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Typical Protection Schemes

Page 87

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI

Typical protection for a radial system


Most distant relay gets the shortest delay time Definite-Time (51, 51N) System impedance (Infeed) high, no current selectivity Inverse-Time (51, 51N) System impedance (Infeed) medium, current selectivity Very Extremely Inverse-Time (51, 51N) System impedance (Infeed) small, high current selectivity 1) Auto reclosing cycle only for overhead lines (79) 2) Negative-phase sequence system as back up protection (46, unbalance protection)
Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI

Page 88

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Typical protection of ring feeders


Switch off time of the relays has to be coordinated with downstream fuses Inverse-time characteristic curves (51, 51N) Thermical overload (49) for cables Negative-phase system protection (46) as sensitive back up protection

(52: Circuit-breaker)

Page 89

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI

Typical protection for a distribution feeder with reclosing


The relay settings and the auto reclosing cycle (79) must be coordinated with the down-streamed protection devices.

Page 90

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI

Feeder protection Distribution System

Page 91

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI

Feeder protection Transmission System

Page 92

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI

Feeder protection Transmission System

Page 93

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI

Small transformers < 5 MVA


Main protection OS
>

Undelayed I>>, IE>> (50, 50N) Buchholz (63) Back-up protection OS Time-delayed overcurrent-time (51) Overload (49) Negative-phase sequence system (46) Main protection US Limited earth-fault (87N) Back-up protection US (OS: Overvoltage side) (US: Undervoltage side) Time-delayed overcurrent I > (51G) (Earth path)

Page 94

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI

Dual infeed with single transformer

Page 95

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI

Important transformer infeeds

Main protection Differential (87T) Limited earth-fault (87N) Buchholz (63) Back-up protection Overcurrent-time (50, 51, 51N) Neg.-phase sequence system (46) Earth-fault current protection(51G) Overload protection Thermal (49)

Page 96

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI

Three-winding transformer

Page 97

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI

Autotransformer

Page 98

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI

Large autotransformer bank

Page 99

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI

Small and medium motors with nominal outputs < 1MW


a) In systems with solid grounding or low-resistance neutral earthing (IE> IN Motor)

(37) Undercurrent relay

b) In systems with high-resistance neutral earthing (IE IN Motor)

1) Cable-type current transformer is necessary for sensitive earth-fault protection 2) Directional protection, Earth-fault monitoring

Page 100

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI

Big high voltage motors > approx. 1 MW


1) Cable-type current transformers for the sensitive earth-fault detection 2) Sensitive directional earth-fault detection in operation with a Petersencoil 3) Startup supervision 4) Temperature sensor

Optional

(27) Undervoltage-relay

Page 101

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI

Micro generators < 500 kW


a) Solid grounding

b) Earthed via resistance

Page 102

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI

Busbar protection Reverse interlocking principle


Applicable to distribution buses without considerable (< 0.25 In) back feeding from the outgoing feeders

Page 103

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI

Low impedance - Busbar protection


Especially used in multiple busbars for which an isolator replica is necessary Feeder protection can be connected to the same current transformer core Current transformers can be different
(87): Differential protection (86): Tripping relay (BF): Breaker failure protection
Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI

Page 104

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

High impedance busbar protection

Page 105

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI

1-1/2-breaker arrangement

Page 106

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI

Typical protection for parallel service without back-feed


Directional overcurrent - time protection relays (67, 67N) switch off fault on the protected line without delay

Non-directional relays (51, 51N) must be delayed about 1 grading zone

Page 107

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI

Dual transformer infeed


Main protection Overcurrent-time Phase/Earth directional (67, 67N) non-directional (50, 51, 51N) Buchholz (63) Back-up protection Overcurrent-time Phase/Earth (51, 51N) Negative-phase sequence system (46) Overload protection Limited earth-fault (51G) Thermal (49)

Page 108

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI

Cable / short overhead line < 20km with infeed of both sides
Main protection Differential (87) Back-up protection Overcurrent-time (51, 51N) Overload protection Thermal 1) Automatic reclosing only in overhead lines (79) 2) Overload protection (49) mainly in cables

Page 109

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI

Overhead lines or long cables with infeed of from sides

Main protection Distance (21, 21N) 1) Signal comparison (85)

Back-up protection 2) Directional Overcurrent-time (67N)

3) Auto reclosing (79) (single or multiple) only in overhead lines

Page 110

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI