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# Limits

## Definitions Limit at Infinity : We say lim f ( x ) = L if we Precise Definition : We say lim f ( x ) = L if

x a

for every e > 0 there is a d > 0 such that whenever 0 < x - a < d then f ( x ) - L < e . Working Definition : We say lim f ( x ) = L if we can make f ( x ) as close to L as we want by taking x sufficiently close to a (on either side of a) without letting x = a . Right hand limit : lim+ f ( x ) = L . This has
x a x a

can make f ( x ) as close to L as we want by taking x large enough and positive. There is a similar definition for lim f ( x ) = L
x -

Infinite Limit : We say lim f ( x ) = if we can make f ( x ) arbitrarily large (and positive) by taking x sufficiently cl se to a (on either side of a) without letting x = a . There is a simila defin tion for lim f ( x ) = -
x a x a

the same definition as the limit except it requires x > a . Left hand limit : lim- f ( x ) = L . This has the

x a

ra
x a a

except we make f ( x ) arbitrarily large and x a same definition as the limit except it requires negative. x<a. Relationship between the limit and one-sided limits lim f ( x ) = L lim+ f ( x ) = lim- f ( x ) = L lim f ( x ) = lim- f ( x ) = L lim f ( x ) = L
x a x a + x a

ce .c
x a
n

x a

x a

xa

Properties Assume lim f ( x ) and lim g ( x ) both exist and c is any number then, 1. lim cf ( x ) f ( x) = c lim x a x a

.e

w w

x

x x -

## 1. lim e x = & 2. lim ln ( x ) =

x

lim e x = 0
x 0

&

lim- ln ( x ) = -

x a

## f ( x) f ( x ) lim x a 4. lim = provided lim g ( x ) 0 x a x a g ( x ) g ( x) lim x a

n f x f ( x ) 5. lim ( ) = lim x a x a 6. lim n f ( x ) = n lim f ( x ) x a xa

## 6. n odd : lim x n = & lim x n = -

x x -

b =0 x x r 4. If r > 0 and x r is real for negative x b then lim r = 0 x - x 3. If r > 0 then lim

n

x - x

om
x a

## except we require x large and negative

Evaluation Techniques Continuous Functions LHospitals Rule f ( x) 0 f ( x) If f ( x ) is continuous at a then lim f ( x ) = f ( a ) x a If lim = or lim = then, x a g ( x ) x a g ( x ) 0 Continuous Functions and Composition f ( x) f ( x) lim = lim a is a number, or - f ( x ) is continuous at b and lim g ( x ) = b then x a g ( x ) x a g ( x ) lim f ( g ( x ) ) = f lim g ( x ) = f ( b )
x a x a

x a

Factor and Cancel ( x - 2 )( x + 6 ) x 2 + 4 x - 12 lim = lim x2 x2 x2 - 2 x x ( x - 2) x+6 8 = lim = =4 x2 x 2 Rationalize Numerator/Denominator 3- x 3- x 3+ x lim 2 = lim 2 x 9 x - 81 x 9 x - 81 3 + x 9- x -1 = lim = lim x 9 ( x 2 - 81) 3 + x x9 ( x + 9 ) 3 + x

p ( x) factor largest power of x out of both x q ( x ) lim p ( x ) and q ( x ) and then compute limit. x 2 3 42 3 - 42 3x 2 - 4 3 x lim = lim 2 5 = lim 5 x = 2 x - 5 x - 2 x x x - 2 x x -2 x -2 Piecewise Function x 2 + 5 if x < -2 lim g ( x ) where g ( x ) = x -2 1 - 3x if x -2 Compute two one sided limits, lim g ( x ) = lim- x 2 + 5 = 9 One sided limits are different so lim g ( x )
x -2 x -2+

1 -h = lim = lim h 0 h x ( x + h ) h x ( x + h )

xa
-

## -1 1 =(18)( 6 ) 108 Combine Rational Expressions 1 1 1 1 x - ( x + h) lim - = lim h 0 h x + h x h 0 h x ( x + h) =

ra
-

m
1 x2

lim g ( x ) = lim+ 1 - 3 x = 7
x -2

doesnt exist. If the two one sided limits had been equal then lim g ( x ) would have existed
x -2

