Anda di halaman 1dari 118

taexeiola.

gr

1 ,
:
Bohr .

.
De Broglie. .
Heisenberg.
Schrdinger
.
2.

.
(n, l, ml, ms).
s p .
, .
.

.
.
.
.

spin.
, .

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H

10.

hr:
1 ( ):

. ,
.
2,18 10-18
: n = J
n2
n = 1,2,3,... ( ).
(n) .
n,
, , .

2 ( ):

, .
: = |f - Ei| = h

.
() () : c = , c .

Bohr:
.

.
.
Bohr
.
Max Planck:
, , , , (quantum = , ). ()

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1

11.

: = h
:
( )
.
( ).
:

( , ). . ().
.
De Broglie:
, .
, m u
: = h/(mu)

.
() Heisenberg:

.. .
Heisenberg
Bohr.
Schrdinger:
.
Schrdinger
.

, .
:
Schrdinger , .
(x, y, z) x, y, z .

. = 0 0 .

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12.

2:
2
.
2, -e2 -e ,
.
2 :
. .
. .
. .
:
(n):
. ( ).
. : 1, 2, 3, ...
. ,
,
.
.
- . ,
n, .
.
:
(n):

...

...

():
. ( ).
. , n, :
 = 0, 1, 2, 3, ... (n - 1).
. , .
n  .
:

(m):
. ( )
x, y, z.

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2

13.

. , , :
m = -, - +1, ..., 0, ...,  - 1, .
.
H m . s
 = 0, . p ( = 1)
:

. .. n=1, =0, m=0, 1s .


 2 + 1 m
2 + 1 .
K spin (ms):
. (spin).
. , +1/2 1/2
.
. ,
.
ms = +1/2 :
spin spin ().
ms = -1/2 :
spin spin ().
(n, , m, ms)
.
:
s :
s  = 0,
( ).
s n.
s ,

.
p :
p ( = 1), . -

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14.

m
n.
p
.
:
Pauli:

(n, , m, ms).
.
:


n .
, ,
.
:
, , .

: n, n

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1

15.

.
,  .
:
. (n + ).
. n + ,
n.
, :
1s - 2s - 2p - 3s - 3p - 4s - 3d - 4p - 5s - 4d - 5p - 6s - 4f - 5d - 6p - 7s - 5f - 6d - 7p
:
11a:
11 .
2 e 1s (1s2).
T 2 e 2s (2s2).
T 6 e 2p (2p6).
To 11o e 3s (3s1).
:

11a: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1


a:
(2)L(8)M(1)
.
11
,
, , l
.
3d , 4s .
4d 5s . ,
, 4s 3d,
, 3d
4s. 4d 5s .

und:
( ) spin.
, . ,
8 :

Hund
spin.

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16.

.
:
. 42: : 24, 25, 26
. 43: : 31
. 44: : 32, 35

. 45: : 36, 37, 38, 40, 42, 43


. 46: : 45, 46, 47

. 1 2
(
, )
:
(1 )
. 20: 1
. 22: 2
. 25: : 4, 5
. 26: : 6, 7

(2 )
. 43: 1
. 44: 2
. 47: 2
. 48: 3
. 50: 6

:
(1 )
. 35: : 1, 3, 6
. 36: : 8, 10, 11
. 37: : 16, 18, 23, 24
. 38:

(2 )
. 57: : 1, 2, 5, 6, 7
. 58: : 9, 10, 12
. 58:

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3

17.

1. . :
. .
. ,
.
: c = 3 108 m/s, h = 6,63 1034 Js.
:
. n = 1 M n = 3.
:
2,18 1018 J
2,18 1018 J
E3 =
E1 =
32
12
:
2,18 1018 J 2,18 1018 J
18
= E 3 E1 =

= 1,938 10 J
2
2

3
1

: = h
1,938 1018 J
= h =
=
= 2,923 1015 s -1
h
6,63 1034 J s
: c =
c 3 108 m s 1
= 1,026 10-7 m
c = = =
2,923 1015

. :
1. n = 3 n = 1 (3 1).
1.
2. n = 3 n = 2 (3 2) n = 2 n = 1
(2 1). 2
3 .
n = 3 n = 1,
,
. , 1 = = 2,923 1015 s1

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18.

= 2 : E 2 =

2,18 1018 J

22
(3 2) :
2,18 1018 J 2,18 1018 J
19
1 = E 2 E 3 =

= 3,028 10 J
2
2

2
3

: = h
1 3,028 1019 J
=
= 4,567 1014 s -1
1 = h1 1 =
34
h
6,63 10 J s
(2 1) :
2,18 1018 J 2,18 1018 J
18
2 = E1 E 2 =

= 1,635 10 J
2
2

1
2

: = h
2 1,635 1018 J
2 = h 2 2 =
=
= 2, 466 1015 s -1
34
h
6,63 10 J s

2.

N
:
. (2, 0, 1, +1/2)
. (4, 1, -1, -1/2)
. (3, 1, 0, 1)
. (2, 2, 2, +1/2)
. (3, 2, 0, +1/2)

:
. (2, 0, 1, +1/2) m
-, ...0, ...+. ,  = 0 m = 1,
.
. (4, 1, -1, -1/2) .
. (3, 1, 0, 1) ms +1/2
-1/2 1 .
. (2, 2, 2, +1/2)  0,
n - 1. , n = 2  = 2, .
. (3, 2, 0, +1/2) .

|ml| > l,
ms 1/2
: n < 1,
l n,

3. ,
: 2s, 6p, 3d, 2p, 7s, 5p
. r
.

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19.

:
. n + , :
2s (n = 2,  = 0): n +  = 2 + 0 = 2
2p (n = 2,  = 1): n +  = 2 + 1 = 3
6p (n = 6,  = 1): n +  = 6 + 1 = 7
7s (n = 7,  = 0): n +  = 7 + 0 = 7
3d (n = 3,  = 2): n +  = 3 + 2 = 5
5p (n = 5,  = 1): n +  = 5 + 1 = 6
o 6p, 7s n + , 7s
n, .
, ,
: 2s, 2p, 3d, 5p, 6p, 7s
. . , 2s, 2p L, .
,
: 2s = 2p, 3d, 5p, 6p, 7s

4.
, , spin:
. 26Fe
. 15P3
. 26Fe3+
. 14Si
:
. 14Si ,
, 14.
14Si :
2
2
6
2
2
14Si: 1s , 2s , 2p , 3s , 3p .
14Si : 14Si: K(2), L(8), M(4).
14Si :

Si 2 .
spin : 2 (+1/2) = +1.
. 26Fe ,
, 26.
26Fe :
2
2
6
2
6
6
2
26Fe: 1s , 2s , 2p , 3s , 3p , 3d , 4s .

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20.

26Fe :
26Fe: K(2), L(8), M(14), N(2).
, 26Fe :

Fe 4 .
spin : 4 (+1/2) = +2.
. To 15P3- 3-, 3 , 18.
15P3- :
32
2
6
2
6
15P : 1s , 2s , 2p , 3s , 3p .
15P3- : 15P3-: K(2), L(8), M(8).
H 15P3- :

15P3- ,
spin .
. 4s
3d .
26Fe3+ :
3+
2
2
6
2
6
5
26Fe : 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d
26Fe3+ :
3+
26Fe : K(2), L(8), M(13)
, 26Fe+3 :

26Fe3+ 5 .
spin : 5 (+1/2) = +5/2.

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21.

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.......................................................................................................................................
1.
d ,
.......................................................................................................................................
:
. n = 3,  = 1
. n = 2,  = 2
. n = 3,  = 2 . n = 3,  = 1, m = 1
.......................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
2.
N 6s, 3d, 5s 4f
.......................................................................................................................................
.
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
3.
4,48 L .......................................................................................................................................
S.T.P.
.......................................................................................................................................
.
.......................................................................................................................................
= 6,02 1023 mol1.
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
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.......................................................................................................................................
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22.

4.
. P(Z = 15),  = 1:
.......................................................................................................................................
. 4
. 6
. 8
. 9
.......................................................................................................................................
. , .......................................................................................................................................
:
.......................................................................................................................................
iii. n = 2
i. n = 3,  = 2
ii. n = 2,  = 1, m = 0
.......................................................................................................................................
:
.......................................................................................................................................
. 10, 2 8
. 18, 4 8
. 10, 6 14 . 10, 2 10
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
5.
N :
.......................................................................................................................................
. n = 2
. n = 2, m = 2
. n = 3, ms= +1/2
.......................................................................................................................................
. n = 4,  = 2, ms = 1/2
. n = 1,  = 1, m = 0
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
6.
s
.......................................................................................................................................
(Z = 33); ,
:
.......................................................................................................................................
. s;
.......................................................................................................................................
. p As ;
.......................................................................................................................................
. s;
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................

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23.

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7.
N De Broglie:
.......................................................................................................................................
. 3 107 m/s.
.......................................................................................................................................
. 2 106 m/s.
.......................................................................................................................................
: rN = 14, ArF = 19, h = 6,63 1034 Js.
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
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8.
,
.......................................................................................................................................
1 = 4,510-18 J 2 = -1,510-18 J
.......................................................................................................................................
3 = -0,510-18 J .
.......................................................................................................................................
.
.
.......................................................................................................................................
. .
.......................................................................................................................................
.
.......................................................................................................................................
;
.......................................................................................................................................
: c = 3 108 m/s, h = 6,63 10-34 Js, : 9 1028 g.
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................

