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A Guide to Sustainable Aluminium Curtain Walling

Continuing Professional Development Seminar

A Guide to Sustainable Aluminium Curtain Walling


Welcome to X Architects Continuing Professional Development (CPD) Presentation by Mr X Bowater Architectural Limited

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Agenda of Todays CPD Seminar

1.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Bowater Introduction What is Curtain Walling? Types of Curtain Walling Systems Design Criteria Regulation & Standards Environmental Considerations Case Studies Conclusion Q&A Further Study

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Learning Objectives of Todays CPD Seminar

An introduction to the principles of curtain walling, specifically discussing related sustainability issues and including: What is curtain walling? Types of curtain walling systems Design criteria Regulations & Standards

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1. What is Curtain Walling?


Traditionally it was the name given
to the outermost wall surrounding a castle or similar building

Curtain walling is a form of vertical


building enclosure which supports no load other than its own weight, that of ancillary components and the environmental forces which act upon it

For our purposes, it describes a


glazed screen in any area of a building and is usually supported from the floor slab and / or from intermediate fixings e.g. steel beams or floor slabs The VEKA Group
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1. What is Curtain Walling?

Oriel Chambers in Liverpool, England was one of the worlds first metal framed glass curtain walled building in 1864 designed by local architect Peter Ellis. The extensive glass walls allowed light to penetrate further into the building utilising more floor space and reducing lighting costs in short winter months. The stone mullions are decorative

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1. What is Curtain Walling?

It is a non-structural method of
enclosing a vertical space by use of glazed cladding It can be used to any height (within reason). Highly flexible kit of parts that allows the architect / specifier many design freedoms and opportunities

Glass curtain wall of the Bauhaus, Dessau

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2. Types of Curtain Walling System - Stick


Stick Curtain Wall is supplied in pre-machined mullions and transoms for site assembly and installation Used as vertical and sloped facades on buildings Performance of the system depends upon the quality of the installation Mostly used on low to medium rise applications where there is a high degree of uniformity and relative simplicity of design

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2. Types of Curtain Walling System - Unitised


Unitised Curtain Wall is supplied in storey height, pre-assembled panels and may include factory fitted glazing Units are hung from building structure to form enclosure and often used in high-rise applications, particularly in difficult access areas Pre-assembly guarantees quality due to fabrication in a controlled environment Fast site installation Lower on-site installation costs with standard scaffolding not required The VEKA Group
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2. Types of Curtain Walling System - Bespoke and Rainscreen


Bespoke Curtain Wall - Typically high specification, complex, large span projects - Potential Long lead-in times, due to long design period Structural Glazing / Rainscreen Unframed panes of glass that are attached to a buildings support structures using silicone adhesive or bolt connectors Roof Glazing Modified versions of vertical stick curtain wall systems

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3. Design Criteria Ten Issues to Consider :1) Material 2) Loads 3) Spans 4) Fixings 5) Weather Performance 6) Thermal Performance 7) Ventilation 8) Cleaning and Maintenance 9) Appearance and Finish 10) Glazing / Panels

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3. Design Criteria - Material

Curtain Walling can be made of aluminium, PVC-U, steel or timber Aluminium represents 80% of the market. Why is aluminium the most popular material for curtain walling? Relative strength to weight ratio Life span Flexibility Serviceability Grid structure

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3. Design Criteria - Material


Strength to weight ratio = specific strength
Component Tensile Strength Density Specific Strength Formability Versatility Overall Rating

Aluminium Steel Oak PVC Concrete

600 2000 60 14 10

2.7 7.86 0.69 1.4 2.3

222.22 254.45 86.96 10.00 4.35

9 6 7 10 1

2000 1527 609 100 4

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3. Design Criteria - Loads

Dead Loads Wind Loads Calculated using BS6399 based on local wind speed, topography, height above sea level, distance from sea and including potential changes to adjacent buildings or effects of the surroundings

B A

Typical Flow Pattern around a high, rectangular building Wind velocities in zones A & B may be twice that of free wind at the same height

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3. Design Criteria - Loads

Seismic Loads Snow Loads Thermal Loads

Blast Loads
Terrorist attack Oklahoma City, USA in 1995 in which resulting explosion killed 168 people

