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ATTITUDE Attitude is the way in which a person intent to act.

Definition A pre disposition or a tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain idea, object, person, or situation. Attitude influences an individual's choice of action, and responses to challenges, incentives, and rewards (together called stimuli). Four major components of attitude are (1) Affective: emotions or feelings. (2) Cognitive: belief or opinions held consciously. (3) Conative: inclination for action. (4) Evaluative: positive or negative response to stimuli. Introduction Attitudes and values have significant impact on the behaviour of the people both within the organization as well as with the society. It is a major factor, which affects the behaviour of a person or an organization. It manipulates the perception of objects ansd people, exposure to comprehension of information, choice of friends, co-workers and so on. Concept of Attitude Attitude is defined both conceptually and operationally. Conceptual definition It is the tendency to respond to some social object. Attitude is a mental and neural state of readiness organized through experience, exerting a directive (or) dynamic influence upon the individuals response to all objects and situations with which it is related. Operational definition The operational definition emphasis on the evaluative nature of attitude. Attitude is the persistent tendency to feel and behave in a favourable and unfavourable way towards some object, person or ideas. Functions The work situation is interpreted by the individual as per his attitudes which play an important part. Only after the individuals interpretation and comparison does the response occur. This tells that response is a result of a purely objective and rational consideration of the work situation and its characteristics may not be the actual response of the individual. Attitudes are of an important consideration because of their central position in the process transforming work requirements into effort.

Attitudes have been thought as serving four functions and thereby affecting behaviour as discussed below: Instrumental Value orientation Ego defensive Knowledge

Instrumental Attitudes serve as a means of reaching a desired goal or avoiding an undesired one. Instrumental attitudes are aroused by the activation of a need or cues that are associated with the attitude towards an object and arouse favourable or unfavourable feelings. Value orientation The value orientation function tales into account attitudes that are held because they express a persons values or enhance his self-identity. These attitudes arise from conditions that threaten selfconcept, appeals to reassert the persons self-image, or by cues that engage the persons values and make them salient to him. Ego defensive The ego-defensive function of attitudes recognizes the significance of psychological thought. Attitudes may be required and maintained to protect the person from facing threats in the external world or from becoming aware of his own unacceptable impulses. Ego-defensive attitudes may be aroused by internal or external threats, frustrating events,appeals, by build-up or represent impulses and suggestions by authoritarian sources. The attitude influences his behaviour by affecting his perception of the situation. Knowledge The knowledge function of attitudes is based on a persons need to maintain a stable, organized and meaningful structure of the world. Attitudes that provide a standard against which a person evaluates aspects of his world serve the knowledge as well. COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDE There are three components namely, Cognitive component Affective component Behavioural/conative component

Cognitive component

This represents the opinion or belief segment of an attitude. It consists of beliefs and values, ideas, opinions and other information a person has about the attitude object. For example: the belief that discrimination is wrong is a value statement. Such an opinion is the cognitive component of an attitude. Affective component It is the emotional or feeling segment of an attitude. It involves the persons feelings of likes and dislikes towards the attitude object. For example: I dont like Jon because he discriminates against minorities. Behavioural/conative component An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something. The tendency of a person to behave in; a particular manner towards the attitude object is the conative component of an attitude. So, to continue our example, I might choose to avoid Jon because of my feeling about him.

FORMATION OF ATTITUDES Attitudes are not inherited. These are acquired (or) learned by the people from the environment in which they interact. The formation of attitudes is broadly classified into two sources: Direct experience Social learning

Direct experience Ones direct experience with an object or person serves as a powerful source for his/her attitude formation. Attitudes are formed on the basis of ones past experience in corcerned object or person. For example: take your own case, for instance, How do you know that you like Organizational Behaviour (or) dislike financial management? The answer to it is that you have formed these attitudes from your experience in studying the two subjects. Research has shown that attitudes derived from the direct experience are more powerful,stronger,durable and are difficult to change than are attitudes that are formed through indirect experience. This is because of their availability in our cognitive processes. Social learning The process of deriving attitudes from family, peer groups, religious organizations and culture is called social learning. In social learning, an individual acquires attitudes from his/her environment in an indirect manner. Family : Social learning starts from early age when children derive certain attitudes from parents. Family is the primary group where an individual belongs to. Family exerts influence on the initial core of attitudes held by an individual. Individuals develop certain attitudes from family members parents, brothers, sisters etc. the family characteristics influence the individuals early attitude patterns.

