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CONFERENCE PAPER ABSTRACTS

INDEX
CONTENTS
PAGE NO. THE TIME OF CHEAP OIL IS OVER: THE ULTIMATE RESTRUCTURING THE FUTURE ENERGY GENERATION AND SUPPLY THROUGH SUCCESSIVE INCORPORATING RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES INTO ENERGY MIX .................................................................................................................................5 BRIQUETTE AS RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCE - A VIABILITY STUDY FOR TEA FACTORIES ..............6 TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE - THE ROLE OF AWARENESS AND RENEWABLE ENERGIES FOR A BETTER WORLD ..............................................................................................6 RENEWABLE ENERGY POTENTIAL AND OPPORTUNITIES IN ODISHA ........................................................7 BOX-TYPE SOLAR COOKER-A PRACTICAL APPROACH ...................................................................................7 BIO-FUEL AS A FUTURE SOURCE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY: ADVANTAGES, DRAWBACKS AND POTENTIAL DIRECTIONS.........................................................................................................................................8 WATER MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES DURING OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION FROM DEEP SHALE FORMATIONS ...............................................................................................................................................9 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICITY OF ENGINEERED NANOMATERIALS AND ITS DISRUPTION BY NATURAL AND ENGINEERED COATINGS ......................................................................................................... 10 BACTERIAL IN RESPIRATION IN ELECTROCHEMICAL CELLS FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY AND MICRON-SCALE SENSING ..................................................................................................................................... 10 SOLAR POWER GENERATION BASED ON FUEL CELL TECHNIQUE UPCOMING NEW TECHNOLOGY 11 POLICY ISSUES FOR SOLAR POWER GENERATION IN COLD REGIONS ................................................... 11 EXERGY ANALYSIS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS: AN OVERVIEW ............................................... 12 APPLICATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC AND WAVE HYBRID SYSTEMS FOR REMOTE AREA ELECTRIFICATION .................................................................................................................................................. 12 RE-NEWABLE ENERGY .......................................................................................................................................... 13 BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM AGRICULTURAL RESIDUES ................................................................. 13 WATER DISTILLATION USING SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEM WITH PCM STORAGE MEDIUM .................... 14 RE BASED LIVELIHOOD ACTIVITIES IN HIMACHAL PRADESH ................................................................... 14 LIMITATIONS OF RE-NEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATIVES ................................................................. 14 PROSPECTS OF CARBON NANOTUBES IN RENEWABLE ENERGY HARVESTING .................................... 15 IMPORTANCE OF LOCAL AGENCY IN EXECUTION OF RE PROGRAM ........................................................ 15 SOLAR THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS BY PARABOLIC CONCENTRATORS ............ 15 SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF VACUUM EVAPORATED SULPHIDE SEMICONDUCTOR THIN FILMS FOR SOLID-STATE DEVICE FABRICATIONS .............................................................................. 15 RECENT ADVANCES IN INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY FOR INDUSTRIAL IMAGING ............................... 16 CORRELATION BETWEEN CRYSTAL ORIENTATIONS, OXIDATION AND OPTO-ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF C-SI: H LAYERS DEPOSITED USING HWCVD .................................................................. 17 STUDY OF DOPED n-TYPE a-Si:H EMITTER LAYER FOR HETEROJUNCTION SOLAR CELLS USING HWCVD ...................................................................................................................................................................... 17

CORRELATION DEVELOPMENT FOR EFFECT OF WATER QUALITY ON GREEN HOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM HYDROPOWER RESERVOIR ................................................................................................ 18 CHALLANGES OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY ....................................................................................................... 18 USE OF GEOTHERMAL HEAT SOURCE FOR APPLE COLD STORAGE: MANIKARAN (INDIA) CASE STUDY ........................................................................................................................................................................ 19 APPLICATIONS OF GREEN TECHNOLOGY IN RENEWABLE ENERGY FOR SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENT, RECYCLING AND WASTE MANAGEMENT ......................................................................... 19 INVENTIVE DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS OF GREEN BUILDINGS TO ACHIEVE ENERGY EFFICIENCY 20 ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDING BY USING SOLAR BASED ENERGY EFFICIENT TECHNOLOGIES ....... 20 GREEN BUILDING TECHNOLOGY: CONCEPTS AND PRACTICE ................................................................... 21 ANALYSIS OF HEAT TRANSFER AND FLUID FLOW IN V-SHAPED WITH GAP DOWNSTREAM RIBS ROUGHENED SURFACE SOLAR AIR HEATER DUCT ....................................................................................... 21 DESIGN OF SOLAR ASSISTED VAPOUR ABSORPTION SYSTEM ................................................................... 22 ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS OF A GRID CONNECTED PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER PLANT KHATKAR KALAN (DISTT. NAWANSHAHAR), PUNJAB ...................................................................................................... 22 OPTIMUM TILT ANGLE FOR SOLAR COLLECTOR TO RECEIVE MAXIMUM SOLAR RADIATION ......... 23 ESTIMATION OF SOLAR RADIATION FOR INDIAN STATIONS USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK ................................................................................................................................................................. 23 EFFECT OF DEPTH RATIO ON THE THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF DOUBLE FLOW PACKED BED SOLAR AIR HEATER ............................................................................................................................................... 24 STUDY OF SOLAR RADIATION MODELS TO ESTIMATE SOLAR RADIATION USING DIFFERENT METEOROLOGICAL DATA: A REVIEW ............................................................................................................... 24 APPLICATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC AND WAVE HYBRID SYSTEMS FOR REMOTE AREA ELECTRIFICATION .................................................................................................................................................. 24 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF PHOTOVOLTAIC IN ELECTRICITY GENERATION ................................ 25 FUTURE SCOPE FOR NANO STRUCTURED CELLS ........................................................................................... 25 ANALYSIS OF QUASI Z-SOURCE INVERTER FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM ............................................ 26 ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECT ON EFFICIENCY OF SOLAR PANELS AT 30 30' 0" NORTH, 77 12' 0" EAST ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 26 WIRELESS SOLAR IRRADIANCE METER ............................................................................................................ 27 DESIGN OF HIGHLY EFFICIENT SOLAR BASED REFRIGERATION SYSTEM BASED ON TEC TECHNIQUE .............................................................................................................................................................. 27 PHOTOCATALYTIC ACTIVITY OF TIO2 NANO SOLAR CELL ......................................................................... 28 FABRICATION OF SNO2 NANOPARTICLES BASED SOLAR CELL ................................................................. 28 CFD BASED FLUID FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS OF A V SHAPED ROUGHENED SURFACE SOLAR AIR HEATER ............................................................................................................................................... 29 ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS OF SOLAR WATER HEATING SYSTEM ............................................................... 29 FAULT DIAGNOSIS OF DOUBLY-FED INDUCTION GENERATOR IN WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEM ..................................................................................................................................................................... 30 NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF SILT EROSION IN PUMP AS TURBINE (PAT) ................................................... 31 UNIFIED CONTROL STRATEGY FOR DFIG BASED WIND POWER ................................................................ 32 WIND ENERGY IN INDIA: A REVIEW .................................................................................................................. 32 REPOWERING OF WIND FARMS-A CASE STUDY ............................................................................................. 33 WIND TURBINES ELECTRICAL CONVERSION SYSTEMS: A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY .......................... 33

WIND POWER INTEGRATION WITH COMPRESSED AIR ENERGY STORAGE: A REVIEW ....................... 34 RENEWABLE ENERGY SCENARIO IN HIMACHAL PRADESH ........................................................................ 34 DISTRIBUTED GENERATION AND RENEWABLES IN INDIAN PRESPECTIVE ........................................... 35 ROLE OF PCM IN ENERGY SAVING IN BUILDINGS LOCATED AT ONE OF COMPLEX TERRAIN (KAMAND-MANDI) IN HIMALAYAN REGION ................................................................................................... 35 OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCE IN RADIAL DISTRIBUTION FEEDER ....... 36 OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCE IN POWER SYSTEM NETWORK ................ 36 RENEWABLE ENERGY: A NOBLE SOURCE OF ENERGY IN REMOTE AND HILLY AREAS ..................... 37 RENEWABLE ENERGY: PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES FOR INDIA`S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT .. 37 IMPORTANCE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY IN DISTRIBUTED GENERATION ................................................ 38 RENEWABLE ENERGY STATUS IN INDIAN RESTRUCTURED POWER SECTOR: FUTURE ASPECTS .... 38 BRIQUETTING: TRANSFORM WASTE INTO ENERGY ...................................................................................... 39 EXERGY ANALYSIS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS: AN OVERVIEW ............................................... 39 RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY (ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND VALUE ADDED PRODUCTS) .......... 40 RESOURSES OF RENEWABLE ENERGY AND THEIR IMPACT IN HIMACHAL PRADESH ......................... 40 EFFECTS AND IMPORTANCE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY WITH ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGIES ON OUR LIFE. .................................................................................................................................................................. 41 MODELING OF SEIG WITH ELCTRONIC LOAD CONTROLLER FOR MINI/MICRO/PICO HYDRO POWER FOR RURAL ELECTRIFICATION ........................................................................................................................... 41 SIMULATION OF 5TR LITHIUM BROMIDE-WATER VAPOR ABSORPTION CHILLER SYSTEM ............... 42 ANALYSIS OF POWER QUALITY OF A LOW VOLTAGE NETWORK WITH DISTRIBUTED GENERATION ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 42 IMPACT OF POWER ELECTRONICS ON RENEWABLE ENERGY & GLOBAL WARMING PROBLEM ...... 43 SENSORLESS POSITION ESTIMATION OF BLDC MOTOR USING BACK EMF ZERO CROSSING POINTS ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 43 REVIEW ON DESIGN/FABRICATION OF 1250VA UPS (WITH ADVANCED PWM TECHNIQUE) ............... 44 TAPPING INTO THE NON-CONVENTIONAL RESOURCES OF THE EARTH: GEOTHERMAL ENERGY ... 44 HYSTERESIS CONTROLLER BASED SENSORLESS ROTOR POSITION DETECTOR FOR DFIG ................ 45 LOAD FREQUENCY CONTROL OF TWO AREA THERMAL POWER SYSTEM USING CRAZINESS BASED PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION..................................................................................................................... 45 MITIGATION OF VOLTAGE SAGS IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM USING D-STATCOM ................................ 46 GENERATION OF ELECTRICITY WITH THE HELP OF TIDAL POWER AND ITS FUTURE CONTRIBUTION ....................................................................................................................................................... 46 Prospects of Genetically Engineered Microbes and Plants in Renewable Biofuel Production .................................... 47 HIM URJA PRIVATE LIMITED ............................................................................................................................... 49 TATA BP SOLAR....................................................................................................................................................... 50 SYNERGY SOLAR PRIVATE LIMITED ................................................................................................................. 51 AMAN ENGINEERING ASSOCIATES .................................................................................................................... 51 AMAN ENGINEERING ASSOCIATES- CHANNEL PARTNERS SUCHECO ...................................................... 51 MINISTRY OF NEW AND RENEWABLE ENERGY (MNRE) .............................................................................. 52 SUDARSHAN SAUR ................................................................................................................................................. 53 SHAKTI TRADERS ................................................................................................................................................... 54

THE TIME OF CHEAP OIL IS OVER: THE ULTIMATE RESTRUCTURING THE FUTURE ENERGY GENERATION AND SUPPLY THROUGH SUCCESSIVE INCORPORATING RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES INTO ENERGY MIX
N. El Bassam Director and President International Research Centre for Renewable Energy (IFEED) Kirchweg Lehrte-Sievershausen Germany The time of cheap oil and gas is over. Mankind can survive without globalization, financial crises and flights to the moon or Mars but not without adequate and affordable energy availability. Current approaches to energy are non-sustainable and non renewable. Today, the worlds energy supply is largely based on fossil fuels and nuclear power which are exhaustible and finite and the major proportion expected to last for only several decades to come. The 'scarcity' represents the greatest challenge to humanity. Renewable energy and energy efficiency do not indicate an alternative to fossils resources; they are the only options which can ensure sustainable development and the survival of the mankind. The technically exploitable amounts of energy in the form of electricity, heat and chemical energy from renewable sources exceed the current world energy consumption by about six fold. Germany is generating now 12% of the total primary energy demand and almost 25% of electricity from renewable sources. The transition into centralized and decentralized renewable energy systems has to be associated with multiple measures: Renewable energies should remain the priority (solar, wind, hydro, biomass, geothermal.), Improving the energy efficiency, Construction of smart grids, Creating power storage facilities, Future oriented and innovative policy in national, regional and global context, Creating a global climate framework, Intensifying research and education activities and Improving the cooperation between nations as well as between public and private sectors. The share of renewable energy in total energy supply needs to grow by 2% per year in order to ensure future energy demand and to avoid regional and global crises. This contribution considers the Unserved part of our societies and gives rural regions and rural population a special attention. It will also demonstrate options for poverty alleviation and sustainable development in rural communities by implementing integrated renewable energy power generation and supply systems, also in support of the United Nations. With rapid and continued growth in the world it is no longer a question of when we will incorporate various renewable energy sources into the mix, but how fast the transition can be managed.

BRIQUETTE AS RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCE - A VIABILITY STUDY FOR TEA FACTORIES


R D Nazeema & R.Sethumadhavanb a Director, Energy Department, Himachal Pradesh, Shimla, edteaboard@gmail.com b Professor, Institute for Energy Studies, Anna University,Chennai,madhavanies@gmail.com India is one of the largest tea producing countries in the world producing about 930 million kg of tea annually .An area of about 6 lakh hectares is under tea cultivation .Tea manufacture is very energy intensive (requiring both electrical and thermal energy) with energy constituting 40% of the cost of manufacturing. Thermal energy requirement is enormous and the source of this is mostly firewood (leading to deforestation ).Biomass Briquette an alternate & renewable energy source has been tried as the fuel in tea industry and found to be acceptable from the user point of view.

TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE - THE ROLE OF AWARENESS AND RENEWABLE ENERGIES FOR A BETTER WORLD
Joachim Golo Pilz Project Manager & Senior Advisor Brahma Kumaris & World Renewal Spiritual Trust Solar Department Shantivan Campus Abu Road, Rajasthan. Day by day we hear more disturbing news about the Climate Change that is happening all over the world. More and more people are getting seriously impacted by increasingly strong and more frequent hurricanes. We hear about unprecedented droughts in one area while there is severe flooding in another. People are forced to leave entire regions due to desertification of the land. Many scientists today accept that we are in the midst of a dramatic and accelerating climatic shift. There seems to be no viable solution and there is no clear vision of where we are heading. It is becoming increasing clear that this climatic shift will pose enormous costs for most countries and there is a distinct possibility that the world economic structure and balance will be irrevocably destroyed. Every person living on this planet will ultimately have to face the consequences of dramatic environmental changes which are induced by human intervention in the delicate ecological balance of nature. As per the latest UN report, Scientists have determined that the main causes of these changes are toxic emissions from industries and motor vehicles throughout the world. Increasing global pollution levels and urbanization together with rapid deforestation add to these problems. Achieving a secure, efficient and clean energy supply is one of the major issues facing the world community. The growing scarcity and lack of availability of fuels remains a serious problem for many and the consequential depletion of precious financial, environmental and time resources affects all humanity. It seems clear, that humanity has reached a crossroads and an immediate shift in the used technology has to take place. Since long alternatives have been shown and tested. One of the most promising technologies is the area of renewable energies. Our sun sends daily more than 100 times enough energy to our planet to easily cater

for all our energy requirements. Renewable energy technologies offer a sustainable and clean solution for bringing power to the people, whether in an urban or rural setting. What is urgently needed is a shift in Values, Policies, Education and Awareness. Here is where Non Government organizations can play a major role.

RENEWABLE ENERGY POTENTIAL AND OPPORTUNITIES IN ODISHA


Anirudha Rout IAS Chief Executive Officer Odisha Renewable Energy Development Agency (OREDA) Bhubneshwar, Odisha The current renewable energy potential of Odisha as per some indicative estimates has been slated at 11280 MW. About 80% of this potential is likely to come from solar resource, 10% from wind and the balance from different sources like biomass, biofuels, small hydros etc. The Renewable Purchase Obligationsin the state till 2015-16 have been quantified at about 2000 MW. The state has a Renewable Energy Policy and tariff structure for each renewable energy resource besides a dedicated State Technical Committee to clear renewable energy project proposals. Besides catering to the obligations of the state independent renewable power projects can also be set up in the state as per the above policy under REC mechanism, for power trading etc. At present about 80 MW of renewable power is being fed to the state grid and many more projects are in pipeline. This makes Odisha a very attractive destination for investments in renewable power projects.

BOX-TYPE SOLAR COOKER-A PRACTICAL APPROACH


Yagyesh Sundar Dwivedi Director Rural Connectivity Wing Department of Rural Development Government of India Solar light energy is in abundance in nature and generally assured. Its use and benefits in cooking food are known to mankind. Even the Vedic Scriptures have highlighted the health benefits of Sun cooked food. However, the possible reasons for the non-popularity of solar cookers even with the rural or urban poor masses can be identified higher cost, in-effective in early hours of day, heavy weight to handle and fragile in nature. In my present design, I have tried to minimise these deficiencies. In simple terms, the role of solar box cooker (SBC) is to collect the maximum Sunlight during any time of the day, pass it through the transparent as well as insulating medium, and then, store it in the insulated box. Corrugated paper of good quality has been used in five layers to prepare a 15-mm-thick inner box. Outer layer of box is EVA Closed Cell Foam Sheet of 18 to 20 mm thickness. In transparent cover, two layers of clear polyester sheet of 175 micron thickness (Garware Over Head Projector [OHP sheet] or equivalent), with an air gap of 20 mm between them has been used. In order to reduce problem of condensation in

transparent cover, square steel tube frame with continuous hollowness at all corners, painted black was used. For reflectors to collect additional Sunlight, four reflectors of corrugated plastic sheet (commercial name SUNPAK etc.) of 5 mm thickness laminated with Aluminium foil was used. Air tightness of the cover is also an important aspect of the box. An adjustable height stand made up of Aluminium pipe (20 mm diameter), with holes and end cross support, is attached to the box to keep the box in the tilting position. The endeavour is to restart the process of using the Solar cookers, which has been forgotten since long.

BIO-FUEL AS A FUTURE SOURCE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY: ADVANTAGES, DRAWBACKS AND POTENTIAL DIRECTIONS
*Avigdor Abelson, Leor Korzen, Alvaro Israel and Aharon Gedanken *Dept. of Zoology Tel Aviv University Ramat Aviv Israel. Bio-ethanol is the most common energy source for transportation worldwide. The use of bioethanol provides a sound way to reduce both consumption of non-renewable fossil fuels and environmental pollution. However, biofuel production from terrestrial crops has attracted criticism due to several major disadvantages, among which: 1. Rising food prices and global food shortages, 2. Enhancing habitat destruction and soil erosion, 3. Enhancing volatile organic compounds and NOx pollutions, 4. Unfavorable energy and carbon balances, and 5. significant freshwater requirements. On top of these adverse effects, habitat destruction and loss of biodiversity will very likely restrict the use of 'terrestrial biomass' options. An alternative source of bio-fuel can be provided by marine macroalgae (seaweeds). Seaweeds offer several advantages over terrestrial sources of bio-fuel, including: high growth rates, which far exceed that of terrestrial plants; much greater potential of ethanol production due to relatively low concentrations of crystalline structures (like lignin); no impact on land required for food crops; can serve as a bioremediation system to lower eutrophication impact on coastal waters. Moreover, in contrast to terrestrial biomass, utilizing seaweeds for energy production circumvents the problem of diverting natural habitats, or agricultural land from food to fuel production, and strongly reduces the need for freshwater supplies. Despite the significant advantages of marine macro-algae as source of renewable energy, the marine biomass option has been largely ignored, mainly due to two impediments: difficulties in producing high sustainable marine yields, and the relatively low, readily available sugar content for fermentation, as compared to its terrestrial counterparts. We contend that both obstacles can be removed by science-based innovative approaches. First, the sustainable yields can be produced by an integrated system, i.e. Combined Aquaculture Multi-Use System (CAMUS), which employs multiple species of distinct functional groups to reduce wastes and costs, while increasing total efficiency and productivity for enhanced macroalgae production and potential profit for entrepreneurs. The CAMUS can attain sustainability by incorporating waste-generating (fed) organisms and cleaning (extractive) organisms in each array, by which the extractive species grow as they remove excess nutrients and particles from the water. Thus, the CAMUS system may turn wastes into productive resources (bio-fuel and food), while reducing the impact on the local ecosystem and acting as a carbon sequestration agents.

The second obstacle, i.e. low sugar content of macroalgae, can be removed by innovative bio-refinery, which is based on bioethanol production in an economically and environmentally sound manner. Our proposed system attempts to increase the concentration of ethanol produced from seaweed by: 1) improving cultivation to enhance high carbohydrate content, and 2) developing and implementing various saccharification (i.e. the process of breaking a complex carbohydrate into its monosaccharide components) techniques during pre-treatment of seaweeds for the release of fermentable sugars. With the substantial advantages of seaweeds as a potential bio-fuel source, our novel holistic approach is expected to enhance the production yield of bioethanol derived from algal biomass, paving the way for a large bioethanol industry while helping to avoid food/fuel competition over land use.

WATER MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES DURING OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION FROM DEEP SHALE FORMATIONS
Kelvin B. Gregory Assoc. Prof. Civil & Environmental Engineering Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA, USA. New drilling and well-stimulation technology has enabled a boom in natural gas exploration and production from deep, black shale formations. Shale gas is projected to be the largest contributor to growth in natural gas production in the United States for 25 years. The same is true for many other nations as recent assessments revealed substantial and technically recoverable shale gas in India, China, and Argentina among others. The technical challenges of drilling and well stimulation in deep shale are largely behind the industry. However, where shale gas resources are currently produced, water management emerged as a critical challenge for the sustainable development of these reservoirs, where hydraulic fracturing must be used. Following hydraulic fracturing, water containing high concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) return to the surface. The TDS concentrations in this wastewater also known as flowback can far exceed that of sea water and also contain hydrocarbons that add complexity and cost to the already challenging management of flowback. Sustainable production of shale gas requires management of flowback that ensures protection of water resources. Where the infrastructure exists, deep-well injection will be the primary means of disposal. However, in many areas where shale gas production will be abundant, deep-well injection sites are not available or may not be economically feasible due to transportation costs. Moreover, the water stress associated with fresh water resources is regionally, locally, and seasonally variable. The fresh water demands for hydraulic fracturing may compete with other industrial and municipal needs and especially where the resource is limited. With water management challenges that are spatially and temporally variable and dynamic, there is no clear panacea for sustainable shale gas development. However, as hydraulic fracture moves into new shale formations with unique resource development challenges, novel technology and management solutions are emerging that enable environmentally sustainable and economically feasible natural gas extraction from shales.

ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICITY OF ENGINEERED NANOMATERIALS AND ITS DISRUPTION BY NATURAL AND ENGINEERED COATINGS
Kelvin B. Gregory Assoc. Prof. Civil & Environmental Engineering Center for Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Engineered nanoparticles (ENP) are increasingly utilized in industrial processes and manufacturing while their potential interactions with the natural systems are poorly understood. For example, engineered coatings on nanoparticles as well as the emergence of natural coatings in the environment greatly affect the reactivity of nanoparticles. The mechanisms of ENP toxicity have not been verified, but the inhibition of bacterial growth may be dependent on reactivity. We have examined how surface modifications of ENP may affect the interaction between the particles and bacteria in model systems. Our findings show that both natural and engineered surface coatings on ENP greatly reduce or eliminate their cytotoxicity. We examine the mechanisms of ENP toxicity and show how coatings disrupt toxic mechanisms. While toxicity is the most commonly cited activity of nanomaterials in environmental systems, a new picture is emerging. Some nanomaterials, thought to be toxic, can have the opposite effect on certain bacteria; the particles may rescue them from a self-induced death. Overall, our studies imply that surface modifications may be engineered to minimize the detrimental impacts of nanomaterials and that NP may have a broader impact on bacterial cell growth than previously understood.

BACTERIAL IN RESPIRATION IN ELECTROCHEMICAL CELLS FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY AND MICRON-SCALE SENSING
Kelvin B. Gregory Assoc. Prof. Civil & Environmental Engineering Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA, USA. The electrical potential in sediment has been part of the analytical repertoire of soil scientists and agronomists for 100 years. This phenomenon was loosely attributed to the activity of soil organisms and used as a diagnostic for crop yield. More recently, the electrical potential of sediments emerged as a promising technology for electricity generation. It is now known that electricity production is metabolically linked to respiration in bacteria and that this capability is not uncommon. Microbial respiration of anodes and cathodes in electrochemical cells have enabled the development of microbial fuel cells for electricity generation and sensing technology as well as novel approaches for electrode-based bioremediation of organic and inorganic subsurface environments. For example, we have developed a micron-scale biological fuel cell which utilizes microbial electricity generation enabled by microfluidic flow control to produce power. This new fuel cell technology, the smallest of its kind, produces scalable and controllable electrical energy from organic matter and is sustained through microbial biofilm formation and respiration of an anode. In

addition, we have recently employed anodes and cathodes in sediment environments to manipulate and engineer the natural redox gradients while stimulating bioremediation of uranium or aromatic hydrocarbons. It is likely that a better understanding of the microbial ecology and physiology of electron transfer in electrochemical cells will make possible optimization of electricity harvesting and creative solutions for responsible environmental stewardship.

SOLAR POWER GENERATION BASED ON FUEL CELL TECHNIQUE UPCOMING NEW TECHNOLOGY
P.B.L. Chaurasia, K. Kendall, W.Bujalski, S.Du, B.G.Pollet and N.Panja Fuel Cell Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, U.K. e-mail: pblchaurasia@gmail.com Renewable energy sources are very promising solutions for global warming. Solar energy is considered to be the cleanest and inexhaustible source of renewable energy. The fuel cells are highly efficient energy conversion systems to transform energy from one form to another form. The solar energy can be transformed into usable electric power using fuel cells (chemical method). Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) fits best for solar power generation as it can be operated relatively at a low temperatures (<100C). A study has been carried-out on PEMFC using a new chemical coupling 2-propanol/acetone/hydrogen that will support solar power generation from solar light. The paper presents the results of the study made on the PEM fuel cell based on a specific chemical coupling (2-propanol/acetone/H2) proposed to be used in solar power generation. Some preliminary investigations have been performed on electro-catalyst in the PEM fuel cell and power density 2.12mW.cm-2 has been achieved. The study is continued to maximize the power generation from the PEMFC enabling to design a prototype unit for fuel cell based solar system for power generation from the sun light. This upcoming new solar technology will have far reaching effect in the present energy crisis in the society.

POLICY ISSUES FOR SOLAR POWER GENERATION IN COLD REGIONS


S. S. Chandel Professor Centre for energy & environment National institute of technology Hamirpur, Himachal Pradesh

EXERGY ANALYSIS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS: AN OVERVIEW


S. K. Tyagia and A. K. Pandeyb a Dy. Director/Scientist 'E Biomass Management Division Sardar Swaran Singh National Institute of Renewable Energy, Kapurthala JalandharKapurthala Road, Wadala Kalan, Kapurthala -144610 (Punjab) b School of Infrastructure Technology & Resource Management, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Katra 182320 (J&K) The present talk is an overview of concept of exergy and the exergy analysis of renewable energy systems such as solar air heater, solar water heater, solar cooker and solar photovoltaic systems will be delivered. Solar air heater based on evacuated tube collectors (ETC) and having three different arrangements for the performance evaluation using exergy analysis has been used. In two arrangements ETC tubes have been filled with thermal energy storage (TES) material and one without TES. Solar water heater is made of ETC collectors and it is unlike conventional water heaters available in the market, this is a direct flow water heater i.e. water at inlet is provided by water tank which is situated at the roof top of the building. Experiments at different volume flow rates i.e. 10 LPH (Litre per hour), 15 LPH, 20 LPH, 25 LPH and 30 LPH have been carried out. Both the energetic and exergetic efficiencies have been found to be optimum at 15 LPH. For performance analysis of solar photovoltaic (SPV) systems three different technologies have been used viz. multicrystalline module, thin film module and HIT (hetrojunction with intrinsic thin layer). Performance of the HIT based SPV module has been found to be best. As far as solar cooker is concerned, the performance analysis of solar cooker based on exergy analysis with two different types of solar cookers have been used viz. paraboloid type and box type. Both the efficiencies i.e. energetic and exergetic efficiencies have been found to be best for paraboliod type solar cooker.

APPLICATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC AND WAVE HYBRID SYSTEMS FOR REMOTE AREA ELECTRIFICATION
S.M Ali 1 Khusboo Parvin2 Sthita Prajna Mishra3 1 Professor Electrical, 2Lecturer Electrical, 3Lecturer Electrical KIIT University,Bhubaneswar This paper presents the efficient utilisation of hybrid Photovoltaic/wave energy system for desalination water pumping and supplying the local AC and DC loads. The novel hybrid system comprises eight key parts. The PV array and wave energy permanent magnet linear generator (PMLG) as energy sources, novel AC side modulated power filter compensator (MPFC), AC-DC converter, novel DC side green plug power filter (GPF), DC permanent magnet motor for water pumping station PMDC, DC local load, interfacing DC-AC inverter to the public grid, inverter controller and AC load for supplying the additional electric demand.The proposed hybrid system with all subsystems has been digitally simulated using the Matlab Simulink/Sim-Power software environment. In addition, the novel dynamic error driven control system is also simulated and the performance and dynamic characteristics of the controllers is tested for PMDC motor torque variation, changing variables of renewable

sources and load excursions. The dynamic performance of the unified green wave energy utilisation system is assessed using the coordinated dynamic error driven regulators.

RE-NEWABLE ENERGY
K.C.Mohite Dean Faculty of Science, University of PUNE, Maharashtra The world population in the year 2100 will be in excess of 12 billion. If the current trends in technological progress and innovation continue, the demand for energy then will be five times greater than what it is now. If we continue the policy of using coal, oil and gas at the present rate, then by the year 2020 the global temperature will have increased by two degrees Celsius. We do not need reminding of the adverse effects of this: the increased risk of flooding in lowland areas, the processes of desertification, and changing climate all over the world. It is estimated that Industrial energy use in developing countries constitutes about 45-50 % of the total commercial energy consumption. Much of this energy is converted from imported oil, the price of which has increased tremendously so much so that most of developing countries spent more than 50 % of their foreign exchange earnings. The expansion of industrial base does require additional energy inputs which become more & more difficult in the present scenario. As per the Human Development Report 2011, In developing countries at least 6 people in 10 experience one of these environmental deprivations, and 4 in 10 experience two or more. These deprivations are especially acute among multi dimensionally poor people, more than 9 in 10 of whom experience at least one. Most suffer overlapping deprivations: 8 in 10 multi dimensionally poor people have two or more, and nearly 1 in 3 (29 percent) is deprived in all three. Economists now recognize that, along with physical and human capital, environmental resources should be viewed as important economic assets, which can be called natural capital. The growing population, rapid industrialization and urbanization have created heavy demand on various natural resources. It is feared that unless proper steps are taken to conserve them in time, we will face tremendous hardship in future. The talk will present a survey of state of the art renewable energy sources and technologies covering Photo thermal, Photovoltaic, Wind and Biomass areas.

BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM AGRICULTURAL RESIDUES


Renu Singh Scientist Division of Environmental Sciences, Indian Agriculture Research Institute, Pusa, Delhi.

WATER DISTILLATION USING SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEM WITH PCM STORAGE MEDIUM
S.K.Shukla* Ali Abdul R. Farhan *Associate Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering Institute of Technology Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, (U.P.) * skshukla.mec@itbhu.ac.in, Tel: 91-542-6702825 An experimental investigation on a solar still with myristic acid as phase change material (PCM) is carried out to examine the effect of both, the mass of PCM and basin water on the daily distillate output and efficiency of the system under indoor simulated condition. Basic energy balance equations are written to predict the water and glass temperatures, daily distillate output and instantaneous efficiency of the single slope solar distillation system with PCM. It is found that the higher mass of PCM with lower mass of water in solar still basin significantly increases the daily yield and the efficiency. Therefore, a novel and simple arrangement of two interconnecting solar stills, with and without PCM, is proposed to enhance the overall productivity of the distillation system. The new arrangement of interconnected solar stills has increased the distillate output by 35-40 % than that due to separate systems of two solar stills, with and without PCM. Shukla et al. approach of using inner glass cover temperature for output prediction has also been investigated, and the prediction shows relatively better agreement with the experimental data than that due to outer glass cover temperature.

RE BASED LIVELIHOOD ACTIVITIES IN HIMACHAL PRADESH


M.S. Natural Resources Management (TERI) Research Associate The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) Assistant Programme Manager Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP) South Asia Secretariat Asian Energy Institute, Delhi.

LIMITATIONS OF RE-NEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATIVES


Manjit Singh Grewal Principal Baba Banda Singh Bahadur Engineering College Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab.

PROSPECTS OF CARBON NANOTUBES IN RENEWABLE ENERGY HARVESTING


Nilanjan Mallik Assistant Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering Institute of Technology B.H.U. (U.P.)

IMPORTANCE OF LOCAL AGENCY IN EXECUTION OF RE PROGRAM.


Shailendra Shukla Director, Chhattisgarh Renewal Energy Development Agency (CREDA) Executive Director, Chhattisgarh Biofuels Development Agency (CBDA) Raipur (CG)

SOLAR THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS BY PARABOLIC CONCENTRATORS


Mr. Dharamendra Gor Chairman & Managing Director Taylormade Solar Solutions P. Ltd. Ahamdabad, Gujrat.

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF VACUUM EVAPORATED SULPHIDE SEMICONDUCTOR THIN FILMS FOR SOLID-STATE DEVICE FABRICATIONS
Beer Pal Singh Department of Physics, Ch. Charan Singh University, Meerut (U.P.) E-mail: drbeerpal@gmail.com Compound semiconductors provide a large range of materials with varying band gaps for application in devices. Usually these devices are made in the form of thin films, whose crystalline quality and stoichiometry play a pivotal role in the stability and the performing characteristics of the device. Vacuum deposition of thin films is the most popular and dependable method of preparing thin films. However, it is a general problem that the compound semiconductors thermally dissociate into their constituent components during evaporation. It results in the deposition on the substrate not only the molecules of the compound semiconductor but also of the dissociated cations and anions constituting the compound semiconductor. Furthermore, these dissociated cations and anions do not get deposited on the substrates in the ratio of their chemical composition in the basic compound

and their ratios also deviate with the conditions of deposition of the films. Such unstoichiometric deposited films lead to defects in the crystalline structure of the films and adversely affect the electro-optical properties and even the stability of the films. Such films would be inherently, unstable, lacking adhesion with the substrate, inhomogeneous in composition and their opto-electronic properties would not be uniform throughout the surface of the films. The presence of pin holes would lead to catastrophic failure of any thin film device. We describe a new method for vacuum deposition of stoichiometric thin films of II-VI sulphide semiconductors. Stoichiomertic thin films of sulphide semiconductors has deposited in a low ambient atmosphere of hydrogen sulphide (H2S). The H2S atmosphere was obtained by a eclectically controlled thermal decomposition of thiourea [CS(NH2)2] inside the vacuum chamber during the deposition. Sulphide semiconductors films deposited in a low ambient atmosphere of H2S had better stiochiometric ratio, better crystallinity, and had less structural defects in comparison of films deposited without H2S atmosphere. Such films were remarkably pin hole free and had better adhistivity with the substrates. It is found that films deposited in a low ambient atmosphere of H2S are of dark color, more uniform, pin hole free, have better adhesion to the substrates, have better crystallinity and have better transparency compared to the films deposited without H2S atmosphere and would be better suited for device fabrication. Furthermore, it may also conclude that this technique however would be applicable to other compound semiconductors, whose cations are obtainable in their hydride forms.

RECENT ADVANCES IN INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY FOR INDUSTRIAL IMAGING


Ravibabu Mulaveesala Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, ravi@iitrpr.ac.in Among the various widely used non-contact and non-invasive inspection methodologies, infrared thermography (IRT) has gained its importance due to its safe, fast and wide area monitoring capabilities, which makes it as a vital inspection method in varieties of fields including bio-medical, veterinary, forestry, aero-space, energy, civil, mechanical, electrical and construction & building engineering. IRT involves mapping of the thermal energy distribution over the test object to find out its thermo-physical properties or even sometimes to extract its surface or subsurface features. Since most of the solids are thermally conductive, so infrared imaging evolved as a versatile testing procedure for variety of materials such as composites, metals and semiconductors. Various methods have been developed across the globe to improve with the intent of finer detail extraction to widen the use of IRT. This talk highlights the applicability of infrared thermography to various industrial inspection technologies by highlighting its advantages and limitations over other inspection technologies.

CORRELATION BETWEEN CRYSTAL ORIENTATIONS, OXIDATION AND OPTO-ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF C-SI: H LAYERS DEPOSITED USING HWCVD
S.K. Soni and *R.O. Dusane Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay E-mail: rodusane@iitb.ac.in Hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (c-Si:H) films are an inherent part of the tandem micromorph solar cell. In this paper, we report our results on the correlation between crystal orientation, oxidation and opto-electronic properties of c-Si:H layers deposited using HWCVD process. A systematic study on structural, compositional and opto-electronic characterizations of c-Si:H layers has been done. Films have been deposited at a substrate temperature of ~200 C with varying the silane concentration. It is observed that films which have (111) preferred grain orientation, get oxidize and have poor electrical properties (no significant photoconductivity gain (ph/dark). No significant amount of oxygen content is observed in the films with (220) preferred grain orientations. These films also have good electrical properties (photoconductivity gain of more than one order of magnitude). We discussed the results obtained on these films by FTIR, and Raman spectroscopy and XRD as well. Cross sectional SEM and AFM images have been taken to see the structure and surface morphology of these films respectively.

STUDY OF DOPED n-TYPE a-Si:H EMITTER LAYER FOR HETEROJUNCTION SOLAR CELLS USING HWCVD
Mohit Agarwal1 , R. O. Dusane1 1 Metallurgical Engineering & Materials Science IIT Bombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra, mohit_agarwal@iitb.ac.in, rodusane@iitb.ac.in It is well known that the performance of the solar cell is strongly dependent on the electrooptical properties of the emitter layer and the quality of the hetero-interface between thin-film silicon and c-Si [1]. The emitter layer in the heterojunction (HJ) solar cells or in heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) solar cells is usually very thin (<20nm) to minimize the recombination of photogenerated carriers in the layer[2]. Moreover, it should be highly doped to reduce the series resistance. The aim of this study is to find out the electrical properties of this layer below 20 nm and fabrication of HJ solar cells using this emitter layer without applying any high efficiency features like transparent conducting oxide (TCO), back surface field (BSF), texturing and buffer layer.

CORRELATION DEVELOPMENT FOR EFFECT OF WATER QUALITY ON GREEN HOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM HYDROPOWER RESERVOIR
Amit Kumar Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee M.P.Sharma, Associate Professor Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee,Roorkee E.Mail: amit.agl09@gmail.com Under the climate change, emission of Green house gases (GHG) like CO2 and CH4 from artificial reservoirs, especially, in tropics are resulting in the global warming. A hydropower reservoir has been found to emit about 35-70 times less GHG then thermal power plants. The CO2 and CH4 in a hydropower reservoir are produced as a result of decomposition of organic matter at the bottom. The magnitude of emissions not only depends on the type of eco-region in which the reservoir is located but also on the physiochemical parameters of the reservoir. To understand the relationship between CO2/CH4 emissions and water quality we have investigated critical parameters in the reservoir water. Ten parameters of water quality (temp, DO, COD, TDS, pH, TP, nitrite, phosphate, total alkalinity, conductivity) ware measured in site 1 & site II of the oyun reservoir. The experimental results indicated that CO2 emissions from the reservoir were mainly affected by pH, alkalinity and DO concentrations. CH4 emissions are not found due to swallow reservoir. Results also show that when no of reservoir parameters are reduced, the R2 also decreases. A deeper analysis of the relationship between the different parameters and GHG emissions by mini tab software and the multiple regression method revealed that the R2 >0.9 for site 1 and R2 >0.8 for site II. These correlations equation could be tentatively used to predict the emissions from reservoir as the GHG measurement at site is difficult and no perfect measurement techniques are available.

CHALLANGES OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY


RAJIV KUMAR, VIKAS KUMAR Mechanical Department Kciet pandoga, H.P. You might know that we are able to get free energy from the Sun, the wind, and water, but did you know we can get free energy from Earth itself? The temperature inside of Earth can reach 9,000Fthat kind of heat can be used to make a lot of energy here on the surface! This source of energy is called geothermal energy and it is all about taking advantage of the heat within Earth. This paper gives an overview of the present status of non-conventional energy sources of India, world geothermal resources, its advantages over other conventional energy sources, various uses and technologies involved in utilizing this energy source. Various geothermal provinces of India and their power generating /direct use potential are described in detail. Geothermal energy is an enormous, underused heat and power resource that is clean (emits little or no greenhouse gases), reliable (average system availability of 95%),

and homegrown (making us less dependent on foreign oil). Geothermal resources range from shallow ground to hot water and rock several miles below the Earth's surface, and even farther down to the extremely hot molten rock called magma. Mile-or-more-deep wells can be drilled into underground reservoirs to tap steam and very hot water that can be brought to the surface for use in a variety of applications.

USE OF GEOTHERMAL HEAT SOURCE FOR APPLE COLD STORAGE: MANIKARAN (INDIA) CASE STUDY
Vijay Chauhana, Sateesh Gedupudib, P. Anil Kishanc School of Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi Email: a) vijay30008@gmail.com b) sateesh.gedupudi@gmail.com c) kishan@iitmandi.ac.in A modified combined refrigeration/power cycle, which uses ammonia-water as the working fluid, is proposed for the utilization of geothermal potential. The work mainly focuses on the thermodynamic feasibility of usage of geothermal source for apple storage and power output for processing at a location (Manikaran) in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh (Himalayan region). First law (energy) analysis and second law (exergy) analysis of the cycle and its components were done for different parameters, considering the potential of geothermal heat source (natural hot springs), all thermal conditions and load requirement.

