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AN ANALYSIS OF THE MADARAS ROTOR POWER PLANTAN ALTERNATE METHOD FOR EXTRACTING LARGE AMOUNTS OF POWER FROM THE

WIND
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Volunie 1. Executive Summary

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DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency Thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

DISCLAIMER Portions of this document may be illegible in electronic image products. Images are produced from the best available original document.

DSE-2554-78/2(V01.1)
Distribution Category UC-60

AN ANALYSIS OF THE MADARAS 'ROTOR POWER PLANT ---- AN ALTERNATE METHOD FOR EXTRACTING LARGE AMOUNTS OF POWER FROM THE WIND
VOLUME 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Dale H. Whitford John E. Minardi Blaine S. West Robert J. Dominic

UNIVERSITY OF DAYTON RESEARCH INSTITUTE 300 College Park Avenue Dayton, Ohio 45469

June 1978
~

DISCLAIMER

PREPARED FOR
-

-- -

. -- -

-.

THE UNITED STATES ENERGY RESEARCH AVD DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION DIVISION OF SOLAR ENERGY FEDERAL WIND ENERGY PROGRAM

ERDA CONTRACT NO. E(49-18)-2554

T H I S PAGE

WAS INTENTIONALLY
L E F T BLANK

PROJECT SUMMARY The purpose of the program was to analyze and up-date the design of the Madaras Rotor Power Plant concept that had been developed in the 1930's to determine the technical and economic feasibility of this system to be competitive with conventional horizontal axis wind turbines. The Madaras concept uses rotating cylinders, vertically mounted on flat cars, to react with the wind like a sail and propel an endless train of connected cars around a closed track at constant speed. Electricity is generated by alternators on each car that are geared to the wheels. Electrical power is transmitted from each car to the power house by a trolley system.
A four-task program consisting of a series of wind tunnel tests, an electro-mechanical analysis, a performance analysis, and a cost analysis was conducted. Wind tunnel tests were conducted to validate rotating cylinder data in the literature and to obtain

non-existing data that relates aerodynamic performance to rotating cylinder (rotor) geometry. Supporting studies included structural design, mechanical component design, and an electrical system design to provide a realistic set of inputs to a performance trade study which provided the basis for selecting a single rotor configuration and set of operating conditions which were considered to represent a good, but not necessarily an optimum design. Studies to determine the minimum spacing between cars governed by inter-rotor aerodynamic interference also were conducted. Drawings and specifications of the system were used to estimate costs, and parametric cost/performance computer runs were made to correlate plant cost, annual output, and energy cost as a function of plant size parameters. These cost studies incorporated appropriate learning curves to account for reduction in cost resulting from improved production techniques and increased productivity.

iii

Primary results of this study are: Madaras plants having circular track plan-forms probably will not be economically attractive, but those having racetrack plan-forms appear to be of interest.
o Madaras racetrack plants appear to be competitive with a farm of MOD-1 horizontal axis machines of equal total power generation capability (to within the overall accuracy of estimation for both schemes) in cost per unit rated power and cost per unit of energy delivered. Cost comparisons were based upon estimates made in this study and estimates made by 13ightower1 and General J3lectric2 for the MOD-1 machine. A substantial economic benefit favoring the Madaras scheme does not appear, although this possibility may exist (under more "optimal" designs determined through more detailed analysis).

Madaras racetrack plants having rated capacities as high as 228 MW and annual energy outputs of 975 x lo6 kW-hr/year were studied, and analyses indicated that even larger, more efficient plants could be developed. Thus, Madaras plants can produce energy in the quantities of interest to the electric utility industry. Madaras plants are more complex, have higher electrical and mechanical losses, and hence will require higher operation and maintenance costs than horizontal axis machines. Further, a racetrack plant configuration for Madaras plants limits them to regions having generally unidirectional winds (including reciprocal directions) in which large expanses of relatively flat land are available. (However, similarly-sized HA-WTG plants require twice the land area as Madaras plants.) At this stage of the investigation, it is not possible to state conclusively whether or not the Madaras system will significantly out-perform a similarly-sized horizontal axis wind turbine system. The Madaras system seems to outperform horizontal axis systems in the areas of structural durability, economy of scale, amount and efficiency in use of land, and possibly energy cost. Therefore, in view of this potential, it appears that an in-depth optimal design study of the system is warranted.

TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION 1.


2.

PAGE BACKGROUND WIND TUNNEL TESTS ELECTROMECHANICAL DESIGN 3.1 3.2 Structural, Mechanical, Site Design Electrical Design

3.

4.

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS COST/PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS CONCLUSIONS

5.
6.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS FIGURE Madaras Rotor Power Plant. Internal Support Tower for Madaras Rotor. Madaras Rotor Tested in 1933 at Burlington, New Jersey. Comparison of Lift-Drag Polars of a Rotating Cylinder and an Airfoil.
S i d c View, 152 mm Cylinder in Tunnel with Lower Streamlined Fairing.

PAGE

7
7

Front View, 152 mm Cylinder in Tunnel with Lower Streamlined airing and Mirror Strut.

'

152 mm Diameter Cylinder and Car Ready for Simulated Boundary Test, e/d = 3 End Plates, AR = 6. Freestream CL and CD versus U/V, AR of 3 and 6, and e/d Ratios of 1.25, 2, and 3, and d = 152 mm. Power Required to Rotate Cylinder for Various End Cap Diameter Ratios and Two Aspect Ratios, and d = 152 I I U U . CL, CD, Power versus U/V for Boundary Layer Tests fur e/d Ratios of 1.25 and 2; one End Cap on Top or Two End Caps; AR = 3 and 6.

8 10 11

12

Typical Design Loads for 8.0 m/s (18 mph) Mean Design 13 Wind Speed; Track Speed = 8.9 m/s.
R e v i s e d Rnt.nr Car Cnnfi g11raf.i on.

15
16

Rotor Car End Truck Aaacrnbly,


Plant Layout. Optimum Motor Size and Maximum Power Output versus Track Diameter, 13.4 m/s (30 mph) Wind Speed. Electrical Schematic of Circuitry on Each Rotor Car.

19
21 23

Net Power Output for One Rotor, Spin Motor Power, and 26 Motor rpm versus Rotor Position on Track as Affected by Use of Viscous Braking, Regenerative Braking, and a Three-Step Transmission to Vary the Spin schedule.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Concluded) FIGURE PAGE Net Power Output from one Rotor v.ersus A , as a 27 Function of Wind Speed. Performance. is Presented for Both a 1370 m (4500 ft) Diameter Circular..Track and .a Racetrack having 1370 m (4500ft) ~iameterEnds and 488@ M (16,000 ft) Straight Sections.
.
..

18

19

Mutual ~nterferenceLoss Factor versus. wind speed 29 for Various Numbers of Rotors on a 1524-m ~iameter Track. Constant Rotor Speed and Track Speed of 186 rpm and 13.4 m/s, Respectively. Modified Design Wind Duration Curve to Represent Wind Conditions at a Rotor Mid-Height. o f 2 5 m (82 ft) Above Mean Terrain Level. Power Duration Curves for the Two Plants Shown in Figure 6.14 Based on the V = 9.6 m/s Design Wind Duration Curve at 25-m Height (Figure 6.13). Unit Plant Cost versus Rated Power for Racetrack Configuration as a Function of Inter-Rotor Spacing, Length of Straight Section of Track, and Number of Rotors. DOE Design Wind Duration Curve: V = 8.1 m/s @ 9 m. Energy Cost versus Rated Power for Racetrack Configuration as a Function of Inter-Rotor Spacing, Length of Straight Section of Track, and Number of Rotors. DOE Design Wind Duration Curve: V = 8.1 m/s @ 9 m. 30

20

21

30

22

32

23

32

LIST OF TABLES PAGE 1


2
3

Wind Tunnel Test Conditions Effect of and Cost, Learning Curves, and Mean Wind Speed (V) on Plant and Energy Cost Overall Comparison of Several Madaras and HA-WTG Plants at Two Wind Regions