## and had the same value.

Some Continuous Functions Partial list of continuous functions and the values of x for which they are continuous. 1. Polynomials for all x. 7. cos ( x ) and sin ( x ) for all x. 2. Rational function, xcept for xs that give 8. tan ( x ) and sec ( x ) provided division by zero. 3p p p 3p 3. n x (n odd for all x. x L , - , - , , ,L 2 2 2 2 4. x (n even) for all x 0 . 9. cot ( x ) and csc ( x ) provided 5. e x for all x. x L , -2p , -p , 0, p , 2p ,L 6. ln x for x > 0 . Intermediate Value Theorem Suppose that f ( x ) is continuous on [a, b] and let M be any number between f ( a ) and f ( b ) . Then there exists a number c such that a < c < b and f ( c ) = M .

w w

.e

ce .c
( )
x -2

om
( )

## Polynomials at Infinity p ( x ) and q ( x ) are polynomials. To compute

Derivatives
Definition and Notation f ( x + h) - f ( x) . If y = f ( x ) then the derivative is defined to be f ( x ) = lim h 0 h If y = f ( x ) then all of the following are equivalent notations for the derivative. df dy d f ( x ) = y = = = ( f ( x ) ) = Df ( x ) dx dx dx If y = f ( x ) all of the following are equivalent notations for derivative evaluated at x = a . df dy f ( a ) = y x =a = = = Df a ) dx x =a dx x =a

If y = f ( x ) then,

## line to y = f ( x ) at x = a and the equation of the tangent line at x = a is given by y = f ( a ) + f ( a )( x - a ) .

1. 2. 3.

( c f ) = c f ( x ) ( f g ) = f ( x ) g ( x ) ( f g ) =
f g + f g Product Rule

ra
5.

Basic Properties and Form las If f ( x ) and g ( x ) are differentiable functions (the de ivative exists), c and n are any real numbers, d (c) = 0 dx d n 6. x ) = n x n-1 Power Rule ( dx d 7. f ( g ( x )) = f ( g ( x )) g ( x ) dx This is the Chain Rule

f 4. g

f g - f g Quotient Rule = g2

.e

xa

## d ( x) = 1 dx d ( sin x ) = cos x dx d ( cos x ) = in x dx d ( tan x ) = sec2 x dx d ( sec x ) = sec x tan x dx

Common Derivatives d ( csc x ) = - csc x cot x dx d ( cot x ) = - csc2 x dx d 1 sin -1 x ) = ( dx 1 - x2 d 1 cos -1 x ) = ( dx 1 - x2 d 1 tan -1 x ) = ( dx 1 + x2

w w

ce .c
th object at x = a .

## 1. m = f ( a ) is the slope of the tangent

change of f ( x ) at x = a .

## d x a ) = a x ln ( a ) ( dx d x (e ) = ex dx d 1 ln ( x ) ) = , x > 0 ( dx x d 1 ln x ) = , x 0 ( dx x d 1 log a ( x ) ) = , x>0 ( dx x ln a

om

e 2 x -9 y ( 2 - 9 y ) + 3 x 2 y 2 + 2 x3 y y = cos ( y ) y + 11

xa

Implicit Differentiation Find y if e + x y = sin ( y ) + 11x . Remember y = y ( x ) here, so products/quotients of x and y will use the product/quotient rule and derivatives of y will use the chain rule. The trick is to differentiate as normal and every time you differentiate a y you tack on a y (from the chain rule). After differentiating solve for y .
2 x -9 y 3 2

ra

Increasing/Decreasing Concave Up/Concave Down Critical Points Concave Up/Concave Down x = c is a critical poin of f ( x ) provided either 1. If f ( x ) > 0 for all x in an interval I then 1. f ( c ) = 0 or 2 f ( c ) doesnt exist. f ( x ) is concave up on the interval I. Increasing/Decreasing 2. If f ( x ) < 0 for all x in an interval I then 1. If f ( x ) > 0 for all x in an interval I then f ( x ) is concave down on the interval I. f ( x ) is increasing on the interval I. Inflection Points 2. If f ( x ) < 0 for all x in an interval I then x = c is a inflection point of f ( x ) if the f ( x ) is decreasing on the interval I. concavity changes at x = c . 3. If f ( x ) = 0 for all x in an interval I then

