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TOPICS

PAGB NO.

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1.

trntroduction
Feeders

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4.

Isolator
R.elays

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Bus-Bars
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6.
7.
B.

Lightning Arrester
fnsnlators

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Transformer'

9. 10.
a-

Current transformer:f

Poten tia I 'f ransfonner

1.

Porver Transfornrer
Capa citive Volta ge Transformer

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13.

Po'wer Line Carrier Cornmunication

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Control Roonr
Battery Room

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INTRODUC:rXON

1"1 RRVPN{,

Rajasthan RajyaVidyutPrasaran Nigam Limited (RVPN) a company under the Companies Act,

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2000 by Govt. of Rajasthan under the provisions of the Rajasthan Power Sector Reform act 1999 as the successor company of RSEB. The RERC has granted RVPN a license ior transmission and bulk supply vide RERCiTransmission and Bulk Supply License 4/ZA0l clated 30.4.2001 to function as Transmission and Bulk Supply Licensee in the State.

1956 and registered with Registrar of Companies as "RAJASTHAN IfAIyA ViDyUT PI{{SAIL{N NIGAIVI LIMITED" vide No. l7-0i 6485 of 2000-2001 rvith its Registered Office at VIDYUT BFIAWAN, fYOTI i.lAGAR, JAIPUR-302005 has been established on 19 July,

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undertake business of tracling of, eiectricity, hotvever RVPN continued its llnction of transmission of bulk r,)c!vt:r:f}om generating stations to inter-phase point of Discoms lrom 1st April 2004. Norv the Distribution Comp;rnies are directly contracting rvith Generating Companies in acccrdance tu the share allocated by the State Govemment. Itajasthan porver Pror.:urement Ceil (RPPC) has been establishcrl 1br purclrase of pou'er on behelf of Discoms.

Under the provision of the Electricity .Act, 2003, RVPN has been cleclared as State 'fransmission Utility (STU) by Govt. of Rajasthan. Section 39(l) of lhis act, prohibits rhe STU to

RVPN provides the pathrvay for porver rvithin rvhole


as representative

of llajasthan. RVPN

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maintains and operates the lrigh-voltage electric transmission system that helps to keep rhe Jights on, businesses running anC com;,-runities strong. RVPN also orvns the -.harei generating projects

owns, builcls,

of erstrvhile RSEB.

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Onr custotners inclucle electricity generators, riistr-ibution conrpanies ilncl open acccss
consumers rvho count on RVPN to deliver power frcrn the location of generation ro inter-phase point of Discoms enabling them to supply rvhere i*.'s neeclerJ in the homes and busjnesses thev

Our airn is to provide reliable electr-ic transmission service to these customers. As a public utility rvhose inirastructure serves as tlie link in transporting electiicity to millions of electricity users, RVPN iras foilowing duties and responsibilities:

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Planning and corordination relating to intra-state tiansmission rvirh all concemeC agencies such as CTU, State Govt., gcnerating cornpanies, licensees, Regionai po'"ver
Committees etc.

Intra state irausmission of electricity through lntra-State Transntission System.

Ensuring development of an effic;ent, co-ordinate and economical system of inira-state transmission of electricity frun generating stations to Load centers. Nbn-discriminatory Open Access to its transrnission system on paynent of transrnission
charges.

Complyrng with the clirections of RLDC and.SLDC, operating SLDC rurtil any other authority is cstablished by the State Covt. Now R\?l{ is "An ISO 9001:2000 Cerlified Comoany" .Rajasthan RajyaViclutprasarn Nigam Ltd. which will be the transmission Company and three regional distribution companies namely Jaipur Vidyr:tVitaran liigam Ltd., Ajmer VidyutVitaran Nigam Ltd. and Joclhpur VitiyutVitaran Nigam Ltd.

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The Generation Company rvill orvn and operate the thermal power stations at Kota and Suratghar, Gas based polver station at ttamghar, Hydel pov/er station at Mahi and niini Hyciel stations in the State.

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The Transmission Company tvill orvn and cpcrate ali the 400kV, 220 ky,l32kV and elecficity lines and systenr in State and r.,'iii also be rcsponsible for procur;ng power.
The three Distribuiion Cornpanies rvii! oprrale antl maintarn the eleclricity sirstern belorv 132KV in the state and their respective areas.

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Along these transmission lines secondary substation are created rvhere voltage is furrher stepped down to sub transrnission a::d priinary distribution voltage.
sub-qtation is an assembly of apparatus, rvhich transform ihe characteristics of electrical energy frorn one forrn to another say frorn one voltage level to another level. Hence a substation is an intermediate link between the generating station and consumer.