FOREWORD This final report describes the study conducted by the University of Dayton Research Institute on Contract E(49-181-2554, sponsored by the Wind Systems Branch, Division of Solar Energy, United States Energy Research and Development Administration (now the Department of Energy). The program was later transferred to the Solar Energy Research Institute. Project monitors on the program were Dr. Robert Thresher for ERDA and Dr. Irwin E. Vas for SERI . The study was under direction of Mr. Dale H. Whitford, who, with Dr. John E. Minardi, conducted the preliminary performance analyses, planned the wind tunnel tests, and analyzed the wind tunnel test data. Mr. Levere F. Starner and Mr. Blaine S. West were responsible for the structural analysis x i d P 4 r . Robert J. Dominic conducted the electrical analysis. study, a The authors wish to express their appreciation for the excellent contribution to this program made by the personnel of the Gas Dynamics Laboratory, Aerospace Engineering Department, University of Michigan. Overall guidance, assistance in developing the test plan, development of the method for generating the simulated atmospheric boundary layer, and coordinating all aspects of the University of Michigan effort was provided by Professor William W. Willmarth. Test supervision and scheduling of support for the tests was provided by Mr. David R. Glass. Mr. Daniel 0. Scharf was responsible for directing tests and processing the data, and Mr. Charles Hogan, Mr. Leo Griffin, and Mr. Cletus,Iott were responsible for instrumentation, model installation, and o p e r a t i o n of.the w i n d tunnel. We also want to acknowledge other major contributions: the vortex anlaysis study conducted by Professor Harold Larsen of the Air Force Institute of Technology; the detailed structural and mechanical design layout done by Mr. Francis Shannon of Maier and Associates; the econom.ic analysis conducted by

Mr. John L. McClellan; and the aerodynamic consultation provided by Dr. Frank L. Wattendorf. We are especially appreciative of the support of the Detroit Edison Company and the assistance given by Mr. Walker L. Cisler, former Chairman of the Board of that Company; the consultation provided by Mr. Russell F. Hardy, former Chief Engineer of the Madaras Rotor Power Project; and the helpful comments and critique of this work given by Dr. E.E. Lapin of the Aerospace Corporation.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY BACKGROUND Analytical studies, wind tunnel experiments, and fullscale aerodynamic tests of the wind-powered, Madaras Rotor Power Plant were conducted in the 1929 to 1934 time period. This system invented by Julius D. Madaras consisted of 27.4-m high by 6.8-m diameter cylinders which were vertically mounted on flat cars and rotated by electric motors to convert wind energy to Magnus-effect forces. The forces propelled an endless train of 18 cars around a 457-m diameter, closed track (Figure 1).

Figure 1.

Madaras Rator Power Plant.

Alternators geared to the car axles were calculated to produce up to 18 NW of electric power at a 8 . 9 m/s track /speed in a 13.4 m/e wind, Twiae during eaah orbit of a rotor car around the track (at points i 90 from the wind), each spinning rotor in turn must be de-spun to a stop, and then spun-up in the opposite direction. This cycle is necessary in order to assure that the propulsive farce changes direction so that all rotors are eropelling the train in the same angular direction.

Force measurements obtained from a full-size rotating cylinder mounted on a stationary platform (Figures 2 and 3) proved that the concept was technically feasible, but the project was discontinued prior to pilot plant demonstration because of the Depression. The reason for using a rotating cylinder instead of an airfoil to propel the train is that a rotating cylinder generates a lift force about ten times larger than that of an airfoil (Figure 4 shows lift-coefficient, CL, versus drag
, . coefficient C

Figure 2 .

T m x fnx mdaras Rotor.

Ineermf Sapport

Figure 3.

Marlaras Rotor

Tested in 1933
at Burlington, New Jersey.