w w

## f ( x ) is constant on the interval I.

.e

( 2 x y - 9e x
3

2e2 x -9 y - 9 ye 2 x -9 y + 3x 2 y 2 + 2 x3 y y = cos ( y ) y + 11
2 -9 y

- cos ( y ) ) y = 11 - 2e2 x -9 y - 3x 2 y 2

ce .c
( )
y =

Higher Order Derivatives The Second Derivative is denoted as The nth Derivative is denoted as d2 f dn f f ( x ) = f ( 2) ( x ) = 2 and is defined as f ( n ) ( x ) = n and is defined as dx dx f ( x ) = ( f ( x ) ) , i.e. the derivative of the f ( n ) ( x ) = f ( n - ) ( x ) , i.e. the derivative of first derivative, f ( x ) . the (n-1)s derivative, f ( n-1) x .

11 - 2e 2 x -9 y - 3x 2 y 2 2 x3 y - 9e2 x -9 y - cos ( y )

om
( )

Chain Rule Variants The chain rule applied to some specific functions. n n -1 d d 1. f ( x ) = n f ( x ) f ( x) 5. cos f ( x ) = - f ( x ) sin f ( x ) dx dx d f ( x) d f x 2 e tan 2. = f ( x)e ( ) 6. f ( x ) = f ( x ) sec f ( x ) dx dx d f ( x) d 7. ( sec [ f ( x)]) = f ( x) sec [ f ( x)] tan [ f ( x)] 3. f ( x ) ln = dx dx f ( x) f ( x) d d tan -1 f ( x ) = 8. 4. sin f x = f x cos f x ( ) ( ) ( ) dx 1+ dx f ( x )

( ( (

(
( (

Absolute Extrema 1. x = c is an absolute maximum of f ( x ) if f ( c ) f ( x ) for all x in the domain. 2. x = c is an absolute minimum of f ( x ) if f ( c ) f ( x ) for all x in the domain. Fermats Theorem If f ( x ) has a relative (or local) extrema at x = c , then x = c is a critical point of f ( x ) . Extreme Value Theorem If f ( x ) is continuous on the closed interval

Extrema Relative (local) Extrema 1. x = c is a relative (or local) maximum of f ( x ) if f ( c ) f ( x ) for all x near c. 2. x = c is a relative (or local) minimum of f ( x ) if f ( c ) f ( x ) for all x near c. 1st Derivative Test If x = c is a critical point of f ( x ) th n x = c is 1. a rel. max. of f ( x ) if f ( x ) > 0 to the left of x = c and f ( x ) < 0 to t e righ of x = c . 2. a rel. min. of f ( x ) if f ( x ) < 0 to the left 3. not a relative extr ma of f ( x ) if f ( x ) is the same sign n both sides of x = c . 2nd Derivative Test If x = c is a critical point of f ( x ) such that f ( c ) = 0 then x = c is a relative maximum of f ( x ) if f ( c ) < 0 . 1

[ a, b] then there exist numbers c and d so that, 1. a c, d b , 2. f ( c ) is the abs. max. in [ a, b] , 3. f ( d ) is the abs. min. in [ a, b] .
Finding Absolute Extrema To find the absolute extrema of the continuous function f ( x ) on the interval [ a, b ] use the following process. 1. Find all critical points of f ( x ) in [ a b]

Mean Value Theorem If f ( x ) is continuous on the closed interval [ a, b ] and differentiable on the open interval ( a, b )

w w

.e

3. Evaluate f ( a ) and f ( b ) . 4. Identify the abs. max. (la gest function value) and the abs. min.(smallest function value) from the evaluations in Steps 2 & 3.

xa

## then here is a number a < c < b such that f ( c ) =

Newtons Method

ra

2. is a relative minimum of f ( x ) if f ( c ) > 0 . 3. may be a relative maximum, relative minimum, or neither if f ( c ) = 0 . Finding Relative Extrema and/or Classify Critical Points 1. Find all critical points of f ( x ) . 2. Use the 1st derivative test or the 2nd derivative test on each critical point.