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3. Design Criteria - Spans

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3. Design Criteria - Fixings


The Curtain Walling can be fixed back to the structure in a number of ways:

1. Fix to floors

2. Fix between floors

3. Fix to edge beam

4. Fix to Wind post

5. Combination

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3. Design Criteria - Fixings

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3. Design Criteria - Fixings

Typically, fixings can be fabricated from: Steel or aluminium angles Customised extruded shapes Steel or aluminium spigots

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3. Design Criteria

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3. Design Criteria

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System10 Aluminium Keyway System

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3. Design Criteria-Weather Performance

There are two methods of drainage used by the major systems:

Mullion Drained
Any water that enters into the system runs along the transoms, and runs down the mullions to the floor and the outside

Zone or Field Drained


Any water that enters into the system passes through slots in the pressure plates and external transom caps

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3. Design Criteria

Pressure Equalisation All systems approved by the CWCT must be fully sealed and pressure equalised - which means that the pressure inside the system must be the same as that externally. This encourages drainage to the outside, mainly through the mullions. All internal joints must be sealed to ensure that air penetration is not possible

Diagram showing the generalised pattern of wetting on a zone in a windward facing elevation

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3. Design Criteria-Thermal Performance

is the amount of heat


transferred through a material. The lower the U-value, the slower the rate of heat flow and the better the insulating quality The VEKA Group
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3. Design Criteria-Thermal Performance

Typically, the industry is looking for 2.0 W/m2K or better Bowater Architectural curtain walling can achieve 1.0 W/m2K

The basic design recommendations are: Keep the metal on the outside in glazed screens to a minimum Avoid small pane sizes More glass than frame

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3. Design Criteria - Ventilation

Ventilation can be provided by: Glaze in trickle vents (in the glass area) or slot vents Opening windows including features such as night vent locking Alternative methods e.g. through the eaves, spandrel panels, or mechanical ventilation Louvres Electronically operated sash openers

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3. Design Criteria- Cleaning & Maintenance

It should always be remembered that Curtain Walling cannot normally be cleaned from the inside, and external means such as scissor lifts or cherry pickers are required for low rise buildings or cradles for high rise.

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3. Design Criteria - Finishes


Aluminium can be treated to enhance a buildings appearance, most often by polyester powder coating (PPC) or anodising. Finishes available: Polyester Powder Coat (PPC), wide range of standard colours Syntha Pulvin Interpon D Anodising Silver (natural) Bronze Coloured

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3. Design Criteria - Glazing / Panels

Glazing Vision Areas For vision areas, glass is the only reliable option. Glass can retain heat, expel heat, be clear or obscure. It can be screen printed, toughened, or have safety inter-layers (which can also provide obscurity). It can also be patterned, can be self-cleaning or can be look-alike backed with insulation and can have acoustic effects as well as many other attributes. Infill or spandrel panels can be made in many materials such as aluminium, steel, plastic, composite or solar.

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4. Regulations & Standards


Building Regulations: Part L Conservation of Fuel & Power Part F Ventilation Part N Glazing Safety in relation to impact, opening and cleaning Standards / Codes of Practice: BS EN 13830 Specification for Curtain Walling BS EN 12207 Air Permeability Classification BS EN 12208 Water tightness Classification BS EN 12210 Resistance to Wind Load Classification BS 6262 Code of Practice for Glazing of Buildings BS 6399 Wind Load CWCT Testing (Centre for Window & Cladding Technology) Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH) The VEKA Group
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4. Regulations & Standards -CWCT required specifications


Type of test Air permeability Water tightness under static pressure Wind resistance serviceability Water penetration dynamic aero engine Water penetration hose test Wind resistance safety Impact resistance heavy soft body Standard BS EN 12153:2000 CWCT Section 5 BS EN 12155:2000 CWCT Section 6 BS EN 12179:2000 CWCT Section11 CWCT Section 7 CWCT Section 9 CWCT Section 12 CWCT Section 15 Result 600 Pa 600 Pa 2400 Pa 600 Pa no leakage 3600 Pa no damage no deformation

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Test screen size 7.2 m x 8.0 m with 42 fixed lights

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Rigorous testing -screen exposed to 14,170 litres per hour