Peer groups and society : Attitudes are derived from peer group also. For example: If SAXENA has been attending his duty late for some days but co-workers have always been on-time, Saxena is likely to attend his duty on time. Models: Individuals acquire much of their attitudes by merely observing their models whom they admire and respect. The observer overheads their models expressing their opinion (or) watches them displaying a behaviour that reflects their attitude. Then the same attitude is imbibed and displayed by the observer. So, to say, individuals shape their attitude to align with their models.

Learning attitudes from observation involves the following four processes. Attention: attention must be focused on model Retention: What was observed from the model must be retained. Reproduction: Behaviour must be practiced again and again. Motivation: the learner must be motivated to learn from the model.

FACTORS INFLUENCING ATTITUDE FORMATION 1. Group factors a.Reference group b.Family c.Social factors 2. Personality factors a. Psychological factors 3. Organisational factors 4. Economic factors 5. Political factors 1. Group factors The influence of group on the attitudes of individuals is inversely proportional to the distance of the group from individual. From the point of view,three types of group have different types of effect on the attitudes of a person. a) Reference group: The level of understanding and learning of behavior alternatives is accomplished efficiently through the influence of reference group. A reference group is any interacting aggregation of people that influences an individuals attitudes of behavior. This group may include family or other types of groupings, either primary or secondary. It provide significant inputs to an individuals learning of attitudes and awareness of alternative behaviors and life-style. It takes place through the process of socialization, which is a process by which a member learns the value system, the norms and the required behavior patterns of the society, organizations or groups

in which he is entering. Though all groups with which an individual makes contact have an influence on his attitudes, the values and norms of the primary groups play a very important role in influencing the attitudes, opinions and beliefs of the members of the group. b. Family: Families have an influence on the attitudes of individuals. The family has two important roles. First, other family members have certain personality characteristics, evaluative criteria and attitudes and the family as a whole has certain attitudes and values, which are shared by all other persons. Second, family mediates the influence of the larger social systems on the individuals attitudes, values and personality characteristics. As an individual interacts with other family members, he simultaneously influences both the personality characteristics and attitudes of others and in turn is influenced by others. Since a family is a primary group, the attitudes of family memberstend to converge and are typically more homogenous than would be the case if they were not in the family. Thus he learns from the family members who provide him with ready-made attitudes on a variety of issues such as education, work, health, religion, politics, economics etc. C. Social factors: Social factors have an important impact on an individuals attitudes. Since they have the significant work of transmitting cultural behavior patterns to particular group and families, they define the expectations of the society for groups of people and cultural expectations to the individual. Thus, social factors check the behavior between individuals of differing social classes, especially in known relationships. People have close relationships with people of similar classes, which tends to restrict attitude formation, in a similar pattern, in other members. This is so, because attitudes and values provide goals, which aid alternative evaluation and give motivation for research and evaluation. 2. Personality factors Personality factors are significant in attitude formation. Many personality characteristics, themselves are determined by the group and social factors. Psychological factors The psychological make-up of a person is made up of his perceptions, ideas, beliefs, values, information etc. it has a crucial role in determining a persons attitude. 3. Organizational factors It should be remembered that a worker spends a major part of his life in the institution in which he works. Thus, organizational factors such as nature of the job, factory or office layout, fellow workers, quality of supervision play an important role in shaping the job attitudes of a person. 4. Economic factors A persons attitude towards a host of issues such as pleasure, work etc is influenced by economic factors such as his economic status in the society, rate of inflation in the economy, governments economic policies and the countrys economic conditions. 5. Political factors

Policies play a crucial role in the administration of a country. Therefore, political factors such as ideologies of the political parties, political stability and the behavior of the political leaders greatly affect the attitudes of the people.