APPLICATIONS OF GREEN TECHNOLOGY IN RENEWABLE ENERGY FOR SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENT, RECYCLING AND WASTE MANAGEMENT
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Sumit Verma, 2Aprajita Salgotra Thapar University Patiala 1 aprajita.salgotra3@gmail.com 2 sumitverma1990@yahoo.com


1, 2

Energy is the necessity of mankind and there are various sources of energy on earth. Some of them are renewable and some of them are Non renewable. The sources those are non renewable (includes Petroleum products, natural gas, Uranium etc.) are available in scarcity and also they are degrading our environment. It leads to need of such resources those are Renewable and also environment friendly. Green technologies provide us methods to use such resources like Solar Energy, Wind Power, Geothermal Power, Hydro Power, Bio Diesel etc. In actual, Green Technologies aims at production of energy by the methods those are environment friendly and sustainable too. Green technology refers to technologies that has low green house gas emission, minimizes the degradation of the environment, conserves natural resources and promotes efficient use of energy by avoiding wastage and promotes the use of renewable resources. The ultimate targets of green technology are Social Welfare, Energy Sufficiency, Sustainable Environment and Flourishing Economy.

INVENTIVE DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS OF GREEN BUILDINGS TO ACHIEVE ENERGY EFFICIENCY


Tejinder Singh1, Arvind Dhingra2 1 PhD Scholar, PTU Jalandhar & Chitkara University, Rajpura saggutejinder@gmail.com 2 PhD Scholar, NIT Kurukshetra & GNDEC, Ludhiana arvinddhingra@gmail.com Since independence, the Indian power sector has grown manifold in size and capacity. There have been radical changes in the structure, ownership patterns, and regulatory set-up of the power sector. Besides apposite and energy-efficient building materials and technologies, the overall design must consider and optimize space configurations. While fulfilling functional requirements, the design must simultaneously respond to the climate, topography, hydrogeological conditions and socio-cultural perceptions. Till now, a little attention was being paid to design of buildings as regards to energy efficiency. But of late the demand for green and energy efficient buildings has rapidly grown. We all remained unconcerned about the fact for several decades that any form of energy is an exhaustible resource and unless these resources are used with required amount of care for avoidance of wasteful consumption, the future generations could be deprived of even the essential supplies for meeting their requirements. The concept of energy efficiency applies to each and everything from the building envelope, which includes energy efficient windows, insulation, foundation, and the roof, to appliances, lights, and air-conditioning systems. This paper attempts to give an overview of green buildings and their design aspects. Also the design of efficient lighting system for a building that will be eco friendly will be discussed.

ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDING BY USING SOLAR BASED ENERGY EFFICIENT TECHNOLOGIES


Gurpreet kaur, Tarandeep kaur, Gurleen kaur M.tech (Power Engineering) Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College E-mail id: - gkpreet389@gmail.com This paper is an overview of design of energy efficient building by using solar based energy efficient technologies. The purpose of this thesis is to examine the cost and feasibility of using photovoltaic solar power to assist in the rebuilding of the infrastructure. The paper examines available solar equipment and technologies coupled with requirements for operation, installation and maintenance of such systems. This section addresses areas including installation, operation, maintenance, and durability Finally; the paper presents the results of investigations on the application of photovoltaic PV power generating systems for utilization with a typical residential load. In addition, an economic analysis has been performed for the PV scenarios and is used to justify the use of renewable energy versus constructing a line extension from the nearest existing power line to supply the load with conventional power.

GREEN BUILDING TECHNOLOGY: CONCEPTS AND PRACTICE


LOKESH V Department of Civil Engineering, Sri Sai Ram Engineering College, Chennai. email-lokeshvenkatesalu@gmail.com From mid-eighteenth century industrial revolution has started and as a result many new inventions are made. With this inventions the resource exploration and utilization has become easy. Most of the resources are non renewable and to fulfill the needs of growing population the exploration of these non renewable resources has gone to a peak level which may cause threat for the survival of future generations. For any activity of human being shelter or housing is required. Housing is the one of the major contributors to the green house gas emissions which has significant environmental impact. Housing is a major sector and is responsible for about 20-30% of green house gas emission in developed countries. Therefore an effective response to climate change can be achieved through housing sustainability and this is a designed solution using sustainable development. As construction is the initi al stage of any activity we need to adopt the concepts of sustainable development in the field of civil engineering. Green building technology has been developed as a product of this sustainable development concept. The main objective of green building technology is to improve the environmental conditions by effective utilization of natural resources and waste in civil engineering. This paper includes the information about concepts of green building technology and its potential application in India.

ANALYSIS OF HEAT TRANSFER AND FLUID FLOW IN V-SHAPED WITH GAP DOWNSTREAM RIBS ROUGHENED SURFACE SOLAR AIR HEATER DUCT
Anil Kumara, R. P. Sainia, J. S. Sainib a a Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand b Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand The heat transfer coefficient between the absorber plate and air can be considerably increased by using artificial roughness on the underside of the absorber plate of a solar air heater duct. This paper presents the study of fluid flow and heat transfer in a solar air heater by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD).The lower side of collector plate is made rough with metal ribs of v-shaped with gap. The system and operating parameters studied are relative roughness width ratio (W/w) of 1, relative gap distance(Gd/Lv) of 0.69,relative roughness pitch(P/e) of 8,relative roughness height (e/D) of 0.043, angle of attack () of 60, relative gap width (g/e) range of 1.0 for the Reynolds number range 2000-20000. The results of the vshaped ribs with gap show the significant increase in heat transfer rate over the smooth surface. Enhancement of heat transfer by providing single v-shaped ribs with gap roughness is 1.79 times to that of smooth surface solar air heater duct.

DESIGN OF SOLAR ASSISTED VAPOUR ABSORPTION SYSTEM


Sushant Thakur, *N.S.Thakur Centre for Excellence in Energy & Environment, National Institute of Technology Hamirpur (H.P.) This paper presents thermodynamic analysis of solar assisted vapour absorption system along with its design. Absorption systems are machines, which produce cooling effect by using heat energy and there is no moving parts in this machine. Thermodynamic analysis and design of various components are presented including solar water heater, generator, evaporator, absorber, solution heat exchanger and condenser. Single stage system is designed using LiBrwater as a working fluid. The necessary heat and mass transfer equations and ASHRAE standards are used to carryout the design process. Various parameters are calculated including mass flow rate, enthalpy, temperature, pressure and C.O.P. Single pass, vertical tube exchangers for absorber and evaporator and horizontal tube exchangers for generator and condenser have been used. Finally environmental friendly design is achieved with 4m2 solar flat plate collector area for 1kW capacity.

ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS OF A GRID CONNECTED PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER PLANT KHATKAR KALAN (DISTT. NAWANSHAHAR), PUNJAB
Vidyotma Thakur, M.Tech ,CEEE,N.I.T. Hamirpur, Hamirpur(H.P) thakur2790@gmail.com S.S.Chandel, Head & Professor, CEEE, N.I.T Hamirpur, Hamirpur (H.P) chandel_shyam@yahoo.com Sushant Thakur, M.Tech, CEEE, NIT Hamirpur, Hamirpur (H.P) thakur_sushant007@yahoo.co.in This paper deals with the economical analysis of 200kWp grid connected solar power plant which is situated in village Khatkar Kalan (Distt. Nawanshahr),Punjab. The total investment in the power plant was 4.83 lacs. Initially, an economical study is carried out which gives the simple pay back period of the initial investment. Furthermore, the life cycle costing of a grid connected solar power plant was evaluated in which the life cycle costing and annualized life cycle costing was evaluated.

OPTIMUM TILT ANGLE FOR SOLAR COLLECTOR TO RECEIVE MAXIMUM SOLAR RADIATION
Vidyotma Thakur, M.Tech ,CEEE,N.I.T. Hamirpur, Hamirpur(H.P) thakur2790@gmail.com S.S.Chandel, Head & Professor, CEEE, N.I.T Hamirpur, Hamirpur (H.P) chandel_shyam@yahoo.com Sushant Thakur, M.Tech, CEEE, NIT Hamirpur, Hamirpur (H.P) thakur_sushant007@yahoo.co.in Optimum tilt angle plays an important role in maximising the energy received by the PV Panel and for energy generation. The tilt angle for the solar panels varies from place to place depends upon the site latitude. The amount of solar radiation throughout the year received by the PV panel mounted at monthly optimum tilt angles with respect to seasonal optimum angles and tilt angle equal to latitude varies respectively. The overall performance of a grid connected system depends upon the availability of solar radiation. The optimum angle of tilt (opt) for each month, allows collecting the maximum solar radiation. In this study, a mathematical model is used to estimate the total (global) solar radiation on a tilted surface and to determine the optimum tilt angle for a solar collector in Khatkar Kalan, Punjab. It is found that the optimum tilt angle changes from January to December. For winter months (Dec, Jan, Feb) the optimum tilt angle found to be 49.770, for spring months (March, April, and May) 18.03, for summer months (June, July, and August) 6.30, and in autumn (September, October, and November) 38.400. The yearly average tilt angle was found to be 290 and this would be the optimum fixed tilt throughout the year.

ESTIMATION OF SOLAR RADIATION FOR INDIAN STATIONS USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK
Amit Kumar Yadav, S.S. Chandel Centre for Excellence in Energy and Environment National Institute of Technology Hamirpur H.P. e-mail: amit1986.529@rediffmail.com, chandel_shyam@yahoo.com The Artificial Neural Network [ANN] fitting tool is used for the estimation of solar radiation. Solar radiation data from 12 Indian stations with different climatic conditions are used for training and testing the ANN. The Levenberg-Marquard (LM) algorithm is used in this analysis. The results of ANN model are compared with measured data on the basis of root mean square error (RMSE) and mean bias error (MBE). It is found that RMSE in the ANN model varies 0.04863.562 for Indian region. Keywords: Solar radiation; LevenbergMarquard (LM) algorithm; Artificial neural network.

EFFECT OF DEPTH RATIO ON THE THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF DOUBLE FLOW PACKED BED SOLAR AIR HEATER
Satyender Singha, Prashant Dhimanb a Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shoolini University, Solan (H.P.) b Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of technology, Hamirpur (H.P.) In this paper double flow packed bed solar air heater has been investigated theoretically. The effect of air mass flow rate and porosity, and different depth ratios at study state conditions on the thermal performance of a double flow packed bed solar air heater is found by using the alternative simulation system. Comparisons between the measured thermal and effective thermal efficiency of the double flow packed bed and double flow without packed bed solar air heaters were also presented. The problem has been solved by the Finite Difference Method. The results showed that the thermal efficiency increases by 78.8 % in double flow mode with porous media than double flow without porous media at the mass flow rate of 0.05 kg/s at the bed porosity of 92%.

STUDY OF SOLAR RADIATION MODELS TO ESTIMATE SOLAR RADIATION USING DIFFERENT METEOROLOGICAL DATA: A REVIEW
Rajesh Kumar1*, RK Aggarwal2, Jyoti Dhar Sharma1 and Virender Pratap Singh1 1 Deptt. of Physics, Shoolini University, Bajhol, Distt. Solan 2 Deptt. OF Environmental Science, University of Horticulture & Forestry, Solan e-mail: *rajesh.shoolini@gmail.com In any solar energy conversion system, the knowledge of global solar radiation is extremely important for the optimal design and the prediction of the energy systems performance. The computation of solar radiation can be obtained from different meteorological data. Various models have been reviewed to estimate global solar radiation on the horizontal surfaces using other meteorological data such as altitude, latitude, humidity, transmission coefficient, gas absorption, absorption by water vapors, absorption and scattering by aerosol and clouds which are discussed in this paper.

APPLICATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC AND WAVE HYBRID SYSTEMS FOR REMOTE AREA ELECTRIFICATION
S.M Ali, Khusboo Parvinm, Sthita Prajna Mishra KIIT University,Bhubaneswar This paper presents the efficient utilisation of hybrid Photovoltaic/wave energy system for desalination water pumping and supplying the local AC and DC loads. The novel hybrid system comprises eight key parts. The PV array and wave energy permanent magnet linear generator (PMLG) as energy sources, novel AC side modulated power filter compensator (MPFC), AC-DC converter, novel DC side green plug power filter (GPF), DC permanent

magnet motor for water pumping station PMDC, DC local load, interfacing DC-AC inverter to the public grid, inverter controller and AC load for supplying the additional electric demand.The proposed hybrid system with all subsystems has been digitally simulated using the Matlab Simulink/Sim-Power software environment. In addition, the novel dynamic error driven control system is also simulated and the performance and dynamic characteristics of the controllers is tested for PMDC motor torque variation, changing variables of renewable sources and load excursions. The dynamic performance of the unified green wave energy utilisation system is assessed using the coordinated dynamic error driven regulators.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF PHOTOVOLTAIC IN ELECTRICITY GENERATION


S. Arjyadhara Pradhan Ms.Priyanka Priyadarshini Padhi Mr. Nishant Swapan KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, Orissa An overview is given of the environmental impacts of different PV technologies both at the present status of technology and for future technology. Crystalline silicon PV systems presently have energy pay-back times of 1.5-2 years. For silicon technology clear prospects for a reduction of energy input exist, and an energy pay-back of 1 year may be possible within a few years. Thin film technologies now have energy pay-back times in the range of 1-1.5 years .Greenhouse gas emissions are now in the range of 25-32 g/kWh and this could decrease to 15 g/kWh in the future. Therefore PV energy systems have a very good potential as a lowcarbon energy supply technology. Together with a number of PV companies an extensive effort has been made to collect Life Cycle Inventory data that represents the current status of production technology for crystalline silicon modules. All commercial wafer technologies are covered, that is multi- and monocrystalline wafers as well as ribbon technology. On the basis of the new data a Life Cycle Assessment has been performed, which shows that c-Si PV systems are in a good position to compete with other energy technologies.