A unique Leature ol: this p w y r a m was that it was


sponsored and monitored by a consortium of seven electric utility companies, with the Director of Research of the Detroit Edison Company serving as project monitor. The University of Dayton Research Institute has conducted studies of the Madaras system to verify the initial computations made by Madaras and his co-workers. These studies have included

a thorough review of the literature of the Madaras program (contained in a set of 14 unpublished technical reports obtained from Detroit Edison) as well as discussions with two key men who had worked with the original Madaras project. One of these men is Mr. Russell F. Hardy who was the Chief Engineer of the Madaras Rotor Power Corporation, and the other is Mr. Walker Cisler, who CYLINDER recently retired from the position of Chairman of the Board of the Detroit Edison Company. Our studies also have included a review of all wind tunnel tests on rotating TYPICAL LOW SPEED AIRFOIL cylinders conducted since the I I I 0 2 4 6 8 mid 19201s,performance simulation studies, and Figure 4. Comparison of Lifteconomic analysis. Drag Polars of a Rotating Cylinder Cost estimates in 1934 and an Airfoil. done by an outside consulting engineering firm indicated that 18,000 kW plants would cost $38.50/kW and the cost of power at the busbar would vary from 1.23 to 2.30 mills/kWh, depending upon annual wind conditions. Thus, both the capital cost and the cost of electric power at the busbar of Madaras plants were predicted to be only one-third that of steam power plants in 1934.
/

The primary objective of this program is to demonstrate the degree in which Madaras power plants having capacities in the 10 MW to 200 MW range are competitive with horizontal axis wind turbines,

The research into the Madaras system conducted by the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) prior to this program lead to several unanswered questions concerning the system. These questions were:

What is the fewest numberofrotors required to extract the maximum amount of power per unit land area from the wind? What aerodynamic performance can be expected from full-sized cylinders operating in the lower levels of the atomspheric boundary layers in terms of the various geometric and operational design
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WhaL d ~ e LIle desiyu ~t=qui~e~ike~~Ls Tor sLxucLura1, electrical and mechanical subsystems; and what performance af a Madaras system can be expected when modern, commercially-available electrical and mechanical components are used? What is the capital cost and the cost of electric power generated by modernized Madaras plants of different sizes in various climatic areas of the United States?

Design criteria selected for this system are based on those used for the General ~lectricstudy of large horizontal axis wind machines to tadlitate d i r e ~ toomparison of results. The primary ground rules far this study were:
e

This was a conceptual design trade study of the basis rirystem proposed by Madaras. Only off-theshelf hardware and available technology were to be used. Thus a system design optimizatian analysis was heynnd the scnpe nf the prrrgram. Design wind conditions included: a Wind d u ~ n t . i o ncurves having 8.1 m/s mean w i nrl speed at 9 m height above ground. Structure must withstand winds of 53.6 m/s with the rotor train standing still on the track. Structure must be able to operate in wind gusts to 26.8 m/s while operating at the rated wind speed of 13.4 m/s. Design life of 30 years for rotating parts and SO years for static parts.

System must withstand hail up to 2.5 cm diameter, operate in a temperature range of -51C to +4gC, and operate in snow, rain, lightning, icins, salt vapor, and windblown sand and dust. 2. WIND TUNNEL TESTS

Wind tunnel tests were conducted in the University of Michigan's 2.1 m x 1.5 m (7 ft x 5 ft) subsonic wind tunnel to: Validate existing wind tunnel data on rotating cylinders. Develop aerodynamic characteristics of rotating cylinders with end plates as a function of cylinder and end plate geometry.
a
0

Obtain data on power required to rotate the cylinder. Evaluate rotating cylinder performance in an atmospheric boundary layer.

In all tests, flow conditions were designed to represent adequately those of a full-sized Madaras rotor. Both 50 mm diameter and 152 mm diameter wind tunnel test models were tested, with the smaller model being used primarily to develop background, isolate problem areas, and to obtain design information for the larger cylinder. All cylinders were equipped with internally-housed motors capable of rotating the cylinder at speeds from 0 to 20,000 rpm. High speeds are required on models as small as these to obtain proper surface speed to wind speed ratios (U/V) and to provide sufficiently accurate resolution of loads on the wind tunnel 6-component balance system, (The full-sized cylinder will be designed to rotate at speeds of about 186 rpm.) Over 200 test runs were conducted in the overall test series. A summary of the test conditions is presented in Table 1.
A unique aspect of the test series was the series of tests conducted in a simulated atmospheric boundary layer, For these tests, a boundary layer similar to that of wind blowing over grassy plains was simulated by wooden quarter-round strips

. .

TABLE 1 WIND TUNNEL TEST CONDITIONS . . . . . . . . .


. . . . .

. .

