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1.1. Saturated 1.1.1. Low density. Natural geomaterials 1.1.2. Low density. Artificial geomaterials. Hydraulic fill 1.1.3. High density. Natural materials 1.2. Unsaturated 1.2.1. Natural low density geomaterials 1.2.2. Artificial geomaterials 1.3. 1.4. Soft rocks Specials soils

4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5


2.1. Formulation for saturated soils 2.1.1. Saturated soils: main assumptions 2.1.2. Biot / hydro mechanical formulation: equations involved (flow and deformation coupling) 6 2.1.3. u p formulation (Formulation based on displacement and pressures) 2.1.4. FEM Spatial discretization 2.1.5. Time discretization 2.1.6. Mechanical behaviour 2.1.7. Undrained strength 2.2. Formulation for Thermo hydro mechanical (T H M) problems in porous media 2.2.1. Basic formulation 2.2.2. The total mass flux of a species in a phase (e.g. flux of air present in gas phase) 2.2.3. Momentum balance for the medium. Unknown u 2.2.4. Energy balance for the medium 2.2.5. Species mass balance (reactive transport). Unknown c 2.2.6. Boundry conditions 2.3. Constitutive equations for T H M problems in porous media 2.3.1. Hydraulic problem 2.3.2. Thermal problem. 2.3.3. Mechanical problem 2.4. Introduction to numerical methods in geotechnical analysis 2.4.1. Finite elements in geotechnics: General aspects 2.4.2. The boundaries 2.4.3. Initial stresses 2.4.4. Effective/total stresses. Drained, undrained, consolidation 2.4.5. Excavation and construction 2.4.6. Constitutive laws

6 6

8 10 10 11 14 15 15 16 18 18 19 19 20 20 23 24 24 24 25 25 25 26 26


3.1. Behaviour of clays 3.1.1. Experimental behaviour of clays in the triaxial test 3.1.2. An attempt to simulate experimental behaviour of clays: the Cam Clay model 3.1.3. The Cam Clay model: predictions 3.2. Behaviour of sands 3.2.1. Experimental behaviour of sands 3.2.2. Critical state in sands: difficulties and achievements 3.2.3. Liquefaction (static and cyclic)

27 27 28 32 37 37 38 38


4.1. Unsaturated soils. Reference material 4.1.1. Introduction 4.1.2. Experimental behaviour of a reference material 4.1.3. Barcelona Basic model 4.1.4. Response of the model with different trajectories 4.2. Expansive unsaturated soils 4.2.1. Variation of humidity and suction in expansive unsaturated soils 4.2.2. Parameters of expansiveness 4.2.3. Geotechnical problems due to expansive soils 4.2.4. Foundations 4.3. Unsaturated soils. Rockfill 4.3.1. Some observation of rockfill behaviour in the fiel 4.3.2. Mechanisms of particle breakage 4.3.3. Results of an experimental investigation 4.3.4. A model for rockfill compressibility 4.3.5. Unsaturated soils vs unsaturated rockfill

39 39 40 43 47 48 48 49 50 50 51 51 52 53 53 54


5.1. Behaviour of bonded soils 5.1.1. Introduction. Reconstituted soils and natural soils 5.1.2. Structure development 5.1.3. Effects of structure. The Limit State Surface concept 5.1.4. Destructuration 5.2. Shear strength of clays 5.2.1. Residual strength 5.2.2. Shear strength of stiff clays and weak argillaceous rocks 5.2.3. Operational strength in brittle materials

56 56 57 60 60 61 61 62 64


6.1. Introduction


6.2. 6.4.

Soil behaviour far from failure Synthetic Example: excavation far from failure using different models

65 68


7.1. Introduction and definitions 7.1.1. Introduction 7.2. 7.3. Rotation of principal stresses Laboratory equipment to examine anisotropy


70 Error! Bookmark not defined. 71 71 71 71 72 72

7.4. Anisotropic behaviour 7.4.1. Reconstituted materials 7.4.2. Natural materials 7.5. Case history

THEME 1. Introduction to geomaterials 1.1. Saturated 1.1.1. Low density. Natural geomaterials Normally Consolidated (NC) clays and silts: Deltaic medium Low permeability Contracting behaviour Undrained strength (Basic parameters: undrained shear strength )

, consolidation ratio

Low-density sands: Liquefaction (it also occurs in silts) Shear modulus has a great influence in how waves propagates in the ground

1.1.2. Low density. Artificial geomaterials. Hydraulic fill Liquefaction

1.1.3. High density. Natural materials Over Consolidated (OC) clays and silts High plasticity Marked brittleness? Peak strength Strength residual (rotura progresiva) Low permeability Expanding behaviour Drained strength Case of Guadalquivir blue clay (WL=64%, IP=37%). Asnalcllar Failure. Lessons learned - The difficulty to interpret, in practice, the behaviour of hard clayey soils/soft clay rocks having: high plasticity, low permeability, marked brittleness, low residual friction - The risk of some construction procedures of tailings dams founded on brittle clays - The relevance of correctly estimating at the design stage of pore water pressures. Standard hypothesis (stationary flow) goes against safety.

Dense sands

1.2. Unsaturated 1.2.1. Natural low density geomaterials Clays, silts and low density sands

1.2.2. Artificial geomaterials Clays, silts, sands Compacted rockfill The behavior of rockfill is dominated by particle breakage Particle breakage explains the qualitative differences observed between the behavior of sands (at low and moderate levels) and rockfill Particle breakage in rockfill depends on: - Strength of individual particles - Grain size distribution - Stress level - Relative humidity prevailing at the rockfill voids

Valle del Gualdaquivir Sedimentation planes: - Quasi horizontal stratification - Slickensides detected at some places - High continuity (>40m)

1.3. Soft rocks Clayed materials with carbonates and sulphates In case of unaltered samples, main strength is high in compression test. If it is altered by an increment of humidity, rock strength decreases quickly Low permeability in cases of Argillite (interstitial water pressure dissipation requires a long term, due to embankments) Brittle behaviour under undrained conditions (marked peak strength) due to cementation A lot of expansiveness cases. Weathering of soft rocks when they are exposed to the environment.

