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Database Management System(BA 1740)

III Semester (2 marks questions) 1. What is the primary goal of DBMS? The primary goal of DBMS is to provide an environment that is both convenient and efficient to use in retrieving and storing database information. 2. What is DBMS? DBMS consists of a collection of interrelated data and a set of programs to access that data. 3. What are the levels of abstraction? Physical level, conceptual level and view level. 4. Name some data models. i. Object based logical model ii. Record based logical model iii. Physical data model 5. What is data independence? The ability to modify a scheme definition in one level without affecting a scheme definition in the next higher level. 6. What is an entity? An entity is an object that exists and is distinguishable from other objects. 7. What is relationship? A relationship is an association among several entities. 8. What is mapping cardinalities? i. It express the number of entities to which another entity can be associated ii. via a relationship set. 9. What is a super key? A super key is a set of one or more attributes which taken collectively allow us to identify uniquely an entity in the entity set. 10. What is a weak entity set? If we are not able to set the primary key, then the entity set is termed as weak entity set. 11. What is aggregation? Aggregation is an abstraction through which relationships are treated as higher level entities.

12. What is a query language? A query language is a language in which a user requests information from the database. 13. List some fundamental operators in relational algebra Select, project, rename and natural join. 14. What is a tuple? A row in a table. 15. Give any three unary operators. Select, project and rename. 16. Give any three binary operators. Union, Cartesian product and set difference. 17. What is object oriented? It means that we organize software as a collection of discrete objects that incorporate both data structure and behavior. 18. Define Identity? It means that the data is quantized into discrete, distinguishable entities. 19. What is classification? It means that objects with the same data structure and operations are grouped into a class. 20. What is polymorphism? It means that the same operation may behave differently on different classes. 21. What is inheritance? Inheritance is the sharing of attributes and operations among classes based on a hierarchical relationship. 22. What are the stages in OMT? Analysis, system design, object design and implementation. 23. What are the three models in OMT methodology? Object model, dynamic model and functional model. 24. What is a dataflow diagram? It is a graph whose nodes are processes and whose arcs are data flows. 25. What is a attribute? An attribute is a data value held by the objects in a class.

26. Name the two types of object diagrams. Class diagram and instance diagram 27. What is an operation? An operation is a function or transformation that may be applied to or by objects in a class. 28. What is a method? A method is the implementation of operation for a class. 29. What is a link? A link is a physical or conceptual connection between object instances. 30. What is an association? An association describes a group of links with common structure and common semantics. 31. What is a link attribute? A link attribute is a property of the objects in a class. 32. What is an object diagram? It is a graph whose nodes are object classes and whose arcs are relationship among classes. 33. Define Multiplicity? Multiplicity specifies how many instances of one class may relate to a single instance of an associated class. 34. What is a state and an event? i. A state is an abstraction of the attribute values and links of an object. ii. An event is something that happens at a point in time. 35. What is scenario? A scenario is a sequence of events that occurs during one particular execution of a system. 36. What is data flow diagram? A data flow diagram shows the functional relationship of the values computed by the system including input values, output values and internal data store. It is a graph showing the flow of data values from their sources in objects through process that transform them to their destinations in other object. 37. What is a data store? A data store is a passive object within a data flow diagram that stores data for later access. 38. What is abstract class? A class that cannot have direct instances but whose descendants can have instances.

39. What is a candidate key? A minimal set of attributes that uniquely identifies an instance or link. 40. Define event trace It is a diagram that shows the sender and receiver of events and the sequence of events. 41. What is entity relationship diagram? A graphical representation that shows entities and the relationship between them. 42. What is encapsulation? A modeling and implementation technique that separates the external aspects of an object from the internal implementation details of the object. 43. What is dynamic model? A description of aspects of a system concerned with control , including time, sequencing of operations and interaction of objects. 44. Define model An abstraction of something for the purpose of understanding it before building it. 45. What is a schema? The structure or template of the data in a database. 46. What is a view? A virtual table that is derived from one or more underlying tables. 47. What is normalization? Convert the tables into a standard form. 48. Name the transaction states. i. Active ii. Partially committed iii. Failed iv. Aborted v. Committed. 49. What are the fields in the log record? i. Transaction name ii. Data item name iii. Old value iv. New value 50. What are phases in two phase locking protocol? i. Growing phase ii. Shrinking phase