FUTURE SCOPE FOR NANO STRUCTURED CELLS


Sandip Kumar Mishra1,Niraj Sharma2,Mudresh Mohan Tripathi3,Amit Sahu4 1 Lecturer, Mechanical Engineering Department, SRGI, Jhansi 2 Assistant Professor,Applied Science Department, SRGI, Jhansi 3 Lecturer, Computer Science Engineering Department,SRGI,Jhansi 4 Lecturer,Applied Science Department, SRGI, Jhansi Nanosolar can become the solar industry cost-leader at several hundred megawatts (MWs) of annual production versus the giga watts (GWs) of production required by other manufacturers, due to our next-generation technological innovation. Our proprietary approach to printing CIGS (Copper, Indium, Gallium, Selenium) and nanoparticle inks minimizes our use of expensive, high vacuum manufacturing equipment. Our printed CIGS solar cells and

panels can reach efficiencies competitive with crystalline silicon panels in the next several years. And, the Nanosolar Utility Panels innovative design significantly reduces balance -ofsystem costs through less mounting hardware, electrical cabling and installation labor. The use of nanostructures in photovoltaics offers the potential for high efficiency by either using new physical mechanisms or by allowing solar cells which have efficiencies closer to their theoretical maximum, for example by tailoring material properties. At the same time nanostructures have potentially low fabrication costs, moving to structures or materials which can be fabricated using chemically or biologically formed materials. Despite this potential, there are multiple and significant challenges in achieving viable nanostructure solar cells, ranging from the demonstration of the fundamental mechanisms device-level issues such as transport mechanisms and device structures and materials to implement nanostructure solar cells, and low cost fabrication techniques to implement high performance designs. This paper presents the challenges and approaches for using nanostructure solar cells in devices which can approach the thermodynamic limits for solar energy conversion.

ANALYSIS OF QUASI Z-SOURCE INVERTER FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM


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K.Saktheeswaran, 2V.Saravanan. 1 P.G Scholar, Arunai Engineering College, Tiruvannamalai 2 Head of Department of EEE, Engineering College, Tiruvannamalai 1 sakthek@gmail.com 2 vsaranaec@gmail.com In this paper, Current-fed quasi Z source Inverter topology is one of the recent improvement made in the field of Z-Source Inverter. Impedance network is designed for 120V dc input for 3, to obtain 415 V AC output for quasi Z source inverter circuits. Different control strategies like PWM, SPWM, and SVPWM are analysed in the quasi Z source inverter circuits. Simulation studies are carried out to verify the quasi Z source inverter performance and analyses. All models will be analysed using MATLAB/SIMULINK software and this will be implemented to the real time system.

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECT ON EFFICIENCY OF SOLAR PANELS AT 30 30' 0" NORTH, 77 12' 0" EAST
Chetna Sharma1, Rajeev Thakur2, Abhilasha Sharma3, Dileep Sharma4 Deptt. of ECE ,Eternal University , Baru Sahib , Himachal Pradesh 1 er.chetnasharma22@gmail.com, 2thakur.rajeev.1984@gmail.com, 3 Abbhi2004@yahoo.co.in,4dileepsharma28@yahoo.com Energy is hot again. Not since the oil price shocks off the 1970s as well as 2012 has there been such a buzz about energy or its impact on the world economy. The non-renewable resources such as natural gas and oil are disappearing day by day, human beings are going to a doom unless new forms of energy are invented and applied in daily uses, so that the nonrenewable consumption could be replaced. Baru-Sahib is situated in Sirmaur (Nahan), Himachal Pradesh, India; its geographical coordinates are AT 30 30' 0" NORTH, 77 12' 0"

EAST .In this paper we are describing environmental effect on the efficiency of solar power generation. It was observed that even in the month of November (winters) if solar panels are installed at perfect site efficient power can be generated.

WIRELESS SOLAR IRRADIANCE METER


Dhawan S. Thakur1 and Aditi Sharma2 Lecture1 and Asst. Prof.2, Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering dhawan_deor@yahoo.co.in1 ,aadditisharma@gmail.com2 Eternal University, Himachal Pradesh. The green energy also called the regenerating energy, has gained much attention nowadays. Green energy can be recycled, much like solar energy, water power, wind power, biomass energy, terrestrial heat, temperature difference of sea, sea waves etc [1,2]. Among these, solar energy is the most powerful resource that can be used to generate power. Photovoltaic cells are the primary source, which is used to convert sun radiation directly into electric power. Monitoring the solar radiation plays an important role in analysing the efficiency of the cells, the amount of electric power generated by the PV cell panels and evaluating optimal locations for solar farms [3]. This low cost wireless solar irradiance meter is of fundamental importance for the evaluation and deployment of solar renewable energy systems. Standard large scale instruments like pyranometer and others are not best suitable because of their high cost, poor commercial availability and need of specialized knowledge for their handling. In our research work, we have tried to develop a wireless, portable and low cost solar irradiance meter with enhanced features, which can be used by a common user. We are trying to upgrade it to an instrument which is needed to installed once in the solar plant and then we can collect all the measuring data in our base station, which is located remotely. Also the design of solar energy system has to be initialized based on the adequate measured data and results. In this paper we have designed a 8051 microcontroller based wireless solar irradiance meter which will serves the forthcoming renewable energy technologies[4].This will be helpful in the observation of solar farms from the remotes location. Thus reducing human efforts, result in adequate data, records can be saved for the future purpose and can be handled by a common man. As we know that the solar radiation will be the fuel for the new era of renewable energy. The basic equipment for all these technologies is the instrument which can measure the solar radiation and can be handled by a common man who may sit remotely.

DESIGN OF HIGHLY EFFICIENT SOLAR BASED REFRIGERATION SYSTEM BASED ON TEC TECHNIQUE
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TARUN PARIHAR, 2ANUPMA THAKUR , heavendolphin92@yahoo.com,1tarunparihar26@yahoo.co.in Eternal University, Baru Sahib, Distt. Sirmour (H.P.) This paper presents a study on the Design of highly efficient solar based refrigeration systems that could be utilized to generate the cooling effect of upto 8C within a few seconds for specific bio-medical and refrigeration applications. This design emphasis Thermoelectric

Cooling (TEC) technique that is based on peltier effect. This type of cooling generated using renewable source of energy is compared with other water cooling and air cooling techniques. A specific application for increasing the efficiency of Transformers and other electrical devices by reducing the heat losses of the device using peltier effect is presented. Solar Energy has been one of the most important renewable resources of energy that has been lately used for generating electricity. But amount of electricity generated from these Solar Systems is not enough for efficiently controlling a device. The purpose of our project is to use this solar energy, not to generate some electricity but to directly convert solar heat applied on one side of the surface of our Thermo electric element into refrigeration effect on the other side based on peltier effect and Thermo Electric Cooling. This kind of solar refrigerators are one of the latest advancements in modern world and its maximum applications are in transporting small elements/ medicines from one place to another where a only solar light is available to us and this solar heat is used to generate enhanced cooling effect on the other side of the peltier plate element.

PHOTOCATALYTIC ACTIVITY OF TIO2 NANO SOLAR CELL


Sukhdeep Singh1, N.K. Ralhan1, R.K. Kotnala2 and Kuldeep Chand Verma3 1 Department of Chemistry, Eternal University, Baru Sahib, (H.P.) 2 National Physical Laboratory, Delhi 3 Department of Physics, Eternal University, Baru Sahib, (H.P.) * E-mail: deepsukh.singh@gmail.com TiO2 nano solar cell were fabricated by a chemical route. The photocatalytic behavior were studied by different techniques such as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), optical absorbance by spectrophotometer, Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectra. X-ray diffraction shows the tetragonal rutile structure of TiO2. Transmission electron microscopy measured average particles size of TiO2 is 21 nm. FTIR spectroscopy has been used to confirm the formation of TiO bond. XPS suggests that the Ti ions have the oxidation states +4 present in the 2p region and also confirm the presence of Ti-O bonds. The light optical measurements by spectrophotometer shows large absorbance coefficient in visible region. From PL, an intense blue luminescence centred at a wavelength ~530 nm is observed in the prepared TiO2 nanoparticles, which is different from the yellow-red light emission observed in bulk specimens. Raman spectroscopy shows significant structural formations and good light scattering.

FABRICATION OF SNO2 NANOPARTICLES BASED SOLAR CELL


Jasneet Kaur1, R.K. Kotnala2 and Kuldeep Chand Verma1 1 Department of Physics, Eternal University, Baru Sahib, Sirmour (H.P.) 2 National Physical Laboratory, Delhi The renewable energy can be harnessed using nanotechnology. Pure SnO2 nanoparticles are synthesized by a chemical route using polyvinyl alcohol as surfactant. These nanoparticles are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman, fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) studies. The XRD

pattern shows that the synthesized nanoparticles have tetragonal rutile structure without any extra phase and the value of average particle size using FWHM lies from 12 nm which is also confirmed by TEM. FTIR has been used to confirm the formation of Sn-O bond. Raman spectroscopy shows the intensity loss of classical cassiterite SnO2 vibration lines which is an indication of significant structural modifications. From PL, an intense blue luminescence centred at a wavelength ~530 nm observed in the prepared SnO2 nanoparticles, which is different from the yellow-red light emission observed in SnO2 nanostructures prepared by other methods. The strong blue luminescence from the as-grown SnO2 nanoparticles is attributed to oxygen-related defects that have been introduced during the growth process. These excellent optical and photocatalytic properties of pure SnO2 nanoparticles can enhance the light conversion efficiency of solar cells.

CFD BASED FLUID FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS OF A V SHAPED ROUGHENED SURFACE SOLAR AIR HEATER
Ashish Kumar Sharma1,a N.S.Thakur2b 1 Research Scholar, Centre for energy and environment, NIT-Hamirpur 1 Prof., Centre for energy and environment, NIT-Hamirpur a aksharmanith@gmaiol.com,bnsthakur2011@gmail.com In the present work a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) study was conducted to investigate the heat transfer and friction loss characteristics in a solar air heater having attachments of V-shaped ribs roughness at 600 relative to flow direction pointing downstream on underside of the absorber plate. The computations based on the finite volume method with the SIMPLE algorithm have been conducted for the air flow in terms of Reynolds numbers ranging from 5000-15000. The parameter investigated is the relative roughness height (e/DH) ranges from 0.0216-0.043 and relative roughness pitch (p/e) ranges from 6-12. It is apparent that the turbulence created by the V-shaped ribs resulting in greater increase in heat transfer over the test channel. The nusselt number and friction factor increase with increase in e/DH while gives opposite trend with increase in relative pitch ratio.

ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS OF SOLAR WATER HEATING SYSTEM


Vikas Sharma, Sudeep Sharma L.R. Institute of Engineering and Technology, Solan, India Vikass093@gmail.com The primary energy comes from non-renewable and fossil sources. These reserves are continuously diminishing with increase in consumption and will not exist for future generation. One of the options is to make more extensive use of the renewable sources like sun, wind, biomass etc. Solar energy plays a very important role in providing requirement of electrical power for various utilities. Because of its location between the Tropic of Cancer and the Equator, India has an average annual temperature that ranges from 25C 27.5 C. This means that India has huge solar potential. Solar energy has several applications: photovoltaic (PV) cells are placed

on the roof top of houses or commercial buildings, and collectors such as mirrors or parabolic dishes that can move and track the sun throughout the day are also used. This mechanism is being used for concentrated lighting in buildings. It is possible for medium class families in India, to replace conventional water heating system with solar water heating system, in spite of its high capital cost. In this paper following points of solar water heating system have been discussed. Comparison of cost analysis of conventional water heating system with solar water heating system. Financing and Incentives available. Selection of solar water heating system. Suggestive measures.

FAULT DIAGNOSIS OF DOUBLY-FED INDUCTION GENERATOR IN WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEM


Suryakant-suryakantshukla8@gmail.com Nikhil Kushwaha-nikhil.kushwaha85@gmail.com, Vimal Singh bisht -bishtvimal@yahoo.com, Sunandan-er.sunandan.n@gmail.com Electrical Department NIT Hamirpur Nowadays Wind energy conversion systems are mostly used in the research of renewable energy sources. The DFIG-based wind turbines can make competitive as the classical electric power stations by reducing the operational and maintenance costs with continuously monitoring the condition of these systems. This paper proposes an advanced fault diagnosis system to detect incipient faults in doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) which is used in wind turbines. In this application The Rotor power is supplied in this system by a converter which controls the active and reactive power flow from the generator to the mains. This paper presents a new fault diagnostic method which is based on the analysis of the rotor modulating signals. Simulation result confirms that the analysis of the spectra of rotor input modulating signals leads to an effective diagnostic procedure. The system is suitable to be easily embedded in the drive control system.

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF SILT EROSION IN PUMP AS TURBINE (PAT)


Tarang Agarwal, M.Tech (AHES) Alternate Hydro Energy Center Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee Email: tarang.agarwal1@gmail.com Dr R.P Saini Associate Professor Alternate Hydro Energy Center Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee Silt erosion is a phenomenon of mechanical wear of components. This is due to the dynamic action of silt flowing with water and impacting against a solid surface of hydraulic components. However, the mechanism of erosion is complex due to interaction of various factors such as impingement angle, particles size, shape, hardness, concentration, velocity, properties of material and so on. Silt erosion is one of the most important technical problem for hydro-electric power stations working in silt laden water, and the pumping plants to be employed in diversion of solid particle-liquid two phase flow in many industrial and agricultural sectors. In regard to hydropower, micro hydro power (MHP) is gaining importance since it is a clean and alternative source of energy. The only problem in MHP is the high cost of turbine, for which Pump as Turbine (PAT) is an outstanding solution. Hence, it is important to study the impact of silt erosion in PAT and the related parameters which affects the efficiency of PAT. An objective of present study is to investigate the mechanism of silt erosion in pump as turbine (PAT) using numerical method. 2 phase flows has been simulated in Ansys simulation package and erosion model has been implemented to study the effect of silt erosion. In order to design the PAT, proper conversion factors have been considered. A correlation has also been developed between Erosion rate density and silt concentration.

UNIFIED CONTROL STRATEGY FOR DFIG BASED WIND POWER


Manonmani .N, Assistant professor Electricals and Electronics Engineering Sri Krishna College of Engineering & Technology Coimbatore manonmani@skcet.ac.in Divya. K III BE Electricals and Electronics Engineering Sri Krishna College of Engineering & Technology Coimbatore divyakrishnmoorthi2407@gmail.com Loganathan. R III BE Electricals and Electronics Engineering Sri Krishna College of Engineering & Technology Coimbatore logeshrangaswamy92@gmail.com This paper puts forth an effective control strategy for wind power plant to bring out additional transmission capacity and better means of maintaining system reliability when compared to already existing control techniques. Doubly Fed Induction Generator is taken for study. The rotor power of DFIG is the only controlling parameter taken to determine four current reference values using this single strategy. These references are fed to Rotor side and grid side current controllers which enables Torque, Grid side real and reactive power, as well as pitch angle control resulting in more prominent solution. This control strategy therefore relieves the need for switching between different controllers or reconfiguration of the hardware. This strategy also provides automatic voltage and frequency regulation for network. If the DFIG wind power unit is equipped with a battery, the proposed control enables islanded operation of DFIG wind power unit. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control strategy is studied through simulation carried out on detailed switched model of the system in the PSCAD/EMTDC version 4.2 software environment.