Test Variables Cylinder Diameter Aspect Ratio (AR) End Plate Diameter to Cylinder Diameter Ratio (e/d) Free-Stream Reynolds Number Range Cylinder Surface Speed to Wind Speed Ratio (U/V) NutkIter of End P l a L e s Type Flow Free Stream Atmospheric Boundary Layer Cylinder sn Model Car Cylinder and Car on Embankment

Test Combinations ---. 152 mm 50 nim 4 3,4,5,6 1.25,2,3 1, 2, 3 2 x 104 to 7.4 x 104 0 - 6 1, 2 7 lo4 to 3 x lo5 0 - 6
1, 2

x x
x

x x x x

placed traverse to the wind flow along the floor of the tunnel. These strips which were placed at 0.3 m intervals from the entrance to the 6.1-m-long test section up to the model, simulated the boundary layer profile quite well across the width of the tunnel. Typical photographa of tho 152 mm test mudel during the free stream tests are shown inFfgures5 and 6, and a typical boundary layer test model is shown in Figure 7. It can be seen that the free stream tests were conducted with either a bottom fairing or both a bottom and top fairing. Actually, the bottom fairing was used to isolate the model support sting (which was mounted to the balance system ) from the air flow. The top fairing was merely a mirror-imaqe strut that was not fastened to the model, but which cleared the top of the model by about 0.8 mm. By comparing data obtained with the single and double fairings, the effect of the fairing on the aerodynamic coefficients was ascertained, and then the data were corrected accordingly. No correction of this sort was required for the boundary layer tests.

Figure 5.

Side View, 152 mm Cylinder in Tunnel With Lower Streamlined Fairing.

Figure 6.

Front View, 152 mm Cylinder in Tunnel With Lower Streamlined Fairing Only and Mirror Strut.

' I X ;=La,#-s,

--,,

-,,,;. ,;'g

Figure 7.

152 rim Diameter Cylinder and Car Ready for Simulated Boundary Layer Test, e/d = 3 End Plates, AR = 6.

Typical free stream test results for the shortest aspect ratio (AR = 3) and longest (AR = 6) cylinder for all of the three end plate sizes (e/d ratio) are presented in Figure 8. Here, the lift and drag coefficients are plotted as a function of U/V, the surface speed of the rotor divided by the wind speed. This parameter is analogous to the angle of attack of an airfoil. Results conformed with our expectations, and curve shapes and magnitudes correlated well with previously-published data for comparable geometries. Primary observations of importance are:
o e

Cb increasesdramatically with increased end plate slze, especially between e/d = 1.25 and e/d = 2. For large values of AR, the benefit of increasing e/d beyond 2 is questionable. Thus, it appeared that an optimum design point may occur near e/d = 2. Up until stall occurs, end plate size increases tend to decrease drag coefficient. This is a result of reduced induced drag resulting from an apparent increase in aspect ratio caused by the end plate.

The power required to rotate the cylinder is presented in Figure 9. Two observations are of particular importance:
a
e

There is a significant increase in power absorbed by the rotor for e/d > 2. There is little difference in power absorbed as a f~nctionof AR.

Thus, by combining the observations from Figures 8 and 9, it appeared that a good design would be achieved for a rotor having AR = 6 and e/d = 2. This combination would provide high lift, low drag, and reasonable power levels for spinning the rotor. We also concluded ,that aspect ratios greater than 6 might be

even more attractive; however, since wind tunnel size prevented


testing a larger cylinder, data f0.r larger aspect ratios would have to be obtained by extrapolation and use of the conventional induced drag equation which is a function of cL2 and AR. Although not presented in the interest of brevity, measurements of lift moment and drag moment also were obtained

F i g u r e 8.

u/v U/V F r e e s t r e a m CL a n d CD v e r s u s U/V, AR of 3 and 6 , and e / d R a t i o s o f 1 . 2 5 , 2 , a n d 3 , .:nd d = 152 mm.