ATTITUDE MEASUREMENT Attitudes are subjective attributes of people. They can be regarded as constructs in the sense that they are conceptualization of human qualities that are formed on the basis of either rational consideration or statistical evidence. Thus, people may vary along a number of attitudinal dimensions. The following are the classification of methods of attitude measurement: a. Self report: usually elicited with questionnaires dealing with beliefs, feelings and behaviours. b. Indirect tests: such as projective techniques and disguised approaches. c. Direct observation techniques: by observing employees directly by an observer with the help of a questionnaire. d. Psychological reaction technique: by testing psychological reaction of the employee with the help of questionnaire. The three types of attitude scaling which are commonly used in measuring attitude. a. Thrustone type of scale: it was developed by collecting a large number of statements relating to the areas in which attitudes were to be measured. The statements relating to the attitude object are both favourable and unfavourable and are placed in 11 piles with most favourable statement placed on pile 1, to the most unfavourable one being placed in pile 11. The scale is then presented to the respondents. Each respondent cheks the statement with which he agrees. His attitude score is based either on the average or the median scale of the statements that he has checked. b. Likert scale: Likerts attitude scale use five points. The statement relating to the measurement of attitudes is given to the person concerned and he is asked to check one of the five points given for every statements. These points show degree of agreement or disagreement with the given statements. c. Semantic differential scale: Semantic differential means the successive allocation of a concept to a point in the multidimensional space by selection from a set of given sealed semantic alternatives. For any given purpose it consists of several or many pairs of opposite adjustive or phrases, with scale values in between. In using this scale, the respondent marks the position along each scale that reflects his attitude to the object. Scale values( often ranging from 1 to 7) are associated with the different responses and individuals attitude score is usually is the sum of these. Apart from these measures of attitudes, certain other scales have also been developed. These include the Guttman technique, the errorchoice method and the sentence completion method.

VALUES Values that a person has are one of the major forces shaping behavior. Values are convictions and a framework of philosophy of an individual on the basis of which he judges what is good or bad, desirable or undesirable, ethical or unethical. Rokeach has defined values as Global beliefs that guide actions and judgements across a variety of situations. CHARACTERISTICS OF VALUE 1. Part of culture: Values are elements of culture and culture is the complex of values, ideas,attitudes and other meaningful symbols to shape human behavior in the society. 2. Learned responses: Human Behaviour represents learned phenomenon. They have to learn almost everything about how to be human from experience. This is because human beings live in a society having certain cultural characteristics which prescribe to behave in a particular way. 3. Inculcated: Values are inculcated and are passed through generation to generation by specific groups and institutions. Such transmission starts from the family from where the socialistion process starts. Apart from family, educational, religious and ethnic institutions also transmit cultural values from generation to another. 4. Social phenomenon: Values are a social phenomenon, that is cultural habits are shared by aggregates of people living in organized society. An individuals way of thinking and behaving is not culture, rather group behavior constitutes culture. 5. Grafting responses: Values exist to meet the biological and other needs of the individuals in the society. Thus, elements in the culture become extinguished when they no longer are gratifying to members of the society. 6. Adaptive process: Culture is adaptive, either through a dialectical process or evolutionary process. Dialectical or sharply discontinuous change occurs when the value system of a culture becomes associated with the gratification of only one group or class in the environment. In such a case, other classes of the society reject the logic of the value system and replace it with a new value system, such as through revolution. In the evolutionary process, the change occurs slowly as a gradual process, but not through revolution. TYPES OF VALUES There are two basic types of values namely ( i) Terminal values (ii) Instrumental values Terminal values reflect what a person is ultimately striving to achieve. ( E.g family security, self-respect).

Instrumental values reflect the way to achieving goals. ( E.g ) honesty, helpfulness, forgiving nature.