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For economic transmission the voltage should be high so it is necessary to step up the generated voltage for transmission and step clorvn transmitte{ voltage for distriiution. For this purpose substations are installed. The normal voltages lor transmission a-re 400kv, 220kv,l32kv and for distribution 33kv, 1lkv etc. Electricity boards are setup in all states of Inclia rvhich are responsible ior:-

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Generation

Transmission

Di'lribution

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They also consttuct, install and maintain all the statjon nrade for thcse pu;pose. 11 Rajasthan R'R.V.P.N.L. is responsible tbr transnrission and distribution of electricil porver all over Rajasihan."It has its own generating.station and it's also gets power from various other staiions also.

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Fo"r,er obtain frin these stations is trartsmilted ali over itajasthan rvith the help stalions. Depending on the purpose, substations may be classifiecl as:-

of griri

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2. Pnnrary grid subslrtion 3. Secondary substation -i. Distribution substation 5. Buiky supply and inclustrial 6. N4ining substation l. Mobile substation
B.
Cinematograph substation

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Step up substation

substation

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Depending on constructicnal feature substaiicn are classified as:-

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2. Indcor tlpe 3. Basement or Underground type 4. Pole nounting open or krlos iype
The control room is equipped vzith protective relays, ammeters, voltineters, energy meters and irequency and power factor meters

1.

Outdoor type

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D.C. suppiy is her-rt of GSS batteries are used for fhis purpose. They have sepiiste charging circuit also. For cornmunication purpose P.L.C.C. is usid which has its various
components

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GRID suBsrATroru , KUNDA Kr DHAN| :in KLIND;\ Ki Dhrni . .iAIPUR.


In the CSS sinsle r.nain and
t-eeders

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Tirc l2C KV GSS is situaiccl

auxiliary scheme is used . There are total three incoming t-eeder and n-]an)'outgoing which are mentioned in the nert section.
This CSS step dor.vrr the voltage ler.'cl fi'trnr 210 KV to

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li2 KV

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KV to i3 KV

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ll KV in ,Jifferent manner. There are three bus bar arran-gement,

r-nain bus bar usecl at a

time and auxiliary bus bar are connected through bus coupler. In case of n-iain bus or other
equipment are out of order or other rnaintenance purpose than supply should be given thrcugh

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auxiliary bus bar without inten-Lrption in supply.


The constmctional feature , the higir voltage substation ir"iay be furiirer subclivicled
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{a) Outcioor substation

(b)
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lncloor

substaiion

Base or Underground substatiolr


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Tire electlical rvork in a substation comprises to


1. Choice of b,rs bar arangeurent layout.

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2. Selection of ration of isolator 3. Selection olrating


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of

instrun-ient transfonner.

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Selection of ratiug

of C.B.
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5. Selection of lighting arestor 6. Seiection of rating

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of

por.i,er tralsforrner.

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Selsction of protective relaying scheme, control and relay boardsand voltage regulaior equiprnent.

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2. FEEDERS
.

2,1 lncoming Feeders:-

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2.2
Outgoing feeders:-

220

OAssI K.V. PGCIL. K,K.D


KUKAS

132 K.V.
132

- K.K.D

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K.V. KUKAS

- K.K.D 2ND

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220
132

K.V. I(.K.D- KUKAS


I(.V.K.K.D. PURANAGHAT

i3 K.V.

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+ + + +
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Achrol
Amber
Bunci Gate
B,;

nd Gate 2

I K.V.

+ +

Natata
Kun,Ja Water Works

Kukas

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3.ISOLATOR:Isolatcr is switching device used to open (or close) a circuit either rvhen a negiigible ctirrent exists or when no significanr change in voltage acro-ss the tenninal of each pole of the isolator, will result from the cpcraticn. Speaking isolator are the srvitches rvhich's operate under "IJo current" conilition. Thus, isolatcr is an apparatus rvhich makcs a visibl.,: i;rti reliable drsconnecticn cf t;:e r:r:it cr rhe section after opening the circuit breaker. Isolator are file with ear thing blades as an integral part of it. They may be isolators u'ith single ear tJring blaCes or trvo earthlilg blades on either side of it. The isolato:s usecl at 220 KV GSS, have single ear thing blades either side of it.they must onlv be opened or closed rvhen current is zero.

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Fig.7.l Isolator
Isoletors are classified into follorving categories.

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2. 3.

The posr- centre post rotr.l;ng part, clouble post break type. Two post signal type Base - each pipe phase isolatcr is rnounted on a robust base of steal ccns+"ructicn.

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Mounting:The central post rotates is gun metal bushing and tapered roller bearing provided
grease nipples for lubrication required to be alone at intervals during routine check up.

Errth Srvitch:(for line side insulation only)Ear thing is achieved by means of an earthed blades private at the base steady operation rnechanism. The earth contact ::r [;', i -..1,-. -. .1,- i::l: :: ]:f: ^- -ioht side of main contact and interlockeri witrr trrem by mechanism interlock.
I. 2.

Hand operated: - it consists of a fulcrum and level system for easy operation of isoiators. The isolators uscd in GSS, i{ i( il' are three post types eaeh isolator has three insulator posts per phase mounted on iphase of steal construCtion.

