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H2- Unit 8 Empires in Asia and Southeast Asia 600-1350

Exam Review

If you can answer the following questions, you should be in good shape for the exam. Answer the
following questions/prompts using specific examples from your notes. Use them as a guide to study
from your notes.

*Note that a classical period is a time when the standards for future generations are established.

1. How did the Tang build a strong empire? How did these methods lead to their downfall?

The Tang built a strong empire through use of the civil service exam, military conquest and land
reforms. These methods led to their downfall because they had to impose crushing taxes to pay
for the conquests and the land became too large to administer.

2. How did the Tang and Song achieve prosperity? What are the 3 important achievements of the
golden age?

The Tang and Song used rice from Vietnam which ripened faster. This led to an increase in
productivity which led to free time and people doing cultural advances and stuff. Three important
achievements of the golden age were gunpowder, the smallpox vaccine, and moveable type.

3. What changes in society occurred during the Tang and Song dynasties?

Changes in society include the creation of the new social class, the gentry, who consisted of
aristocrats that have been educated in Confucianism.

4. Why did foot binding emerge and why did it spread?

Foot binding emerged because it was a symbol of beauty and nobility. It spread to the lower
classes because if an aristocrat married the daughter of a poor family the entire family would
move up in social rank.

5. How did life on the steppe influence the culture of the Mongols?

The Mongols were nomadic pastoralists because there was a lack of natural resources. The social
glue was kinship as the communities were arranged in tribes where there are oral traditions and
the leader rules only with respect, having no real power.

6. How were the Mongols successfully able to conquer such a huge empire?

The Mongols conquered because of strict military discipline, strategies, and adopted technologies
like the cannon.

7. What happened to the Mongol empire after the death of Genghis Khan?

After Genghis Khan died the empire was split into the four khanates.

8. “I have heard that one can conquer the empire on horseback, but one cannot govern it on
H2- Unit 8 Empires in Asia and Southeast Asia 600-1350
Exam Review

horseback.” What does this advice illustrate about the challenges facing the Mongols?

The Mongols could fight and everything but they had no idea how to rule an empire. This is the
reason why they brought people in to do that for them (scholars).

9. What were some of the effects of Mongol domination?

Under Mongol domination the Silk Roads were protected, and through toleration and having such
a large empire cultural diffusion occurred.

10. Do the Mongols deserved to be called barbarian and uncivilized?

No because the idea of an uncivilized and barbaric people is a people without laws where
everything is just chaos and such was not the case. They were only considered uncivilized
because their government differed from that of the Europeans.

11. What was the relationship like between the Yuan Dynasty and the Chinese?

The Chinese and Mongols were kept separate and the majority of the population (Chinese) was
treated below the Mongols; as second class citizens.

12. Why did the Yuan dynasty fail?

They had failed expansions spent money on “fruitless” wars and public works which drained the
treasury. Then there was resentment because of wasted tax money and because they were kept as
lower class citizens. There was a revolt.

13. What are some of the arguments for and against Marco Polo’s visit to China?

The arguments you should know but one for him is that the Silk Road path he wrote about was
described accurately but one against him was that he wrote in Persian.

14. What is the symbolism behind taking the name Ming for the new dynasty?

Ming means brilliant and to call them brilliant is to once again point out the dominance of the
Middle Kingdom. Remember that this dynasty is the equivalent of “The Empire Strikes Back”,
with this helping out in telling people that they are back.

15. How did the Ming restore Chinese culture and prosperity?

There is a restoration of Chinese values and cultures like how the civil service exam was brought
back yet made even more rigorous. The Ming also rebuilt the Great Wall and made it great and
stuff. They also made grand canals. There is also a commercial revolution where more cities are
created and they are larger.

16. To what extent could you say that Ming China was a super power?
H2- Unit 8 Empires in Asia and Southeast Asia 600-1350
Exam Review

The Ming was a superpower politically, economically, militarily and culturally because of
tributary states (politically), the ability to build such large fleets (economically), their capability
to conquer the world (militarily), and their influence over Korea and Japan (culturally).

17. Who was Zheng He and why did the Ming cancel major maritime expeditions after his death?
What happened to his legacy?

Zheng He was the leader of the maritime expeditions under the Ming. Expeditions were cancelled
after his death because they brought in little profit and the Chinese thought they had nothing to
learn from the rest of the world because they were so great. His legacy was destroyed because the
Ming burned all documents from the expeditions and telling of the expeditions.

18. How did the geography of Korea affect its development?

Korea is mostly mountains so most people had to settle near the coast where the arable land is.

19. How was Korea’s location both a blessing and a curse?

Korea’s location was a blessing because they could gain ideas that proved to be helpful from the
Chinese. Their location is a curse because they are right next to a superpower that could expand
its influence over them at any time.

20. How did Korea balance its culture with Chinese culture?

Korea adopted Chinese ideas but made small changes to them. An example is the civil service
exam which was taken however limited to only the aristocrats.

21. How did the geography of Japan affect its development?

Japan is an archipelago which is a line of islands. The islands were surrounded by water which
gave the Japanese protection from the Chinese. This meant that they only had to adopt what they
wanted to from Chinese culture because the Chinese couldn’t force their ideas on Japan.

22. How did the Japanese balance its culture with Chinese culture?

The Japanese took the Chinese writing system but modified it and it just plain didn’t take some
ideas like the civil service exam.

23. How did feudalism emerge in Japan and how did it compare to European feudalism?

Feudalism emerged in Japan because the emperor was only really used in religious and political
ceremonies, leaving the wealthy to dominate. Feudalism in Europe was based on a legal
agreement in which a vassal got land and protection while in Japan samurais remained by
morality and loyalty. There is also that factor that is ok to commit suicide and it is honorable and
shows your loyalty. There is also the continuity through passing down jobs. In Japan there is no
H2- Unit 8 Empires in Asia and Southeast Asia 600-1350
Exam Review

chivalry but women are expected to be tough like men. There is also the fact that in Japan
samurais did learn things other than how to fight.

24. What impact did the Muslim invasions have on India?

Muslim invasions led to the setting up of the Delhi Sultanate. You should know the rest.

25. How did Muslim and Hindu traditions clash and blend?

The traditions clashed with violent disputes between Islam and Buddhism/Hinduism. This led to
the decline of Buddhism which already had limited influence in India. The Muslims rejected the
caste system too. The cultures blended in the creation of Sikhism and Urdu.

27. How did Akbar strengthen Mughal rule?

Akbar strengthened Mughal rule with his policy of tolerance and his working side by side with
Hindu nobility. He also ended the tax on non- Muslims while opening government jobs to people of
all castes.

28. Why is Ms. Dworken the best teacher ever?

I guess the answer varies.

Tutoring Monday and Tuesday room 6C4