f (b) - f ( a ) . b-a

ce .c

## of x = c and f ( x ) > 0 to the right of x = c .

If xn is the nth guess for the root/solution of f ( x ) = 0 then (n+1)st guess is xn +1 = xn provided f ( xn ) exists.

om
f ( xn ) f ( xn )

Related Rates Sketch picture and identify known/unknown quantities. Write down equation relating quantities and differentiate with respect to t using implicit differentiation (i.e. add on a derivative every time you differentiate a function of t). Plug in known quantities and solve for the unknown quantity. Ex. A 15 foot ladder is resting against a wall. Ex. Two people are 50 ft apart when one The bottom is initially 10 ft away and is being starts walking north. The angle q changes at 1 0.01 rad/min. At what rate is the distance pushed towards the wall at 4 ft/sec. How fast between them changing when q = 0.5 rad? is the top moving after 12 sec?

## After 12 sec we have x = 10 - 12 ( 1 4 ) = 7 and

.e

Optimization Sketch picture if needed, write down equation to be ptimized and constraint. Solve constraint for one of the two variables and plug into fi st equation. Find critical points of equation in range of variables and verify that they are min/max as n eded. Ex. Were enclosing a rectangular fi ld with Ex. Determine point(s) on y = x 2 + 1 that are 500 ft of fence material and one side of the closest to (0,2). field is a building. Determine dimens ons that will maximize the enclosed area.

xa

w w

ra

## so y = 152 - 7 2 = 176 . Plug in and solve for y . 7 7 (- 1 ft/sec 4 ) + 176 y = 0 y = 4 176

Maximize A = xy subject to constraint of x + 2 y = 500 So ve constraint for x and plug into are A = y ( 500 - 2 y ) x = 500 - 2 y = 500 y - 2 y 2 Differentiate and find critical point(s). A = 500 - 4 y y = 125 nd By 2 deriv. test this is a rel. max. and so is the answer were after. Finally, find x. x = 500 - 2 (125 ) = 250 The dimensions are then 250 x 125.

## Minimize f = d 2 = ( x - 0 ) + ( y - 2 ) and the

2 2

constraint is y = x 2 + 1 . Solve constraint for x 2 and plug into the function. 2 x2 = y - 1 f = x2 + ( y - 2) = y -1 + ( y - 2) = y 2 - 3 y + 3 Differentiate and find critical point(s). f = 2y -3 y=3 2 By the 2nd derivative test this is a rel. min. and so all we need to do is find x value(s). 1 x2 = 3 x = 12 2 -1 = 2
2

ce .c
(
1 2

## x is negative because x is decreasing. Using Pythagorean Theorem and differentiating, x 2 + y 2 = 152 2 x x + 2 y y = 0

We have q = 0.01 rad/min and want to find x . We can use various trig fcns but easiest is, x x sec q = sec q tan q q = 50 50 We know q = 0 05 so plug in q and solve. x sec ( 0 5 ) tan ( 0.5 )( 0.01) = 50 x = 0.3112 ft/sec Remember to have calculator in radians!

om
,3 and 2

## The 2 points are then

1 2

,3 2 .

Integrals
Definitions Anti-Derivative : An anti-derivative of f ( x ) Definite Integral: Suppose f ( x ) is continuous on [ a, b] . Divide [ a, b ] into n subintervals of width D x and choose xi* from each interval. Then is a function, F ( x ) , such that F ( x ) = f ( x ) . Indefinite Integral : f ( x ) dx = F ( x ) + c where F ( x ) is an anti-derivative of f ( x ) .

f ( x ) dx = lim f ( xi* ) D x .
n i =1

a f ( x ) dx = -b f ( x ) dx
b a

xa

b a a b

a f ( x ) dx = 0
a

m
b a 2 2

f ( x ) g ( x ) dx = f ( x ) dx g ( x ) dx b b b a f ( x ) g ( x ) dx = a f ( x ) dx a g ( x ) dx

Properties

ra
b
b a

then f ( x ) dx = F ( b ) - F ( a ) .
b a

cf ( x ) dx = c f ( x ) dx , c is a constant b b a cf ( x ) dx = c a f ( x ) dx , c is a constant
b

a f ( x ) dx = a f ( t ) dt f ( x ) dx
b a

If f ( x ) g ( x ) on a x b then

.e

f ( x ) dx g ( x ) dx

w w

If f ( x ) 0 on a b then

f ( x ) dx 0
b a

## If m f ( x ) M on a x b then m ( b - a ) f ( x ) dx M ( b - a ) Common Integrals cos u du = sin u + c

k dx = k x + c n n 1 x dx = n+1 x + c, n -1 x dx = x dx = ln x + c a x + b dx = a ln ax + b + c ln u du = u ln ( u ) - u + c e du = e + c
+1 -1 1 1 1 u u

sin u du = - cos u + c sec u du = tan u + c sec u tan u du = sec u + c csc u cot udu = - csc u + c csc u du = - cot u + c

ce .c
f ( x ) dx
1 1

Fundamental Theorem of Calculus Variants of Part I : Part I : If f ( x ) is continuous on [ a, b ] then d u( x) x f ( t ) dt = u ( x ) f u ( x ) g ( x ) = f ( t ) dt is also continuous on [ a, b ] dx a a d b d x f ( t ) dt = -v ( x ) f and g ( x ) = f t dt = f x . ( ) ( ) v ( x ) dx v( x ) dx a d u( x) Part II : f ( x ) is continuous on [ a, b ] , F ( x ) is f ( t ) d = u ( ) f [ u ( x ) ] - v ( x ) f [ v ( x ) ] dx v( x ) an anti-derivative of f ( x ) (i.e. F ( x ) = f ( x ) dx )

## tan u du = ln sec u + c sec u du = ln sec u + tan u + c u a + u du = a tan ( a ) + c u 1 a - u du = sin ( a ) + c

-1

om
-1

Standard Integration Techniques Note that at many schools all but the Substitution Rule tend to be taught in a Calculus II class. u Substitution : The substitution u = g ( x ) will convert 5 x 2 cos ( x3 ) dx
( ) a f ( g ( x ) ) g ( x ) dx = g (a ) f ( u ) du
b g b 8

using

## du = g ( x ) dx . For indefinite integrals drop the limits of integration. Ex.

5 x 2 cos ( x3 ) dx =

5 cos 1 3 8 5 3

( u ) du

u dv = uv

b a

## - v du . Choos u and dv from

a

Ex.

xe
-x

-x

dx du = dx v = -e - x
-x -x -x -x

Ex. +c
5

u=x

dv = e- x

xe

dx = - xe + e dx = - xe - e

u = ln x

ce .c
3 ln x dx
5 5 5

## integral and compute du by differentiating u and compute v using v = dv .

dv = dx du = 1 x dx v = x dx = ( x ln ( x ) - x )
5 3

3 ln x dx = x ln x 3 - 3

w w

1. n odd. Strip 1 sine out and convert rest to 1. 2 2 cosines using sin x = 1 - cos x , then use the substitution u = cos x . 2. m odd. Strip 1 cosine out and co vert rest 2. to sines using cos 2 x = 1 - sin 2 x , then use the substitution u = sin x . 3. n and m both odd. Use either 1. or 2. 4. n and m both e n. Use double angle 3. and/or half angle formulas to reduce the 4. integral into a form that can be integrated. Trig Formulas : sin ( 2 x ) = 2sin ( x ) cos ( x ) , cos 2 ( x ) =

Products and (some) Quotients of Trig Functions For sin n x cos m x dx we have the following For tan n x sec m x dx we have the following : n odd. Strip 1 tangent and 1 secant out and convert the rest to secants using tan 2 x = sec 2 x - 1 , then use the substitution u = sec x . m even. Strip 2 secants out and convert rest to tangents using sec2 x = 1 + tan 2 x , then use the substitution u = tan x . n odd and m even. Use either 1. or 2. n even and m odd. Each integral will be dealt with differently. 2 1 1 2 (1 + cos ( 2 x ) ) , sin ( x ) = 2 (1 - cos ( 2 x ) )
sin5 x
3

Ex.