6
Figure 9 .

u/v
' 20bo ' 4600
RPM
'

6600 ' 8 0 ' 6 ~ 0 0

Power Required t o R o t a t e C y l i n d e r f o r V a r i o u s End Cap Diameter R a t i o s and Two Aspect R a t i o s , and d = 152 mrn.

f o r u s e i n computing t h e c e n t r o i d p o s i t i o n of t h e s e f o r c e s a s a f u n c t i o n o f U/V. These measurements w e r e o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t when we conducted t h e boundary l a y e r t e s t s e r i e s , b e c a u s e t h e p r i m a r y r e a s o n f o r t h i s t e s t series was t o o b t a i n aerodynamic d a t a f o r u s e a s an i n d e p e n d e n t check o f o u r model f o r p r e d i c t i n g t h e combined e f f e c t o f t h e two a i r l o a d d i s t r i b u t i o n s t h a t are imposed on t h e r o t o r :

(1) t h e uniform a i r l o a d v e r s u s r o t o r

h e i g h t c a u s e d by motion a l o n g t h e t r a c k ; and ( 2 ) t h e nonuniform a t m o s p h e r i c boundary f l o w d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h h e i g h t c a u s e d by t h e wind. The c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e s e two f l o w s t o o b t a i n t h e r e s u l t a n t y i e l d s a h e l i c a l load d i s t r i b u t i o n with height. velocity

S i n c e t h i s c o m b i n a t i o n o f a i r f l o w s c a n n o t be o b t a i n e d i n a wind t u n n e l it was n e c e s s a r y t o d e v e l o p a n e m p i r i c a l model b a s e d on o u r t e s t s . T y p i c a l boundary l a y e r d a t a a r e p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 1 0 .


A s with t h e freestream r e s u l t s ,

t h e d a t a t r e n d s and a c c u r a c y

a r e s a t i s f a c t o r y , and t h e d a t a v e r i f i e d w e l l o u r p r e d i c t e d c e n t r o i d p o s i t i o n s by o u r model.

1 2

1 0 ;

AR=6 e/'d 2 I END CAP

1
----'

,-r---

2END CAPS

2.

0 - /

0. 0

F i g u r e 10.

C D ~ Power v e r s u s U/V f o r Boundary L a y e r T e s t s f o r e / d R a t i o s o f 1 . 2 5 a n d 2 ; o n e End Cap on Top o r Two End Caps; AR = 3 a n d 6 .


CLr

Most of . t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s from t h e boundary l a y e r d a t a were s i m i l a r t o t h o s e f o r t h e f r e e s t r e a m d a t a . In addition, i t was concluded t h a t t h e u s e o f t o p and b o t t o m end p l a t e s ( i n s t e a d o f one a s Madaras, p l a n n e d ) would b e b e n e f i c i a l t o performance.
3.
ELECTROMECHANICAL DESIGN

Design l o a d s on t h e r o t o r , r o t o r s u p p o r t , tower c a r , and t r a c k were d e v e l o p e d from i n p u t t i n g t h e d e s i g n c r i t e r i a i n t o o u r Madaras performance s i m u l a t i o n program, which p r e d i c t s t h e f o r c e s on t h e v a r i o u s components a s a f u n c t i o n o f a n g u l a r p o s i t i o n on t h e t r a c k . T y p i c a l aerodynamic l o a d s normal and t a n g e n t i a l t o t h e t r a c k f o r a n o p e r a t i o n a l w i n d c o n d i t i o n a r e shown f o r one-half o f t h e o r b i t i n F i g u r e 11. The l o a d s . f o r t h e o t h e r o r b i t
. .

h a l f a r e t h e same.

+ - DEG
Mean

F i g u r c 11. T y p i c z l D e a i ~ nLoads for 8 . 0 m/s ( 1 8 mpl!) Design Wind Speed; Track Speed = 8 . 9 m / s .

Results of the load analysis for the three wind conditions (i.e., operational, operational + gust, and static operations at hurricane conditions indicated that the operational gust load was the most severe. Other load conditions analyzed were : Aerodynamic loading on the end cap. ~ccelerationloads caused by: a Rotor travel around the curved track. 8 Centrifugal body force caused by rotor rotation at 186 rpm. i Arlyular accele~atiuriduririy rotor spin-up frun~ 0 to 186 rpm. Snow and icc loadc~~ Wheel and lateral restraint loads (idler wheels bearing on the side of the track were used to react lateral loads instead of a flanged wheel. