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Joe G. Eisley Anthony M. Waas
College of Engineering University of Michigan, USA

A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Publication

This edition rst published 2011 C 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd Registered ofce John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, United Kingdom For details of our global editorial ofces, for customer services and for information about how to apply for permission to reuse the copyright material in this book please see our website at The right of the author to be identied as the author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks. All brand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. The publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services. If professional advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional should be sought. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Eisley, Joe G. Analysis of structures : an introduction including numerical methods / Joe G. Eisley, Anthony M. Waas. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-470-97762-0 (cloth) 1. Structural analysis (Engineering)Mathematics. 2. Numerical analysis. I. Waas, Anthony M. II. Title. TA646.W33 2011 624.1 71dc22 2011009723 A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Print ISBN: 9780470977620 E-PDF ISBN: 9781119993285 O-book ISBN: 9781119993278 E-Pub ISBN: 9781119993544 Mobi ISBN: 9781119993551 Typeset in 9/11pt Times by Aptara Inc., New Delhi, India

We would like to dedicate this book to our families. To Marilyn, Paul and Susan Joe To Dayamal, Dayani, Shehara and Michael Tony

About the Authors Preface 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 Forces and Moments Introduction Units Forces in Mechanics of Materials Concentrated Forces Moment of a Concentrated Force Distributed ForcesForce and Moment Resultants Internal Forces and StressesStress Resultants Restraint Forces and Restraint Force Resultants Summary and Conclusions Static Equilibrium Introduction Free Body Diagrams EquilibriumConcentrated Forces 2.3.1 Two Force Members and Pin Jointed Trusses 2.3.2 Slender Rigid Bars 2.3.3 Pulleys and Cables 2.3.4 Springs EquilibriumDistributed Forces Equilibrium in Three Dimensions EquilibriumInternal Forces and Stresses 2.6.1 Equilibrium of Internal Forces in Three Dimensions 2.6.2 Equilibrium in Two DimensionsPlane Stress 2.6.3 Equilibrium in One DimensionUniaxial Stress Summary and Conclusions Displacement, Strain, and Material Properties Introduction Displacement and Strain 3.2.1 Displacement 3.2.2 Strain Compatibility xiii xv 1 1 1 3 4 9 19 27 32 33 35 35 35 38 38 44 49 52 55 59 62 65 69 70 70 71 71 71 72 72 76

2.4 2.5 2.6

2.7 3 3.1 3.2





3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8

3.9 3.10 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8

Linear Material Properties 3.4.1 Hookes Law in One DimensionTension 3.4.2 Poissons Ratio 3.4.3 Hookes Law in One DimensionShear in Isotropic Materials 3.4.4 Hookes Law in Two Dimensions for Isotropic Materials 3.4.5 Generalized Hookes Law for Isotropic Materials Some Simple Solutions for Stress, Strain, and Displacement Thermal Strain Engineering Materials Fiber Reinforced Composite Laminates 3.8.1 Hookes Law in Two Dimensions for a FRP Lamina 3.8.2 Properties of Unidirectional Lamina Plan for the Following Chapters Summary and Conclusions Classical Analysis of the Axially Loaded Slender Bar Introduction Solutions from the Theory of Elasticity Derivation and Solution of the Governing Equations The Statically Determinate Case The Statically Indeterminate Case Variable Cross Sections Thermal Stress and Strain in an Axially Loaded Bar Shearing Stress in an Axially Loaded Bar Design of Axially Loaded Bars Analysis and Design of Pin Jointed Trusses Work and EnergyCastiglianos Second Theorem Summary and Conclusions A General Method for the Axially Loaded Slender Bar Introduction Nodes, Elements, Shape Functions, and the Element Stiffness Matrix The Assembled Global Equations and Their Solution A General MethodDistributed Applied Loads Variable Cross Sections Analysis and Design of Pin-jointed Trusses Summary and Conclusions Torsion Introduction Torsional Displacement, Strain, and Stress Derivation and Solution of the Governing Equations Solutions from the Theory of Elasticity Torsional Stress in Thin Walled Cross Sections Work and EnergyTorsional Stiffness in a Thin Walled Tube Torsional Stress and Stiffness in Multicell Sections Torsional Stress and Displacement in Thin Walled Open Sections

77 77 81 82 83 84 85 89 90 90 91 94 96 98 99 99 99 109 116 129 136 142 143 145 149 153 162 165 165 165 169 182 196 202 211 213 213 213 216 225 229 231 239 242



6.9 6.10 6.11 7 7.1 7.2

A General (Finite Element) Method Continuously Variable Cross Sections Summary and Conclusions Classical Analysis of the Bending of Beams Introduction Area PropertiesSign Conventions 7.2.1 Area Properties 7.2.2 Sign Conventions Derivation and Solution of the Governing Equations The Statically Determinate Case Work and EnergyCastiglianos Second Theorem The Statically Indeterminate Case Solutions from the Theory of Elasticity Variable Cross Sections Shear Stress in Non Rectangular Cross SectionsThin Walled Cross Sections Design of Beams Large Displacements Summary and Conclusions A General Method (FEM) for the Bending of Beams Introduction Nodes, Elements, Shape Functions, and the Element Stiffness Matrix The Global Equations and their Solution Distributed Loads in FEM Variable Cross Sections Summary and Conclusions More about Stress and Strain, and Material Properties Introduction Transformation of Stress in Two Dimensions Principal Axes and Principal Stresses in Two Dimensions Transformation of Strain in Two Dimensions Strain Rosettes Stress Transformation and Principal Stresses in Three Dimensions Allowable and Ultimate Stress, and Factors of Safety Fatigue Creep Orthotropic MaterialsComposites Summary and Conclusions Combined Loadings on Slender BarsThin Walled Cross Sections Introduction Review and Summary of Slender Bar Equations 10.2.1 Axial Loading 10.2.2 Torsional Loading 10.2.3 Bending in One Plane Axial and Torsional Loads Axial and Bending Loads2D Frames

245 254 255 257 257 257 257 259 260 271 278 281 290 300 302 309 313 314 315 315 315 320 327 341 345 347 347 347 350 354 356 358 361 363 364 365 366 367 367 367 367 369 370 372 375

7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 7.11 7.12 8 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 9 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 9.10 9.11 10 10.1 10.2

10.3 10.4



10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9 11 11.1 11.2 11.3

Bending in Two Planes 10.5.1 When Iyz is Equal to Zero 10.5.2 When Iyz is Not Equal to Zero Bending and Torsion in Thin Walled Open SectionsShear Center Bending and Torsion in Thin Walled Closed SectionsShear Center Stiffened Thin Walled Beams Summary and Conclusions Work and Energy MethodsVirtual Work Introduction Introduction to the Principle of Virtual Work Static Analysis of Slender Bars by Virtual Work 11.3.1 Axially Loading 11.3.2 Torsional Loading 11.3.3 Beams in Bending 11.3.4 Combined Axial, Torsional, and Bending Behavior Static Analysis of 3D and 2D Solids by Virtual Work The Element Stiffness Matrix for Plane Stress The Element Stiffness Matrix for 3D Solids Summary and Conclusions Structural Analysis in Two and Three Dimensions Introduction The Governing Equations in Two DimensionsPlane Stress Finite Elements and the Stiffness Matrix for Plane Stress Thin Flat PlatesClassical Analysis Thin Flat PlatesFEM Analysis Shell Structures Stiffened Shell Structures Three Dimensional StructuresClassical and FEM Analysis Summary and Conclusions Analysis of Thin Laminated Composite Material Structures Introduction to Classical Lamination Theory Strain Displacement Equations for Laminates Stress-Strain Relations for a Single Lamina Stress Resultants for Laminates CLT Constitutive Description Determining Laminae Stress/Strains Laminated Plates Subject to Transverse Loads Summary and Conclusion Buckling Introduction The Equations for a Beam with Combined Lateral and Axial Loading Buckling of a Column The Beam Column The Finite Element Method for Bending and Buckling Buckling of Frames

384 384 386 393 399 405 416 417 417 417 421 421 426 427 430 430 433 436 437 439 439 440 445 452 455 459 466 470 477 479 479 480 482 486 489 492 493 498 499 499 499 504 512 515 524

11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 12 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8 12.9 13 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 13.8 14 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6



14.7 14.8 15 15.1 15.2

Buckling of Thin Plates and Other Structures Summary and Conclusions Structural Dynamics Introduction Dynamics of Mass/Spring Systems 15.2.1 Free Motion 15.2.2 Forced MotionResonance 15.2.3 Forced MotionResponse Axial Vibration of a Slender Bar 15.3.1 Solutions Based on the Differential Equation 15.3.2 Solutions Based on FEM Torsional Vibration 15.4.1 Torsional Mass/Spring Systems 15.4.2 Distributed Torsional Systems Vibration of Beams in Bending 15.5.1 Solutions of the Differential Equation 15.5.2 Solutions Based on FEM The Finite Element Method for all Elastic Structures Addition of Damping Summary and Conclusions Evolution in the (Intelligent) Design and Analysis of Structural Members Introduction Evolution of a Truss Member 16.2.1 Step 1. Slender Bar Analysis 16.2.2 Step 2. Rectangular BarPlane Stress FEM 16.2.3 Step 3. Rectangular Bar with Pin HolesPlane Stress Analysis 16.2.4 Step 4. Rectangular Bar with Pin HolesSolid Body Analysis 16.2.5 Step 5. Add Material Around the HoleSolid Element Analysis 16.2.6 Step 6. Bosses AddedSolid Element Analysis 16.2.7 Step 7. Reducing the WeightSolid Element Analysis 16.2.8 Step 8. Buckling Analysis Evolution of a Plate with a HolePlane Stress Materials in Design Summary and Conclusions Matrix Denitions and Operations Introduction Matrix Denitions Matrix Algebra Partitioned Matrices Differentiating and Integrating a Matrix Summary of Useful Matrix Relations Area Properties of Cross Sections Introduction Centroids of Cross Sections Area Moments and Product of Inertia Properties of Common Cross Sections