The centre post carries the moving contact assembled at the extremities the rnoving contact engages the fixed contacts are generally in the form of spring loaded finger contact. The insulator consist of follorving parts -

1. Contacts :- The contacts are rated for line

current and designed to rvithstancl electromagnetic strains and prevent charging at rated shortly time curent the contact iire made of electroly'tic. fixerl in housing.
Srvitching blacie:-The blacie is made of
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ctrolytic copper.

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Tandom pipe:-All titree phases are opened or closed simultaneously rvith a tandem pipe this is dippeci galvanize d and provided rvith on or oiT insulators aurcl pacl locking.

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i\'Iotor operatetl:-This is meant rotary motion bf the linear operating pipe for eitlier ol opening or closing ior remote level local operation. I-Iand operation is also provides g'ith detcctable handle that r:in be fittecl and sqriare.

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4.

RELAYS::

4.1 Introduction:
Reiays must be able to evaluate a rvide varieiy of parameters to establish that conective action is required' Cbviously, a relay cannot prevent the fault. Its pnrary purpose is to rJetect the fault and take the necessary action to mininrize the riarnage to the equrpment or io rhe system. The rnost ccmmon parameters rvhich reflect the presence of a fault are ,.he vcltagcs a;tl currents at the.terminals of the protectecl apparatus o, uf th" appropriate zone boundaries. The fundamental problem in power system protection is to define tire quantities that can differentiate between nofirrsl and abiiormal condjtions. This problem is compounCed by the fact that ,,normal', in the present sense means outside the zc'ne of prcteciion. thi. aspect, which is of the greatesi significance iil designinf- a secure relaying system, dominates the design of all protection
systems.

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Fig.14.1Rela1,5

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4.3 Instantaneous oyer current Re!a3,s;*


The closer the fault is to the source, the greater the fault current magnitude, yet the longer the tripprng time. The addition of an instantaneous over current relay makes this sirstem of protection viable' In orcler to prcpeily apply the instrntaneous over curent reiay, there n:ust be a substantial reduciion rn shor-t-circuit ciirrent as the fanlt rrtor/es fronl the rclay t#ard the iar en.J cf the line.l-lorvevei', there still must be enolgh rf,a,jifference in t]:e iauji cuirenl beir.i,een thc near and far end fauits to allorv a setting for the,'iear enc! t'aults.'fhis wiii prevent the relay fi-om operating for faults beyond the end of the tine and still prcvide high-speej protection for an appreciable portioir of the line.

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4.4 Directional Gver current Re!ays:Directional over current relaying is necessary for multiple source circuits when it js essential to limit tripping for faults in only one direction. If the sarne magnitude of faujt current coulci flcw in either directicn at the relay location, coordination cannoi be achieverl with the relays in front of, and, for the same fault, the relays behind the non directional relay, except in very unusual system configurations.

Distance Relays:Distance reiays responti to the voltage and crirrent, i.e., the impeda::ce, at the relay jocation. The impedance per mile is fairly constant so these relays ."=poncl to the clistance betiveen the relay locatioti and the far-rjt location. As the po\:,,er svstenrs become more complex iincl the fr,lr cnrrert

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v:.ies r'vith changcs in- generation ancl sy:ti:m configuration, tiirecrional over cr:rrent relays become difficult to apply and to set for all cortingencies, r',zhercas ihe .ljstance relay setting is constant for a rvide vaiety of changes external to the protected line.
4.6 Types of Distance relay:-

1. Irnpeilance llelay:The impedance relay has a circular characteristic centrecl. It is lcn rlirectional and is used primarily as a fault detcctor.

2. Adnrittance Relay:The admittance relay is the most cormonly usecl distance reiay. It is the tripping relay irr pilot schemes and as the backup relay in step clistance schemes. Li the eieciromecLanicai rlesign it is circular, and in the solid state desiEr, it can be sl,apeC to corresoond to the transrnission line
irrpedance.

3.

Reactance Relay:-

The reactance relay is a straight-line charec'Leristic lirat responds only to the reactance of the protected line. It is non directional and is used to suppiement the admittance relay as a tripping relay to make the overall protection indepenilent of risistance. It is particularly useful on short lines where the fault arc resistance is the same orrler of magnihrcl. u, ih.line length.

4.7 Hartn fault and over current Relay:This provides proiection to Transformer in case of internal fault take place. A greate r seclrity is provided through differential protection by i-solating transformer from the circuit.

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Protective ilelay:-

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The purpose of protective relay and protective systern is to cperate the correct c.b,s as to

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troirble caused by fault by they do occur. The pr otective relay does nct operaie possibility of the fault on the system. Their active starts only after the faults have Ii could bc idea led if t!:e protection could anticipate and peasant faults because it is irnpossible to except tvhere original case cf fault crcate some effects which cdn operate a protective relay.

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These are tryo grcups of prnicciive relay:-

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1. Prinrary relafng equipments. 2. Back-up relaying equipments.