1. ALLPORTs CLASSIFICATION: Allport and his associates have categorized values into six major types as follows: a. Theoritical: This shows high importance on the discovery of truth through reasoning and systematic thinking. b. Economic: Emphasis on usefulness and practicability, including the accumulation of wealth. c. Aesthetic: places the top most importance on beauty, form and artistic harmony. d. Social: Accords the highest value in people and human relationship. e. Political: Assigns importance to the acquisition of power and influence. f. Religious: Have concernwith the unity of experience and understanding of the cosmos as a whole.

2. GRAVES CLASSIFICATION Graves has classified various personal values into five categories. These are: a. Existentialism: Orientationof behaviour congruent with existing realities. b. Conformistic: Orientation towards achievement of material beliefs through control over physical resources. c. Sociocentric: Orientation with getting people. d. Tribalastic: Orientation towards safety by submitting to power. e. Egocentric: Orientation to survival and power. 3. ENGLANDS CLASSIFICATION England has classified personal values into two categories: a. Pragmatic: A pragmatic is one who takes a pragmatic view of the situation which is stereotyped; he opts for concepts and actions which appear to him as important and successful irrespective of good or bad. b. Moralist: A moralist is one who is guided by the ethical considerations of right or wrong, honest or dishonest. FACTORS IN VALUE FORMATION Values of people have their roots in numerous aspects of contemporary society. These are value forming activities of various social institutions, values of an organization, peers and colleagues in the organization, work and career and professionalisation and professional code of conduct. a. Value forming institutions: The life and development of a society are both based upon and produce values. Therefore, there can be various institutions in the society which inculcate

values in an individual. In particular, there are four major institutions which provide the sources of values for persons and organizations: family, school, state and religion. The basic process of value formation by these institutions is that they prescribe what is good or bad for an individual. b. Organizational values: Apart from value-forming institutions of the society, organizations, where the individuals work also shape their values though in a lesser degree. An organization has its own values which are reflected in the form of collective values of individuals who join it. Where the organizational values do not match with the individual values, he may either leave the organization or he may adjust himself to the values of the organization.

c. Peers and Colleagues: An individual gets clue of behaviour from his peers and colleagues with whom he is associated. An individual in a work group tends to conform to the groupsnorms as long as he values the friendship and approval of his associates or fears the possibility that they will cut him from rights, privileges and benefits they can offer. d. Work and career: work consists of the tasks or responsibilities associated with a particular job or position in an organization. Essentially work is human energy directed at the achievement of a desired end. In organizations, this work is organized, directed, controlled and entrusted to individuals willing to become employees through a more or less permanent association with the organization. Therefore, each work will have its own values and persons performing the work will follow that values. e. Professional codes: A code is found in company operational policies which set up guides to action that have an ethical content. Since people belong to various professions, they are also governed by code of conduct framed by their associations. Therefore, Professional codes are an increasing source of ethical norms for managers in business organizations.

PERCEPTION Perception is the process of selecting, organizing and interpreting or attaching meaning to the events happening in the environment. Robbins has defined perception as follows: Perception may be defned as a process by which individuals organisw and interpret their sensory impressions inorder to give meaning to their environment. Perceptual Process: Perception is a process consisting of several sub-processes. Perceptual inputs Stimuli

Perceptual throughputs Receivingselectingorganizinginterpretin g

Perceptual outputs Actions

The stimuli in the environment subjects, events, or people can be considered as the perceptual inputs. The actual transformation of these inputs through the perceptual mechanisms of selection, organization and interpretation can be treated as the throughputs and the resultant opinion, feeling, attitudes etc which ultimately influence our behaviour can be viewed as the perceptual outputs. Perceptual mechanism: Perceptual mechanism involves 3 elements selection of stimuli, organization of stimuli and interpretation of stimuli. I. Selection of stimuli: After receiving the stimuli from the environment, some are selected for further processing while others are screened out because it is not possible for a person to select all stimuli which he sees in the environment. These are external and related to stimuli and internal related to the perceiver. II. Organization of stimuli: After the stimuli are received, these are organized in some form in order to make sense out of that. The various forms of organizing stimuli are figure-ground, perceptual grouping, simplification and closure. a. Figure ground: this involves that in perceiving stimuli (or) phenomena, the tendency is to keep certain phenomena in focus and other phenomena are in background. More attention is paid to phenomena which have been kept as figure and less attention to phenomena kept in background. For eg: while reading a book, the letters printed are treated as figure while the page on which the letters have been printed is taken as ground. b. Grouping: The grouping principle of perceptual organization states that there is a tendency to group several stimuli into recognizable pattern. People generally group various stimuli on the basis of proximity and similarity.