524 527 529 529 529 529 540 547 548 548 560 567 567 568 569 569 574 577 577 582 583 583 584 584 585 586 587 588 590 591 592 592 594 594 595 595 595 597 598 598 599 601 601 601 603 609




15.6 15.7 15.8 16 16.1 16.2

16.3 16.4 16.5 A A.1 A.2 A.3 A.4 A.5 A.6 B B.1 B.2 B.3 B.4



C C.1 C.2 C.3 C.4 C.5 D D.1 D.2 D.3

Solving Sets of Linear Algebraic Equations with Mathematica Introduction Systems of Linear Algebraic Equations Solving Numerical Equations in Mathematica Solving Symbolic Equations in Mathematica Matrix Multiplication Orthogonality of Normal Modes Introduction Proof of Orthogonality for Discrete Systems Proof of Orthogonality for Continuous Systems

611 611 611 611 612 613 615 615 615 616 617 619

References Index

About the Authors

Joe G. Eisley received degrees from St. Louis University, BS (1951), and the California Institute of Technology, MS (1952), PhD (1956), all in the eld of aeronautical engineering. He served on the faculty of the Department of Aerospace Engineering from 1956 to 1998 and retired as Emeritus Professor of Aerospace Engineering in 1998. His primary eld of teaching and research has been in structural analysis with an emphasis on the dynamics of structures. He also taught courses in space systems design and computer aided design. After retirement he has continued some part time work in teaching and consulting. Anthony M. Waas is the Felix Pawlowski Collegiate Professor of Aerospace Engineering and Professor of Mechanical Engineering, and Director, Composite Structures Laboratory at the University of Michigan. He received his degrees from Imperial College, Univ. of London, U.K., B.Sc. (rst class honors, 1982), and the California Institute of Technology, MS (1983), PhD (1988) all in Aeronautics. He joined the University of Michigan in January 1988 as an Assistant Professor, and is currently the Felix Pawlowski Collegiate Professor. His current teaching and research interests are related to lightweight composite aerostructures, with a focus on manufacturability and damage tolerance, ceramic matrix composites for hot structures, nano-composites, and multi-material structures. Several of his projects have been funded by numerous US government agencies and industry. In addition, he has been a consultant to several industries in various capacities. At Michigan, he has served as the Aerospace Engineering Department Graduate Program Chair (19982002) and the Associate Chairperson of the Department (20032005). He is currently a member of the Executive Committee of the College of Engineering. He is author or co-author of more than 175 refereed journal papers, and numerous conference papers and presentations.

This textbook is intended to be an introductory text on the mechanics of solids. The authors have targeted an audience that usually would go on to obtain undergraduate degrees in aerospace and mechanical engineering. As such, some specialized topics that are of importance to aerospace engineers are given more coverage. The material presented assumes only a background in introductory physics and calculus. The presentation departs from standard practice in a fundamental way. Most introductory texts on this subject take an approach not unlike that adopted by Timoshenko, in his 1930 Strength of Materials books, that is, by primarily formulating problems in terms of forces. This places an emphasis on statically determinate solid bodies, that is, those bodies for which the restraint forces and moments, and internal forces and moments, can be determined completely by the equations of static equilibrium. Displacements are then introduced in a specialized way, often only at a point, when necessary to solve the few statically indeterminate problems that are included. Only late in these texts are distributed displacements even mentioned. Here, we introduce and formulate the equations in terms of distributed displacements from the beginning. The question of whether the problems are statically determinate or indeterminate becomes less important. It will appear to some that more time is spent on the slender bar with axial loads than that particular structure deserves. The reason is that classical methods of solving the differential equations and the connection to the rational development of the nite element method can be easily shown with a minimum of explanation using the axially loaded slender bar. Subsequently, the development and solution of the equations for more advanced structures is facilitated in later chapters. Modern advanced analysis of the integrity of solid bodies under external loads is largely displacement based. Once displacements are known the strains, stresses, strain energies, and restraint reactions are easily found. Modern analysis solutions methods also are largely carried out using a computer. The direction of this presentation is rst to provide an understanding of the behavior of solid bodies under load and second to prepare the student for modern advanced courses in which computer based methods are the norm. Analysis of Structures: An Introduction Including Numerical Methods is accompanied by a website ( housing exercises and examples that use modern software which generates color contour plots of deformation and internal stress. It offers invaluable guidance and understanding to senior level and graduate students studying courses in stress and deformation analysis as part of aerospace, mechanical and civil engineering degrees as well as to practicing engineers who want to re-train or re-engineer their set of analysis tools for contemporary stress and deformation analysis of solids and structures. We are grateful to Dianyun Zhang, Ph.D candidate in Aerospace Engineering, for her careful reading of the examples presented. Corrections, comments, and criticisms are welcomed. Joe G. Eisley Anthony M. Waas June 2011 Ann Arbor, Michigan