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Transcription from PowerPoint Presentation 08/3/2013 TRAINING AGENDA 1. HR Management: An overview 2. HR Planning & Recruitment 3. Employee Selection 4. Training & Development 5. Performance Management 6. Career Management PART 1--HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: AN OVERVIEW I. MANAGEMENT TRAINING CYCLE



II. TECHNIQUES TO DETERMINE NUMBER OF RECRUITS A. TREND ANALYSIS Study a firm's past employment needs over a period of years to predict future needs B. RATIO ANALYSIS A forecasting technique for determine future staff needs by using ratios between sales volume and number of employees needed. III. RECRUITMENT FROM EXTERNAL RESOURCES Recruiting new staff from external sources will be influenced by several factors, namely: A. MACRO-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF A NATION When the economic conditions are relatively difficult, there will usually be an oversupply, or the number of applicants will be much higher than the demand. In such case, the company will find it relatively easier to select new employees from the large number of applicants.\ B. AVAILABILITY OF MANPOWER IN DESIRED SECTORS When the sector is one that is considered a rare sector, the company will have more difficulty in recruiting staff for this sector. For example, computer technology or cellular engineering. C. COMPANY REPUTATION It will be easier for a company to find and recuit the best people if the company has a good reputation, therefore, the best fresh graduates will flock to apply to the company.

i. ex. Google, McKinsey, or Microsoft. IV.RECRUITMENT YIELD PYRAMID Some employers use a recruiting yield pyramid to determine the number of applicants they must generate to hire the required number of new employees Example of Recruitment curve 1200 leads generated 200 candidates invited 150 candidates interviewed 100 - Offers made 50 New Hires V. RECRUITMENT SOURCES

PART 3 EMPLOYEE SELECTION I. BASIC CONCEPT OF SELECTION TESTS The quality of an employee selection test is determined by three main factors, namely: 1. CRITERION VALIDITY: A type of validity based on showing that scores on the test (predictors) are related to the job performance (criterion) 2. CONTENT VALIDITY: A test that is content valid is one in which the test contains a fair sample of tasks and skills actually needed for the job in question 3. RELIABILITY: The consistency of scores obtained by the same person when retested with identical or equivalent test. II. SOME TYPES OF SELECTION TESTS 1. Cognitive ability test 2. Personality test 3. Interview III. COGNITIVE ABILITY TEST Paper and pencil or individualized assessment measures of a person's general mental ability or intelligence. Advantages: highly reliable verbal reasoning and numerical tests have shown high validity for a wide range of jobs the validity rises with increasing complexity of the job may be administered in group settings where many applicants can be tested at the same time scoring of the tests may be completed by computer scanning equipment lower cost

than personality test Disadvantages non-minorities typically score one standard deviation above minorities which may result in adverse impact depending on how the scores are used in the selection process differences between males and females in abilities (e.g., knowledge of mathematics) may negatively impact the scores of female applicants IV. PERSONALITY TEST A selection procedure measure the personality characteristics of applicants that are related to future job performance. Personality tests typically measure one or more of five personality dimensions: extroversion, emotional stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience. Advantages can result in lower turnover due if applicants are selected for traits that are highly correlated with employees who have high longevity within the organization can reveal more information about applicants abilities and interests can identify interpersonal traits that may be needed for certain jobs Disadvantages difficult to measure personality traits that may not be well defined responses by applicant may be altered by applicants desire to respond in a way they feel would result in their selection lack of diversity if all selected applicants have same personality traits lack of evidence to support validity of use of personality tests V. INTERVIEW A selection procedure designed to predict future job performance on the basis of applicants oral responses to oral inquiries. Advantages useful for determining if the applicant has requisite communicative or social skills which may be necessary for the job can assess the applicants job knowledge can be used for selection among equally qualified applicants enables the supervisor and/or co-workers to determine if there is compatibility between the applicant and the employees allows the applicant to ask questions that may reveal additional information useful for making a selection decision Disadvantages subjective evaluations are made decisions tend to be made within the first few minutes of the interview with the remainder of the interview used to validate or justify the original decision interviewers form stereotypes concerning the characteristics required for success on the job research has shown disproportionate rates of selection between minority and nonminority members using interviews negative information seems to be given more weight not as reliable as tests


II. ASSESSING TRAINING NEEDS 1. Task Analysis- A detailed analysis of a job to identify the skills required, so that an appropriate training program can be instituted 2. Competency - Careful study of competency level Analysis to identify a deficiency and then correct it with a training program, or some other development intervention. III. COMPETENCY ANALYSIS




1. MAKE THE MATERIAL MEANINGFUL At the start of training, provide the Make the material trainees with a birds-eye view of the meaningful material to be presented. Knowing the overall picture facilitates learning. Use a variety of familiar examples when presenting material Organize the material so that it is presented in a logical manner and in meaningful units Try to use terms and concepts that are already familiar to trainees Use as many visual aids as possible 2. PROVIDE FOR TRANSFER TO LEANING