(i)

Proximity: The proximity (or) nearness principle of grouping states that a group of stimuli that are close together will be perceived as a whole of parts or pattern of parts belonging together For example: all employees working in a particular department may be grouped together because of physical proximity and are perceived as such. Similarity: The principle of similarity states that the greater is the tendency to perceive them as a common group. While proximity principle is based on the similar features of various stimuli irrespective of nearness.

(ii)

c.

Simplification: Whenever people are overloaded with information, they try to simplify it to make it more meaningful and understandable. Simplification makes the things more understandable because the perceiver has been able to reduce the complexity by eliminating some of the things which are less important. d. Closure: When faced with incomplete information , people fill up the gaps themselves to make the information meaningful. This may be done on the basis of past experience past data (or) hunches.

III. Interpretation of stimuli: The perceptual inputs that have been organized will have to be interpreted by the perceiver so that he can sense and extract some meaning of what is going on in the situation. People interpret the meaning of what they have selectively perceived and organized in terms of their own assumptions of people, things and situations. They also become judgemental as well and tend to interpret the things as good or bad, beautiful or ugly and so on which are quite relative terms. IV. Perceptual outputs: Based on perceptual mechanism which ends with interpretation of stimuli, perceptual output emerge. These outputs may be in the form of covert action like development of attitudes, opinions, beliefs, impression about the stimuli under consideration. These outputs along with other factors may result in overt behavior.

FACTORS INFLUENCING PERCEPTION: The following are the factors that influence the process of perception Characteristics of the perception Characteristics of the perceived Characteristics of the situation

I.Characteristics of the perceiver:

1. Personality 2. Mental Set 3. Attribution 4. First impression 5. Halo effect 6. Stereotyping 7. Needs and motives 8. Self-concept 9.Beliefs II. Characteritics of the perceived 1.Frequency 2. Status 3. Contrast

III. Characteristics of the situation: The context in which objects or events is seen is important. Elements in the surrounding environment influence our perception. The time at which an object or event is seen can influence attention, as can location, light, heat and thus requiring the interaction of atleast two actual people. INTERPERSONAL PERCEPTION: Interpersonal perception defines how a person perceives another person. The theoretical conceptualization of this process can be depicted in Johari Window.

Known to self

Not Known to self

Open area

Blind area

Hidden area

Unknown area

Known to others

Not known to others

Open area: This cell includes all the factors upon which I and others have mutually shared perceptions. (ie) people see me the way I see myself. Unknown area: In this cell are factors that I do not see in myself nor do others see in me. Hidden area: In this cell are factors that I see in myself but that I hide from others Blind area: In this cell are factors that other people perceived in me but I do not see in myself. IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT Social perception is concerned with how one individual perceives other individuals. Conversely, impression management is the process by which the general people attempt to manage or control the perceptions that others form about them. People often tend to present themselves in such a way so as to impress others in a socially desirable manner. Thus, impression management has considerable' implications for activities like determining the validity of performance appraisals. It serves as a pragmatic, political tool for someone to climb the ladder of success in organizations. The Process of Impression Management As with other cognitive processes, impression management has many possible conceptual dimensions arid has been researched in relation to aggression, attitude change; attributions and social facilitation, among other things. Most recently, however, two separate components of impression management have been identified - impression motivation and impression construction. Especially in an employment situation, subordinates may be; motivated to control how their boss

perceives them. The degree of this motivation to manage impression will depend on factors like the relevance that these impressions have on the individual's goals, the value of these goals, the discrepancy between the image one would like others to hold and the image one believes others already hold. Impression construction, the other major process, is concerned with the specific type of impression people want to make and how they create it. Although some theorists limit the type of impression only to personal characteristics others include such things as attitudes, physical status, interests, or values. Using this broader approach, five factors have been identified as being especially relevant to the] kinds of impression people try to construct: the self-concept, desired and undesired identity images, role constraints, target values and current social image. Although there has been a considerable research done on how these five factors influence the type of impression that people try to make, there is still little known of how they select the way to manage others' perceptions of them.