1.4. Specials soils Volcanic soils: tuff

THEME 2. Hydro mechanical coupling in geomaterials 2.1. Formulation for saturated soils 2.1.1. Saturated soils: main assumptions Only two phases: solid particles + liquid (No gas phase) Two hypotheses of classical soil mechanics water incompressible Solid particles not deformable: voids change size and/or shape (water may escape or may not)

Hypotheses of soil mechanics: Continuum media. This hypothesis is not reasonable in large solid blocks (very low porosity) + discontinuities (higher porosity)

2.1.2. Biot / hydro mechanical formulation: equations involved (flow and deformation coupling) Biot general formulation is for dynamic problems and saturated soils Sign convention: stresses in compression are negatives, but pore water pressure in compression is positive Small strains are always assumed in both formulations (but generalisation is possible) Preliminary considerations: The coordinate system moves with the solid phase (material coordinates), so convective accelerations in terms of relative velocity applies only to the fluid phase. Displacement of the solid matrix: Displacement of the fluid, relative to the particles: Fluid velocity, relative to the solid particles and in Darcys sense (average velocity of the whole section): Actual fluid velocity: , where is the porosity Absolute velocity of the fluid: ( ) Density of the mixture: Densities are assumed constant (because of small deformations)

Strains ( ) ( )

Effective stresses


: :

Total stresses Water pressure

Generalization of effective stresses (Biot y Willis):

: :

Bulk modulus of the whole porous medium Bulk modulus of the solid particles

Mechanical constitutive equation Relates stresses and strains. Generally nonlinear (incremental form):

: : :

Tangential stiffness matrix (involves material parameters, like , in elasticity) Strains that depend only on effective stress changes (In nonlinear models depends on state variables (history variables) Deformations due to other effects (no stresses involved like chemical processes)

( ) because it would have two or more point for a same It cannot work with a function strain, this is why it is used the incremental form. Momentum balance equations ( ) ( ) ( )

Conservation for fluid phase Water density assumed constant mass conservation volume conservation

Flow entering per unit volume (Gauss therorem): ( ) ( )

When the generalisation of the effective stress law is considered ( ( ) )

Volumetric strain of the soil skeleton in a : Volumetric fluid deformation in a (compressible fluid):

Volumetric deformation of solid grains (Solid particles deformable): ( )

Generalized Darcys Law In classical Soil Mechanics: It can be written as: ( ) ( )

When fluid accelerations are involved, it is generalized as: ( ) ( ( ))

2.1.3. u p formulation (Formulation based on displacement and pressures) Looking for a simplified version: selected Terms including and as main unknowns

can be eliminated if we assume

This is reasonable for geotechnical earthquake engineering problems, because high frequencies are not involved ( )

( )

Coupled H M formulation, so it is not possible to solve the equations separately Very general: most of the Classical Soil Mechanics situations are included in the formulation Undrained, dynamic case No water flow, that is: Keep equations , , , . In equation , neglect permeability terms If water is assumed incompressible, then no volume change Consolidation Keep equations , , . Delete terms including in equations ( ) and

( It is a typical case after an earthquake Drained, static case

Delete terms including time derivatives: equations , , and

Uncoupled: H and M problems can be solved separately (loads are not modify the water pressure in drained conditions)

2.1.4. FEM Spatial discretization Displacements, is interpolated by using quadratic shape functions, we need second derivatives. Pore water pressure, is interpolated by using linear shape functions, we only need first derivatives. Mass matrix Stiffness matrix Coupling matrix Compressibility matrix Permeability matrix Vector forces Vector of flows ( ( ) ) ( ) [ ]

Compressibility Matrix is not taken into account in Classical Mechanics.

2.1.5. Time discretization A Finite Difference scheme is used for time derivatives, based on original work by Newmark by Finite Differences ( ). Our main unknown are: and Models: Elasticity: linear system of equations Elastoplasctic models: nonlinear system of equations 10

2.1.6. Mechanical behaviour Stresses and strains Total stresses (


Effective stresses ) ) ) ( ( ( ) ) )

Strains ( ( ) )

( (

( )

Cambridge (plane strain)

( (

) ) (

( )

Elasticity + Isotropy (elastic deformations) Recoverable Bulk and shear modulus are uncoupled No failure ( If ) ( )

, which is common in Soil Mechanics, using the Cambridge representation


Plasticity Objective: avoid the disadvantages of the theory of Elasticity: Characterize the ultimate and failure states Model non-recoverable deformations Model in a rigorous manner brittle or quasi-brittle behaviour


Different type of plasticity behaviour: Perfect rigid-plastic Perfect elastic-plastic Hardening (yield limit depend on the strain) Softening (yield limit depend on the strain)

Yield surface To calculate the plastic strains: generalize the one-dimensional experimental results Fixed yield surface (perfect plasticity): ( ) Expanding yield surface (hardening plasticity): ( Contracting yield surface (softening plasticity): ( ) )

The stress state must always be either inside or on the yield surface (never outside): - Inside, ( : only elastic deformations ) On, ( ) : elastic and plastic deformations , In Soil Mechanics, the stresses are represented with the variables Therefore, the yield surface is of the form ( : )

hardening parameter that controls the expansion or contraction of the yield surface

Plastic potential To calculate the plastic deformations, a plastic potential function is postulated from which the deformations can be obtained: ( : )

Parameter that controls the size and position of the plastic potential surface

Flow rule

( : Controls the magnitude of the plastic strains : Controls the direction of the plastic strains

The yield surface, , and the plastic potential, , are in general different functions If , then the plastic model is said to be associated 12

The plastic strain components are related: there is coupling between them, given by the flow rule The plastic strains depend on the stress state, NOT on the applied stress increments

Hardening law A function describing the change of size and/or position of the yield surface must be provided: ( )

Plastic deformations (consistency condition) Once the elasto-plastic regime has been reached (i.e. one there are plastic strains developing), the stress state point must be on the yield surface. Therefore, the following condition must be satisfied: ( )

If the stress state changes, but continues in the elasto-plastic regime, the stress point will always remain on the yield surface and therefore ( * ) +

+ * + [ ]

The elastoplastic stiffness tensor is non-symmetric, except when plasticity) In general



: :

Elastoplastic stiffness tensor Plastic modulus

Perfect plasticity: Hardening plasticity Softening plasticity

Mohr Coulomb Model Elastic perfect plastic

2.1.7. Undrained strength In undrained conditions it was very difficult to predict the pore water pressure generated during loading (couple system). Now with the H M formulations and FEM it is possible. Alternative: Instead of using Mohr Coulomb and effective stresses, use and total stresses. Now the problem is how to evaluate , but it is simpler than evaluating pore pressure. Mohr Coulomb criterion in total stresses The effective stress paths are difficult to know We could work with total stresses, because

and failure is reached when

the radius of Mohrs circle in effectives (and in totals) , tangent to the strength line Any Mohrs circle in total stresses is tangent to the line Therefore it is as if the undrained strength were

And in this way, working with total stresses, we can forget about the water pressure But note that is not a true parameter...