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Water penetration dynamic aero engine

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Water penetration hose test

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Window testing versus CW testing

Window Window/screen size Total area Air permeability Water tightness Wind resistance 1.30 m x 1.30 m 1.69 m 600 Pa 300 Pa 2000 Pa

CW screen 7.20 m x 8.00 m 57.60 m 600 Pa 600 Pa 2400 Pa

Difference

3300%

100% 20%

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Curtain Walling Testing versus Nature

Highest Rainfall 24 hours Monsoon on record in India Curtain Walling water flow exposure over 24 hours Ratio 24 hours Curtain Walling Testing vs Monsoon Curtain Walling Water flow intensity Total Curtain Walling Screen Area

1,840 litres/day.m2

5,904 litres/day.m2

3.2:1

340,070 litres/day/area 57.60m2

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Durability

Component Curtain wall sections Powder coating Fixing brackets Fixing screws Thermal break External gasket Internal gasket Butyl shim tape Double/triple glazing Assembly sealants

Material Aluminium 6063 T6 Polyester Aluminium 6063 T6 Stainless steel PVC-U co-extruded TPE EPDM EPDM shim cord Float/low E glass Silicone

Design life BS 7543:2003 Table 2 30 years 20 years 30 years 30 years 30 years 10 years 10 years 20 years 30 years 30 years

Life expectancy 60 years over 25 years 60 years 60 years over 35 years over 10 years over 10 years over 20 years 10 to 30 yeas 60 years

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5. Environmental considerations - Why choose aluminium?


Availability: Aluminium is made from Bauxite, the third most abundant element in the Earths Crust* It is not oil based and current known supplies will last 300 years* Environment: 60% of the energy used in processing is hydroelectric* The industry only mines approximately 1 sq mile per annum* Life Span: Aluminium does not rust, is corrosion resistant and therefore has a long life Weight: Lightweight, it is only one third of the weight of steel Recyclability: Aluminium is fully recyclable with minimal loss in quality* Requires only 5% of initial energy to recycle* Maintains a good recycling value At least 70% Building industry scrap is recycled* Flexibility: Aluminium can be extruded to high tolerances and can be designed to incorporate aesthetically attractive features
*Source:- ALFED Aluminium Federation

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5. Environmental considerations - External Solar Shading


Purpose: Maintain 24C in offices and schools during summer peak Overheating prevention, CO2 and energy cost reduction Total solar gain is limited to 35 W/m (Part L2) The Challenge is to maximise the day light entry, whilst minimising solar gain

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5. Environmental considerations - Photovoltaic


Consider: Photovoltaic (PV) offers the ability to generate electricity in a clean, quiet, renewable way Commercial PV systems can generate electricity for export to the National Grid Availability of preferential feed-in tariffs for solar-generated electricity

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6. Case Study - Curtain walling in Notting Hill

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6. Case Study - Curtain walling in Notting Hill

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Riverside College project brief


5 Elevations Remove existing facades Design, manufacture and install new curtain wall screens Project size 1970 square metres Minimal disruption to college 8 week contract period

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Elevation 2 - Before

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Elevation 2 - After

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We delivered our promise

On site for only 5 weeks The college opened on Monday 7th September for enrolment with a new faade and no disruption to the College

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7. Conclusion

Curtain walling is highly flexible allowing you the architect many design freedoms and opportunities Design criteria of: material, load, span, fixings, weather performance, thermal performance, ventilation, cleaning and maintenance, appearance and finish, glazing / panels

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7. Conclusion

4. Choose energy efficient systems

5. Solar shading

6. Photovoltaic

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Why Bowater Architectural? A Revolution with Heritage Code for Sustainable Homes Aesthetics and Performance Meeting the Standard Exceptional Performance The most cost effective

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8. Q&A

Thank you Questions?

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9. Further Study Sources of Information


Bowater Architectural - website www.bowaterarchitectural.com Regulations and Standards - Building Regulation Documents www.planningportal.gov.uk - British Standards Institute (BSi) www.bsi-global.co.uk Organisations - ALFED Aluminium Federation -www.alfed.org.uk - The Green Organisation www.greenappleawards.com - Act On CO2 official government website www.actonco2.direct.gov.uk

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