Primary relafng is the first line of di{ference v.'hereas back up protccticn relafng works. Only when the prinrary relaying equipments fails and also back up ielays ars slow in motion condition. r\nother job of back relay is to act as primary relay in case of where this is oui work. Relay tnust operate when it is required. Since relay remains ideal. N{ost of the time proper majntenance also plays important role in irnproving reliability. Relay should select fault iegion and isolate that section from circuit. It should also operate required speed. It should neither be slorv rvhich may not result in damage to the equipment nor it ihoulcl too fast which may result

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undesired operation during transient faults ancl shoulcl be sensitive to faults.

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4.9 OPERATION:-

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The protective relay seryes foi'preventing tap changers and transfomer irom being damage r'vhich is the part of delivering the protective relay as to be connectecl in ar.vay thailransforncr immediately srvitched off caution oil imnrersei! transformer. Transfonler break dou,n are alrvays prececie by more or less violent gencration of gas. A broking joints procluce local arc ancl vaporize in the vicinity. As earth faults has the some results sr:dden shorl cjrcuit rapidly increased the temperattrre of the rvinding particula;ly th,e inner layer rntl packed oii in vaporize. Discharge due to insulation rveaken i.e. by the clehyclration of ths oil proiiuce local heating anci generate gas. The generation of oil vapours or gas in utilize to actuate a relay the relay is arrenqed betrveen the transfon-rter tank and the separate oil conseruator. The .rasial is ncnna)ly is full of oil.It contains trvo floats if the gas bubbles are gcnerateci in transfoller-due to fallis. They rviil be rise and transfer's the conservator ancl rvili trap in the upper part oi the relay chamber. Thereby displacing the oii arrd lowering the faults. Thjs sirfts anil virtually closes ancl an extemal contact lvhich operates an alarm over otherprotection and flashover at t-he bushing al:,not at aciequately covered by other protective scheme also unless it improves gropncl. The differential schetne detects such faults and also on the leads behveen cts is poru.-rlrunrformers provided cuts are itot mounted separately cn tra:i:fornrer busiring. In servici intemal faults operate rvhen the ;elay is energizes. The protective relay reenergized only by oil llorv from the tap changer heat to the conseivaior. The oil florv operates the flap value rvhich is trappecl into the "ofl'position by timing mechanism. Thus the trapping slvitch is energizerl the circu]ibreakers are operated the transformer off the line.
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s. B{Js BARS:-

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Introdrrction:-

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refers to A bus bar (sometimes pronouncecl "buzz bars") in ei:ctrical power riistribuiioli thick sirips of copper or alurniniu::r ihat concuct electricily rvithin a sn'itr:hboard, ';listrilLuiiln
Uoartl, substation, cr other electricrl apparrtus'

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am':rillt of rui'''::tt ihrlt size of the bus bar is important in cleterntin.ng ;hc ciaxinirrm as 1u mm2 br:t eiectrical area of as litrlo: can be safeiy canied. Bus bars can have a cross-sectianal *uy ur" metal tubes of 50 mm in diarneter ( I ,96:i ;nrn2) or niore as blis bars'

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shapes allol lieat tcr Bus bars are typically either flat strips or hollo.v tubes as Lhese :i:ea ratio' The skin dissipate ,,rore efficiently iue to their high sur-face arel to crt,r:is-sectit'nal in) thick inefiicient, so hollciw effecr makes 5G-60 Hz AC bus bars -orJ th* about 8 mm i1l3 section hi:;'' higher:rliifness A-hcllorv or flat shapes are prevalent in higher current applications. a gt'eater span beln'e'ctt l;tts than a soli4 rod of equivalent cun'ent-carrying iipacity, rvhic,lt ailcws

bar supports in outdoor srvitchyards.

A bus bar inay either be supported on insulators, or else insulaiion may coml-'letely either by a metnl enclosrire or by surrouncl it. Bus bars ire protected ironi accid.;ntal contact iJarih bus bais are elevation out of nonnal reach. Neutral bus bars nray also he irisulated' a

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trars niay be enclcsi:d in typically bolteil clirectly onto any metal chassis of their enclosure. Bus or isiilated-phirs': bus' b.,s, nretal housirrg, in the form of bris cluct or biis r-r'ay, segregat':'1-phase by bolted or c:lamp Bus bars rnay be connectecl to each other and to elcctrical apparrtus surlaces ihirt are matching ha'.'e scctions corrrrectiorLs. Oftcn joints betrveen high-current bus lhan 300 k'/) in (nrore silver-plated to reduce the contact resistance. At extra-higir voltages ijt ol radio-trerluenc,v itrler' ':i:trce outcloor buses, .corona around tbe connections becornes a soll-t voltages are'used' ancl power loss, so conneciion littings clesignecl for tirese as fast as possible' Bus l-.ars are vital parts of a power system an,l so a fault should be cleared lJtering trai.e its orvn prrotection, altliough they havc high clegrees of reliabiliiy' A br-rs bar 'ust clepen11able, selecti.''e ancl s}'orld irr rnir-rcl rhe risk olurutecessary tlips, the protection shoulcl be colnmon fault is phlrse tt-' grotlr'rr' be stable fbr extental f-aults, .o[.,i 'tl',rough faulls'.The ntost princ:ip1es uscd in bus rvhich usually results from humarl error. There are many types of relaying