tan
3

.e

xa
4

x sec5 x dx
5

tan

## x sec xdx = tan x sec x tan x sec xdx

2

ra
Ex.
5 3

= 5ln ( 5) - 3ln ( 3) - 2

## = ( sec2 x - 1) sec 4 x tan x sec xdx = ( u 2 - 1) u 4 du

7 5 1 =1 7 sec x - 5 sec x + c

( u = sec x )

cos x dx (sin x ) sin x sin x sin x sin x cos x dx = cos x dx = cos x dx (1- cos x ) sin x = dx ( u = cos x ) cos x = - (1-u ) du = - 1-2u +u du u u
4 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 4 3 3
2 2 1 =1 2 sec x + 2 ln cos x - 2 cos x + c

om

u = x 3 du = 3x 2 dx x 2 dx = 1 3 du

=5 3 sin ( u ) 1 =

## ( sin (8) - sin (1) )

Trig Substitutions : If the integral contains the following root use the given substitution and formula to convert into an integral involving trig functions. sin q a2 - b2 x2 x = a b cos 2 q = 1 - sin 2 q Ex.
a sec q b2 x2 - a 2 x = b

## tan q a2 + b2 x2 x = a b sec2 q = 1 + tan 2 q

12 (2 3 cos q ) dq = sin 2 q dq

tan 2 q = sec 2 q - 1
16
4 sin 2 q ( 2cosq ) 9

16
2

4 -9 x 2

dx

## sin q dx = 2 cos q dq x=2 3 3

2 2 4 - 9 x 2 = 4 - 4sin q = 4 cos q = 2 cos q

## From this we see hat cot q =

ce .c
x
16
2

Recall x = x . Because we have an indefinite integral well assume positive and drop absolute value bars. If we had a definite integral wed need to compute q s and remove absolute value bars based on that and, x if x 0 x = - x if x < 0
2

Use Right Triangle Trig to go back to xs. From substitution we have sin q = 32x so,

## In this case we have

4 - 9 x 2 = 2 cos q .
P( x )

4 -9 x 2

dx = - 4

## Q( x) dx where the degree of P ( x ) is smaller than the degree of

Factor in Q ( x )
ax + b

## Term in P.F D Factor in Q ( x ) A ax + b

xa

m
( ax
2

Q ( x ) . Factor denominator as completely as possible nd find the partial fraction decomposition of the rational expression. Integrate the partial f action decomposition (P.F.D.). For each factor in the denominator we get term(s) in the decomposition according to the following table. Term in P.F.D Ak A1 A2 + +L + 2 k ax + b ( ax + b ) ( ax + b )
k

( ax + b )

.e

ax + bx + c
2

w w

Ax + B ax + bx + c

Ex.

7 x2 +13 x

ra
k

+ bx + c )

Ak x + Bk A1 x + B1 +L + k 2 ax + bx + c ( ax 2 + bx + c ) =
x -1

( x -1)( x2 + 4 )

dx

( x -1)( x 2 + 4 )

7 x2 +13 x

+C + Bx = x2 + 4

7 x2 +13 x

( x -1)( x2 4 )

## 3 x +16 dx = x4 -1 + x2 + 4 dx x + x16 dx x4-1 + x3+ 4 +4

2 2

2 -1 x = 4 ln x - 1 + 3 2 ln ( x + 4 ) + 8 tan ( 2 )

## Here is partial fraction form and recombined.

Set numerators equal and collect like terms. 7 x 2 + 13x = ( A + B ) x 2 + ( C - B ) x + 4 A - C Set coefficients equal to get a system and solve to get constants. A+ B = 7 C - B = 13 4A - C = 0 A=4 B=3 C = 16

An alternate method that sometimes works to find constants. Start with setting numerators equal in previous example : 7 x 2 + 13x = A ( x 2 + 4 ) + ( Bx + C ) ( x - 1) . Chose nice values of x and plug in. For example if x = 1 we get 20 = 5 A which gives A = 4 . This wont always work easily.

om
4 -9 x 2 3x

## = 12 csc 2 dq = -12 cot q + c

. So,

4 -9 x 2 x

+c

A( x2 + 4) + ( Bx + C ) ( x -1)
( x -1)( x 2 + 4 )

## a f ( x ) dx represents the net area between f ( x ) and the

b

x-axis with area above x-axis positive and area below x-axis negative.