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24.

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9.
3 d .
.......................................................................................................................................
. ;
.......................................................................................................................................
. ;
.......................................................................................................................................
. s
.......................................................................................................................................
p ;
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
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25.

.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
1
.......................................................................................................................................
.
Heisenberg .......................................................................................................................................
Bohr.
.......................................................................................................................................
( 5)
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
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.

.......................................................................................................................................
f ; .
( 5)
.......................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.
:
.......................................................................................................................................
...............................
( ), ...............................
.......................................................................................................................................
( ), ...............................
.......................................................................................................................................
( )
.......................................................................................................................................
x, y, z spin
.......................................................................................................................................
............................... (spin).
( 5)
.......................................................................................................................................

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26.

.
;
.......................................................................................................................................
.
.......................................................................................................................................
. 2s 2p .
.......................................................................................................................................
. 3 6 .
.......................................................................................................................................
. 4p 6.
.......................................................................................................................................
. ,
.......................................................................................................................................
: s < p < d < f.
.......................................................................................................................................
. (2, 1, 1) 2pZ .
.......................................................................................................................................
( 10)
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
2
.......................................................................................................................................
.
2py :
.......................................................................................................................................
. (2, 1, 0)
. (2, 0, 1)
. (2, 1, 1)
. (2, 1, 1)
.......................................................................................................................................
( 5)
.......................................................................................................................................
. :
.......................................................................................................................................
. .
.......................................................................................................................................
. .
.......................................................................................................................................
. .
.......................................................................................................................................
. .
.......................................................................................................................................
( 5)
.......................................................................................................................................
.
.......................................................................................................................................
:
.......................................................................................................................................
. n = 3
. n = 3,  = 2, m = 1
. n = 2,  = 1
.......................................................................................................................................
( 9)
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................

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27.

.
,
.......................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................
spin (2).
.......................................................................................................................................
( 6)
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
3
.
:
.......................................................................................................................................
2
2
6
2
2
5
1
2
2
2
1
13l: 1s , 2s , 2p
11Na: 1s , 2s , 2p , 3s
7N: 1s , 1p , 2s , 2p
.......................................................................................................................................
2
2
6
2
6
2
2
6
2
6
17Cl: 1s , 2s , 2p , 3s , 3p
19K: 1s , 2s , 2p , 3s , 3p
.......................................................................................................................................
.
.......................................................................................................................................
, , ;
.......................................................................................................................................
.
.......................................................................................................................................
, ;
.......................................................................................................................................
( 10)
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.
80
.......................................................................................................................................
10 .
. .
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.  = 2 ;
.......................................................................................................................................
. spin
;
.......................................................................................................................................
( 15)
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................

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28.

.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
4
.......................................................................................................................................
-2,18 10-18

J.
.......................................................................................................................................
9
. ;
.......................................................................................................................................
.
;
.......................................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................................
;
.

.......................................................................................................................................
;
.......................................................................................................................................
. ,
.......................................................................................................................................
;
.......................................................................................................................................
: c = 3 108 m/s, h = 6,63 104 Js.
.......................................................................................................................................
( 25)
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
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taexeiola.gr

1 ,
:
Moseley.
.
.
.
.

.

.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Lewis .

taexeiola.gr
- Lewis

30.

Moseley: ( )
.
:
. ,
.
. 7 , 18 , .
.
.
. ,
( ).
.
.
:

( ,
) .. s, p, d, f.
s:
,
nsx x = 1, 2.
:
. :
:
:
:

s1
IA
1

s2
IIA
2

ns1 ns2.
s ,
, .

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1

31.

p:
, ns2 npx.
6 :
p1

: IIIA
:

13

p2

p3

p4

p5

p6

IVA

VA

VIA

VIIA

VIIIA

14

15

16

17

18

He 1s2, s, p.
.
d:
:
(n - 1)dx ns2, x = 1, ..., 10
d
.
4 7 :
: d1

: IIIB

d2

d3

d4

d5

IVB

VB

VIB

VIIB

: 3

d6

d7

d8

VIIIB
8

10

d9

d10

IB

IIB

11

12

d .
f:
f .
(
) f - ,
: (n - 2)fx ns2, x = 1, 2, ..., 14.

(La), ,
(Ac) 6 7 .
.
f 3 B
.
s, p .
d, f .

taexeiola.gr
- Lewis

32.

:
d .

, (n - 1)d , ns .
1 :
4 . 3d
, 4s .
2 :
5 . 4d
, 5s .
3 :
6 . 5d
, 6s .
:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6. .
24Cr 29Cu ,
s d
.
2
2
6
2
6
5
1
24Cr: 1s , 2s , 2p , 3s , 3p , 3d , 4s
2
2
6
2
6
10
1
29Cu: 1s , 2s , 2p , 3s , 3p , 3d , 4s
:
:
, .

.
.

.
,
,
d, .

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-
1

33.

:
. .
.
.
.
.
(Ei):

, Ei1. :
(g) +(g) + e, Ei1 = 1 > 0
KJ mol1.

.
(Ei2)
+(g). :
+(g) 2+(g) + e, Ei2 = 2 > 0
,

, 1 < 2.
:
. :
.
. :
, , .
. : - , , .

.

.

taexeiola.gr
- Lewis

34.

, .
,

.
:

.
.
, .
,
.
:

, .

:
A - .
:
.

8 2
K ( ).
,
, , ( )
( ).

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1

35.

Lewis:
Lewis , .
:

.
() ().
, .

.
:

.
.
.
:

. spin.
, , .
:
.
.
. .
:
.
.
, 4Cl 3 Cl
Lewis :

Lewis:
, ,
. Lewis :

taexeiola.gr
- Lewis

36.

1. .
. .
2. . 1 . 2 1
. : F > O > N, Cl > Br > S, C, I > H
.
3. ,
.

, . , , , * .
4. . ,
, , .
5.
,
, .
.
:

. ,
, .
, Lewis F3 PCl5 :

BF3 B
.

PCl5 P 10 .

taexeiola.gr
-
2

37.

.
:
. 47: 51, 52, 53, 55
. 48: 56, 58, 59, 60
. 49: 63, 64, 65
. 50: 75, 77, 79, 81
. 3 4
(
, )
:
(3 )
. 70: 1
. 71: 2
. 21: 1, 2
. 22: 3

(4 )
. 94: 1
. 97: 2
. 100: 1

:
(3 )
. 84: 3, 5, 7
. 85: 8, 10, 11, 13
. 86:

(4 )
. 108: 2, 4, 7, 9
. 109:

taexeiola.gr
- Lewis

38.

1. g, S, K, Br, 12, 16,


19, 35, .
. ,
.
. Lewis gS, KBr.
:
. Mg, S, K Br :
2
2
6
2

(2), L(8), M(2)


12g: 1s , 2s , 2p , 3s
2
2
6
2
4

(2), L(8), M(6)


16S: 1s , 2s , 2p , 3s , 3p
2
2
6
2
6
1

(2), L(8), M(8), N(1)


19K: 1s , 2s , 2p , 3s , 3p , 4s
2
2
6
2
6
10
2
5

(2), L(8), M(18), N(7)


35Br: 1s , 2s , 2p , 3s , 3p , 3d , 4s , 4p
H :
12g: 3 , 2 IIA , s.
16S: 3 , 16 VIA , p.
19K: 4 , 1 IA , s.
35Br: 4 , 17 VIIA , p.
. gS .
g
g2+, Lewis:
S, , 2
S2, Lewis:
, Lewis MgS:

taexeiola.gr
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3

39.

KBr .
K o o K+, Lewis:
Br, , 1 o
Br, Lewis:
, Lewis KBr:

2. H, N, O, 1, 7, 8, .
. ,
.
. Lewis HNO2.
:
. H, N O :
1

(1)
1H: 1s
2
2
3

(2), L(5)
7N: 1s , 2s , 2p
2
2
4

(2), L(6)
8O: 1s , 2s , 2p
H :
1H: 1 , 1 IA , s.
7N: 2 , 15 VA , p.
8O: 2 , 16 VIA , p.
. To HNO2 .
: 1 + 5 + 2 6 = 18
.
O, H O.
:::
18 - 6 = 12 O
, :
N .
N O.
2.

taexeiola.gr
- Lewis

40.

3. : 3Li, 9F, 10Ne, 19K.


. .
. .
. .
:
.
:
2
1
: 1 , 2
3Li: 1s , 2s
2
2
5
: 17 , 2
9F: 1s , 2s , 2p
2
2
6
: 18 , 2
10Ne: 1s , 2s , 2p
2
2
6
2
6
1
: 1 , 4
19K: 1s , 2s , 2p , 3s , 3p , 4s
Li, F Ne .
Li ,
F e,
( , ).
Li .
( ,
).
, :
> Li > F > Ne
. ,
,
Li, F, Ne : Li < F < Ne
,
, Li,
K : Li > K
,
: < Li < F < Ne
. , , .
, : > Li > F > Ne

4. , , , , 11,
21, 18, 59 16 . :
. .
. .

taexeiola.gr
-
3

41.