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TYPE 5.2 BUS BAR ARRONGENIENT N,IAY BE OF' IIOLLOWING

\YilIC}I IS BEING

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;\DOPTED BY R.R.V.P'l'l.L' :-

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Single bus bar ariarrgetnent Double bus bar arangemcnt


i\4ain bus rvith transformer bus

Ivlain bus-l with main bus-il Double bus bar arrangement r'vith auxiliary bus'

5.3 Bus bar arrangement depends upon:-

lntemrption tolerable in the supply scheme'

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5. LIGHTENII{G
6.1In troduction:-

ARRESTER :-

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Lightening arrester is first equiprnent of GSS. it is protecting all the equipment against the HV. The ground wire or earthing does not provide protection against the high voltage v/aves reaching the terminal equipment .so some protective Cevice is necessary to prorlucc power slation, sub-station and transmission lines against the high voltage nuoue r*aihing here. Wtri"tr iu connecled b/w line and earth .it's acts as safety valve.
Through the surge impudence of line limits the amplitride of the line to earth o.,rer voltage to a value r.vhich rvills safe guard the insulation of the protected equiprnent.

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Fig.

6.1 Lightening

Arrester

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An ideal L.A. sho*ld have followimg characteristics:.l


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must be higher then rhe system vr:ltage.

It should not take anycurrent undsrnormal condition.i.e. its spark overvoltage

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3. lt must be able to carry the resultant


itsel f.

Any abnormal transient voltage above tiie break down voltage must caused it to break as quicl< as possible in orcier to provide an a!temate path-to eartlr.
discharge current r-rithout causing damage to

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For high voltage system the thyrtie type L.A are used .The value tlpe is also known as non linear diverter .These arrester consist of a spark gape and a non linear resistance. Both resistance and spark gape are acccrnrnodoted in serils with a completely Iight porcelain r -J --Dcondition humidity etc.

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Spark Gap:-They include a number of identical elsmel)ts connected in series .Each element consist of rvith pre ionization device betrveen each grouncling resistance of high ohmic value
comected in parallel.

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Non Liner Resister:'The

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base in a clay board..These discs form a block. The ohmic value of rvhich clecieases rapidely rvhen the applied voitage and cunent increases as scon as the crirrent rvave resulting fron the over voltage has been dischargc'J. The resister block subjectecl to the sole. Altemating Voltage ancl resistence asstlmes qreat value .So that the arnplitucle of the resulting cun-ent

resister disc comprises inorganic material having a silicon carbide

becl1res zero.

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have trvo electrocles at each encl and consists of a fiber tube capaNe olproducing a gas rvhen is produced. The gas so evolvecl blorvs the arc through the bottom electrode.

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It consists ofa divided spark-gap in series will a ncn linear resistor. The divided spark gap consists ofa no. olsimilar elements, each of it two electrode across rvhich are connected high resistor.

6.3 Lighting Arrestor Nleter: This meter indicates the surn ofiurface leakage and intemal grarling current of the arrestor. It has 3 different indicators in irrdicate dif-ferent conrlitions.

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- Arrestor in healthy. Defective, remove from service counter - Maintains count of operation undergone by the arrestor.
Green

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7.1 ftriroduction

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in order to avoid curreiit leakage to the Earth, through the supportr-ng structure provide to the conductor of overhead transmission iines, irsuiatans are useii. The conductors are secured to the supporting structures by means of insulating feature, rvhich do not allor.v current to florv through these support and hence finally to the earth . Bus support insulators are porcelain r-,r fiberglais insulators that serve to the t'us bar switches and otheiiupport structures a;rd to prevent lealage current from flowing through the structure or to ground. These insuiators are similan in lunction to other insulator usec in substations and transmission poles and towers.
I "2 An Insulator should have following characteristic:-

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High Jnsulation rcsistance. High mechanical strength. No internal impurity or crack Disc.
Generally Porcelain or glass is used as material fcr insulators. Porcelain because of its iorv Eo.s1. is1-yrore aon)ntoi].

7.3 Insulators can be classified in follotviilg .rvilvs:-

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Pcst insulators: - f'hes.: are used for supporting the bus bars, and disconnecting srvitches in sub stations.