2.2. Formulation for Thermo hydro mechanical (T H M) problems in porous media 2.2.1. Basic formulation The three phases are: Solid phase (s): mineral Liquid phase (l): water + air dissolved Gas phase (g): mixture of dry air and water vapour

The three species are Solid (-): the mineral is coincident with solid phase Water (w): as liquid or evaporated in the gas phase Air (a): dry air, as gas or dissolved in the liquid phase

Unsaturated soil: Porosity and degree of saturation Total volume: Gas phase: Liquid phase: Solid phase:

: :

Degree of saturation of liquid and gas phases Porosity

Unsaturated soil: Mass in phases Gas phase: Liquid phase: Solid phase: Mass of air: Mass of water: Mass of water: Mass of air: Mass of solid:

Unsaturated soil: Mass in porous medium Gas phase: Liquid phase: Solid phase: Mass of air: Mass of water: Mass of water: Mass of air: Mass of solid:

Mass fraction (mass of a component with respect to the total mass of the phase)


2.2.2. The total mass flux of a species in a phase (e.g. flux of air present in gas phase)

The advective flux caused by fluid motion (phase) w.r.t. solid The advective flux caused by solid motion w.r.t. fixed framework The non-advective flux w.r.t. phase (i.e. diffusive/dispersive)

The following balance equation will be applied Mass balance: ( Material derivative: () () () ) ( ) ( )

Mass balance of solid ( ( )) ( ) ( ( )) ( ( ) )

This equation expresses the variation of porosity caused by volumetric deformation and solid density variation. [( ) ] ( )

Mass balance of water. Unknown ( ( ) ) ( ) ( )

External supply of water

) 16

Flux referred to a fixed framework

Flux referred to the solid skeleton

The use of the material derivative and after substitution by solid balance leads to: ( ( ) ( ) ) ( ) ( )

Porosity appears in this equation as: A coefficient in storage terms In a term involving its variation caused by different processes Hidden in variables that depend on porosity (e.g. intrinsic permeability)

If solid density changes are neglected in this equation: ( ) ( ) ( )

Finally, volumetric strain can be viewed as source term in water conservation equation. Velocities associated to fluxes of mass

Mass averaged velocity ( ( ) ) ( ( ) )

Mass balance of air. Unknown ( ( ) ) ( ) ( )

External supply of air


( ( ( )

( )


) )

2.2.3. Momentum balance for the medium. Unknown u

2.2.4. Energy balance for the medium First thermodynamics principle can be in two different ways: In terms of internal energy

In terms of enthalpy

: : : : :

Amount of heat supplied per unit mass Pressure Internal energy Is the volume per unit mass Enthalpy

Internal energy balance for the medium. Unknown T The equation for internal energy balance for the porous medium is established taking into account the internal energy in each phase ( ): ( :
( ):

Energy flux due to conduction through the porous medium Advective fluxes of energy caused by mass motions Internal/external energy supply

A non - advective mass flux causes an advective heat flux because a species inside a phase moves and transports energy.


The internal energy in each phase can be calculated as a function of internal energy of each component ( )

Following this decomposition, the advective fluxes of energy in each phase are calculated as:

( ( (

) ) )

2.2.5. Species mass balance (reactive transport). Unknown c ( 2.2.6. Boundry conditions ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (( ) ( )) ) ( )

The first term is the mass inflow or outflow that takes places when a flow rate of gas ( ) is prescribed The second term is the mass inflow or outflow that takes place when gas phase pressure ( ) is prescribed at a node. The coefficient is a leakage coefficient, i.e., a parameter that allows a boundary condition of the Cauchy Type. The third term is the mass inflow or outflow that takes place when vapor mass fraction is prescribed at the boundary. This term naturally comes from nonadvective flux (Ficks law). Mass fraction and density prescribed values are only when inflow takes place. For outflow the values in the medium are considered.


2.3. Constitutive equations for T H M problems in porous media 2.3.1. Hydraulic problem Liquid phase density. As a first approximation, the density of liquid phase can be calculated as: ( ( : : Water compressibility ( Volumetric expansion coefficient ( ) ) ) ( ))

Gas phase density.

If ideal gases law is used to calculate vapor and air density, it follows that: ( : : : : Molecular masses for vapour ( Molecular masses for dry-air ( Ideal gas constant ( Temperature ) ) ) ) ( )

Partial pressure Principle:

If is given, air pressure can be calculated as pressure is also known.

where it is assumed that vapor

Vapor pressure is primarily a function of temperature. In a formulation that includes also presence of air and capillary effects, vapor pressure can be determined from the following function: ( ( ) Retention curve. This law relates capillary pressure and degree of saturation:
( )

( ) )

( (

) ) ( )


: :

Essentially controls the shape of the retention curve Is a measure of the capillary pressure required to start the saturation of the soil

Distribution of pores plays a major role in the shape of retention curve. function of pore structure Since capillary pressure can be scaled with surface tension it appears that be shown if Laplace law is recalled:

can be expressed as

also does. This can

: :

Surface tension Curvature radius of the meniscus

Hydraulic constitutive law. Darcys law

Advective fluxes of liquid gas are calculated using Darcys law in the generalized form: ( : : : Intrinsic permeability(should be calculated) Relative permeability(should be calculated) Viscosity (should be calculated) )

