion during inspiration and return to resting volume during expiration - Elastic Recoil- the tendency of the lungs to return to the resting state after inspiration - Normal elastic recoil- permits passive expiration, eliminating the need for major muscles of expiration. Compliance- the measure of lung and chest wall distensibility It is the volume change per unit of pressure change Airway Resistance- is determined by the length, radius and crosssectional area of the airways and density, viscosity and velocity of the gas Work of Breathing- is determined by the muscular effort required for ventilation Normal breath sounds: Bronchial: heard over the trachea on the anterior chest wall during both inspiration and expiration. They are loud, highpitcehd and hollow or harsh sounding as if air is passing thru a tube. Vesicular: heard in most peripheral parts of the lungs, lowpitched, soft, swishing sounds and are best heard during inspiration. Bronchovesicular: heard over the trachea, mainstem bronchi and right posterior chest and between the scapulae. They are

louder and higher-pitched than vesicular sounds and softer and lower pitched than bronchial sounds. Both heard during inspiration and expiration. Pulmonary Circulation facilitates gas exchange delivers nutrients to lung tissues acts as a reservoir for the left ventricle serves as a filtering system that removes clot, air and other debris from the circulation Gas Transport the delivery of O2 to the cells of the body and the removal of CO2

Nervous Control of Respiration

Stretch receptors in lungs, when activated, send inhibitory impulses that result in expiration (inflation reflex) APNUESTIC AREA PNEUMOTAXIC AREA Sends stimulatory impulses that Cerebral prolong cortex inspiration and Voluntary inhibits INSPIRATORY AREA centers expiration when Active Inactive Inspiration Expiration Sends inhibitory impulses that limit inspiration and facilitate expiration.