. f .
. .
. .
:

, , , :
2
2
6 , 3s1
s, 3 , 1 .
11: 1s , 2s , 2p
2
2
6
2
6
2
1
d, 4 , 3 .
21: 1s , 2s , 2p , 3s , 3p , 4s , 3d
2
2
6
2
6
p, 3 , 18 .
18: 1s , 2s , 2p , 3s , 3p
2
2
6
2
6
10
2
59: 1s , 2s , 2p , 3s , 3p , 3d , 4s ,
6
10
2
6
3
2
f, 6 , 3 .
4p , 4d , 5s , 5p , 4f , 6s
2
2
6
2
4
p, 3 , 16 .
16E: 1s , 2s , 2p , 3s , 3p
. ,
1 (). ,
A.
. .
, .
.
. f .
. ,
d. , .
. 18 VIIIA .
.

taexeiola.gr
- Lewis

42.

.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
1.
A. z :
.......................................................................................................................................
. 8
. 16
. 18 . 32
.......................................................................................................................................
B 1s22s22p63s23p5 :
.......................................................................................................................................
. 1
. 15
. 17
. 7
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
2.
, , ,
.......................................................................................................................................
10, 5, 2, 6 14 ,
.......................................................................................................................................
n = 3.
.......................................................................................................................................
. .
.......................................................................................................................................
.
.......................................................................................................................................
.
.......................................................................................................................................
. .
;
.......................................................................................................................................
.
.......................................................................................................................................
H2O, 3 .
.......................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................

taexeiola.gr
-
4

43.

.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
3.
:
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
: 9F, 26Fe, 12Mg, 19K, 11Na, 5B, 8O, 30Zn, 18Ar.
.......................................................................................................................................
.
.......................................................................................................................................
. ;
.......................................................................................................................................
. , , , ;
.......................................................................................................................................
;
.......................................................................................................................................
. , , ,
.......................................................................................................................................
;
.......................................................................................................................................
. , , ,
.......................................................................................................................................
18Ar;
.......................................................................................................................................
. ,
.......................................................................................................................................
.
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................

taexeiola.gr
- Lewis

44.

4.
.
.......................................................................................................................................
.
.......................................................................................................................................
. 9F i1, 3Li 17Cl.
.......................................................................................................................................
. 12Mg 11a.
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
5.
:
.......................................................................................................................................
. COCl2
. NH4+
. Ca(NO3)2
. HCO3
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................

taexeiola.gr
-
4

45.

6.
3 d, .......................................................................................................................................
.
.......................................................................................................................................
. ;
.......................................................................................................................................
. ;
.......................................................................................................................................
. ;
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
7.
3 2p,
.......................................................................................................................................
.
.......................................................................................................................................
. .
.......................................................................................................................................
. 3.
.......................................................................................................................................
3;
.......................................................................................................................................
. ( ) ;
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................

taexeiola.gr
- Lewis

46.

8.
:
.......................................................................................................................................
. .
.......................................................................................................................................
. .
.......................................................................................................................................
.
.......................................................................................................................................
14Si.
.......................................................................................................................................
. 3d .
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
9.
:
.......................................................................................................................................
4 s.
.......................................................................................................................................
To spin .......................................................................................................................................
+1/2.
.......................................................................................................................................
. ;
.......................................................................................................................................
. ;
.......................................................................................................................................
.
2. H2SO4
3. NaOH
.......................................................................................................................................
: 1. H2O
.......................................................................................................................................
16.
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................

taexeiola.gr
-
5

47.

.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
1
.......................................................................................................................................
.
.
.......................................................................................................................................
( 5)
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.
;
.......................................................................................................................................
.
( 5)
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.
:
:
.......................................................................................................................................
1. ............... ............... ...............
.......................................................................................................................................
2. ............... ............... ............... ...............
.......................................................................................................................................
3. ............... ............... ...............
.......................................................................................................................................
( 5)
.......................................................................................................................................
. ;
.......................................................................................................................................
.
.......................................................................................................................................
. 29Cu [Ar], 3d9, 4s2.
.......................................................................................................................................
. f 6 7 .
.......................................................................................................................................
. s, p, .
.......................................................................................................................................
. Lewis FNO, .
.......................................................................................................................................
. PCl5 P 10 .
( 10)
.......................................................................................................................................

taexeiola.gr
- Lewis

48.

.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
2
.......................................................................................................................................
. 1 :
.......................................................................................................................................
. 20Ca
. 7N
. 4Be
. 5
.......................................................................................................................................
( 5)
.......................................................................................................................................
. :
.......................................................................................................................................
. 28Ni
. 13Al
. 50Sn
. 38Sr
( 5)
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.
p :
. 2
. 4
. 6
. 8
.......................................................................................................................................
( 5)
.......................................................................................................................................
.
34Se.
.......................................................................................................................................
. , Se;
.......................................................................................................................................
. .......................................................................................................................................
, Se;
.......................................................................................................................................
. 1 Se;
.......................................................................................................................................
( 3-3-4)
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................

taexeiola.gr
-
5

49.

3
.......................................................................................................................................
.
:
.......................................................................................................................................
. NH4F
. CaSO4
. a2S
.......................................................................................................................................
: Na = 11, S = 16, N = 7, H = 1, O = 8, Ca = 20.
.......................................................................................................................................
( 15)
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.
N :
.......................................................................................................................................
. 26Fe2+ 26Fe3+.
.......................................................................................................................................
. 11Na+ 12Mg2+.
.......................................................................................................................................
. 82 9F.
.......................................................................................................................................
( 10)
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................

taexeiola.gr
- Lewis

50.

4
.......................................................................................................................................

, , , :
.......................................................................................................................................
1s .
.......................................................................................................................................
2 4p .
.......................................................................................................................................
1 16 .
.......................................................................................................................................
4 , s
spin 0.
.......................................................................................................................................
.
, , .
.......................................................................................................................................
.
.
.......................................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................................
.
.
.......................................................................................................................................
.
.......................................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................................
3.
( 25)
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................

taexeiola.gr

3 ,
:
.
, ,
.

.
.
, Arrhenius
Brnsted Lowry.
.
, ,
.
.
()
.
.

(w), .
[3+] [] :
.
.
.

taexeiola.gr
- -

52.

[3+] [] 25 oC :
.
.
.
pH pOH.
p pOH, : pH + pOH = pKw
pH pOH :
.
.
.
pH pOH 25 oC :
.
.
.
pH ,
.
.

Ka, Kb .

.

Ostwald.

,
.
.
.

.

taexeiola.gr
-
1

53.

:
.

, .

.
,
, .
, .: aCl(s) Na+(aq) + Cl(aq)
, :
. T [M(OH)x]
. T [ (Mx) .. RCOONa]
(.. ) .
:
. ..: Cl + H2O H3O+ + Cl
: .
. ..: 3 + 2  +4 +
, :
. [3 RNH2]
. [ (x) (RCOOH)]
- rrhenius:
+.
.
Arrhenius
.
- Brnsted - Lowry:
:

taexeiola.gr
- -

54.

. : (+).
. : (+).
.
.
, : 3 + 2  +4 +
:
2: +
3: + .
:
4+: +.
: + 4+.
. .
+
, :

.
+ ,
:

+ .
,
+, ,
+ .
,
, ,

,

.
:
+ +
, . , 2 , :
C + 2  CN + H3O+ (2)
3 + 2  4+ + (1)
(1) 2 (+) 3.
(2) 2 (+) CN.

taexeiola.gr
-
1

55.

- :
. ,
, .
:
(, a, Ca(OH)2, ...)
T (aCl, KCl, RCOONa, ...)
M : Cl, HBr, HI, HNO3, HClO4, 2SO4 (1 ).
,
.
. ,
, .
:
: 3, RNH2 ()
: CN, HF, ( )
O : RCOOH, .. CH 3COOH
, .
: + H2O  + +
:
RNH2 + H2O  RNH3+ + OH :
+ H2O  + 3+
: RCOOH + H2O  RCOO + 3+
2 ,
2. , 2S:
2S + H2O  HS + H3O+
HS + H2O  S2 + H3O+
To 2SO4
:
2SO4 + H2O HSO4 + H3O+ ,
HS4 + H2O  S42 + H3O+ ,

.
:
, .
a ( ) b ( ).

taexeiola.gr
- -

56.

:

mol mol
().
, :
n
c
=
=
n
c

, : 0 < < 1

( = 1), .
O :
. .
. .
. .
. C .
. .
, ,
, , .
, .
:
()
(3+). ,
: 2 + 2  3+ +
,
.
(Kw):
: w = [H3O+][OH]
H Kw M2, .
25 C : W = 1014.
w = [H3O+][OH]
.
[3+] []:
. , 25 C, : [H3O+] = [OH] = 107
, : [H3O+] = [OH]
. , 25 C, : [H3O+] > 107 > [OH]

taexeiola.gr
-
1

57.