Employee Impression Management Strategies There are two basic strategies of impression management that employees can use. If employees are trying to minimize responsibility for some negative event or to stay out of trouble, they may employ a demotion-preventative strategy. On the other hand, if they are seeking to maximize responsibility for a positive outcome or to look better than what they really are, then they lean use a promotion-enhancing strategy. The demotion-preventative strategy is characterized by the following activities: Employees attempt to excuse or justify their actions. Employees apologies to the boss for some negative event. Employees secretly tell their boss that they fought for the right thing, but were overruled. Employees using this approach try to disassociate themselves from the group and from the problem.

The promotion enhancing strategies involve the following activities: Employees harbor a feeling that they have not been given credit for a positive outcome. Employees point out that they did more, but received a lesser credit. Employees identify cither personal or organizational obstacles they had to overcome to accomplish an outcome and expect a higher credit. Employees ascertain that they are seen with the right people at the right times.

MOTIVATION The word motivation is derived from motive', which means an active form of a desire, craving or need that must be satisfied. Motivation is the key to organizational effectiveness. The manager in

general has to get the work done through others. These 'others' are human resources who need to be motivated to attain organizational objectives.

DEFINITION According to George R. Terry, "Motivation is the desire within an individual that stimulates him or her to action." In the words of Robert Dubin, it is "the complex of forces starting and keeping a person at work in an organization". Viteles defines motivation as "an unsatisfied need which creates a state of tension or disequilibrium, causing the individual to move in a goal directed pattern towards restoring a state of equilibrium, by satisfying the need." According to Encyclopaedia of Management. "Motivation refers to the degree of readiness of an organism to pursue some designated goals and implies the determination of the nature and locus of force inducing a degree of readiness." IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION Motivation is an important part of managing process. A team of highly qualified and motivated employees is necessary for achieving objectives of an organization because of the following reasons: Motivated employees make optimum use of available resources for achieving objectives. Motivation is directly related to the level of efficiency of employees. Motivated employees make full use of their energy and other abilities to raise the existing level of efficiency. Motivated employees make goal-directed efforts. They are more committed and cooperative for achieving organizational objectives. Motivated employees are more loyal and sincere to an organization. These factors help reduce absenteeism and labor turnover. Motivation is considered as a backbone of good industrial relations. Effectively motivated employees get more job satisfaction and possess high morale. Motivation also helps in improving the image of an organization.

The motivation process begins with identification of individual needs. For example, when an employee feels underpaid then what, then he tries to fulfill his needs by asking for a raise or by working harder to earn a raise or by seeking a new job. He then chooses to pursue one or more of these options for instance, working harder while simultaneously looking for a job. If his hard work resulted in a pay rise, he probably feels satisfied and will continue to work hard. But if no raise has been provided he is likely to try another option. Since people have many different needs, the satisfaction of one need or set of needs is likely to give rise to the identification of other needs. Thus, the cycle of motivation is constantly repeated.