Intrinsic permeability This parameter depends primarily on the porous medium structure (it does not depend on characteristics of fluid): ( ( : : ) )

Intrinsic permeability at the reference porosity Reference porosity


This dependency required for modeling the hydraulic behavior of the clay barriers because the soil undergoes variations of porosity which imply a change in permeability that can reach a factor of 5. Relative permeability This law has the advantage that avoids the determination of relative permeability experimentally, which is very difficult. : : ( (

) )

Effective saturation (defined for retention curve) Parameter responsible for the shape of the retention curve

Liquid viscosity ( Gas viscosity ( ) ( ) )

Ficks law. Molecular diffusion. Molecular diffusion of vapor in the gas phase is a process-modeled using Ficks law. Dissolved air is also modeled with the same law. It is written in the following way: ( : )

Molecular diffusion depending if diffusion takes place in the liquid or in the gas phase ( ) ( ) ( ) )

Ficks law. Mechanical Dispersion. ( : ) | | ( ) ( )

Mechanical dispersion tensor 22

: :

Specific heat of the phase Mechanical dispersion heat flux

2.3.2. Thermal problem. A simple way to calculate enthalpy in porous media in which air and capillary effects should be taken into account is: [ ( : : ) ( ) ( ) ] ( )

Latent heat for phase change Specific heats

Densities for solid, liquid, vapor and air are calculated as described in constitutive equations for hydraulic problem. Degree of saturation is calculated using retention curve. Non isothermal unsaturated soils approach Soil desaturation: Liquid pressure decrease or air pressure increase: two phase flow with nearly immiscible fluids. (Moderate T) Vapor pressure increase: gas pressure is dominated by vapor pressure. high T) (relatively

Highlights: Pressures are state variables, instead of degree of saturation. Gas pressure is equal to air plus vapor pressure. Surface tension is a function of temperature. Capillary effects vanish as T increases. Balance of enthalpy tends to dominate saturation as capillary effects reduce.

Enthalpy of solid phase Commonly a constant value of the specific heat of the solid phase is used. It is, however reasonable to consider also a linear variation with temperature: ( : Specific heat at )

Enthalpy of water The phase change diagram for pure water displays that depending on the pressure of water and the enthalpy per unit mass three regions are distinguished.


It is interesting to highlight that from 100 C to 180 C, vapor pressure changes by one order of magnitude. (1) Single phase region (liquid water) - (2) Two phase region (liquid water +vapor) (3) Single phase region (heated vapor)

Thermal constitutive law (Fouriers law). Thermal conductivity is used in Fouriers law to compute conductive heat flux, i.e.:
( ) ( ) ( )

Thermal conductivity of porous medium

The dry and saturated thermal conductivities can be calculated or directly determined experimentally. 2.3.3. Mechanical problem

2.4. Introduction to numerical methods in geotechnical analysis 2.4.1. Finite elements in geotechnics: General aspects What aspects may be different in Geo-Mechanics when using F.E.? Usually domain very large. Only a part of the geometry can be considered There are initial stresses in the soil/rock Water may be a fundamental issue. In undrained analysis, a total stress calculation may be performed. In fully drained analyses water pressure does not change with loading. And H M couple formulation may be required The geometry can change. Ex.: excavation + construction Some especial elements may be required: structural elements (i.e. concrete wall), interface elements (rock joint, contact soil-concrete), anchor elements, etc. Constitutive laws should be appropriate for soils/rocks


2.4.2. The boundaries Check if there is any symmetry Boundaries should be always far away from the zone where changes occur Check the results when changing boundaries Mechanical problems - Close to failure, a collapse mechanism develops: local geometry - General drained analysis - General undrained analysis (no volume). Larger geometry involved Elasticity: boundary control displacement pattern Plasticity: displacements are controlled by the mechanism of failure (more loca)

2.4.3. Initial stresses Soils & rocks have always initial stresses. They are very important in excavation problems - Vertical stresses controlled by selfweight - Horizontal stresses defined from coefficient - In excavations problems: stresses acting on the excavation boundaries are the same as the initial stresses, but with opposite sign. Defining initial stresses: - Horizontal ground: they can be defined directly from specific weight and coefficient - Non horizontal ground: Stresses in equilibrium should be computed. Define the geometry, mesh and compute equilibrium using an elastic model ( , ). Keep the ( )) stresses and deleted displacement and deformations (Note that

2.4.4. Effective/total stresses. Drained, undrained, consolidation Undrained scenario Use total stresses. Water not involved in the analysis Appropriate parameters (modulus, undrained strength) No volume change (i.e. Posissonss ratio if elasticity is used)

Drained scenario Use effective stresses Water pressure obtained form a flow analysis. They do not change due to loading Appropriate parameters (modulus, Mohr coulomb, strength)

When using Finite Elements: If a Solid Mechanics code is available, then the classical approach is useful


If a soil Mechanics code solving H M formulation is available, then all scenarios may be computed. Advise: check all scenarios to verify the analyses. In undrained conditions, water pressures are particularly difficult to predict properly.

2.4.5. Excavation and construction Excavation and construction implies change of geometry. A good code should be able to cope with this. Excavation and construction requires several steps in general. Displacements are very sensitive to that, even when using linear models. Excavation Apply on the excavated boundary the initial stresses on the boundary but with opposite sign. Construction Apply the weight of the new elements. Different strategies... stiffness of the new elements may be low the first step they exist, and they get the appropriate stiffness in the next step.

2.4.6. Constitutive laws Elasticity: always useful as a preliminary analysis Elasto-plasticity: modern analyses require elasto-plastic models, but... be careful with parameters, assumptions, etc. Elastic + Mohr Coulomb (perfect plasticity, hardening, softening) Cam clay Models with two yield surfaces Etc.


THEME 3. Geomechanical behaviour of clays and sands 3.1. Behaviour of clays 3.1.1. Experimental behaviour of clays in the triaxial test Stage I: isotropic consolidation Stage II (deviator), CD test


Stage II (Deviator), CU test

3.1.2. An attempt to simulate experimental behaviour of clays: the Cam Clay model Some previous remarks The model is based on experience gathered from the conventional triaxial tests, using the Cambridge variables: It is a good model to reproduce laboratory tests, not so good to reproduce the real (in situ) behaviour.

Yield surface: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

With the change of variables

the equation of the yield surface becomes:


Volumetric deformations: a) elastic

Assume an isotropic and elastic behaviour inside the yield surface, and that volumetric and shear deformations are uncouple: [ ] [ ][ ]

( ) and

( ) are not constant ( ) ( ( ) ) ( )

All points inside a yield line including in the limit points belonging to the line itself, are represented by the same unloading-reloading line (url) Elastic volume change: ( ) : : Elastic volume change Elastic volumetric deformation


Volumetric deformation: a) plastic

Total volumetric deformation

Shear deformation: b) elastic ( ) ( ( ) ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ( ) )( )( ) )

( ( Shear deformation: b) plastic If the relationship because

is known, then the shear deformation

would be know

is already known ) be measured in triaxial tests when the stress

The plastic deformation vector (

path crosses the yield surface. Sand: non-associated plasticity Plastic potential: Cam Clay is an associated plasticity model, therefore ( ) 30

As a consequence of the flow rule:

Hardening law: these equations define the change of size of the yield surface function of the accumulated plastic deformations:

as a

The change of size of the yield surface deformation

only depends on the plastic volumetric

Elasto-plastic stiffness matrix The relationship has meaning only in the elasto-plastic regime The stiffness matrix is symmetric because The determinant of the matrix is 0 because the plastic volume and shear deformations are related * + [ ][ ]

Deformations due to a stress path Deduce as a function of

We know that Calculate the elastic deformations Check whether after application of a stress increment the new stress point is in the elastic or in the elasto-plastic regime: ( )


Critical state theory The critical state is defined as the combination of stresses for which the shear plastic deformation increases indefinitely without changes of the mean effective stress, the shear stress, or the volume:

This happens when:

3.1.3. The Cam Clay model: predictions Conventional drained triaxial test (CD) Plastic shear deformation ( ) ( ( ) )

Hardening law


Normally consolidate clay: CD test

Slightly overconsolidated clay: CD test


Very overconsolidated clay: CD Test

Conventional undrained triaxial test (CU) Effective shear deformation

and have opposite signs Combining this relationship with the yield function, we obtain differential equation of the undrained effective stress path:

This equation has meaning only when plastic volumetric deformations are involving


If path If the stress path stars in the elastic zone:

That signals the end of the stress

The undrained effective stress path does not depend on the total stress path: it is unique. For differential total stress paths, different porewater pressure are obtained. Porewater pressure: parameter a:

a) Elastic Zone

b) Soil undergoing plastic deformation ( ) ( ) ( )

Normally consolidated clay: CU test


Slightly overconsolidated clay: CU test

Very overconsolidated clay: CU Test


3.2. Behaviour of sands 3.2.1. Experimental behaviour of sands Sands are characterized by their relative density (or by their void ratio), difficult to measure: { Dilatancy of sands: it is an increment of volume when it is applied shear loads (elastic materials do not have this behaviour) Sand: CD Tests

Sand: CU tests


3.2.2. Critical state in sands: difficulties and achievements Is a critical state theory possible for sand? There is no unique iso-ncl curve for sands: it depends on the initial state of the sand (loose, dense) The ( , ) plane cannot be explored from compression tests in a manner similar to clays Sands have memory of its initial state, even if it has been highly compressed However, a final state or critical state may be defined. Some authors claim that CSL seem to be a zone rather than a line (steady state and critical state)

State parameter Sand behaviour depends on where is the current state with respect to the critical state line

captures density and captures the final reference state. The difference takes into account the stress level The further away from the final Critical State, the faster dilation or contraction happens Models for sands can be defined by using and a set of parameters.

3.2.3. Liquefaction (static and cyclic) Liquefaction means zero shear strength (null effective strength liquid) i.e. due to increment of water pressure Failure means usually large strains Loose sands: liquefaction implies directly large deformations and failure Dense sands: liquefaction is a transient situation. Due to dilation, water pressure decreases. Under cyclic loading, this process is repeated and finally large deformation may occur (Cyclic mobility).


THEME 4. Unsaturated soils 4.1. Unsaturated soils. Reference material 4.1.1. Introduction Applications Stability of slopes Displacements and instability due to natural humidity changes of soils - Swelling and collapse deformations of pavements - Foundations on collapsible or expansible soils Displacements or failure of compacted soils and compacted structures (dams) Isolation barriers: - Storage of industrial waste Radioactive waste Immiscible liquids: petroleum reserves

Materials How does water affect different kinds of materials? : relative humidity controls rupture velocity of particles : capillary pressure modifies intergranular pressure in sands, silts and clays. Energy changes of water lead to swelling, retraction.

Variables of work Variables of stress Total stress: Air pressure: Water pressure: Suction: Net mean stress:

Ratios of amount of water Natural water content: Degree of saturation: Ratio of water: ( )


4.1.2. Experimental behaviour of a reference material Volumetric strain Suction increases compaction stress Higher suction values tend to make the soil structure more rigid and therefore less compressible

Compaction effects in the loading collapse shape


Unsaturated clayey soils swell/collapse depending on applied vertical stress. This behaviour could be represented in a curved surface on the plane ( , If a soil is in elastic state, then it swells when it is saturated If a soil is in plastic state, then it collapses when it is saturated , )

Volumetric strains change of sign when unsaturated soils are saturated (firstly swelling and finally collapse)

Collapse always ends up on a unique consolidation line Different trajectories of stress-suction tends to unique saturated normal consolidation line (NCL) when it is saturated


Maximum potential collapse Collapse reach the maximum at a given vertical stress and then it decreases with higher stress We should be saturate the sample when the collapse is minimum

Shear strain and strength Triaxial response with constant suction

CSL are not parallel. These lines depend on suction

Suction increases the size of the elastic surface 42

4.1.3. Barcelona Basic model Collapse and swelling depending on stress level All LC points have the same pore ratio , so it does not matter to load or to wet LC is the line of preconsolidation stress with different suctions

Predictions of the BBM with trajectories of stress with constant suction and wetting with constant net stress. If we wet when the sample is in the elastic part, then it will swell up If we wet when the sample is in the plastic part, then it will collapse If we wet, being in the elastic part and then in plastic part, it will swell up and collapse