, : [H3O+] > [OH]


. , 25 C, : [OH] > 107 > [H3O+]
, : [H3O+] < [OH]
pH :
pH
H3O+ : pH = log[H3O+]
A pH pOH: pH = log[OH]
: pX = -logX. :
pKa = -logKa
pKb = -logKb
pKw = -logKw
pH pOH:

25 C, pH = pKw/2, pH < pKw/2 pH > pKw/2


- a :
.
: + 2  +3+
a :
Ka =

[H 3O + ][A - ]
[HA]

H a mol/L, .
a , .
,
, a .
,
a .
b :
:
+ 2  + +

taexeiola.gr
- -

58.

a, b, :
[HB + ][OH - ]
Kb =
[B]
b a.
. b.
b , , . , Kb .
,
a Kb.
Ostwald:
cM
. Ostwald:
2c
Ka =
a = 2c 101 a/c 102
1-
O Ostwald ,
:
2c
Kb =
b = 2c
1-
a b c x,
. :
x2
x2
x2
x2
Ka =
, Kb =
Ka = , Kb =
101 a/c 102, b/c 102
c-x
c-x
c
c
a = 2c b = 2c Ostwald
, :
=

a
b
=
c
c

:
. , . , Ka, Kb ,
.
. c .

.

.
O Ostwald , -

taexeiola.gr
-
1

59.

, .
a b :
W. : a Kb = Kw
Ka Kb , a , b . :
,
.
:
+  +
.
a, Kb.
:
. :

. (pH = 7
25 oC), pH .
. :
, ,
(NaCN, KF, RCOONa) .
(pH > 7 25 oC), pH
, Brnsted - Lowry.
. :

(43, RNH3Cl). (pH < 7 25 oC), pH
, Brnsted - Lowry.
. :
(RCOONH4, NH4CN, NH4F).
, , a b, .
:
1. a > Kb [3+] > [], pH < 7, 25 C.
2. a = Kb [3+] = [], pH = 7, 25 C.
3. a < Kb [3+] < [], pH > 7, 25 C.

taexeiola.gr
- -

60.

.
:
. 143: 18, 19
. 144: 26, 32, 35
. 145: 36, 39, 40, 41

. 146: 44, 45, 46, 49, 50


. 147: 52, 55, 56, 57

. 5, 6 7
(
, )
:
(5 )
. 126: 3
. 127: 5
(6 )
. 141: 1
. 144: 5
. 146: 1, 2

(7 )
. 163: 2
. 165: 3
. 167: 4
. 170: 2
. 171: 3
. 173: 4

:
(5 )
. 133: : 4, 6, 7
. 134:
(6 )
. 153: : 2, 4, 10, 11
. 154: : 13, 14, 15
. 154:

(7 )
. 178: : 4, 6, 8
. 179: : 13, 14, 16
. 180: : 20, 21
. 180:

taexeiola.gr
-
3

61.

1. 500 mL () NaOH pH = 13.


. () 1500 mL ClO 4 1/15 .
pH ;
. mol HBr ()
pH = 12.
. mol HBr ()
pH = 7.
w = 1014, log0,025 = 1,6, r
.
:
(), NaOH :

pH + pOH = pKw pH + pOH = 14 13 + pOH = 14 pOH = 1


pOH = log[OH] 1 = logc1 c1 = 101 M
. : n = cV mol NaOH HClO4,
:
nNaOH = c1V1 = 101 M 0,5 L = 0,05 mol
nHClO4 = c2V2 = 1/15 M 1,5 L = 0,1 mol
aOH HClO4 :

0,05 mol HClO4 0,05 mol NaClO4. O


: V = V1 + V2 = 0,5 L + 1,5 L = 2 L

taexeiola.gr
- -

62.

To NaCl4 pH ,
.
HClO4 :
cT(HClO4 ) =

n T(HClO4 )
VT

0,05mol
= 0,025M
2L

ClO4 , :

pH = log[H3O+] = log0,025 = 1,6


. x mol HBr. , :
nNaOH > nHBr. : x < 0,05.
H NaOH HBr :

NaBr pH ,
.
aOH :
cT(NaOH) =

n T(NaOH)
V1

(0,05 x)mol
= (0,1 2x)M
0,5L

NaOH :

pH + pOH = pKw pH + pOH = 14 12 + pOH = 14 pOH = 2


pOH = log[OH] 2 = log(0,1 2x) (0,1 2x) = 102 x = 0,045
0,045 mol HBr.
. (pH = 7) mol
mol . : nHBr = nNaOH = 0,05 mol

taexeiola.gr
-
3

63.

2. Y 0,1 200 mL pH = 4.
. a .
. 100 . pH ;
. mL 2 ,
10 ;
.
:
. :

pH = 4 logx = 4 x = 104.
c . x 104
= =
= 10 3
c. c1 101
1 = 103 < 101, : a = 12c1 = (103)20,1 = 107

O : 1 =

. , : V2 = 100V1. c2
, : c1V1 = c2V2 c2 = c1/100 c2 = 103 M
:

E a/c2 = 107/103 = 104 < 102, : a = y2/c2 y =

K a c 2 = 105

pH = log[H3O+] = logy = log105 = 5


. M , . , 3 : 3 = 1/10 = 104
3 = 104 < 101, : a = 32c3 c3 = Ka/32 = 10 M
A V3 o , :
c1V1 = c3V3 V3 = c1V1/c3 = 2 mL
2 : V = V1 V3 = 200mL 2mL = 198 mL

taexeiola.gr
- -

64.

3. () CH3COONa 102 pH = 9.
. a CH3COOH.
. mol CH3COONa 500 mL (), , pH 1 ;
. mL 2 40 mL ()
pH 1 ;
25 C.
:
. H CH3COONa :

a+ ,
aOH. A, C3COO
C3COOH.
O C3COO :

pH + pOH = pKw 9 + pOH = 14 pOH = 5


pOH = log[OH] 5 = logx x = 105
c
x 105
3
O CH3COO : 1 = . = = 2 = 10 < 101, :
c. c1 10
2
5
2
2
8
b = x /c1 = (10 ) /10 = 10
CH3COOH CH3COO :
a Kb = Kw Ka = Kw/Kb = 1014/108 = 106
. y M CH3COOa
.
CH3COONa pH ,
CH3COO. ,
pH = 10 pOH = 4.
pOH = 4 log[OH] = 4 log = 4 = 104
O CH3COO ,
, Ostwald:

taexeiola.gr
-
3

65.

b = 2/y y = 2/Kb = (104)2/108 = 1 M


CH3COONa 1 .
mol CH3COONa :
n. = cV = 1M 0,5L = 0,5 mol
T mol CH3COONa :
n. = c.V = 102M 0,5L = 0,005 mol
0,5 0,005 = 0,495 mol CH3COONa.
. z M CH3COOa .
2 pH , CH3COO. , pH = 8 pOH = 6.
pOH = 6 log[OH] = 6 log = 6 = 106
b = 2/z z = 2/Kb = (106)2/108 = 104 M
CH3COONa 104 M.
b/c = 108/104 = 104 < 102,
Ostwald.
:
c.V. = c.V. V. = c.V./c. = 4000 mL
O 2 : V = .V. V. = 3960 mL

taexeiola.gr
- -

66.

.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
1.
5 L NaOH p = 13.
.......................................................................................................................................
, :
.......................................................................................................................................
. H2O p
.......................................................................................................................................
1 ;
.......................................................................................................................................
. L HCl S.T.P.
, p 1 ;
.......................................................................................................................................
. g OH
.......................................................................................................................................
p 1 ;
.......................................................................................................................................
. p = 0
.......................................................................................................................................
p 1 ;
.......................................................................................................................................
: w = 1014, ArK = 39, ArO = 16, ArH = 1.
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
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67.

2.
0,896 L HCN S.T.P.
.......................................................................................................................................
400 mL, [3+] = 104 .
.......................................................................................................................................
. Ka CN.
.......................................................................................................................................
. 200 mL 600 mL 2. .......................................................................................................................................
;
.......................................................................................................................................
. 200 mL CN,
.......................................................................................................................................
pH
.......................................................................................................................................
0,5. g HCN ;
.......................................................................................................................................
: ArH = 1, ArC = 12, ArN = 14.
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
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.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
3.
Y 1 c1 = 102 M 2
.......................................................................................................................................
c2 = 105 pH 5.
.......................................................................................................................................
. .
.......................................................................................................................................
. b 25 C.
.......................................................................................................................................
. pH ,
.......................................................................................................................................
1, 2 .

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68.

.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
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.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
4.
O CH3H2 0,2 4 104.
.......................................................................................................................................
, 2 L :
.......................................................................................................................................
. 0,2 mol CH3H2, .
.......................................................................................................................................
. 1000 mL 2.
.......................................................................................................................................
. 10 L CH3H2 = 8 104.
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
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4

69.

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.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
5.
1,12 L Cl S.T.P.
.......................................................................................................................................
500 mL.
.......................................................................................................................................
. pH ;
.......................................................................................................................................
. 10 mL
.......................................................................................................................................
100 mL. pH ;
.......................................................................................................................................
. 100 mL aOH
0,03 M, pH ;
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
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70.

.......................................................................................................................................
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.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
6.
25 mL 2 V
.......................................................................................................................................
mL 3 2 .
.......................................................................................................................................
. N V.
.......................................................................................................................................
. :
.......................................................................................................................................
1. 15 mL 3 2
.......................................................................................................................................
2. 50 mL 3 1
.......................................................................................................................................
pH ;
.......................................................................................................................................
. 5,6% w/v
25 mL 2 ;
.......................................................................................................................................
: log2 = 0,3, rKOH = 56.
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
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4

71.

.......................................................................................................................................
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.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
7.
3 aOH .......................................................................................................................................
pH = x pH = 14. To V
45V.
.......................................................................................................................................
. A pH = 12, x.
.......................................................................................................................................
. 3 x = 0, pH .......................................................................................................................................
, .
.......................................................................................................................................
: = 25 C.
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
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72.