WIND ENERGY IN INDIA: A REVIEW


Rajender S. Godara *, Manoj Siwach ** JCDM College of Engineering Sirsa Emerging and developing countries have 80% of the worlds population but consume only 30% of global commercial energy. As energy consumption rises with increases in population and living standards, the need to expand access to energy in new ways is growing as is the awareness of the environmental costs. Increased recognition of the contribution that renewable energy (RE) can make to energy independence, climate change mitigation, rural development, improved health and lower health costs (linked to air pollution), is shifting RE from the fringe to the mainstream of sustainable development. Further, decreasing reserves of fossil fuels and shortage of electricity have prompted the countries to give a momentum to renewable energy sources. Renewable energy refers to an energy resource that occurs naturally and repeatedly in the environment and can be harnessed for human benefit. It includes solar, wind, and geothermal energy (getting energy from the heat in the earth). We

also get renewable energy from trees and plants, rivers, and even garbage. We discuss in this paper about wind energy. Wind energy, with an average growth rate of 30%, is the fastest growing source of renewable energy in the world. India has a potential capacity of over 45,000 MW out of which 1869 MW has been extracted from this eco-friendly source. India stands at fifth position in the world in wind energy development. This paper discusses an overview of global wind energy, Indian wind energy, economic development and wind energy potential in India.

REPOWERING OF WIND FARMS-A CASE STUDY


B.S.Nivedh1, R.P.Kumudini Devi2 &E.Sreevalsan3 1 PG Student, Power Systems Engineering, CEG. 2 Associate Professor, Power Systems Engineering Division, CEG 3 Scientist E and Unit Chief, Wind Resource Assessment Unit, C-WET bsnivedh@gmail.com The main objective of the project is to assess the repowering potential of a wind farm using the wind atlas analysis and application program (WAsP). With repowering, the firstgeneration wind turbines can be replaced with modern multi-megawatt wind turbines. To carry-out the study an old wind farm located at Kayathar, Tamilnadu is selected. The wind farm was commissioned in 1990s with a capacity of 7.35MW, which consists of 30 Wind Turbines each with the capacity of 200kW and 6 Wind Turbines each with the capacity of 225kW. The wind farm is owned by Centre for Wind Energy Technology (C-WET) and Tamilnadu Energy Development Agency (TEDA). The present annual energy generation of the wind farm is 7350MWhr with the plant load factor of 11.41%. The intent of this project is to calculate the generation of the existing wind farm using WAsP and to compare with the actual generation. And to carry out the micro-siting for the same wind farm with different wind turbines and to predict the annual energy output of the wind farm after the repowering. Further, the energy yield ratio and repowering ratio of this repowering project also to be calculated. This will facilitate to develop a method to assess the repowering potential, since the best locations for wind in India are occupied by old wind turbines with lower energy output compared with new wind turbines.

WIND TURBINES ELECTRICAL CONVERSION SYSTEMS: A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY


Rajkumar Viral1 and Tarannum2 1. Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee E-Mail:viraliitr@gmail.com, viradah@iitr.ernet.in 2. Assistant Professor, Electrical Engg. Department, Vira College of Engg. Bijnor, Email: tannu007tannu@gmail.com Abstract: This paper gives an overview of electrical conversion systems for wind turbines. The basics of wind energy conversion with wind turbines are reviewed and requirements with respect to the electric system are considered. Then the conversion systems are described with their strengths and weaknesses: constant speed, variable speed with doubly-fed induction

generator and variable speed with direct-drive generator. Finally, different alternative generator systems and trends are discussed. For direct-drive turbines, the radial flux permanent-magnet synchronous generator is cheaper and more efficient than the electrically excited synchronous generator.

WIND POWER INTEGRATION WITH COMPRESSED AIR ENERGY STORAGE: A REVIEW


Deepika Sharma, Debbrat Ghosh Thapar University Patiala mail.deepika.s@gmail.com, debbratghosh@yahoo.com Abstract- Overall structure of electrical power system is in the process of changing. For incremental growth, it is moving away from fossil fuel based operations to renewable energy resources that are more environmentally friendly and sustainable. The investors and policy makers take so much interest to go with the wind energy based electricity generation. Along with that the researchers, scientists and design engineers are giving their contribution to enhance the scope of the wind energy as renewable source of electricity and to save nonrenewable sources across the world. The energy produced by wind is the cleanest form of the energy, as it does not produce any harmful pollutants such as smog, acidic rain and greenhouse gasses etc. With fast growth and development of wind energy conversion systems (WECS), which is independent of the turbine parameters and air density produce and utilize technology that does not damage the environment and natural resources. This paper shed light on basics of wind energy, WECS, recent power system stability problems in WECS and techniques opted for solution by the researchers across the world. Its benefits to human life, impact on global warming and various challenges faced by wind energy system (WES) are also considered.

RENEWABLE ENERGY SCENARIO IN HIMACHAL PRADESH


Sunandan Kumar, Lobzang Phunchok, R K Jarial EEE DEPT NIT Hamirpur Email: er.sunandan.n@gmail.com , lobzang.nith@gmail.com India as a developing country has about 86,000 villages still to be electrified. About 19,000 of these may be in hilly and remote areas, still to be connected with National grid. The Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Sources has taken up a steps to electrify all such hilly and remote areas through renewable energy sources. In this paper research is done with special approach towards western and eastern parts of Himachal Pradesh. In these areas solar hydro and wind.

DISTRIBUTED GENERATION AND RENEWABLES IN INDIAN PRESPECTIVE


Rajkumar Viral1 D.K. Khatod2 1. Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee E-Mail:viraliitr@gmail.com, viradah@iitr.ernet.in 2. Assistant Professor, Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee This paper starts from the observation that there is a renewed interest in renewable energy based small-scale electricity generation. Different technologies are evaluated in terms of their possible contribution to the listed benefits and issues. Small-scale generation is also commonly called distributed generation, embedded generation or decentralized generation. This paper presents the concept of distributed generation for rural electrification in India. Distributed generation is advantageous in remote areas to provide sustainable, reliable electricity and cost effective electricity. The paper covers the Indian energy scenario, Renewable energy penetration in India, literature review, concept of distributed generation and scope.

ROLE OF PCM IN ENERGY SAVING IN BUILDINGS LOCATED AT ONE OF COMPLEX TERRAIN (KAMAND-MANDI) IN HIMALAYAN REGION
Arun Kumar Ph. D. Scholar School of Engineering IIT Mandi This paper examines the effect of Phase change materials (PCM) layer in energy consumption of a building located at Mandi (Himachal Pradesh), one of the complex terrain in Himalayan region where it is found that the ambient temperature for peak winter lies between -50C to 150C. For the proposed complex terrain, it is found that the heating load is much enough and it shares approximately 70% of the total load which in itself is a huge amount. In such regions, solar energy in combination of energy conservation techniques can play an important role in energy saving. More specifically, it aims at studying the differences in energy consumption of such kinds of buildings compared to; 1) Building having no PCM layer inside of building. 2) Building having insulating materials inside of buildings. Simulation result shows remarkable energy consumption difference.

OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCE IN RADIAL DISTRIBUTION FEEDER


Vivek Kumar Shrivastava1 Ganesh Jaiswal2 Sameer Kumar Singh3 and Amit Kumar Verma4 Department of Electrical Engineering, NIT Hamirpur, Himachal Pradesh 1 viveknit.paper@gmail.com 2 ganesh10m213@gmail.com 3 sam.ideal@gmail.com 4 amitnith.2011@gmail.com Distributed Generation (DG) has been growing rapidly in power systems due to their potential solution for issues, like the deregulation in power system, to meet the power demand and the shortage of transmission capacities. Improper allocation of DG sources in power system would not only lead to increase power or energy losses, but can also jeopardize the system operation. The optimal placement of DG is necessary for the maximization of reliability and stability in power system. There are several research studies to solve DG placement problem by various objectives and their imposed constraints. However, the methodical principle for this subject is still an obscure problem. In this paper the classical grid search algorithm based on successive load flows has been employed to obtain optimal location and size of DG in radial power system network system to minimize total power losses. The proposed methods are tested by a series of simulations on radial feeders, 12-bus radial distribution network and 69 bus test system. Simulation results have been given to verify the proposed analytical approach.

OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCE IN POWER SYSTEM NETWORK


Vivek Kumar Shrivastava1 Ganesh Jaiswal2 Sameer Kumar Singh3 Amit Kumar Verma4 Department of Electrical Engineering, NIT Hamirpur, Himachal Pradesh 1viveknit.paper@gmail.com 2ganesh10m213@gmail.com 3sam.ideal@gmail.com 4amitnith.2011@gmail.com Distributed Generation (DG) has been growing rapidly in power systems due to their potential solution for issues, like the deregulation in power system, to meet the power demand and the shortage of transmission capacities. Improper allocation of DG sources in power system would not only lead to increase power or energy losses, but can also jeopardize the system operation. The optimal placement of DG is necessary for the maximization of reliability and stability in power system. There are several research studies to solve DG placement problem by various objectives and their imposed constraints. However, the methodical principle for this subject is still an obscure problem. In this paper the golden section method based on successive load flows has been employed to obtain optimal location and size of DG in radial

power system network system to minimize total power losses. The proposed methods are tested by a series of simulations on radial feeders, 12-bus radial distribution network and 69 bus test system. Simulation results have been given to verify the proposed analytical approach.

RENEWABLE ENERGY: A NOBLE SOURCE OF ENERGY IN REMOTE AND HILLY AREAS


*Lobzang Phunchok, *Sunil Kumar, *Singh Y R Sood * EEE DEPT. *NIT Hamirpur Email: lobzang.nith@gmail.com, san25vns10@gmail.com It is need to provide electricity for household use to each family in each locality including remote and trible belt of each state. This paper present a analysis of power supply using Solar, geothermal and microhydro power plants in the remote areas of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. There are some Hilly/trible belts in the eastern part of these area where the population is very less and renewable energy is their main source for power. Geographically this is hilly and snowy area where people live in mountainry area where it is very costely to supply electricity through national grid. To enlighten these tribal area and to provide electricity in every season is tha main aim. Solar energy, geothermal energy, microhydel projects and green buildings are the boon for these area.

RENEWABLE ENERGY: PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES FOR INDIA`S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT


Rinshu Dwivedi Eternal university, Baru Sahib (Himachal Pradesh) Email ID- rinshudwivedi999@gmail.com India has become the worlds next clean energy hotspot as it plans to meet its substantial future energy from renewable sources. These include wind, solar, bio-mass, hydro etc. Electricity generation from renewable energy sources is increasingly recognized to play an important role for the achievement of a variety of primary and secondary energy policy goals like, improved energy supply, reduction of local pollutant, global greenhouse gas emissions, regional and rural development, and exploitation of opportunities for fostering social cohesion, value addition and employment generation at the local and regional level. India is densely populated and has high solar isolation, an ideal combination for using solar power in India. India is already a leader in wind power generation. In the solar energy sector, some large projects have been proposed, for solar power projects. Government support and ample solar resources have also helped to increase solar adoption.The Indian power sector is witnessing a revolution regarding harnessing electricity from various renewable sources of energy. Due to its geographical location; India receives a high intensity of solar radiation. Currently, India is pushing forward a massive plan of generating electricity by using solar radiation. A power system mainly comprises three aspects i.e. generation, transmission and

distribution. The present paper focuses on the role of renewable energy resources, generation of electricity from solar power plants and the existing legal and regulatory framework for renewable energy, solar power plants etc. The present paper also analysis the current status of India regarding renewable energy, solar power, future application, challenges and opportunities and government initiative.

IMPORTANCE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY IN DISTRIBUTED GENERATION


Nikhil Kushwaha*,nikhil.kushwaha85@gmail.com Y R Sood*, yrsood@gmail.com Suryakant*, suryakantshukla8@gmail.com Vimal Singh Bisht* bishtvimal@yahoo.com *Department of Electrical Engineering, NIT Hamirpur (Himachal Pradesh) Nowadays electricity is considered as a commodity for consumers and quality of power is an issue for the reliable operation of power system in power market. Reliability is one of most important criteria in, deregulation and competition in a power system and it must be taken into consideration during planning and operation phases of its life. In many countries the increase of generating capacity takes place in small units of so-called distributed generation (DG). They use primary energy conventional sources as well as renewable energy resources (RES), and in many cases produce electricity and heat. Using of renewable energy sources is one of the crucial components of the sustainable development, giving rational economic, ecological and social effects. Electrical energy sources can be classified into two groups: with production dependent on unpredictable external sources of primary energy, and others. The most difficult is to analysis those, production of which depends on renewable energy sources like: hydro energy, the Sun, and wind energy. This paper proposes facts of power system reliability modeling and evaluation, including distributed generation.

RENEWABLE ENERGY STATUS IN INDIAN RESTRUCTURED POWER SECTOR: FUTURE ASPECTS


N. K. Sharma#1, P.K. Tiwari#2 Y. R. Sood3 (Senior Member IEEE) # Research Scholar, EED Professor& Dean (R&C), EED National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur (H.P.) 1 naveen31.sharma@gmail.com 3 yrsood@gmail.com 2 prashant081.in@gmail.com Renewable energy is a sustainable and clean source of energy derived from nature. India is on the path of rapid economic growth along with speedy overall development; simultaneously it has to face the global threat of climate change. Renewable energy sources and technologies have potential to provide solutions to the longstanding energy problems being faced by the developing countries like India. These technologies have long been recognized as an important part of the solution to address energy security concerns and ensure economic growth in an environment friendly manner. Restructuring has changed the traditional mission

and mandates of power utilities in complex ways, and had large impacts on environmental, social, and political conditions for India. The renewable energy based power generating systems can play a major role towards the fulfilment of energy requirements of restructured electricity market. In this paper, efforts have been made to summarize the availability, current status, environmental effects, promotion policies and future potential & strategies of renewable energy options in India.

BRIQUETTING: TRANSFORM WASTE INTO ENERGY


Jatin Singla, Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering, PTU Giani Zail Singh Campus, Bathinda E-mail jatinsingla@gmail.com Gundeep Bansal, Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering, PTU Giani Zail Singh Campus, Bathinda E-mail gundeep.bansal@yahoo.com Briquettes are made from agricultural waste and are a replacement for fossil fuels such as oil or coal, and can be used to heat boilers in manufacturing plants, and also have applications in developing countries. Briquettes are a renewable source of energy and avoid adding fossil carbon to the atmosphere. Briquetting technology is yet to get a strong foothold in many developing countries because of the technical constraints involved and the lack of knowledge to adapt the technology to suit local conditions. Overcoming the many operational problems associated with this technology and ensuring the quality of the raw material used are crucial factors in determining its commercial success. In addition to this commercial aspect, the importance of this technology lies in conserving wood, a commodity extensively used in developing countries and leading to the widespread destruction of forests. This technology provides a new source of income to the farmers, who can sell the crop waste to the briquette makers. Briquettes when burnt emit less smoke than Coal. They are an Eco-Friendly alternative to wood fuels.

EXERGY ANALYSIS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS: AN OVERVIEW


S. K. Tyagia and A. K. Pandeyb a Sardar Swaran Singh National Institute of Renewable Energy, Kapurthala JalandharKapurthala Road, Wadala Kalan, Kapurthala b School of Infrastructure Technology & Resource Management, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Katra The present talk is an overview of concept of exergy and the exergy analysis of renewable energy systems such as solar air heater, solar water heater, solar cooker and solar photovoltaic systems will be delivered. Solar air heater based on evacuated tube collectors (ETC) and having three different arrangements for the performance evaluation using exergy analysis has been used. In two arrangements ETC tubes have been filled with thermal energy storage (TES) material and one without TES. Solar water heater is made of ETC collectors and it is unlike conventional water heaters available in the market, this is a direct flow water heater i.e.

water at inlet is provided by water tank which is situated at the roof top of the building. Experiments at different volume flow rates i.e. 10 LPH (Litre per hour), 15 LPH, 20 LPH, 25 LPH and 30 LPH have been carried out. Both the energetic and exergetic efficiencies have been found to be optimum at 15 LPH. For performance analysis of solar photovoltaic (SPV) systems three different technologies have been used viz. multicrystalline module, thin film module and HIT (hetrojunction with intrinsic thin layer). Performance of the HIT based SPV module has been found to be best. As far as solar cooker is concerned, the performance analysis of solar cooker based on exergy analysis with two different types of solar cookers have been used viz. paraboloid type and box type. Both the efficiencies i.e. energetic and exergetic efficiencies have been found to be best for paraboliod type solar cooker.

RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY (ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND VALUE ADDED PRODUCTS)


*Sukhdeep Singh1, Manpreet Singh1, Jaiveer Singh1 and N.K. Ralhan1 1 Akal School of Chemistry, Eternal University, Baru Sahib, (H.P.) *Email: deepsukh.singh@gmail.com The nature has specialised itself in producing Foods, Fuels and Value added products via photosynthesis. The fossil fuels, the coal and petrochemicals have been in use as fuels, energy source and value added products are on the scene for around a century. However their use as a fuel is overloading the environment with Greenhouse gases (like CO2, CFCs etc.) and thus heating up the Earths Atmosphere causing Catastrophic Disasters, Earth Quakes, Glacier Melting, Rising Sea Levels, Storms etc. Algae, Agricultural and Horticultural wastes which are the By-products of Photosynthesis and fixing up carbon dioxide are seen as a rich source for Biofuels (Alcohol) and Biodiesel along with a variety of value added products.

RESOURSES OF RENEWABLE ENERGY AND THEIR IMPACT IN HIMACHAL PRADESH


Charu Sharma, Kavita Saroch Eternal University,Baru Sahib E-mail-: charu411@gmail.com E-mail-: kavita.saroch3@gmail.com In this paper we attempt to study and highlight the importance of renewable energy like solar cell, biogas and how it is used or can be used in Himachal Pradesh for the development of the state and for meeting public requirements. Himachal Pradesh aspiration for economic growth has consequences for energy growth and causes carbon dioxide (CO2) emission .The energy requirements of the state can be fulfilled by the use of renewable energy as the population, travel demands and vehicle growth is increasing in the state day by day. The climate conditions are also changing and affect the potential of this developing state so Himachal government has made proper policies for energy efficiency, renewable energy, transport and sustainable land use in the state.

EFFECTS AND IMPORTANCE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY WITH ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGIES ON OUR LIFE.
Charu Sharma, Kavita Saroch Eternal University,Baru Sahib E-mail-: charu411@gmail.com E-mail-: kavita.saroch3@gmail.com Today crisis in the field of energy supplies, environmental control, population increases, poverty and shortage of food and materials are closely interrelated due to this global environment issues arising. In this paper we are highlight the benefits and importance of both electronics and renewable energy in our life. By using this energy people allows to live under unfavorable climate conditions like using heating, ventilation, air conditioners etc but there are many barriers like economic, rate of consumption, rate of regeneration, need of raw materials etc. The power electronics devices are the key technology to increases efficiency from different renewable energy sources like photovoltaic and wind power systems which account for the vast majority of renewable energy grid. The paper present issues related to Integrated renewable energy, which is directly related to developing country like India.

MODELING OF SEIG WITH ELCTRONIC LOAD CONTROLLER FOR MINI/MICRO/PICO HYDRO POWER FOR RURAL ELECTRIFICATION
Rajkumar Viral Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee e-mail:viraliitr@gmail.com, viraldah@iiter.ernet.in Tarannum Assistant Professor, EED Vira College of Engineering Bijnor (U.P.) e-mail:tannu007tannu@gmail.com In this paper, a mathematical model of the Self-Excited Induction Generator (SEIG) is developed to analyse the operation of it under Small Hydro projects (SHPs-include Mini/Micro/Pico). In such type of hydro scheme often whole generating system is isolated from the grid and supply electricity to the remote communities. A SHP usually a low/medium speed projects driven by controlled/uncontrolled micro hydro turbines. The single point operation of these generators is realized; in such a manner that speeds, voltage, currents of generators remain constant under various operating loads conditions. The Electronic Load Controller (ELC) is modelled here for the controlled operation of SHP against various load condition. Here the proposed electrical system are modeled and simulated in MATLAB using Simulink and Sim Power System (SPS) set toolboxes and different aspects of the proposed system are studied. On the basis this model different characteristics of SEIG with ELC are analysed which shows its suitability in small hydro projects.

SIMULATION OF 5TR LITHIUM BROMIDE-WATER VAPOR ABSORPTION CHILLER SYSTEM


S. Ananda, A. Guptaa and S. K. Tyagib a School of Infrastructure Technology & Resource Management, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Katra b Sardar Swaran Singh National Institute of Renewable Energy, Kapurthala Absorptions systems are becoming important because of the utilization of low grade heat (especially produced by solar thermal applications) by these systems. In this paper, energy and exergy analysis of the single effect lithium bromide- water absorption chiller system has been carried out. A computer based simulation program has been developed for the parametric investigation of the system and the effects of generator temperature on the exergy losses in the different components of the system also carried out. The irreversibility rate in generator has been found to be the highest when compared with the other components involved in the system.

ANALYSIS OF POWER QUALITY OF A LOW VOLTAGE NETWORK WITH DISTRIBUTED GENERATION


Deepa Kurup1, R.P Kumudini Devi2 1 Student, Power Systems Engineering, College of Engineering, Guindy, Anna University (Email:deepa.kurup@gmail.com) 2 Associate Professor, DEEE, College of Engineering, Guindy, Anna University (Email:rpkdevi@gmail.com) Micro generation systems today are a solution to the increasing power demand that cannot be sometimes met with by the local utility supply. However, the use of these systems in low voltage networks may pose challenges in controlling the voltage harmonics at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC), especially so because of the low X/R ratio of such networks. This paper examines the power quality issues that may arise when a typical micro generation system consisting of small wind generators and solar photovoltaic system (SPV) connected to the distribution network. The analysis has been carried out for different levels of active power generation into the network.

IMPACT OF POWER ELECTRONICS ON RENEWABLE ENERGY & GLOBAL WARMING PROBLEM


Dharma Devi Eternal University, Baru Sahib Email: sweet.solitare@gmail.com Global energy consumption is increasing at a dramatic rate due to the increase in the worlds population and the quest for improvement of living standards. The rapid increase in global energy consumption and the impact of greenhouse gas emissions has accelerated the transition towards green energy resources. The need for distributed generation (DG) employing renewable energy sources such as wind, solar and fuel cells has gained significant momentum. Most of our energy is generated from fossil fuels which cause the problem of global warming due to the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG).As a result, there are many harmful effects such as rise in sea level, drought in tropical regions, an increase in hurricanes, tornadoes and floods, and the spread of disease. Renewable energy is the energy generated from natural resources such as solar heat and light, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat, which are replenished naturally. Advanced power electronic systems, affordable high performance devices, and smart energy management principles are deemed to be an integral part of renewable, green and efficient energy systems. This paper highlights in particular the impact of power electronics in solving or mitigating the global warming problem and supporting the generation of renewable energy. This paper also describes the attributes of DG. An overview of wind, fuel cell, solar based energy conversion systems has been presented.

SENSORLESS POSITION ESTIMATION OF BLDC MOTOR USING BACK EMF ZERO CROSSING POINTS
E.Kaliappan M.E., Assistant Professor, Department of EEE, K.Malarselvi(M.E), Student, Power Electronics and Drives Department, RMK Engineering College,Chennai. E-mail Id: malarslv@yahoo.com This is the project presents the sensorless position estimation of BLDC motor using Back EMF Zero Crossing points. A unified simulation model of BLDC motor is modeled for sensorless control using MATLAB/Simulink the deveoped simulation model of sensorless position estimation is based on the direct Back EMF Zero Crossing points sensing method. Simulation has been done to validate the performance of the BLDC motor and experimental results were obtained. The proposed unified model can be easy to design and implement without major change in the conventional control. It can be easily implemented to both DC and AC machines.

REVIEW ON DESIGN/FABRICATION OF 1250VA UPS (WITH ADVANCED PWM TECHNIQUE)


MD. Ghulam Mohiuddin, MD Hasnain Raza, Anshu Kumar Srivastava, Deepesh Kumar Das, Hira Lal Nayak, Ajay Mishra,*Mrs. P.Bhanu UG Student DR. M.G.R. University *Profesor DR. M.G.R. University
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A state combination method is presented for a voltage-source PWM inverter. Main circuit states are obtained through the on-off state combination of switch devices, and valid main circuit states are determined according to the characteristic of the voltage-source PWM inverter. The ideal output voltage waveform of the voltage-source PWM inverter is determined by the combination of all kinds of valid main circuit states. The output voltage waveform of a single-phase half-bridge voltage-source PWM inverter is analyzed in detail by the state combination method and the corresponding control strategy is obtained, which is extended to the single-phase full-bridge voltage-source PWM inverter and the three-phase bridge-type voltage-source PWM inverter. According to the analysis of dead-time problem, non-dead-time control strategy is presented. The relation between working and output voltage waveform of the main circuit of the voltage-source PWM inverter is analyzed in nature and the control strategy of the output voltage waveform of the voltage-source PWM inverter is improved by the state combination method, which establishes the foundation for the further research of the practice output voltage waveform of the voltage-source PWM inverter.

TAPPING INTO THE NON-CONVENTIONAL RESOURCES OF THE EARTH: GEOTHERMAL ENERGY


Hans John DCruz S.Swathy hansdcruz@gmail.com srhswathy@gmail.com Sri Krishna College of Technology , (Formerly known as V.L.B.Janakiammal College of Engg & Tech), Coimbatore. When we think of non-conventional energy sources, we usually think of wind and solar. Both are literally all around us and appear to be permanent, reliable non-conventional as well as renewable energy sources. However, geothermal energy is one significant resource that is often overlooked and may be one of the highest potential energy sources in the world. Moreover, geothermal energys unique qualities make it especially suited for use in the world that is taking shape. In the United States, lawmakers continue to try to reduce air pollution; both for its immediate health effects and to slow suspected global warming. Geothermal steam that is used to generate electricity gives off almost no byproducts. This review paper covers the over view of geothermal energy, its potential, utilization by the world, latest developments

HYSTERESIS CONTROLLER BASED SENSORLESS ROTOR POSITION DETECTOR FOR DFIG


S.Janani PG Student Power System Engg Division Anna University S.Chandra Mohan Associate Professor Power System division Anna University The aim of this paper is to provide a simple sensorless method for the detection of the mechanical rotor position of the wound-rotor induction machine in order to implement statorflux orientation is described and evaluated in this paper. The method is based on the phase comparison of the actual and the estimated rotor currents using the classical model of the machine. It can be conceptually implemented in the rotor or in the stator reference frames. It has some similarity to the model reference adaptive system methodology, but uses a hysteresis comparator instead of a proportional integral (PI) controller. In this way, the method does not need parameter determination for the controllers and shows a considerable independence of parameter uncertainties. Simulation results show that the method is appropriate for the vector control of the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) because it leads to the decoupling of active and reactive power chains.

LOAD FREQUENCY CONTROL OF TWO AREA THERMAL POWER SYSTEM USING CRAZINESS BASED PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION
A.Uma Shankar PG Student Power System Engg Division Anna University V. Senthil Kumar Associate Professor Power System Enggdivision Anna University The aim of this paper (i.e) load frequency control (LFC) is to minimize the transient deviations in these variables (area frequency and tie-line power interchange) and to ensure their steady state errors to be zeros. When dealing with the LFC problem of power systems, unexpected external disturbances, parameter uncertainties and the model uncertainties of the power system pose big challenges for controller design. The problem of selecting and tuning the parameters of a load frequency controller using Craziness Based Particle Swarm Optimization is discussed in this paper. The proposed method has been applied to a two area thermal reheat power system with governor dead band. Optimum proportional and integral controllers using the concept of Particle Swarm Optimization have been obtained. Simulation results confirm the designed control performance of the proposed control. The results show

that the obtained optimal PI-controller improves the dynamic performance of the power system. This work is done using MATLAB/ SIMULINK 7.12 software.

