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H2 Unit 9- Resurgence of Europe Spring 2009

Review Sheet
1. How did the Renaissance differ from the Middle Ages? *Not sure about this one
In the Middle Ages there was a focus on religion yet in the Renaissance there was the
creation of humanism which was an intellectual movement which focused on human
nature. There was also movement away from scholasticism or the justifications of the
Church’s teachings using logic.
2. What is humanism and why does it emerge during the Renaissance?
Humanism is the intellectual movement of the Italian Renaissance that focus’ on human
nature rather than religion. In other words there was an emphasis on the “here and now”.
This spread because after the Plague people began to question their faith and as a result
stop worrying so much about the afterlife and stuff like that.
3. How does art from the Middle Ages compare to Renaissance art? Think about
technique and values.
In the Middle Ages there were pictures of people with halos symbolizing holiness with an
otherworldly background which also uses the hieratic scale where the most important
figures are larger than the others. In the Renaissance there was a real life setting without a
hieratic scale which also has depth, perspective, and integration of religious or secular
symbols. There Renaissance values were individuals or regular people, humanism, and
classic architecture.
4. How does Renaissance art reflect humanist concerns?
In Renaissance art there is a focus on individuals and commoners which was apparent
through pictures that depicted large public scenes (remember that one based on China).
This turns away from the great influence religion had in the Middle Ages while also
having the worldly background (refer to the answer for number 3).
5. What theme did northern humanists explore?
In the North there was Christian Humanism where there was a focus on human freedom
and individualism being an intrinsic (natural) part of Church belief and practice. In other
words: Christianity should show people how to live a life as a good Christian and not just
the means to salvation.
6. How did the printing press cause change in Europe? What were the gains and losses?
(Try some common sense here)
The printing press lowered costs of books which encouraged more people to read and
write while also giving to the community (scientists, mathematicians) as they could now
read the work of others to add on to their own knowledge and to use to advance their own
knowledge. Europeans were also given ideas from all over the world, influencing them
immensely.
7. What were the causes of the Protestant Reformation?
People were protesting papal authority and Luther got angry because of the church selling
indulgences. The social setting allowed room for criticism and it was a time of
questioning the church. There was also the pope embracing secular luxuries with priests
H2 Unit 9- Resurgence of Europe Spring 2009
Review Sheet
following his example and adopting this lifestyle. There was also some anger because in
the pas the only was to get an indulgence was to fight and die in the Crusades.
8. How did Martin Luther and John Calvin challenge the Roman Catholic Church?
(Study your charts!)
I’m not putting up the chart but basically Luther and Calvin had the bible as the only
source, Luther thought that one only needs strong faith for salvation while Calvin thinks
that it is predetermined whether or not one will get into heaven, both thought that there
was no hierarchy and that all Christians had an equal connection with god, and for
religious practices just listen to the Bible and have faith (Luther), or no theater and
overall strict morality (Calvin).
9. Why and how was the Protestant Reformation able to spread?
The Reformation was able to spread because people in society were open to new ideas so
when people pointed out corruption in the Church, others were backing their ideas. There
was also the printing press through which tons of copies of the Bible were printed in
vernacular so that people who used any language could understand it. They also didn’t
need to priests anymore because they basically just read the Bible in Latin.
10. How did the Reformation reflect humanist ideas?
There was the whole idea of questioning the Church and stuff and well………just know
what happened in the Reformation and what humanistic ideas are, you can work with
that.
11. Why did England form a new Church?
King Henry was upset when the Pope refused to annul his marriage so he made his own
Church where he was in charge and could be the only authority (no sharing with the
Pope).
12. What were the goals of the Catholic Reformation?
The goal of the Catholic Reformation was to renew faith among Catholics along with
counter the Protestant Reformation.
13. How did the Catholic Church reform itself?
It did absolutely nothing different and said if you don’t agree with us you will be cursed.
14. What were the results of the Reformation?
There was a revival of faith among some Catholics such as St. Teresa and the Jesuits who
embodied the crusading spirit and defended and spread Christianity throughout the world.
15. How did Muslim traditions influence the Ottoman Empire?
Ottoman law was based on interpretations of the Sharia by scholars and government
officials.
16. How was Ottoman society organized? What are millets?
H2 Unit 9- Resurgence of Europe Spring 2009
Review Sheet
Class Name Level in Society Examples of ppl from

Men of the pen Top Scientists, lawyers, judges,


and poets

Men of the sword Top Soldiers who guarded the


sultan and defended the
state

Men of negotiations Under Sword and Pen Merchants, tax collectors,


and artisans

Men of husbandry Lowest Farmers and herders who


fed the society

Millets are religious communities of Non-Muslims. The Millet had its own leaders, etc.
17. What are janissaries?
They were an elite force in the Ottoman Empire. People got in as Christians families had
to turn over young sons who were tested and trained, the best of whom were selected for
the force.
18. Why did the Ottoman Empire decline?
European advances n commerce and military technology were leaving the Ottomans
behind. The Europeans went to industry while the Ottomans stuck with agriculture. There
were also neighboring countries attacking Ottoman borders.
19. Why did European nations send explorers across the oceans?
There was an increase in population in Europe after they began to recover from the
plague. These people wanted Asian goods like spices yet to get them they had to pay high
amounts because the goods had to go through middle men. By cutting out these middle
men the Europeans would have to pay much less for spices….. oh yeah, Glory, God, and
Gold should do the trick for an answer
20. How did technology aid European sailors?
The caravel helped carry huge amounts of cargo and would allow them to make this long
trip. There were also things like the magnetic compass so there was tech. navigation and
the Mercator projection was created which led to accurate directions.
21. Why did Portugal lead the way in exploration?
Portugal was right on the Atlantic for one part. There was also a stable monarch unlike in
Spain (Reconquista) and d this new monarch supported a maritime economy. There is
also Glory, God, and Gold.
22. What was the Treaty of Tordesillas?
H2 Unit 9- Resurgence of Europe Spring 2009
Review Sheet
It was a treaty made by the Pope dividing the world at a certain line which would split the
world for Portugal and Spain, determining which lands each could take.
23. Identify: Prince Henry the Navigator, Bartholomeu Dias, Vasco De Gama, Ferdinand
Magellan
Henry- crusader-like, hoped to create relationship with African- Christian ruler to fight
Muslims, set out for long voyage south but died on the way
Bartholomeu- discovered Cape of Good Hope at southern tip of Africa after unsuccessful
voyage to India
Vasco de Gama- first successful voyage to India, made friends with a Hindu ruler, left
Portuguese merchants in India to buy spices when cheap for fleets to pick up later
Magellan- first crew to circumnavigate the world converts Filipinos to Christianity
24. How were the Dutch able to dominate the spice trade?
The Dutch didn’t aggressively try to convert people so the concept of spreading religion
wasn’t really there. The Dutch also follow rules and traditions while other Europeans
don’t.
25. How did shifts in power affect China and its relations with European powers?
The shifts in power didn’t really change much as China still kept this isolationist policy
under the Qing Dynasty. In other words now you have to follow the rules but even if you
do we still have a dislike of you.
26. Why did Korea become the Hermit Kingdom?
Korea is between China and Japan so after constant invasions by the two countries they
feel vunerable. They also are Confucian so they dislike foreign traders, want to keep own
ideas and stuff as well. They expel all but the Chinese and Japanese.
27. What policy did Tokugawa shoguns take toward foreigners?
They saw Europeans as invaders even though in the past they were good trading partners
and stuff. They barred all Western trade but from the Dutch. They expelled missionaries
and persecuted Japanese Christians.

Good luck and it’s not my fault if you fail.