51. What is a deadlock? It arrived at a state where neither of the transactions can ever proceed with its normal execution. 52. What is a transaction? A transaction is a program unit that accesses and possibly updates various data items. 53. Define atomicity All of the operations associated with a transaction must be executed to completion or none at all. 54. What are the two types of query language? Procedural and Non procedural. 55. What is the condition for 1NF? All the values should be atomic. 56. What is an activity? An operation that takes time to complete. Activities are associated with states and represent real world accomplishments. 57. What is data dictionary? A textual description of each class, its association, attributes and operations. 58. What is multiple inheritances? A type of inheritance that permits a class to have more than one super class and to inherit features from all ancestors. 59. What is override? To define a method for an operation that replaces an inherited method for the same operation. 60. What is an attribute? An attribute is a data value held by the objects in a class. 61. What is physical level of abstraction? This is the lowest level of abstraction describes how the data are actually stored. 62. What is logical level of abstraction? In this level of abstraction, it describes what data are stored in the database and what relationships exist among those data. 63. What is view level of abstraction? It describes only part of the entire database.

64. What is physical data independence? It is the ability to modify the physical schema without causing application programs to be rewritten. 65. What is logical data independence? It is the ability to modify the logical schema without causing the application programs to be rewritten. 66. What is instance of schema? The collection of information stored in the database at a particular moment is called an instance of database. 67. What is a schema? The overall design of the database is called the database schema. 68. What is a network model? Data in the network model are represented by collections of records and relationships among data are represented by links. 69. What is a hierarchical model? The data and relationships among data are represented by records and links. 70. Give some physical model. i. Unifying model ii. Frame-memory model. 71. What is data manipulation language? It is a language that enables user to access or manipulate data. 72. What is data dictionary? A data dictionary is a file that contains metadata.(data about data). 73. What is the work of transaction manager? Responsible for ensuring that the database remains in a correct state despite system failures. 74. What is a derived attribute? The value for this type of attribute can be derived from the values of other related attributes. 75. What is a Module? A module is a logical construct for grouping classes, associations an generalizations. 76. What is Generalization? Generalization is the relationship between a class and one or more refined versions of it.

77. What is Multiple Inheritance? Multiple inheritance permits a class to have more than one super class and to inherit features from all parents. 78. What is class attribute? A class attribute describes a value common to an entire class of


79. What is a derived object? A derived object is defined as a function of one or more objects. The derived object is completely determined by the other objects. 80. Define Constraints? Constraints are functional relationships between entities of an object model. A constraint restricts the values that entities can assume. 81. What is a design pattern? Design pattern is also called mechanism,which applies to a society of classes. 82. What is an activity? An activity is an operation that takes time to complete.An activity is a state.

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83. What is a Data store? A data store is a passive object within a data flow diagram that stores data for later access. 84. What is a Data flow? A data flow connects the output of an object or process to the input of another object or process. 85. What is Batch Transformation? A batch transformation is a data transformation executed once on an entire input set. 86. What are the three basic approaches to implement the dynamic model? Using the location within the program to hold state,Direct implementation of a state machine mechanism,using concurrent tasks. 87. What is Coherence of Entities? An entity, such as a class,an operation,or a module,is coherent if it is organized on a consistent plan and all its parts fit together toward a common goal 88. Define System Design? System design is the first age of design during which high level decisions are made about the overall structure of the system, its architecture and the strategies used to implement the system. 89. What is a role?