Loading-unloading and drying-wetting

It is the same to load and then to wet, that to wet and then to load. It does not depend on the stress trajectory It is not the same to load and then to dry, that to dry and then to load. It does depend on the stress trajectory


Compressibility ratio

Barcelona Basic Model (BBM) Compressibility equations Unsaturated Saturated Elastic Elastic suction changes ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ( ( ( ) ) ) )

Loading wetting trajectories: ( ) ( ) Yield curve (LC) (plane p - s)

( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( )

( )

( ( ) ( )[(

) )

( ): : : : : : : : :

( ) Virgin compressibility ratio in saturate states Elastic compressibility ratio for net stress changes (independent of suction) Reference stress Parameter which fix a minim compressibility value for high values of suction Velocity of stiffness variation w.r.t. suction Poisson coefficient Slope of the critic state lane Parameter which controls the increment of cohesion Parameter which defines the non associatively of plastic potential 45

Yield surface Yield surface related to increment of suction Suction Increase (SI): is a yield surface needed to reproduce plastic strain during the phase of drying : historic maxim suction of the soil

Compressibility Unsaturated Reversible drying and wetting


Hardening law LC and SI hardening surfaces depend on volumetric plastic strains (coupled hardening of LC and SI surfaces) ( )

Volume changes P load Elastic Elasto plastic ( ) ( ( ) )



( )

( )

S load Elastic Elasto plastic plastic ( ) ( ( ( ) ) )

Total plastic strains

4.1.4. Response of the model with different trajectories Yield surface at triaxial space ( )

Yield surface LC ( ) ( )( )


( Hardening law

( ) ( )

( )

( )[(

( ) Flow law

( Elastic strains

Shear tests with constant main net stress and different suctions

4.2. Expansive unsaturated soils 4.2.1. Variation of humidity and suction in expansive unsaturated soils Humidity in superficial layers of the soil, it is controlled by: Position of groundwater level Humidity transfer between ground and atmosphere

Water flows from low suctions to high suctions Distribution of water pressure is hydrostatic (without water fluxes)


Sin embargo, la infiltracin procedente de lluvias y la evapotranspiracin modifican profundamente esta situacin ideal, sobre todo en climas ridos y semiridos. Las succiones medidas son en general muy superiores a las que se deducen del equilibrio esttico.

Active zone is the zone where it is expected to be deformed due to humidity changes so this zone is not suitable to building a structure. This zone is determined by sounding line during dry and wet time. 4.2.2. Parameters of expansiveness Atterberg limits: Activity: : Inactive Normal Active Mineralogy Classification of expansive unsaturated soils according to colloids, PI and retraction limit Expansiveness Expansion (% volume Content of degree PI Retraction limit change) colloids >28 >35 <11 >30 Very high 20 31 25 41 7 12 20 30 High 13 23 15 28 10 16 10 20 Normal <15 <18 >15 <10 Low Classification of expansive unsaturated soils according to LL, PI, and suction in situ LL >60 50 60 <50 PI >35 25 35 <25 tsf >4 1.5 4 <1.5 Expansion potential >1.5 0.5 1.5 <0.5 Expansion degree High Marginal Low 49 Index

4.2.3. Geotechnical problems due to expansive soils Dry and semidry climate: strong suction changes (including trees and vegetation) Expanding and contracting: horizontal and vertical movements Characteristics cracks: tensile stresses are normal to the cracks.

4.2.4. Foundations Analysis 1D of swelling

vertical strain of layer : thickness of layer : thickness of active layer

Swelling due to a stress equal to geostatic pressure (saturation)


Filosofa Impedir movimientos Aislar la estructura Eliminar movimientos diferenciales Resistir los movimientos diferenciales

Procedimiento Pilotes de cimentacin y vigas de atado Barreras contra cambios de humedad Losas reforzadas de cimentacin Zapatas continuas perimetrales. Tensiones de cimentacin incrementadas

Observaciones Eficaz en casos de potencial hinchamiento alto Eficaz en casos de potencial de hinchamiento medio-alto Riesgo si suelo muy expansivo

4.3. Unsaturated soils. Rockfill 4.3.1. Some observation of rockfill behaviour in the fiel Partial saturation or suction in a rockfill Rockfill structures collapse when they are totally or partially wetted Capillary attraction forces between two spherical particles bonded by a water meniscus Computed capillary stresses for a simple cubic arrangement

Behaviour of rockfill The behaviour of rockfill is dominated by particle breakage Particle breakage explains the quantitative differences observed between the behaviour of sands (at low moderate stress levels) and rockfill Particle breakage depends on: - Strength of individual particles - Grain size distribution - Stress level - Relative humidity prevailing at the rockfill voids


4.3.2. Mechanisms of particle breakage Fracture mechanics. Basic principles Stress intensity factor

: :

Depends on geometry Loading modes: I tensile, II shear normal to crack tip, III shear parallel to crack tip

Classical criteria of the linear elastic fracture theory : crack propagates : fracture toughness

Subcritical crack propagation : cracks may also grow at some speed ( : : : : : : : : ) * ( ) + * ( ) +

Relative humidity: measure of the chemical potential or suction of water. It controls propagation speed of particle breakage Molar volume of water Stress intensity factor in the crack Absolute temperature Gas constant Activation energy for unstressed material Material constant Total suction


4.3.3. Results of an experimental investigation Oedometer tests of rockfill

Conclusions A unique NCL exists for a given (or ) If increases the material stiffens An elastic domain may be defined Yield stress (preconsolidation stress) decreases as (Relative humidity) increases The effect of wetting depends on applied confining stress Very low swelling strains are measured for low stress level Collapse strains occur beyond a certain confining stress value. Collapse is more relevant than swelling Collapsed states end in saturated virgin line Saturation of rock particles seems sufficient to produce the collapse deformation as much as the full flooding of the rock specimen Time dependent strains are relatively low for low confining stresses and dry states Beyond a certain threshold stress value the time-dependent strains are strongly affected by water