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.......................................................................................................................................
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.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
8.
COOH 92% w/w, 1,2 g/mL.
.......................................................................................................................................
.
.......................................................................................................................................
, 1 L 1 ;
.......................................................................................................................................
. pH = 2, a HCOOH;
.......................................................................................................................................
. mL 2 50 mL ,
pH 0,5 ;
.......................................................................................................................................
: = 25 C, log2 = 0,3, MrHCOOH = 46.
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
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.......................................................................................................................................
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-
5

73.

.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
1
.......................................................................................................................................
.
; .......................................................................................................................................
2 .
.......................................................................................................................................
( 5)
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.
:
.......................................................................................................................................
1 + 2  2 + 1
( 5)
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.
:
H
Kw .................... ,
.......................................................................................................................................
...................., ....................
.......................................................................................................................................
....................,
.......................................................................................................................................
w ....................
.......................................................................................................................................
( 5)
2
.......................................................................................................................................
. CO3 :
.......................................................................................................................................
. HCO3
. CO2
. CO
. 2CO3
( 5)
.......................................................................................................................................
3

E.
Y CH3COONa 10 M 25 C
.......................................................................................................................................
pH :
.......................................................................................................................................
. 12
. 11
. 10
. 5
.......................................................................................................................................
( 5)
.......................................................................................................................................

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74.

2
.......................................................................................................................................
.
a b .......................................................................................................................................
: a Kb = Kw
.......................................................................................................................................
( 6)
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.
4F 25 C c M.
.......................................................................................................................................
, , bNH3 = 106 KaHF = 108.
( 9)
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.
N pH HCl 108 M.
.......................................................................................................................................
: w = 1014, log10,5 = 1,02, 4,01 2
( 10)
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
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.......................................................................................................................................

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5

75.

3
.......................................................................................................................................

() HCl 36,5 103% w/v.


.......................................................................................................................................
.
pH .
.......................................................................................................................................
.
200 mL 0,04 g aOH, .
.......................................................................................................................................
pH ;
.......................................................................................................................................
.
.......................................................................................................................................
2 10 2 M, pH = 12;
.......................................................................................................................................
: rH = 1, ArCl = 35,5, ArNa = 23, ArO = 16 log5 = 0,7, = 25 oC.
.......................................................................................................................................
( 25)
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
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76.

4
.......................................................................................................................................
3
Y
() 10 pH = 4.
.......................................................................................................................................
.
.
.......................................................................................................................................
.
600 mL 450 mL . .......................................................................................................................................
pH 1 .
.......................................................................................................................................
. 400 mL 1600 mL aOH 2,5 104 .
.......................................................................................................................................
pH 2 .
.......................................................................................................................................
: log2 = 0,3 w = 1014.
.......................................................................................................................................
( 25)
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
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.......................................................................................................................................

taexeiola.gr

3 ,
:
.
.
:

.
.
, .

.
,
Henderson - Hasselbalch.
.
.
:
.

, - .
.

.
, .
.

.

taexeiola.gr
- - -

78.

:
, ( ) ,
(. . ) :
. .
. .
. , a b .
. pH
.
1. pH
2. pH.

,
.
, .
:, :
. - , .. CH3COOH HCl.
. - , .. HCN NaCN.
. - , .. NH3 NaOH.
. - , .. NH3 NH4Cl.
. ,
,
.
Io :
, 1, 2, ... : 1 > 2 > ...
+
.
. , 3+
, .

taexeiola.gr
-
1

[H 3 O + ] = K a

c
c

79.

cM
cM, 3+
:
c
[H3O + ] = K a
c
[3+] << c [3+] << c.
HA :

[H 3O + ][A ] x(c + x)
=
[HA[
c x
[3+] << c : c x c
c
c
= K a c x = K a
[ 3 + ] = K a
c
c

: a =
[3+] << c
xc
a =
xc
c

:
pH ,

, .
:
. (/), : F/F
. (/+), : 3/4+
pH - pOH :
-
. :
c
c
pH = pK a + log
[H 3O + ] = K a
( enderson - Hasselbalch)
c
c
- . :
c
c
( enderson - Hasselbalch)
pOH = pK b + log
[ ] = K b
c
c
enderson - Hasselbalch, :
. /,

taexeiola.gr
- - -

80.

, (cHA, cA)
([], [ ]):
cHA [] cA [ ]
. /+,
, (c, c+)
([], [+]):
c [] c+ [+]
:
, :
. ,
, ..: RCOOH RCOOK.
. ,
. ..: 3 4Cl.
:
:
. .
..: COOH HCOOK,
COOH/HCOO.
. .
..: 3 NH4Cl,
3/4+.
. .
1. .
, mol CH3COOH mol aOH > .
, CH3COOH CH3COONa.
, CH3COOH NaOH,
CH3COOH/CH3COO.
2. .
, mol 3 mol Cl > .
, 3 4Cl.
3 Cl
3/4+.
. .
, mol CH3COONa mol HCl > .
, C3COONa C3COOH.
C3COONa Cl C3COO/C3COOH.
. .

taexeiola.gr
-
1

81.

, mol 4Cl mol NaOH > .


, 4Cl N3.
NH4Cl aOH
4+/3.
:
. :
/.
,
.
pH, pH .
mol mol
.
. :

, , . ,
Henderson - Hasselbalch, pH
.
,
Henderson - Hasselbalch
.
:
pH .

.
, :

+
1

+
2

3+

. .
:
pH < pK aH - 1 .
pH > pK aH + 1 .
p pK aH - 1 pK aH + 1
.

taexeiola.gr
- - -

82.

,
( ) .
,
.
, .

.
, .
, .
, p
.
,
pH ,
, pH
.
pH .
pH .
:
. :
,
. pH = 7, 25 oC.
. :
,
. pH > 7, 25 oC.
. :
,
. pH < 7, 25 oC.

taexeiola.gr
-
2

83.

.
:
. 148: 60, 63, 65
. 149: 69, 71, 72, 74, 75
. 150: 77, 79, 81, 82
. 151: 83, 86, 87, 88

. 152: 89, 90
. 155: 111, 112, 113, 114
. 156: 115, 117, 118
. 157: 119,120, 122

. 8, 9 10
(
, )
:
(8 )
(10 )
. 187: 2
. 239: 1
. 188: 3
. 241: 2
. 194: 3
. 245: 2
. 195: 4
. 247: 3
(9 )
. 212: 2
. 217: 2
. 220: 4
:
(8 )
(9 )
. 202: : 4, 5, 6
. 227: : 1, 2, 3, 5, 6
. 203: : 9, 11, 14 . 228: : 8, 10, 13, 14
. 204: : 17, 18
. 229: : 16, 17
. 204: . 230:
(10 )
. 253: : 1, 3, 4
. 254: : 6,7
. 254:

taexeiola.gr
- - -

84.

1. () 2 0,1 500 mL -

1 = 102.
. pH () a .
. 300 mL () 3,
. 2
10 , mol HNO3 ;
. 200 mL () 0,37 g Ca(OH)2,
. pH
.
: MrCa(OH)2 = 74, 25 C.

:
. 2 :

[3+] = 1c1 = 102 0,1M = 103 M


pH = log[3+] = log103 = 3
1 = 102 < 101, a 2 : a = 12c1 = 105
. c2 3 300 mL . 3 :

, 3+. 2 10 , : 2 = 1/10 = 103


2 :

taexeiola.gr
-
3

85.

2 :

[H 3O + ][NO 2 ]
(c + 2 c1 ) 2 c1
Ka = 2
(1)
[HNO 2 ]
c1 (1 2 )
c2 + 2c1 c2 1 2 1, a/c = 104 < 102.
K
c c
105
(1) : K a = 2 2 1 K a = c 2 2 c 2 = a = 3 = 102
c1
2 10
2
mol HNO3 : n HNO3 = c2 V = 10 M 0,3L = 3 103 mol
Ka =

. mol 2 Ca(OH)2 :
mCa(OH)2
n Ca(OH)2 =
= 0,005 mol
nHNO2 = c1V = 0,02 mol
MrCa(OH)2
A o 2 ,
Ca(OH)2 . :

, 0,01 mol HNO2 0,005 mol Ca(NO2)2.


n HNO2 0,01mol
c HNO2 =
=
= 0,05 M
V
0, 2L
n Ca(NO2 )2 0,005mol
cCa(NO2 )2 =
=
= 0,025 M
V
0, 2L
H Ca(NO2)2 :

, 2.
2 :

taexeiola.gr
- - -

86.

2 :

[H 3 O + ][NO 2 ]
x(0, 05 + x )
10 5 =
(2)
[HNO 2 ]
0, 05 x
0,05 + x 0,05 0,05 x 0,05, a/c < 102.
(2) : 105 = x
[3+] = 105 pH = log[3+] = log105 = 5
Ka =

2. 400 mL COOK 101 M .


. 0,01 mol HCl,
, pH 1 ;
. 400 mL 3 0,05 ,
[3+] 2 ;
: w = 1014 HCOOH, Ka = 104.
:
T mol COOK 2 :
nHCOOK = cV = 101M 0,2L = 0,02 mol
. H COOK HCl :

, : Cl, COOH HCOOK.


KCl pH .
HCOOH COOK :
cHCOOH = nHCOOH/V = 0,01mol/0,2L = 0,05 M
cHCOOK = nHCOOK/V = 0,01mol/0,2L = 0,05 M
, o HCOOH
COO, COOK :

c = cCOOK = 0,05 M
c = cHCOOH = 0,05 M
E Henderson - Hasselbalch:
c
0,05
pH = pK a + log
= log104 + log
= 4 + log1 = 4
c
0,05
. mol 3 2 : nHNO3 = cV = 0,05M 0,4L = 0,02 mol
H COOK HNO3 :

taexeiola.gr
-
3

87.

, : NO3 COOH.
KNO3 pH .
HCOOH : cHCOOH = nHCOOH/V = 0,02mol/0,6L = 1/30 M
COOH :

COOH :
[H3O + ][HCOO ]
xx
Ka =
(1)
[HCOOH]
1/ 30 x
1/30 x 1/30, a/c = 3 103 < 102.
Ka =

(1) : K a = 30x 2 x =
[H3O+] =

104
M
30

Ka
104
M
x=
30
30

3. 3 0,6 4Cl 0,4 M.


. M pH = 9;
. 500 mL 0,02 g aOH,
, pH .
. , pH
;
: 3 b = 105, Kw = 1014 rNaOH = 40.
:
. V1 L 3 V2 L 4Cl. T mol 3 4Cl :
nNH3 = c1V1 = 0,6V1 mol nNH4Cl = c2V2 = 0,4V2 mol
3 4Cl :
cNH3 = 0,6V1/(V1 + V2) M cNH4Cl = 0,4V2/(V1 + V2) M

taexeiola.gr
- - -

88.

To 3 - 4+ : c. = cNH3 co. = cNH4Cl.


: pH + pOH = pKw 9 + pOH = 14 pOH = 5
Henderson - Hasselbalch:
pOH = pKb + log(c./c.) 5 = -log105 + log(c./c.)
5 = 5 + log(c./c.) log(c./c.) = 0 c./c. = 1 c. = c.

V1 2
=
V2 3
. To 500 mL, : V1 + V2 = 0,5 (1)
V 2
(2) (1) (2) : V1 = 0,2 L V2 = 0,3 L
: 1 =
V2 3
T mol 3 4Cl :
nNH3 = c1V1 = 0,6 0,2L = 0,12 mol nNH4Cl = c2V2 = 0,4M 0,3L = 0,12 mol
m
0,02g
= 5 104 mol
T mol NaOH : n NaOH = NaOH =
MrNaOH 40g / mol
aOH 4Cl :
: 0,4V2/(V1 + V2) = 0,6V1/(V1 + V2) 0,4V2 = 0,6V1

To NaCl pH. 4Cl 3 :


cNH3 = nNH3/V = (0,12 + 5104)mol/0,5L = (0,24 + 103) M 0,24 M
cNH4Cl = nNH4Cl/V = (0,12 5104)mol/0,5L = (0,24 103) M 0,24 M
: 0,24 103 0,24
Henderson - Hasselbalch:
pOH = pKb + log(c./c.) = -log105 + log(0,24./0,24) = 5
pH + pOH = pKw pH + 5 = 14 pH = 9
: 0,24 103 0,24, pH
8,996, 9.
. 3 4Cl :
cNH3V = cNH32V cNH3 = cNH3/2 = 0,12 M
cNH4ClV = cNH4Cl2V cNH4Cl = cNH4Cl/2 = 0,12 M
Henderson - Hasselbalch:
pOH = pKb + log(c./c.) = -log105 + log(0,12./0,12) = 5
pH + pOH = pKw pH + 5 = 14 pH = 9

taexeiola.gr
-
4

89.

.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
1.
25ml 2 .......................................................................................................................................
100 mL.
.......................................................................................................................................
.
.......................................................................................................................................
.
.......................................................................................................................................
. 100 mL 100
mL 0,25 . .......................................................................................................................................
p ;
.......................................................................................................................................
o: Kb = 106
.......................................................................................................................................
Kw = 1014.
.......................................................................................................................................
25 oC.
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................

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- - -

90.

2.
1 2 25 oC. 1
.......................................................................................................................................
500 mL 0,1 NaOH. 2 500
.......................................................................................................................................
mL, 0,1 . 2
.......................................................................................................................................
250 mL 1 3 pH = 5.
.......................................................................................................................................
. pH 1.
.......................................................................................................................................
. a .
.......................................................................................................................................
. pH 2.
.......................................................................................................................................
. 1 2, pH
.......................................................................................................................................
4 ;
.......................................................................................................................................
: Kw = 1014, log5 = 0,7.
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
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taexeiola.gr
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4

91.

3.
1, 2. 1 10 L 0,1
.......................................................................................................................................
. 2 10 L, 0,1 pH = 3.
.......................................................................................................................................
. a pH 1.
.......................................................................................................................................
. 1 2 pH = 6.
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
. .
.......................................................................................................................................
. 2 10 g aOH
.......................................................................................................................................
3. 1, 3 .......................................................................................................................................
4. pH 4;
.......................................................................................................................................
: = 25 C, w = 1014, ArNa = 23, ArH = 1, ArO = 16, log6 = 0,78.
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- - -

92.

4.
110 ml 0,1 .......................................................................................................................................
p .......................................................................................................................................
.
.......................................................................................................................................
. p 3 Cl.
.......................................................................................................................................
. moles HCl, NH .
.......................................................................................................................................3
. 3 0,121 mol HCl
.......................................................................................................................................
, pH .
.......................................................................................................................................
. Cl 0,5 3
.......................................................................................................................................
pH = 9;
.......................................................................................................................................
: Kb = 105, .......................................................................................................................................
Kw = 1014, .
.......................................................................................................................................
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taexeiola.gr
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4

93.

5.
3 L (CH 3CH 2NH 2) 0,3 mol
.......................................................................................................................................

CH3CH2NH3+Cl, , 1
.......................................................................................................................................
pH = 9.
.......................................................................................................................................
. b .
.......................................................................................................................................
1 .
.......................................................................................................................................
. x mol HCl,
.......................................................................................................................................
2 pH
.......................................................................................................................................
1. x mol HCl.
.......................................................................................................................................
. mol HCl 3 .......................................................................................................................................
pH = 7. mol HCl.
.......................................................................................................................................
. 0,1 mol NaOH
2 L. pH 4 .
.......................................................................................................................................
: = 25 C.
.......................................................................................................................................
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taexeiola.gr
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94.

6.
400 mL 1 1 ,
.......................................................................................................................................

= 103.
.......................................................................................................................................
. pH 1 a .
.......................................................................................................................................
2 - aA, pH = 6.
.......................................................................................................................................
. NaA 0,5 .......................................................................................................................................
1 2.
.......................................................................................................................................
. aOH 0,2
.......................................................................................................................................
1 2.
.......................................................................................................................................
. 1 0,1 mol HCl 0,5 mol NaOH
.......................................................................................................................................
, pH 3 ;
.......................................................................................................................................
: = 25 C.
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
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taexeiola.gr
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4

95.

7.
1 2.
.......................................................................................................................................
1 HCOOH 0,22 100 mL.
.......................................................................................................................................
2 CH3COOH 0,22 100 mL.
.......................................................................................................................................
. 1, 2 pH;
.......................................................................................................................................
.
.......................................................................................................................................
. 1, 2 3. pH 3;
.......................................................................................................................................
. 3 , .......................................................................................................................................
. g KOH pH
.......................................................................................................................................
;
.......................................................................................................................................
: = 25 oC, ArK = 39, ArO = 16, ArH = 1, log11 = 1,04,
HCOOH: a = 104, CH3COOH: a = 105.
.......................................................................................................................................
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taexeiola.gr
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96.

8.
pH = , :
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
2 103 .
.......................................................................................................................................
, .......................................................................................................................................
, pH .
.......................................................................................................................................
. ;
.......................................................................................................................................
. ;
.......................................................................................................................................
. ;
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taexeiola.gr
-
4

97.

9.
pH = 4 pH = 5 .......................................................................................................................................
, aA.
.......................................................................................................................................
0,1 .
.......................................................................................................................................
, pH ;
.......................................................................................................................................
: a = 105, = 25 oC, log2 = 0,3, log11 = 1,04.
.......................................................................................................................................
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10.
9 g (C2+12)
.......................................................................................................................................
1, 100 mL.
.......................................................................................................................................
1 Cl 2 .
.......................................................................................................................................
50 mL , 2
pH = 9.
.......................................................................................................................................
H 100
.......................................................................................................................................
mL HCl.
.......................................................................................................................................

taexeiola.gr
- - -

98.

. Kb .
.......................................................................................................................................
. pH .
.......................................................................................................................................
. pH 1.
.......................................................................................................................................
. ;
.......................................................................................................................................
pH .
.......................................................................................................................................
1. (pH: 1 - 3)
2. (pH: 4 - 6)
.......................................................................................................................................
3. (pH: 8 - 10)
.......................................................................................................................................
: w = 1014, log2 = 0,3, ArC = 12, ArH = 1, ArN = 14.
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taexeiola.gr
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5

99.