A role is one end of an association 90. What is a role name? A role name is a name that uniquely identifies one end of an association. 91. What is state diagram? A state diagram relates events and states. It is a graph whose nodes are states and whose arcs are transition labeled by event names. 92. What is a state and an event? A state is an abstraction of the attribute values and links of an object. An event is something that happens at a point in time. 93. What is UML? UML is a language for specifying, visualizing and constructing the artifacts of software systems, as well as for business modeling. 94. What is Data Warehouse? A data warehouse is a subject oriented, integrated, time variant, non volatile collection of data that are used for management decision making process. 95. What is Client server system? It operates in network environments, splitting the processing of an application between the front end client and a back end processor. 96. What is data Visualization? Data visualization is a representation of data in graphical and multimedia formats for human analysis. 97. What is a sheet? A sheet is a mechanism for breaking a large object model down into a series of pages. 98. What is application partitioning? It assigns portions of application code to client or server partitions after it is written, in order to achieve better performance and interoperability. 99. What is three tier architecture? A client/server configuration that includes three layers, a client and two server layers. 100. What is Middleware? Software that allows an application to interoperate with other software without requiring the user to understand and code the low level operations necessary to achieve interoperability.

PART : B (16 marks questions) 1. Explain the features of object oriented databases. Inheritance Polymorphism Encapsulation Aggregation Abstraction

2. Explain the steps to construct an object model. Identify objects and classes Prepare data dictionary Identify associations Identify attributes Using inheritance Verify the access path Iterate and refine the model Group classes into modules

3. Write the steps involved in object life cycle modeling and explain them?. Analysis Design Development / Implementation Testing Maintenance 4. How will you draw E-R diagram? Explain it using Library Management System Symbols Explanation Diagram 5. How will you estimate the query processing cost and explain them. Estimation Explanation

6. Explain the two-phase locking protocol used for concurrency control Growing Phase Shrinking Phase

7. State the techniques used in object oriented analysis. Provide an object oriented analysis for a railway reservation system Problem Statement Build the model 8. Explain the steps in object-oriented design System Design Object Design 9. Explain any two design patterns with necessary diagrams Any Two Design Pattern Draw the diagram Explanation 10. Explain the various testing methods that are used to test object-oriented systems. Unit testing Integration testing Validation testing 11. Explain the guidelines to construct a dynamic model. Prepare Scenario Identify events Prepare an event trace Build a state diagram Check the consistency 12. Explain the steps to construct an Functional model. Identify input and output values. Build data flow diagram Describe functions Identify constraints Optimization criteria


State the techniques used in object oriented analysis. Provide an object oriented analysis for a ATM. Problem Description Operations in ATM Build object model Build dynamic model Build functional model

14. How will you draw E-R diagram? Explain it for a banking enterprise. Symbols Tables Diagram Explanation 15. Explain the Boyce Codd Normal Form with suitable example. Condition for BCNF Fuctional Dependency Examples

16. Explain concurrency control with examples. Schedules Examples 17. Explain 3NF with proper example. Condition for 3NF Functional Dependency Examples. 18. Explain the steps in system design. Organize the systems into subsystems Identify concurrency inherent in the problem Allocate subsystems to processors and task Choose an approach for management of datastores. Handle access to global resources Choose the implementation of control in software Handle boundary conditions Set trade-off priorities.

19. Explain the steps in object design. Obtain operations for the object model from the other models. Design algorithm to implement operations Optimize access path to data Implement software control Adjust class structure to increase inheritance Design implementation of associations Package classes and associations into modules. 20. Explain the deferred database modification. Definition Example Explanation 21. Explain the shadow paging technique. Definition Diagram Explanation 22. Explain the timestamp-Based locking protocol used for concurrency control Basic concepts Methods Times-stamp values. Explanation 23. Explain the immediate database modification. Definition Example Explanation 24. Explain the operations of relational algebra with examples. Select Project Union Intersection Set Difference Cartesian product Rename

25. Explain the advantages of using data base management system.

Avoid data redundancy Avoid inconsistency Accessing data is easy Security is more. Concurrent access.