Understanding human motivation is crucial for managing people. Extensive research has been performed to find out what makes people work and how to motivate them. This includes managers, social scientists, behaviorists and psychologists. A number of theories have been developed, even though there is no universally acceptable motivation theory. Understanding these theories facilitates the managers to get a better insight into the human behavior. TYPES OF MOTIVATION There are various types of motivations that can influence a person. These include the following: Primary or Basic Motivation This mainly pertains to motives involved with our need for self-preservation. This includes needs such as hunger and thirst, warmth, sex, avoidance of pain and other primary motives which influence a person's behaviour at a very basic level. Secondary Motivation More known in psychology as "learned" motivation, this type of "drives" differ from one person to another. In many ways they involve a person's own sense of values and priorities in life. Many of the behaviour derived from secondary motivation are conscious ones. That is, a person consciously desires a particular goal or result, and behaves in a way that brings them closer to that particular goal. What drives them to do something or to act in a particular way is the longing for something which they currently do not have or possess. This kind of motivation generally falls into two basic types: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Extrinsic Motivation Extrinsic motivation is likely to involve the concept of rewarded behavior. Thus, by engaging in a particular type of activity or behaving in a particular manner, you are "rewarded" by a desired end result. For instance, you are motivated to save money for a vacation. Hence, you resist the urge to make impulsive purchases and in general become more discriminating in how you spend your money. After a time you find that you have a steadily growing amount of savings which you set aside. When you find that you have saved enough for that trip, you utilize your savings for the intended purpose and go on vacation. The external motivation is the vacation, which is also the reward for your act of saving for it. Internal Motivation On the other hand, there are other less-visible types of motivation. It would be a mistake to say that such behaviour does not come without its own rewards. To be more precise, the end goal is not a visible or external thing, but more internal and psychological. The achievement of these goals - by itself also correctly seen as a reward - is in general not visible to other persons.

Thus, for instance, a student is motivated to get good grades (external motivation) or simply, he desires to know more about a particular subject (intrinsic motivation). Getting good grades is the reward visible to others. For the student, the fact that he has become an expert in a particular subject or lesson is also a psychological reward for his intrinsic desire to learn.

NEED-BASED THEORIES TO MOTIVATION Need-based theories try to answer the question, "what factor(s) motivate people to choose certain behaviors?" Some of the widely known need-based theories are as follows:

(a) Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Maslow Abraham proposed his theory in the 1940s. This theory, popularly known as the Hierarchy of Needs assumes that people are motivated to satisfy five levels of needs: physiological, security, belongingness, esteem and self-actualization needs. The figure 9.1 shows Maslow's hierarchy of needs

Maslow suggested that the five levels of needs are arranged in accordance with their importance, starting from the bottom of the hierarchy. An individual is motivated first and foremost to satisfy physiological needs. When these needs are satisfied, he is motivated and 'moves up' the hierarchy to satisfy security needs. This 'moving up process continues until the individual reaches the self-actualization level.

Physiological needs represent the basic issues of survival such as food, sex, water and air. In organizational settings, most physiological needs are satisfied by adequate wages and by the work environment itself, which provides employees with rest rooms, adequate lighting, comfortable temperatures and ventilation. Security or safety needs refer to the requirements for a secure physical and emotional environment. Examples include the desire for adequate housing and clothing, the need to be free from worry about money and job security and the desire for safe working conditions. Security needs are satisfied for people in the work place by job continuity, a grievance resolving system and an adequate insurance and retirement benefit package. Belonging or social needs are related to the, social aspect of human life. They include the need for love and affection and the need to be accepted by one's peers. For most people these needs are satisfied by a combination of family and community relationships and friendships on the job. Managers can help ensure the 'satisfaction of these important needs by allowing social interaction and by making employees feel like part of a team or work group. Esteem needs actually comprise of two different sets of needs: The need for a positive self-image and self-respect. The need for recognition and respect from others.

Organizations can help address esteem needs by providing a variety of external symbols of accomplishment such as job titles and spacious offices. At a more fundamental level, organizations can also help satisfy esteem needs by providing employees with challenging job assignments that can induce a sense of accomplishment. At the top of the hierarchy are those needs, which Maslow defines the self-actualization needs. These needs involve realizing one's potential for continued: growth and individual development. Since these needs are highly individualized and personal, self-actualization needs are perhaps the most difficult for managers to address. Therefore, an employee should try to meet these needs on his own end. However, an organization can help his employee by creating a climate for fulfillment of self-actualization needs. For instance, an organization can help in fulfillment of these needs by encouraging employees participation in decision-making process and by providing them with an opportunity to learn new things about their jobs and organization. This process of contributing to actual organizational performance helps employees experience personal growth and development associated with self-actualizing. Maslow's concept of the need hierarchy possesses a certain intuitive logic and has been accepted universally by managers. But research has revealed several shortcomings of the theory such as some research has found that five levels of needs are not always present and that the order of the levels is not always the same as assumed by Maslow. Moreover, it is difficult for organizations to use the need hierarchy to enhance employee motivation. (b) ERG Theory of Motivation

Clayton Alderfer has proposed an alternative hierarchy of needs - called the ERG Theory of Motivation. The letters E, R and G stand for Existence, Relatedness and Growth. The figure 9.2 shows ERG theory:

ERG Theory the need hierarchy developed by Maslow into three 9.2. The existence needs in this theory refers to the physiological and security needs of Maslow. Relatedness needs refers to belongingness and esteem needs. Growth needs refers to both self-esteem and self-actualization needs.

Although ERG Theory assumes that motivated behavior follows a hierarchy in somewhat the same fashion as suggested by Maslow, there are two important differences. Firstly, ERG theory suggests that more than one kind of need might motivate a person at the same time. For example, it allows for the possibility that people can be motivated by a desire for money (existence); friendship (relatedness), and an opportunity to learn new skills (growth) all at the same time. Secondly, ERG theory has an element of frustrations-regression that is missing from Maslow's need hierarchy. Maslow maintained that one heed must be satisfied before an individual can progress to needs at a higher level, for example, from security needs to belongingness. This is termed as satisfactionprogression process. Although the ERG theory includes this process, it also suggests that if needs remain unsatisfied at some higher level, the individual will become frustrated, regress to a lower level and will begin to pursue low level needs again. For" example, a worker previously motivated by money (existence

needs) is awarded a pay rise to satisfy this needs. Then he attempts to establish more friendship to satisfy relatedness needs. If for some reason an employee finds that it is impossible to become better friends with others in the work place, he may eventually become frustrated and regress to being motivated to earn even more money. This is termed as frustration-regression' process. The ERG theory emphasis on the following key points regarding needs: o Some needs may be more important than others. o People may change their behavior after any particular set of needs has been satisfied. 'X' AND Y' THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Douglas McGregor observed two diametrically opposing viewpoints of managers 'about their employees; one is negative called "Theory of X" and another is positive called "Theory of Y". I Theory of X Following are the assumptions of managers who believe in the "Theory of X" regarding their employees. Employees dislike work. Employees must be coerced, controlled or threatened to do the work. Employees avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction. Most employees consider security of job, most important of all other factors in the job and have very little ambition. Theory of Y Following are the assumptions of managers who believe in the "Theory of Y" regarding their employees. Employees love work as play or rest. Employees are self-directed and self-controlled and committed to the organizational objectives. Employees accept and seek responsibilities. Innovative spirit is not confined to managers alone, some employees also possess it.

Applicability of Theories 'X' and 'Y' Theory 'X' in its applicability, places exclusive reliance upon external control of human behavior, while theory 'Y', relies heavily on self-control -and self-direction. Theory 'X' points to the traditional approach of management. Literally, this theory of behavior is related to organizations that lay hard and rigid standards of work-behavior. Some examples of such organizations are organizations that break down jobs into specialized elements, establish 'norms of production, design equipment to control worker's pace of work, have rigid rules and regulations, that are sometimes very vigorously enforced.

Theory 'Y, on the other hand, secures the commitment of employees to organizational objectives. This motivational theory places emphasis on satisfaction of employees. While applying this theory, the use of authority, as an instrument of command and control is minimal. Employees exercise self-direction and self-control. The concepts of 'Job' Enlargement', 'Participation' and 'Management by Objectives' are quite consistent with theory ' Y'. McGregor supports the applicability of motivational theory 'Y', instead of theory X'. Organization should keep in mind that once theory 'X' is employed for organizational working, it is difficult for the management to shift to theory ' Y', all of a sudden. However, with systematic, judicious and slow steps, shifting in the practical applicability of theory 'X' to theory ' Y' usually can be achieved.