4.3.4. A model for rockfill compressibility Mechanisms of plastic deformation Particle rearrangements: instantaneous and independent of water action Clastic yielding: onset of particle crushing: ,

Instantaneous. Independent of water action. It is due to particle breakage: Time dependent. Dependent of water action (RH): They are negligible for a very dry state 53

Elastic strains Stress induced: independent of water action

Water content induced: independent of stress level. (Swelling/shrinkage)

Elastoplastic strains For : only instantaneous


: instantaneous and delayed [ ( ) ( )] [( ) [ ] ( )]

Rockfill behaviour is independent of water action: Low confining stresses Very dry states

4.3.5. Unsaturated soils vs unsaturated rockfill Rockfill Collapse is associated with particles breakage a subsequence rearrangement of structure Particle toughness is a fundamental property Unsaturated soil Collapse is associated with particle rearrangement Particle strength does not affect the overall behaviour The effect of suction is to prestress soils structure

The effect of suction is to control particle breakage velocity Threshold toughness to initiate fracture propagation is included in the model through a parameter, for no time delayed deformation exist (no collapse) Total suction ( ) controls water induced effects Time delayed deformations (and hence collapse) is inhibited for dry states

There is no equivalent parameter

Matric suction (s) controls water induced effects There is no equivalent concept


Yield stress for the very dry state is conveniently chosen as a hardening parameter Elastoplastic strains (instantaneous and delayed) are linearly related to confining stress for the relevant range of stresses in practice

Yield stress of the saturated soil is conveniently chosen as the hardening parameter Elastoplastic strains are linearly related to log (Confining stress)

4.3.6. Conclusions 1) Particle breakage introduces a size effect on the constitutive behaviour of rockfill 2) Mechanisms of rockfill deformation also include sliding and rotation of particles. Scaling laws applicable to particle strength are unlikely to apply to the behaviour of a granular mix 3) Scale effects have been investigated through an elastoplastic constitutive model for rockfill. The model uses subcritical crack propagation phenomena (in rock particles) as a convenient background 4) The variation of material parameters with a grain size parameter of samples with a scaled gradation has been stablished 5) The delayed compressibility index ( ) and the parameter describing the rate of change of compressibility index with RH ( ), decreases as decreases 6) The remaining model parameters are essentially independent of gradation 7) Inconclusive results were found for the clastic yield stress, 8) The work presented provides a methodology to derive rockfill constitutive parameters in practice


THEME 5. Hard soils and soft rocks 5.1. Behaviour of bonded soils 5.1.1. Introduction. Reconstituted soils and natural soils The geotechnical cycle

Diagenesis is changes to sediment or sediment rocks during and after rock formation (lithification) Reconstituted soils vs Natural soils The behaviour of reconstituted soils depends on soil fabric (arrangement particles, aggregates etc...) The behaviour of natural soils depends on soil structure Structure is the combination of fabric and bonding Fabric refers to particle size and arrangement porosity Bonding: is a general terms that usually refers to particle connections set up by geological processes


Sudden change of porosity

How do we know if a soil is destructing

5.1.2. Structure development Sedimentation compression curves for normally consolidated clays Liquid Index effects removes plasticity

Normalizing for plasticity with IL, data for slurried clays are similar In situ states of natural clays plot above slurried Natural soils have more open structure (due to bonding) than reconstituted soils with the same applied load. Separation of natural from reconstituted depends on sensitivity Low St rapid deposition in active water High St slow deposition in still water


Intrinsic and sedimentation compression lines We use Void Index instead of using Liquid Index because the latter is more difficult to obtain

Void Ratio of a reconstituted soil when it is applied a load of 100KPa

Sedimentation compression lines: effect of sensitivity


Natural soils are above reconstituted soils, it is due to bonding and sensitivity usually goes between It does not make sense to speak about Over consolidation Rate (OCR). We speak about Yield Stress Rate (YSR) ( )

( ) :

Stress when natural soils behaviour begin to change

Exceptions Intensely fissured (scaly) clays: in this case, the subsequent loading curve is not able to reach ICL and it remains on the left side of ICL. There are kind of clays whose subsequent loading curve does not converge to intrinsic behavior: Coastal and alluvial soils: rapid decomposition in changing environment Layered macro fabric Structure of low sensitivity Little post yield convergence Stable structure: fabric no removed even at large strains

The conceptual framework based on Skempton and Burland provides a unifying perspective in which the effects of gravitational compaction and structure can be readily assessed. It brings together clays and clayrocks of different composition, plasticity and burial depth Moreover, we have to take into account: Materials with different sensitivities Time and rate of cementation/bonding (structure development) Intensely fissured clays and clayrocks 59

Stable fabrics different from the intrinsic ones

Two remarks: Generally, the sedimentation consolidation curve is practically parallel to intrinsic consolidation curve The subsequent loading curve rarely (if ever) go beyond the sedimentation consolidation line

5.1.3. Effects of structure. The Limit State Surface concept

5.1.4. Destructuration

By compression Swelling sensitivity

Swelling slope


5.2. Shear strength of clays 5.2.1. Residual strength Ring shear test Residual strength is measured with high precision by the ring shear test Large relative displacements Drained strength (porous stone) Fixing a vertical stress, the bottom of the ring is turned around It is measured the torque

There will be materials with residual strength which will not be important and there will be others with low strength residual which will be important to know it. With low clay fraction, the normally consolidated and residuals friction coefficient are similar With low clay fraction there is not enough clay to get oriented surfaces in one direction so it is not possible to cause sliding problems. Fine fraction (silt and clay) is not a suitable measure to evaluate the clay fraction, it is better to use Plasticity Index. Residual strength is directly proportional to PI


Residual strength is not sensitive to the alteration of the sample. Initial state is not important with respect to final state.

5.2.2. Shear strength of stiff clays and weak argillaceous rocks

A failure plane is create and the strength begins to decrease in the 2nd graphic Argillaceous hard soils and weak rocks generally fail in a brittle manner. Brittleness means that the strength decreases before peak strength and it does not mean that it breaks. Brittleness is higher when residual strength is low.