MITIGATION OF VOLTAGE SAGS IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM USING DSTATCOM


1 1

M.Sivabaarathi 2P.Sathishbabu M.E Power Management , Anna University of Technology, Madurai. 2 Asst. Prof, Dept of EEE, Anna University of Technology, Ramnadu Campus. 1 sivabaarathi@gmail.com 2psathishbabume@gmail.com In energy transmission systems, effective equipments on power control are generally known as Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS). In addition, the power electronics-based equipment, which are called power conditioners are use to solve power quality problems. Since the topologies of these equipments are similar to those used in FACTS equipment, power conditioners are also called Distribution FACTS (DFACTS). DSTATCOM is one such power conditioner used for improving power quality. This study proposes a cascaded multilevel inverter type DSTATCOM to compensate voltage sags in utility voltages in power distribution network. The proposed DSTATCOM is implemented using multilevel topology with isolated dc energy storage. The phase shifted PWM technique is described to generate firing pulses to cascaded inverter. The proposed controller adopts itself to the sag and provides effective means of mitigating the voltage sags with the minimum harmonics at the utility end. The proposed concept will be simulated using MATLAB Simulink environment. The simulink results will be presented to verify the performance of the proposed multilevel DSTATCOM.

GENERATION OF ELECTRICITY WITH THE HELP OF TIDAL POWER AND ITS FUTURE CONTRIBUTION
Md. Quaiser saquib1, Praveen kumar bisi2, Faiz Ahmad3,Devesh Singh* 1, 2, 3, * UG Students, Dr. M.G.R. University Renewable energy can be used to decrease global dependence on natural resources, and tidal power can be the primary form of renewable power utilized. Built upon steam turbine knowledge, tidal turbines draw on innovative technology and design to operate on both the inflow and outflow of water through them. Two case studies, Annapolis Royal and La Rance, prove that tidal power plants are capable of producing reliable and efficient power. Problems, such as initial cost and power transportation hinder future implementation of tidal power plants. This paper emphasizes the possibilities of utilizing the power of the oceans by pollution free, tidal Power generation. Tidal power utilizes twice the daily variation in sea level caused primarily by the gravitational effect of the Moon and, to a lesser extent by the Sun on the world's oceans. The Earth's rotation is also a factor in the production of tides.

Prospects of Genetically Engineered Microbes and Plants in Renewable Biofuel Production


Panigrahi, D.P., Kumar, A., Chug, V. and Dhaliwal, H.S. Akal School of Biotechnology, Eternal University, Baru Sahib The fulfillment of fuel demand is one of the biggest challenges for economy of many countries. In the fiscal year 2010-11, India imported 163.59 million tons of crude oil worth 4559.09 billion rupees while in the same year 4028.1 million tons of crude oil was consumed throughout the world. It is estimated that the world reservoirs of crude oils will be depleted completely in the next 40 years. Moreover the increased use of fossil fuels has led to global warming and accompanied climate changes. The biofuels appear to be safer and cleaner than the fossil fuels. Biofuel, a type of fuel which is derived from biological carbon fixation, includes fuels both in liquid and gas phases. The first generation biofuels include bioethanol, biodiesels and methane gasses while the second generation biofuels include cellulosic ethanol, long chain alcohols, fatty acid and isoprenoid derived fuels and biohydrogen. The first generation of bioalcohol production heavily depends on alcoholic fermentation of grains such as corn and barley, and sugarcane juice by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Limitation in supply of feed stock and low production rate of alcohols are the bottlenecks for cheaper bioethanol production which subsequently led to the use of ligninocellulosic agricultural wastes like sugarcane bagasse, rice and wheat straw, rice husks, switcgrass and forest woods. The ligninocellulosic biomasses consisting of 40-50 % cellulose, 25-35% hemicellulose and 1520% lignin are pretreated chemically, microbiologically, and/or enzymatically for delignification and monosaccharide release and the released sugars are fermented for production of bioalcohols. The microbes used in these methods are Pseudomonas putida, P. aeruginosa, Clostridium acetobutylicum, genetically modified E.coli for overexpressing cellulases, xylanase, GroEL, 2-ketoacid decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase genes, and recombinant and resilient strains of Saccharomyces and Zymomonas. Transgenic plants like poplar, producing high cellulose and low lignin have also been produced for efficient production of bioalcohols. Biodiesels including monoalkyl esters of fatty acids from vegetable oils, are produced by trans-esterification or alcoholysis between low molecular weight alcohols and fatty acids. Seeds of plants like Jatropha curcas, Pongamia pinnata and Ricinus communis have also been used for biodiesel production. These processes are costly and require a high amount of energy. Microalgae like Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Micromonas pusilla, and Chlorella spp. accumulate high amounts of triacylgycerides in their cytoplasm and are used for the production of next generation biodiesels. Biohydrogen is another aspect of biofuel with enormous potential for replacing fossil fuels. Cyanophycean algae and bacterial species like Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum, Citrobacter, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, extremely thermophillic Caldicellosiruptor saccharaolyticus, Sporacetigenium mesophilum are a few among many which produce hydrogen in considerable quantity. In addition to traditional methods many new techniques like consolidated bioprocessing and cell surface technology, cell surface engineering, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology are being in the pipeline for the production of more efficient, cleaner and safer next-generation biofuels.

SPONSERS

HIM URJA PRIVATE LIMITED

Him Urja Private Limited is a leading company in power sector having the distinction of setting up of the first small hydropower plant in the Himalayan region in 2002. It is a flagship company of diversified MG Group which has notable accomplishment of developing one of the first integrated world class townships on the border of Delhi in the National Capital Region. The company has already commissioned two run-of-the-river small hydropower projects in the Chamoli district of Uttarakhand, at Rajwakti (4.4 MW) and Vanala (15 MW) on the river Nandakini, a tributary of the river Alaknanda. Two more projects are underway at Dewali (13MW) and Melkhet (56 MW) in the same district. A prime mover in the small hydropower segment, Him Urja has set sights on achieving total perational power generation capacity of 100 MW by 2012. This would go up to 1,000 MW by 015 once the Company forays into development of large hydropower and thermal power projects. Him Urja has at its command the requisite managerial, financial and technological resources to execute power and infrastructure projects of all sizes. As a pioneer in setting up the small hydro power plant in the tough and difficult hilly Himalayan terrain, Him Urja has experience and developed capabilities to set up and successfully run hydro power plants in the high mountain areas. This is demonstrated by the fact that the Company could complete the construction of both its commissioned projects well within the set time frame of 24 months and has efficiently managed the operations and maintenance of the plant for over the last seven years. The Company credits this achievement to its dynamic and committed team that comprises of highly accomplished civil, mechanical and electrical engineers and management professionals.

TATA BP SOLAR

Established in 1989, Tata BP Solar is a Joint Venture between Tata Power Company, a pioneer in the power sector in India and BP Solar, one of the largest solar companies in the world. Our sophisticated 84 MW Solar Cell manufacturing facility is capable of processing mono and multi crystalline wafers of 125mm2 and 156mm2. Our state-of-the-art 125 MW module manufacturing facility is one of the largest in Asia and capable of manufacturing modules from 0.3Wp to 280Wp and beyond. Our talent pool comprises over 600 employees spread over 4 manufacturing units and 8 regional offices. Manufacturing facilities are ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 accredited from BVQI, London. The companys products and systems have been accorded approvals by various test agencies such as STQC, ETDC, CPRI, ISPRA Italy, Underwriters Laboratories (UL), Factory Mutual (FM), and many more. Our solutions include customized solar solutions that illuminate homes, streets and communities; pump water to thirsty fields and heat water for residential and commercial applications. We also provide reliable and cost-effective solar power to wide-ranging sectors from education and banking to healthcare and telecommunications. Specialist applications include BIPV, Hybrid Systems and solutions for railways, defense and offshore platforms. Tata BP Solar possesses excellent skills and capabilities in providing complete EPC solutions for large, commercial Solar Power Plants of Megawatt scale. Our sales history over the years has been dramatic from a modest Rs.16 million in 1991-92 to a phenomenal Rs.9,060 million in 2010-11. Tata BP Solar has more than 200 dealers, 600 sub-dealers and 30 Authorized Service Centres spread across the country, catering to the needs of different customer segments. It is also represented in the neighboring countries of Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan and Sri Lanka.

SYNERGY SOLAR PRIVATE LIMITED

The promoters of SYNERGY SOLAR are having experience of more than Two decades in the field of Renewable Energy and have successfully commissioned India's biggest Solar Water Heating Systems of capacity 2,40,000 LPD and also electrified various Villages of India with Solar Energy. The company is involved exclusively in the development of Solar Energy and other Energy Saving Devices. The products are of international standards and are tested and approved by various test laboratories in India and Abroad. These products have been installed at Homes, Hostels, Dairies, Swimming Pools, Army Establishments, Religious Places, Co-Operative Societies, Nursing Homes, Hospitals, Industries etc. The SYNERGY SOLAR energy products are also being exported to South Africa, East Africa, Namibia, Australia, New Zealand etc.

AMAN ENGINEERING ASSOCIATES

Manufacturers and suppliers of solar electrical equipments like solar lighting systems, solar street lighting systems, solar lanterns, solar water heating equipments, solar power packing systems and packed solar power solutions. Aman Engineering Associates are Business Type associated with Exporter, Manufacturer, Supplier. The various products associated with this company are Products Solar power solutions, solar water heating system, solar home lighting system, solar street lighting system, solar lanterns, eco-genie solar power pack.

AMAN ENGINEERING ASSOCIATES- CHANNEL PARTNERS SUCHECO

Schco - Green Technology for the Blue Planet Clean Energy from Solar and Windows Schco is a worldwide leader for energy-efficient buildings. Driven by its competence in solar and faade technology and the willingness to take responsibility for the blue planet.

Founded in 1951, Schco today operates with 5,000 employees and 12,000 partner companies in over 78 countries. The company, with its headquarters in Bielefeld, Germany realised an annual turn over in 2010 of EUR 2.38 billion. Innovative technologies and a strong partner network Schco not only supplies state-of-the-art window and faade technology, and efficient solar solutions - solar heat and solar power. It is also a valuable contact. For architects, fabricators, solar installers, developers, investors, and clients. The aim is to provide tailored solutions for all market sectors from private homes to commercial and industrial projects. With a wide range of products made from high-quality materials. With systems that meet the most stringent demands in terms of energy efficiency, security, comfort, and design. And which are committed to the very highest standards of quality. Worldwide responsibility But Schco is more. In addition to the technological expertise, there is one factor above all that sets Schco solutions apart: a willingness to take responsibility. Providing answers to the most urgent challenges of our time - progressive climate change and dwindling energy reserves. With its corporate mission Energy3: Saving Energy Generating Energy Networking Energy Schco has established an innovative energy concept. Thermal insulation, building automation, and efficient solar solutions help to reduce the energy consumption of buildings while simultaneously generating clean energy.

MINISTRY OF NEW AND RENEWABLE ENERGY (MNRE)

The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) is the nodal Ministry of the Government of India for all matters relating to new and renewable energy. The broad aim of the Ministry is to develop and deploy new and renewable energy for supplementing the energy requirements of the country. Creation CASE and Ministry: 1. Commission for Additional Sources of Energy (CASE) in 1981. 2. Department of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (DNES) in 1982. 3. Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (MNES) in 1992. 4. Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (MNES) renamed as Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) in 2006. The role of new and renewable energy has been assuming increasing significance in recent times with the growing concern for the country's energy security. Energy self-sufficiency was identified as the major driver for new and renewable energy in the country in the wake of the two oil shocks of the 1970s. The sudden increase in the price of oil, uncertainties associated with its supply and the adverse impact on the balance of payments position led to the

establishment of the Commission for Additional Sources of Energy in the Department of Science & Technology in March 1981. The Commission was charged with the responsibility of formulating policies and their implementation, programmes for development of new and renewable energy apart from coordinating and intensifying R&D in the sector. In 1982, a new department, i.e., Department of Non-conventional Energy Sources (DNES), that incorporated CASE, was created in the then Ministry of Energy. In 1992, DNES became the Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources. In October 2006, the Ministry was re-christened as the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy.

SUDARSHAN SAUR

Since 1989: We are the leading manufacturer of Solar Water Heater based on Flat Plate Collector (FPC) technology and latest innovative Evacuated Tube Collector (ETC) technology. Sudarshan Saur has over the two decade of experience in design, manufacture and marketing of solar water heating systems. We manufacture solar water heating systems considering Indian climatic conditions and water quality. We have full fledged manufacturing plant of 39000 Sq. Ft. located in highly developed industrial zone of MIDC; Waluj, near historic city of Aurangabad, in Maharashtra state of India. The core competency of our brand is our unmatched products quality, reliability & customer care. Our 50,000 satisfied customers can be assured of long term stability. Core competence : Sudarshan Saur Dealers have their own, marketing network like sub-dealers, agents etc, and trained installation & service support team backed by skilled technocrats. Dealer, sub-dealer should have to go through obligatory training, which is always in line with marketing, installation & service support. We deliver a superior customer support service program including site survey, capacity and model selection, installation, commencement, after sales service through our authorized dealer. Trained technicians available with every dealer at every corner of India, vigilant to speedy resolution of service issues, this is our core competency. A sound customer relationship by providing high quality after-sales service is a key of our success. Our, Integrated diversified service support system help us to track and monitor the information about efficient working of installed- solar water heater. Continuous feedback from our end channel determines new customer requirement to fold back into product development and future product requirement. We identify and address inefficiencies of our dealers through continuous performance monitoring and rectify inefficiencies by incessant required training.

SHAKTI TRADERS
. Mr. Shakti Kakkar Chairman & Managing Director of M/s. Shakti Traders is a vibrant personality in the field of Solar Products and Systems. He is a business man with clear aim, vision and precision in his decisions. Previously he was working as a Marketing Representative for M/s. Sudarshan Saur Shakti Private Ltd. After completing 3 years working for them he launched his own Company M/s. Shakti Traders in 2009. He is familiar with all channels of marketing the products and has a good network which can bring demand for the product. Due to these qualities he has achieved good efficiency in delivering the best to market. His Company has obtained dealership with 2 established companies:1) M/s. Sudarshan Saur Shakti Private Ltd 2) M/s. Ados Electronics PVT. Ltd.