Area Between Curves : The general formulas for the two main cases for each are, y = f ( x) A =
b a
upper function lower - dx function

& x = f ( y) A =

d c

right function

left -

dy functio

If the curves intersect then the area of each portion must be found individually. Here are som sketches of a couple possible situations and formulas for a couple of possible cases.

A = f ( x ) - g ( x ) dx
b a

A = f ( y ) - g ( y ) dy
d c

## Volumes of Revolution : The two main formulas are V = A ( x ) dx and V = A ( y ) dy . Here is

Limits: x/y of right/bot ring to x/y of left/top ring Limits : x/y of inner cyl. to x/y of outer cyl. Horz. Axis use f ( x ) , Vert. Axis use f ( y ) , Horz. Axis use f ( y ) , Vert. Axis use f ( x ) , g ( x ) , A ( x ) and dx. Ex. Axis : y = a > 0 g ( y ) , A ( y and dy. Ex. Axis : y = a 0 g ( y ) , A ( y ) and dy. Ex. Axis : y = a > 0 g ( x ) , A ( x ) and dx. Ex. Axis : y = a 0

outer radius : a - f ( x )

w w

.e

## outer radius: a + g ( x ) inner radius: a + f ( x )

xa

m
)

some general information about each method of omputing and some examples. Rings Cylinders 2 2 A = 2p ( radius ) ( width / height ) A = p ( outer radius ) - ( inner radius)

ra
radius : a - y

inner radius : a - g ( x )

width : f ( y ) - g ( y )

These are only a few cases for horizontal axis of rotation. If axis of rotation is the x-axis use the y = a 0 case with a = 0 . For vertical axis of rotation ( x = a > 0 and x = a 0 ) interchange x and y to get appropriate formulas.

ce .c
A

f ( x ) - g ( x ) dx + g ( x ) - f ( x ) dx
b c

om
radius : a + y width : f ( y ) - g ( y )

b a

## Average Function Value : The average value of f ( x ) on a x b is f avg =

b 1 b-a a

f ( x ) dx

Arc Length Surface Area : Note that this is often a Calc II topic. The three basic formulas are, L = ds
a b

a

## SA = 2p x ds (rotate about y-axis)

a

where ds is dependent upon the form of the function being worked with as follows.

ds =

dx dy

dy if x = f ( y ) , a y b

dr ds = r 2 + ( d dq if r = f (q ) , a q b q)
2

Improper Integral An improper integral is an integral with one or more infinite limits and/or d scontinuous integrands. Integral is called convergent if the limit exists and has a finite value and divergent if the limit doesnt exist or has infinite value. This is typically a Calc II topic.

1. 3.

f ( x ) dx = lim f ( x ) dx
t t c a

ra
2
b c

Infinite Limit

c

Discontinuous Integrand
b b a t a t

xa

## 1. Discont. at a: f ( x ) dx = lim f ( x ) dx + 3. Discontinuity at a < c < b :

f ( x ) dx = f ( x ) dx +

b t a t b a

c a

w w

a a

.e

a a

xp

## Approximating Definite Integrals and

F r given integral

## divide [ a, b] into n subintervals [ x0 , x1 ] , [ x1 , x2 ] , , [ xn -1 , xn ] with x0 = a and xn = b then, Midpoint Rule : f ( x ) dx Dx f ( x ) + f ( x ) + L + f ( x ) , xi

b a * 1 * 2 * n b a 0 1 2 *

## Trapezoid Rule : Simpsons Rule :

Dx f ( x ) + 2 f ( x ) + +2 f ( x ) + L + 2 f ( x ) + f ( x ) f ( x ) dx 2
n -1 n b a 0 1 2 n-2 n -1

Dx f ( x ) + 4 f ( x ) + 2 f ( x ) + L + 2 f ( x ) + 4 f ( x ) + f ( x ) f ( x ) dx 3
n

ce .c
b t - t

With surface area you may have to substitute in for the x or y depending on your choice of ds to match the differential in the ds. With parametric and polar you will always need to substitute.

f ( x ) dx = lim f ( x ) dx

is midpoint [ xi -1 , xi ]

om

ds = 1 +

( ) 1+ ( )
dy dx

dx if y = f ( x ) , a x b

ds =

( dx dt )

( )
dy dt

dt if x = f ( t ) , y = g ( t ) , a t b