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Strain insulators: -'fhese

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disc. Hollow- bushing insulator shall be piovided for housing various equipments and solid core post insulators shall be used for the support of bus conductoi (ACSR,g.lp^S Tube) and line traps ctc. The iisc insulators shall be assembled together with tension / suspension to form a "iu*p string suitable for 400 KV systems. These clamps shall be bolted type. fG clamps, T-clamp and be used for the qrllchyard bus rvork. Comrectors of Al allov cast will

Disc type porcelain insulators rvill be used for tension and suspension string assembly of overhead bus conductor. Composite insulators are used in main buses as sr,s;ensioii insulator. It shall be rvet process porcelain or composite Ball and Socket type. The disc shall be anti-fog tlpe rvith creep age distance of 3l mm / KV and required elechomichanical sirength of 160 fcll,p"t

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be used for equipment connections to ACSR conducior / Al tul,e complete lvith bolts, nuts, spring washers, bimetai.lic lincr, etc. In this srvitchyard suspension t1pe, tension tlpe and bus polc insuiators are used.

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TRAI{SFORMgR

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A transfortlter is a device that transfers electrical energy lrorn one circr.rit to another thrc,ug6 indrrctivel]z coupled cortrlucto's-th" t..,t tb.,r*t ."'f Ia varying gilirgll in the first or printctry rvinding creates avarvingmrgitetic fitrr- in thetrandfonner's core ut,,.t th," magnetis fuf{ throrrgh the seco,r df, r"l-",i"ts nl15 l,nry,ino nragnetic fielcl jnclrrces a"varying varying qleltronlotive fi,rce (EMF), or "voltagg". in the seconciary r',rincling. This effect lr .ril.0
inductive counlins.

If a load is connectecl to the secondary, current rvili florv in the secondary x.incling, and eiectrical energy rvill be transferred lrom the prirnrry cjrcuit through the transfomer to theloarl. In a1 ideal transformer, the induced voltage in the secondary rvincling (%) is in propofiion to the prir1a,1 voltage (I/) and is given by the ratio of the nunrber of trmi in the secondary ({) to the number of turas in the primary (Nr) as follorvs:
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By appropriate selection of the ratio of turns, a transforrner ihus enables an alternating current (AC) voltage to be "stepped up" by making N, greater than No, cr "stepped by *aking /V, less than No. The windings are coils wound around a ferromagnetic core. air-core

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transformei.s

TYPES OF TRATJSFORMEB
There are tv/o types of transformers accorrJing to their uses:[1J. CU RRiNT TRANSFORMER

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TRANSFORMER
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vollr-rreter rance

instruments from what may be very high voitage in the monitored circuit. current transformers are commonly used in metering and protective rela!,s in the

ln electrical engineering, a cttrrent transformer (Cr) is trsec.l for measurement of electric currents. Current transformers, together with voltage transformers (W) (potential . transforrners (PT)), are known as instrument transformers. When current in a circuii if too high to directly apply to measuring instruments, a current tran-sformer produces a reduced current accurately proportional to the current in the circuit, which can be conveniently connected to measuritrg and recording irlstruments. A current transfcrmer also isolates the measuring

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10. POTENTIAT TRA.NSFORIIT

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high-voltage po$r'er s0urce

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Voltage transforrners (Vi)or potentialtransforrners (PT)are anothertype of instrument transformer, used fo;' metering and protection in high-voltage circuits. They are designed to present negligible load to the supply being measured anci to harre a precise voltage ratio t-o accurately step down high voltages so that metering and protective relav equipment carr be operateC at a lower potential. iypically the secondary of a voltage transformer is raterj for 69 V or 120 V at rated primarvvoltage, to match the input ratings of protective relays.
The transformer winding high-voltage connection points are typically labeted as H1, H2 {sornetimes H0 if it is iniernally grounderl) and X1X2 and sometimes an X3 tap may be p,i-esent. Sometimes a second isclateC tvinding (Yi, Yz, Ys) may also be available on the sarne voltage transformer. The high side {primary) may be connected phase to ground or phase to phase. The low side (secondary) is usually phase to g;-ound. The terminal identificatrons (H1,
X1, Y1, etc.) are often referred to as polarity. This applies tc current transformers as well. At any instant terminals with the same suffix i-iumer'ai have the same polarity and phase. Correct identification of terminals and wiring is essential for proper operation of metering and protective rela,;s.

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11.1 INTRODUCTION: -

utilization at proper load centre.In brief, a transformer is a clevice that:

it is a mutual link in power system, which rnakes possible io lor,,, voltage to be step up to tire extra high voltage for long distance transmission and then translened to voltage for

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Transfer electric pcv/er from one circuit to another It does so without change of frequency It accomplishes this by electromagnetic inducticn Where the two electric circuits are in mutual inductive influence of each other

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A high voltage is desirable for transmitting large powers in order to decrease the I2r losses and reduce the arnount of conductor material. A very much lorver voltage, on the other hand, is required for distribution, for various reasons connected with safety ancl convenience. The
transformers make this easily and economicaliy.

'franslormers are of three tvpcs:*

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Core type transformer Shell type transfomer Berry type transformer

Porver transformer.s are installed rvith various fittings and devices, rvhich are recessary for their propcr ftinctioning. Some of the fittings, rvhich are nonlally proviilecl clepending ripol the size of trrrtsforitrer, tre as

" . . . . . . . 'r . .