.......................................................................................................................................
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.......................................................................................................................................
1
.......................................................................................................................................
.
;
.......................................................................................................................................
( 5)
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.
pH
.......................................................................................................................................
CH3COOH :
.......................................................................................................................................
. Cl
. NaCl
. CH3COOK
( 9)
.......................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.
:
.......................................................................................................................................
.................... ....................
.......................................................................................................................................
( 3)
.......................................................................................................................................
.
pH ( ):
.......................................................................................................................................


.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
1. CH3NH2 102 M (Kb = 104)
. 2
5
2. NH3 0,1 M NH4Cl 0,01 M (KbNH3 = 10 )
.......................................................................................................................................
. 10
1
5
3. CH3COOH 10 M (Ka = 10 )
. 11
.......................................................................................................................................
2 M
4.
HNO
10
. 5
.......................................................................................................................................
3
4.
CH
COOH
0,2
M

CH
COONa
0,2

. 13
3
3
.......................................................................................................................................
6. NaOH 101 M
. 3
.......................................................................................................................................
( 8)
.......................................................................................................................................

taexeiola.gr
- - -

100.

2
.......................................................................................................................................
.
NH3 HCl pH
.......................................................................................................................................
25 oC :
.......................................................................................................................................
. pH < 7
. pH > 7
. pH = 7
.......................................................................................................................................
( 5)
.......................................................................................................................................
B. ;
.......................................................................................................................................
.
.......................................................................................................................................
. ,
.......................................................................................................................................
Ka .
.......................................................................................................................................
. 3 4Cl, pH .
.......................................................................................................................................
. , .
.......................................................................................................................................
. 200 mL CH3COOH 0,1 M 50 mL .......................................................................................................................................
aOH 0,2 , .
.......................................................................................................................................
. , pH
.......................................................................................................................................
.
.......................................................................................................................................
( 10)
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.

.......................................................................................................................................
[]/[] > 10.
pH < pKaH 1.
.......................................................................................................................................
( 10)
.......................................................................................................................................
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taexeiola.gr
-
5

101.

3
.......................................................................................................................................

(1) 3 0,1 M pH = 11, (2) 4Cl 103 M.


.......................................................................................................................................
.
pH 2.
.......................................................................................................................................
.
1 2 .......................................................................................................................................

pH = 9;
.......................................................................................................................................
:
w = 1014.
.......................................................................................................................................
( 25)
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
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.......................................................................................................................................
4
.......................................................................................................................................
200
mL 1 RCOOH NaOH 1/6 .
.......................................................................................................................................

aOH
.......................................................................................................................................

300 mL. :
.......................................................................................................................................
.
pH 1.
.......................................................................................................................................
.
pH .
.......................................................................................................................................

taexeiola.gr
- - -

102.

........................................................................................................................................
;
: pH: 3 4,5
.......................................................................................................................................
: pH: 6 7,5
.......................................................................................................................................
: pH: 8 10
.......................................................................................................................................
.
1 , ;
.......................................................................................................................................
:
w = 1014, RCOOH: a = 105, log5 = 0,7.
.......................................................................................................................................
( 25)
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
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taexeiola.gr

5 ,
:
.
.

.

.
.
sp
.
sp2 .
sp3 .

.

.

.
.

.

taexeiola.gr

104.

:
:
. .
, .
. ,
. ,
.
. , .
. , .
:
:
. ,
.
. ,
spin .
.
.
, .
:
s s, s p p p , .
.
,
. ,
. .

taexeiola.gr
-
1

105.

:
p p ,
. ,
,

. ,
. s , , .
, s , .
, .
() ,
(=) () .
, ( )
,
.
:
. .
.
, , .
. .
. , .
:
sp s
p .
sp
50% s 50%
p.
sp2 s
p .
sp2
120.
sp3 s
p .

taexeiola.gr

106.

sp3
109,5.
:
(C C):
T , sp3
,
sp3 sp3.
(C = C):
T , sp2 .
sp2 sp2 p p.
(C C):
T , sp . sp sp p p.
: C C < C = C < C C
:
( ) :
. : 12 , 275 283.
. : 12 , 283 285.
. : 13 , 301 306.
. : 13 , 306 308.
. - : 14 , 325 330.
. - : 14 , 330 333.
. : 15 , 351 352.

taexeiola.gr
-
1

107.

CvH2v+2
CvH2v CvH2v-2
R-C C-R1
R-C C - H,
HC CH
R-OH
R-O-R 1
R-CH2OH
R
CH-OH
R1
R
R1 C - OH
R2
R - CH = O
R-C-R 1
O
CH3CH2O
R - CH2OH
CH3CH = O
R - CH=
R - CH - CH3
OH
R - CH - R1
OH
R - C - CH3
O
R - C - R1
O
R-COOH
R1-COO-R2

HCOOH

/ Br2 CCl4
/
CuCl
a
a

/ KMnO4

OXI

R-C CCu,CuC CCu


R-C Ca, C Ca
2
RONa + 1/2 H2
OXI
R - COOH
R C=
R1

H2

Fehling

Tollens

Cu2O
Ag

I2 a
I2 a

I2 a

I2 a

CHI3

CHI3

CHI3

CHI3

OXI
Na2CO3

CO2

RCOOH

/ KMnO4
/ K2Cr2O7

C6H5OH

R-OH

CO2
OXI
C6H5Oa + 2

taexeiola.gr

108.

.
:
. 259: 43, 44, 45, 46
. 260: 48
. 262: 65
. 263: 66, 68, 70, 71, 73
. 264: 74, 76, 77

. 265: 86, 91, 92


. 266: 94, 95, 96, 97, 100
. 267: 101, 103
. 268: 104, 105, 106, 108
. 269: 109, 111, 112, 113

. 11 15
(
, )
:
(11 15 )
. 336: 4
. 268: 1, 2
. 340: 7
. 287: 3
. 356: 1, 2
. 290: 5
. 358: 5
. 311: 4
. 359: 7
. 314: 7
. 362: 9
. 335: 3
:
(11 15 )
. 274: 1, 3
. 274:
. 298: 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
. 299: 15, 16, 17
. 300:
. 321: 7, 8, 9
. 322: 10, 12, 13

. 347: 11, 12, 13, 14


. 348: 15, 16, 18
. 349:
. 368: 3, 6
. 369: 11, 12, 14
. 370: 15, 16, 18
. 371: 19, 22, 13

taexeiola.gr
-
3

109.

1. . ;
. 600 mL r2
CCl4 16,2 g.
;
. . 1
a. S.T.P.
;
. 2 HgSO4
2SO4. ;
. 3 CuCl.
g ;
: = 1, C = 12, Br = 80, Cu = 63,5.
:
: CHy. H 2 :
CHy + 2 CH2+2
o 2 , = 2.
: y + 2 = 2 + 2 y + 4 = 2 + 2 y = 2 2
: CH2 2, .
. : C22 + 2Br2 C22r4
100 mL 16 g Br2.
: x = 96 g Br2
600 mL x; g Br2.
m Br2
96g
n Br2 =
=
= 0,6 mol
MrBr2 160g / mol
1 mol A 2 mol Br2.
mol A 0,6 mol Br2.
: = 0,3 mol A

taexeiola.gr

110.

H .
, 0,3 mol A 16,2 g.
m
m
16, 2g
= 54g / mol
n A = A MrA = A =
MrA
n A 0,3mol
: rA = ArC + (2 2)rH = 14 2
: 14 2 = 54 = 4
: C4H6
. a,
CH
. : CH3CH2C
CH3CH2CCH + a CH3CH2CCNa + 1/2 H2
H 0,1 mol.
1 mol A 1/2 mol 2.
0,1 mol A z; mol 2.
: z = 0,1/2 mol H2
O 2 S.T.P. : VH2 = nH2 Vm = 0,1/2 mol 22,4 L/mol = 1,12 L
.
.
. CH3CH2CCH + CuCl + NH3 CH3CH2CCCu + NH4Cl
1 mol A 1 mol CH3CH2CCCu.
: = 0,1 mol CH3CH2CCCu.
0,1 mol A ; mol CH3CH2CCCu.
r CH3CH2CCCu : r = 4ArC + ArH + ArCu = 116,5
: m. = n Mr = 0,1 mol 116,5 = 11,65 g

2. . 1 V mL KMnO4 0,2 , H2SO4 . 2


(a) 0,2 mol . 3 2 1,2 mol CO2. :
. .
. KMnO4
.
:
: C2+1, : C2+1
3x mol A 3x mol B.

taexeiola.gr
-
3

111.

2
,
, .
2 , , , CH3CH2OH ( = 2).
CH3CH2OH + 4I2 + 6NaOH CHI3 + HCOONa + 5NaI + 5H2O
mol : 3x/3 = x mol
:
1 mol 1 mol CH3I.
x mol 0,2 mol CH3I.
x = 0,2
:
C2+1 + 3/2 O2 CO2 + (+1)2 (1)
(2)
C25 + 3O2 2CO2 + 32
(1) :
1 mol
mol C2.
0,2 mol ; mol C2.
= 0,2 mol C2.
(2) :
1 mol C25 2 mol C2.
0,2 mol C25 ; mol C2.
= 0,4 mol C2.
mol CO2 1,2, :
0,2 + 0,4 = 1,2 = 4, : C4H9OH.
. C4H9OH,
. , : CH3CH2CH2CH2OH
B : CH3CH2OH
. n4 :
5CH3CH2CH2CH2OH + 4KMnO4 + 6H2SO4 5CH3CH2CH2COOH + 4MnSO4 + 2K2SO4 + 11H2O

5CH3CH2OH + 4KMnO4 + 6H2SO4 5CH3COOH + 4MnSO4 + 2K2SO4 + 11H2O


:
5 mol 1- 4 mol nO4.
0,2 mol 1- ; mol nO4.
= 0,16 mol nO4.
:
5 mol 4 mol nO4.
0,2 mol ; mol nO4.

taexeiola.gr

112.