Maximize similarity between the training Provide for transfer to situation and the work situation learning Provide adequate training practice Identify each feature of the step in the process 3. MOTIVATE THE TRAINEE People learn best by doing. Try to Motivate the trainee provide as much realistic practice as possible Trainees learn best when correct response on their part are immediately reinforced. Trainees learn best when they learn at their own pace. If possible, let trainees pace themselves. VII. TYPE OF TRAINING PROGRAM


PART 5 PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT I. WHY PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL? Appraisal provide information upon which promotion and salary decision can be made. Appraisal provide an opportunity for a manager and his/her subordinates to sit down and review the subordinates work-related behavior, and then develop a plan for corrective action. Appraisal provide a good opportunity to review the persons career plans in light of his/her exhibited strengths and weaknesses. II. PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT CYCLE


IV. BIAS IN THE APPRAISAL PROCESS HALO EFFECT - The "halo" effect occurs when a supervisors Halo rating of a subordinates on one trait biases the Effect rating of that person on other traits CENTRAL TENDENCY - A tendency to rate all employees the same Central way, such as rating them all average LENIENCY - The problem that occurs when a supervisory Leniency has a tendency to rate all subordinates either high or low. BIAS - The tendency to allow individual differences Bias such as age, race, and sec affect the appraisal rates these employees receives V. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL ELEMENTS Performance appraisal elements has two main categories: 1. Competencies: It represents soft or qualitative Performance aspects of performance appraisal (process) 2. Performance Result: Hard or quantitative aspects of performance (result)



PART 6 CAREER MANAGEMENT I. CAREER PLANNING & DEVELOPMENT Providing employees Career the assistance to form Planning & realistic career goals Development and the opportunities to realize them II. TYPICAL CAREER MOVEMENT

III. CAREER STAGE Trial Stage--The period from about age 25 to 30 during which the person determines whether or not the chosen field is suitable and if it is not, attempts to change it. Stabilization --The period, roughly from age 30 to 40, Stage during which occupational goals are set and more explicit career planning is made to determine the sequence for accomplishing goals Mid Career Crisis Stage - The period occurring between the mid- thirties and mid-forties during which people often make a major reassessment of their progress relative to their original career ambitions and goals Maintenance Stage -- The period form about ages 45 to 65 during which the person secures his or her place in the world of work Decline Stage The period during which many people are faced with the prospect of having to accept reduced levels of power and responsibility IV.CAREER ANCHORS Career Anchor A concern or value that someone will not give up if choice has to be made Career anchors, as their name implies, are the pivots around which a persons career swings; a person becomes conscious of them as a result of learning about his or her talents and abilities. V. 5 CAREER ANCHORS

1. TECHNICAL/FUNCTIONAL CAREER ANCHOR People who have a strong Technical/ technical/functional career anchor Functional Career Anchor tend to avoid decisions that would drive them toward general management. Instead, they make decisions that will enable them to remain and grow in their chosen technical or functional field 2. MANAGERIAL COMPETENCE AS A CAREER ANCHOR People who show strong motivation Managerial to become managers Competence Their career experience enables them to believe that they have the skills and values necessary to rise to such general management position 3. CREATIVITY AS A CAREER ANCHOR People who go on to become Creativity successful entrepreneurs These people seem to have a need to build or create something that is entirely their own product a product or process that bears their name, a company of their own, or a personal fortune that reflects their accomplishments. 4. AUTONOMY AND INDEPENDENCE AS A CAREER ANCHOR People who are driven by the need to Autonomy and be on their own, free from the Independence dependence that can arise when a person elects to work in a large organization. Some of these people decide to become consultants, working either alone or as part of relatively small firm. Others choose to become professors, free-lance writers, or proprietors of a small retail business. 5. SECURITY AS A CAREER ANCHOR People who are mostly concern with Security long-run career stability and job security. They seem willing to do what is required to maintain job security, a decent income, and a stable future in the form of a good retirement program and benefits. VI. CAREER MANAGEMENT AND THE FIRST ASSIGNMENT Factors to keep in mind about the important first assignment, include : 1. Avoid reality shock (reality shock refers to the result of a period that may occur at the initial career entry when the new employees high job expectations confront the reality of boring, unchallenging jobs. 2. Provide challenging initial jobs 3. Provide realistic job preview in recruiting 4. Be demanding 5. Provide periodic job rotation 6. Provide career-oriented performance appraisals 7. Encourage career-planning activities VII. REFERENCES & FURTHER MATERIALS 1. Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall. You can obtain this excellent book at this link : 2. Susan Jackson and Randall Schuler, Managing Human Resource : A Partnership Perspective, South-Western College Publishing