Dial tlpe oil temoerature gauge. Dial fpe oil .,vinding temperature gauge.
Conseryator tank.

Silica gei BreatherIv{agnetic type/simple oil liver indicartor.


Pressure reliefvent.

Buchholz relay.
Tap changcr gear.

Oil filling, drain valves and plugs. Oil filter val..,es.


Terminal kiosk. Earthing tenninal, nameplates, radiators, roller etc.

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.CAPr\CITI\/E VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER.:-

A capacitor voltage transformer {cI/T) is a transformer used in porver s.r.stems to stepcorvn ext.a high voltage sigrial: lrro provide iorv voltage signals eithei for rncasurenle1t or to operate a protective relay" In ils most basic form the device eonsists cf t11,ee parts: tr,vo cacacitors across which the voltage signal is split, an inductive eleinent use_.1 to tune the device to ihe supply frequency and a transformer used to isolate and further stepdown the voltage for the instrumentation or protective relay. The device has at least four ierminals, a high-ioltage terminal fcr connection to the high voltage signai, a ground terminal and ai leasi one set of secondary te,rrrinals for connection to the instrurnentation cr protective reiay. CVTs are tlpically single-phase devices used for measuring voltages in excess of on" hundrej kilovoits rvt er" tt " use of voltage transformers would be uneconomical.

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Fig.6.4 Capacitive

Voltlge'fransformcr

in practice the first capacitor,


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terminals.
a large

C1, is often replacecl by a stack of capacitors connected in series. voltage clrop across thi stack of capacitors that replace cl the first capacitor and a comparatilely small voltage drop across the seconcl capacitcl, C2, :rnci hence ihe seconclary
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13. POWER LINE CARRIER CCMMUNICATION:l3.trIntroduction:'Porver Line Carrier Comrnuninication (PLCC) provitles for
signal
trau:smission dorvn transmission line conductors or insulated ground wires. protection signaling , speech anti data transrnission for system operation anil controi, management information systems etc. are the main needs rvhich are met by PLCC.II is the most economical and reliabie method

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communication because of the higher mechanical strength and insulation levei of high voltage power line which contribute to the increased reliability of communication and loweiattenuation over the larger distances involves.

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Fligh frequency signals in the range of 50 KllZ to 400 KHZ commonly l<nown as the carrier signal and to result it with the protected section of line suitable couplin! apparatus ancl line traps are employed at both ends of the protected section. Here in Kuchaman'city anrt also in other sub-station this system is used. The main application of power line carrier has been from the purpose of supen'isory control telephone communication, teiemetering ancl relaying.

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PLCC:-

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prevented from entering the power eqr.ripment uscd in'G.S.S as ihis rvoulcl resuit in high attenuation or e\/en complete loss of communication signals rvhen earlhed at isolator. To prevent this loss, lvave traps or line traps are employed. These consist of sLiitably designed choke cojls con"rected in series r'vith line, rvhich olfers negiigible irnpetlance to RF carrier currentsWave traps usually have one or lrore suitably designed capacitors corurectecl iir para)lel rvith the chol<e cojls so as to resonate at carrier fiequencies ancl thus offers even high imperlance to the florv of RF currents.
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(Lft{U's) f-cr matching the inpedance of line to that of the coaxiai cirble connecting the 'rlit io ihe PLC transmil-receive equipment.Also the carrier currents used for communicatioir heve to bc

or capacitor rvith potential devices used in conjunction rvith suitabie line matching L,nits

In PLCC rhe higher mechanical strength rnd insulation level of high voltage po\yer lines result in increased reliability of commnnication and lorver attenuation ou..long diJances.Since telephone conlmutrication system cannot be directly connecteci to the high voitage lines, suit;ibly deiignecl coupling devices have therefore to be employed. These usually consist ofhigh voltage c.pr"ito6

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13'3 lvIAJoR SYSTEM

coMpoNENTS EeuIpr!{BNT:-

Thc major components of a PLC channel are shorvn in Figure. The problem associated with the PLC channel is the requireme;rt to put thc carrier signal onto the high voltage line rvithcut damaging tlre carrier equipment. Onc: rl,s s;$rat rs on the power line it muit be directed in ihe proper direction ir orrlc. ior it to be received attheremotelineterminal_

Bus

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Line

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Fig. 13.2 Porver Line Clrricr Comlrr rrnication Svstenr

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\YAVE TRAP COUPLINGCAPACITOR DRAINAGE COIL

5. GROUI.{D S\YITC}I 6.]\,IAT C}I I N GTRANSF


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RI\I ER

7. TUNING CAPACITOR
8.

VOLTAGf,ARRESTER

Vi\CUUI\I;\RRESTER

Fig. 13.3 DIAGRAM SHO\\ING COUPLING I\I{ILAi\GEMENT

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13.4 MERITS AND DEh{RITS OF PLCC:,


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The severity that a power line can withstand is much more than that odd communicatiorr line due to higher mechanical strength of transmission line power lines generally provides the shortest route betrveen the Power Station and the Receiving Stations.