= 0,16 mol nO4.


, mol KMnO4 : (0,16 + 0,16)mol = 0,32 mol.
n
n 0,32mol
= 1,6 L
: c = V = =
V
c
0, 2M

3. C5H10O 8,6 g. . 1 4,29 g . 2


(a) .
mol
.
: rC5H10O = 86, rCu2O = 143
:
C5H10O :

2x mol 2 mol .
: mA + mB = m. 2x 86 + 2 86 = 8,6 x + = 0,05
1 x mol A mol B. ,
. ( ),
, :
CH3CH2CH2CH2CH = O + 2CuSO4 + 5NaOH CH3CH2CH2CH2COONa + Cu2O + 2Na2SO4 + 3H2O

:
1 mol 1 mol Cu2O.
= x mol Cu2O.
x; mol ; mol Cu2O.
n Cu 2 O =

m Cu 2 O
MrCu 2 O

x=

4, 29g
= 0,03mol
143g / mol

x + = 0,05 = 0,05 x = 0,02 mol


H 3-, 2- 2.
0,06 mol 0,04 mol 3-.

4.

Mr = 130 . 2/a , HCl ,

taexeiola.gr
-
3

113.

, , .
,
;
: rH = 1, ArC = 12, ArO = 16.
:
: C2+1CCH2+1.
:
+

C 2 +1COOC 2 +1 + 2
C 2 +1COO + C 2 +1
+

, : C2+1C
: CH2+1.
H , : CH2+1CH()CH3.
: + 2 = (1)
:
CH2+1CH()CH3 + 42 + 6aOH CHI3 + C2+1COONa + 5NaI + 5H2O
Cl :
C2+1COONa + Cl C2+1COO + aCl

. , : C2+1COO.
, = (2)
: rA = 130 ( + + 1)rC + (2 + 2 + 2)ArH + 2rO = 130
+ = 6 (3)
(1) (2) (3) : = = 2, = 4
: CH3C2COOC4H9, : CH3CH2COOH : C3CH2CH(OH)CH3.
:

taexeiola.gr

114.

.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
1.
.......................................................................................................................................

.
.......................................................................................................................................
;
.......................................................................................................................................
. 2 .
.......................................................................................................................................
1
.......................................................................................................................................
400 mL 8% w/v .......................................................................................................................................
11,2 g.
;
.......................................................................................................................................
. 2 2
.......................................................................................................................................
. mol
.......................................................................................................................................
;
.......................................................................................................................................
.
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
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taexeiola.gr
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4

115.

2.
. ,
.......................................................................................................................................
, , , , , , , , , .
.......................................................................................................................................
()
.......................................................................................................................................
2SO4
+ Cl2
+ 2
+ aOH
Fehling
B


[ ] E
Z
C 2 +1
gSO4 / H 2SO4
ROH
170 o C
.......................................................................................................................................
+ SOCl2
+ 2
+ 2 / aOH
+ Mg
+
.......................................................................................................................................
A

H


+ CHI3

.......................................................................................................................................
nO 4
Cu
A

M
H 2 SO 4
.......................................................................................................................................
(o)
.......................................................................................................................................
. 9,2 g
100 mL aOH 1 ,
.......................................................................................................................................
pH .
.......................................................................................................................................
: rH = 1, ArO = 16, ArC = 12 aM = 105.
.......................................................................................................................................
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taexeiola.gr

116.

3.
:
.......................................................................................................................................
.
.......................................................................................................................................
KMnO4 / H2SO4.
.......................................................................................................................................
a / 2 .
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.
.......................................................................................................................................
. RMgCl .
.......................................................................................................................................
. 0,6 mol
.......................................................................................................................................
2/3. mol ; ;
.......................................................................................................................................
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taexeiola.gr
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4

117.

4.
6 mol , C4H10O
.......................................................................................................................................
, .
.......................................................................................................................................
1 (a) .......................................................................................................................................
394 g .
.......................................................................................................................................
2 1000 mL H2SO4
.......................................................................................................................................
KMnO4 0,4 .
mol , ;
.......................................................................................................................................
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taexeiola.gr

118.

5.
]
.......................................................................................................................................
. 1 2
.......................................................................................................................................
Ni 0,6 g .
.......................................................................................................................................
2 (a)
.......................................................................................................................................
39,4 g .
.......................................................................................................................................
. mol;
.......................................................................................................................................
. :
.......................................................................................................................................
1. Tollens. 2. A Fehling. 3. CH3MgCl
.......................................................................................................................................
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taexeiola.gr
-
4

119.

6.
6 mol C3H7Cl .......................................................................................................................................
a .
.......................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................
KMnO4 H2SO4.
.......................................................................................................................................
2 L a 2.
.......................................................................................................................................
. mol ;
.......................................................................................................................................
. .
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taexeiola.gr

120.

7.
, .......................................................................................................................................
4 . 1
.......................................................................................................................................
44,8 L S.T.P. 2 .......................................................................................................................................
4 L KMnO4 0,7 H2SO4.
.......................................................................................................................................
3 (a) 1970 g
.......................................................................................................................................
( = 394).
.......................................................................................................................................
. mol ,
;
.......................................................................................................................................
. 4 . L .......................................................................................................................................
S.T.P.;
.......................................................................................................................................
Mg Ca n L
.......................................................................................................................................
S.T.P.;
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taexeiola.gr
-
4

121.

8.
.......................................................................................................................................
. 26,09%
.......................................................................................................................................
, 60% . .......................................................................................................................................
(2 / a) , .......................................................................................................................................
, .
.......................................................................................................................................
. :
.......................................................................................................................................
4. NH3
1. a
2. a
3. a2C3
.......................................................................................................................................
. :
3. SOCl2,
1. Na
2. H2SO4()/170 C
.......................................................................................................................................
4.

KMnO
4
.......................................................................................................................................
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taexeiola.gr

122.

9.
.......................................................................................................................................
C6H12O2:
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
C3H6O2 .
.......................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................
C3H6O.
.......................................................................................................................................
. , ,
, .
.......................................................................................................................................
. :
.......................................................................................................................................
1. SOCl2 KOH;
.......................................................................................................................................
2. (2 / a);
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taexeiola.gr
-
5

123.

.......................................................................................................................................
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.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
1
.
;
.......................................................................................................................................
( 5)
.......................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.
;
.......................................................................................................................................
, .
( 5)
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
CH. .
CH2=CHCH2C
.......................................................................................................................................
: C = 6, H = 1.
( 5)
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.
:
. .
.......................................................................................................................................
. -2- .
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
. 2- .
.......................................................................................................................................
. C3H8O (aOH) .

taexeiola.gr

124.

. CuCl.
.......................................................................................................................................
( 10)
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
2
.......................................................................................................................................
.
:
.......................................................................................................................................
. 2-
. 3-
.......................................................................................................................................
. 2--2-
. 1-
.......................................................................................................................................
( 5)
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.
1,3- :
.......................................................................................................................................
.
. Buna
.......................................................................................................................................
.
.
( 5)
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.
;
.......................................................................................................................................
. 3-
.
.......................................................................................................................................
. 3--2-
. 2-
.......................................................................................................................................
( 5)
.......................................................................................................................................
. :
.......................................................................................................................................
. aOH
. Na2CO3
.......................................................................................................................................
. a
. Br2 CCl4
.......................................................................................................................................
( 5)
.......................................................................................................................................
E.

.......................................................................................................................................
:
.......................................................................................................................................
. CH3CH2COOCH3 + NaOH .................... + ....................
.......................................................................................................................................
. CH3CN + 2H2 ....................
.......................................................................................................................................
+[O]
+[O]
....................
....................
. RCH2OH
2
.......................................................................................................................................
+
H
. CH3CN + 2H2O .................... + ....................
.......................................................................................................................................
+ H2O
.................... + ....................
. HCH=O + (CH3)2CHMgBr ....................
.......................................................................................................................................
( 5)
.......................................................................................................................................

taexeiola.gr
-
5

125.

3
.......................................................................................................................................
.

.......................................................................................................................................
, :
.......................................................................................................................................
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.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
( 13)
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.
1-, , , 1,
2- .
.......................................................................................................................................
,
.......................................................................................................................................
: a2CO3, CuCl NH3, Br2 CCl4
.......................................................................................................................................
Fehling;
.......................................................................................................................................
( 12)
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
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.......................................................................................................................................

taexeiola.gr

126.

4
.......................................................................................................................................

, () .......................................................................................................................................
. 1 a , .......................................................................................................................................
4,48 L , S.T.P. 2
.......................................................................................................................................

(a) ,
.......................................................................................................................................
118,2 g . 3 H2SO4

nO4 0,2 .......................................................................................................................................

,
800 mL .
.......................................................................................................................................
mol ;
.......................................................................................................................................
( 25)
.......................................................................................................................................
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