Conceptual scheme for the drained strength of argillaceous hard soils weak rocks

Peak, post rupture and residual strength parameters

Strength of discontinuities In fissures and joints with no (or little) relative displacement, strength is similar to post-rupture strength. Bonding is destroyed with no opportunity for reaching residual strength. In discontinuities with large relative displacements, shear strength is probably close (or equal to) residual strength


Brittle behaviour Under conventional geotechnical conditions, argillaceous hard soils weak rocks tend to fail in a brittle manner Often the reduction of strength occurs in two stages: a sharp one after peak and a more gentle one up to residual - The first reduction is generally associated with the loss of bonding. Sometimes (but not always) cohesion reduces to zero. Friction angle reductions are at most moderate - The second reduction is associated with the reorientation of clay particles. Friction angle reduces now to small value (residual strength) Post-rupture strength is normally identified with the strength after the first stage of strength reduction: - Post-rupture strength is often similar to intrinsic (reconstituted strength), the reasons are unclear and it may be just fortuitous - The strength of discontinuities that have undergone tension but not (or very limited displacement) correspond closely to post-rupture strength

5.2.3. Operational strength in brittle materials What is the operational strength for stiff clays? It is not correct to use peak strength for the analysis of sedimentary clay slope stability (1st time slide) fully softened strength (reconstituted material) fits 1st time slides in sedimentary slopes The presence of fissures probably instrumental in causing strength reduction The progressive loss of cohesion appear to explain the delayed failure of cut in stiff clays Peak strength parameters apply in slides in (unfissured) boulder clay.

Enhanced understanding Concept of residual strength (depends on clay plasticity and previous relative displacement). Applicable after a slip has occurred involving large displacements. Pore pressure equilibration controls the time of failure in stiff clays The idea of a cohesion progressively reducing with time discarded The primary difference between boulder clays and sedimentary clays is not the presence or absence of fissures. Boulder clays are ductile and plastic, sedimentary clays are brittle. Discontinuities (fissures, joints, faults) reduce initial mass strength. A full understanding of their role in strength development and degradation still pending.

Operational strength is an average and must depend on: Initial mass strength (dependent on presence of fissures/discontinuities) Degree of brittleness Rate of strength degradation Geometry and loading history 64

THEME 6. Very small strains in soils high stiffness 6.1. Introduction Far from failure, behaviour is expected to be elastic, but is not constant

: can be very large (tg90

: it is not used for very small strains : it is used for local strains

Cam Clay model Non linear elasticity reversible but ( ) not constant is difficult to measure in practice is fixed or is assume constant (but then check if is reasonable correct or not, In many practical situations, strains are below 1% Predictions of displacements are very sensitive to and nonlinear law

6.2. Soil behaviour far from failure Shear modulus is the key parameter ( Measurements of in triaxial tests. ) obtained

from dynamics tests showed very high values if compared with


Dynamic measurements give the soil response for very small strains. They can be useful for monotonic loading also.

Models simulating the decay of G New version of the Hardin Drnevich

: reference shear strain ( ), this parameter gives the decaying speed of : is a monotonic shear strain history parameter

Typical values of

: * +

If soil is assumed to be frictional only, is expected to depend on mean effective stress with If soil is considered a set of spheres in contact, then Hertz theory applies and a value of is found At very small strains we may expect close to (around ). At large strains, should be closer to 1, as slippage and rearrangement occur. When the sample is very confined, then is high


6.3. Measurement of soil properties at very low strains In situ tests Measurement of shear wave velocity: As very small strains are involved, is in fact Cone penetration test + seismic device: CPTU + Vs

Laboratory tests Bender elements: for horizontally propagating waves

Resonant column test: frequency of resonance is related to shear Modulus strains)

(very small


6.4. Synthetic Example: excavation far from failure using different models Main assumptions Initially horizontal ground surface, homogeneous soil Construction of diaphragm walls an soil excavation No water, drained conditions Initial stresses: conditions ( )

Models considered Linear elasticity - The soil never fails but it is useful because it is too easy to calculate - Tension stresses may appear in excavation problems - Only two parameters involved: , . Alternatively: , or , Elastic Mohr Coulomb - Elasto - plastic model. Perfect plasticity. Yield surface = strength criterion - Elastic Mohr Coulomb model involves five input parameters: , for soil elasticity, , for soil plasticity and as angle of dilatancy

This model is represents a first order approximation of soil or rock behavior It is recommended to use this model for a firs analysis of the problem considered Cons 1: elastic part is constant ( constant) Cases of close to failure approximates well Cases of far from failure approximates to bad

Hardening Soil Model (HS) - Elasto-plastic model. 2 yield surfaces - The HS model is an advanced model for the simulation of soil behaviour - Soil stiffness is described much more accurately by using three different input stiffnesses: the triaxial loading stiffness, . The triaxial unloading stiffness and the odometer loading stiffness - Hyperbolic relationship between vertical strain and deviatoric stress triaxial loading 68

The elastic zone is small is not constant, increases with the confinement ( Failure Parameters: , , , Basic parameters for soil stiffness: , , ,

Hardening Soil Model with Small Strains (HSsmall) - Elasto-platic model. 2 yield surface with nonlinear elastic & high stiffness at small strains - The HSsmall is a modification of the HS model that accounts for the increased stiffness of soils at small strains - At low strain levels most soils exhibit a higher stiffness than at engineering strain levels, and this stiffness varies non-linearly with strain Add and as additional parameters to the previous HS model


THEME 7. Anisotropy and principal stress rotation 7.1. Introduction and definitions 7.1.1. Elasticity General case. Anisotropic elastic solid: 21 parameters In matrix format, the stress strain relation showing the 36 (6 6) independent components of stiffness can be represented as:


1 plane of symmetry: 13 parameters If xy is the plane of symmetry:


3 planes of symmetry. Orthotropic elastic solid: 9 parameters


1 axis of symmetry: 5 parameters



Isotropic: 2 parameters


7.2. Rotation of principal stresses

Direct simple shear Plane strain Uncontrolled rotation of principal stresses Uniform strains only possible in undrained tests

7.3. Laboratory equipment to examine anisotropy

7.4. Anisotropic behaviour 7.4.1. Reconstituted materials Applications Stability of slopes


7.4.2. Natural materials Applications Stability of slopes

7.5. Case history