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The carrier signals suffer less attenuation, owing to large cross sectional area of power
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Large spacing also recluces the cross talk to a certain extent.


The construction of a separate comrnunication iine is avoicled.

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Dcrrreril s:Utmost ca e is required to safeguarcl thc carrier e quipment and persons using them against high t,oltage and currenis on the line.

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Noise introclucecl by porver iine is far rnore than in the case of communication line. This is due to ihe discharge across insulators and corona etc. Induced voltage sitrges in the porver line may affect the comected carrier equipntent.

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14.1 Introduetion:
To remote control of porver switch gear requires the provision of suitable control plates located at a suitable point remote from immediate vicinity of cb 's and other equipments. At "GSS KKS " the separate control room provided for remote protection of 220 KV srvitch yards kansfonner incoming feeder, outing feeders. Bus bar has their own control plant in their ccntrol rooms. The control panel carrier the appropriate relays. Necessary meters indicaring lamp control switches and fuses. There are meters for reading purpose. A circuit concerning the panel is shown on the panel with standard colours.

Fig.14.1 Control Room

On each panel a control switch is provided for remote operation of circuit breaker. There are hvo indicators rvhich show that weather circuit breaker is closed or open. r\ contiol switch fcr each insulator is also provided. The position indicator of isolator is alsorJone with the help of single lamp and indicator. The colors of signal larnps are as folir:r.vs:-

RED:-For circuit breaker or isolator is ciose position.GR0EN:- For CB or isolator in open position. In addition to userl indication an alarar is also providing for indicating abnormal condition when any protective relay or tripping relay has operated. Its constants energies on auxiliary alarm.Relay which on operation completes the alann belt circuit.

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14.2 Synchronizing;There is a hinged Synchronlzing panel mounted at ihe end of control panel. Before coupiing any incoming feeders to ihe bus bar. It just is synchronized with switches. When the

synchronou:. .opy shorvs zero we close the circuit breaker.

14.3 Cyclonoscope:Synchronschope is used to determine the correct instant of closing the srvitch rvhich connects the new supply to bus bar. The correct instant of synchron:izingivhen bus hars incoming

voltage.

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Are equal in magnitude Are in some phase sequence Flaving same frequency The voltage can be checked by voltmeter the function of sl,nchronoscope is to indicate the difference in phase and frequency.

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14.4 Energy Nleter:Tltese are fittecl on clifferent panel to record transmittecl energy anil recorclecl in c-nergy hours. For thjs purpose M1,\4f rneter have been providecl.

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14.5 \Yatt i\;[eter:This is mounted cn each reeder panel to recorii import or erpcrl power. 1,1.6

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Freqiiency Porver-:Pro'ided to each feeder to measure frequency which analcgy or digitar.

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Volt h!e ter:Provided ori each panel or the purpose of indication of voltage.

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14.8 Ammeter:These are used to indication the line current.

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14.9 MVAR iVleter:Provided for indicating power lactor of import and export.

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In a GSS, separate dc supply is maintained for signalling remote position control, alarm circuit etc. Direct current can be obt:,ined from22Avolt iphase ac supply via rectifier and in event of ac iailrtre, frorn the fixed battenes, r.vhich are kept, charged in normal conclition by rectifier supply.

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Itig. 15.1 Battery Roonr

Battery Sysfern:
'fhe batteries used are lead acid tlpe having a solution of sulphuric aci6 and distilled water as elecirclyies. In charged state, it has a specific gravity of 1.2 at temperature cf 30C.In the battery roon: batteries are Jnounted on rvooden stand. Tlie ceils trre installecl stanrl by porcelain. Folloiving precautions are taken in
a

battery room:

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The conductor connecting the ce]ls are greased and coated rvilh electrolle resisting vamish.
Proper care is taken so that acid vapours do not accumulate in the room to avoid risk explosion, smoking, winding etc.

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Any arc is prohibited in the room.


The rvindows of battery are of forested glass to avoid the batteries from direct action sun Iight.

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iri. CONCLUSIOI\
Training at 220KY GSS , K K$ ,., Jaipur gives the insight of the real instruments used. There ar'e many instruments like transformer, CT, pr, CVT, LA, relay, PLCC, bus bars, capacitor bank, insulator, isolators, ccntrol room, Battery room etc. What is the variuus problem seen in substation ivhile handling this instruments. There are various occasion when retay operate and circuit breaker open, load shedding, shut doln, vrhich has been heard previously.

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To get insight of the substation, how things operate, horv things manage all is learned there. Practical training as a whole proved to be extremely inlorniative and experience building and the things learnt at it rvoulci clefinitely help a lot in snapping the fuhlre ahead a better r,vay.
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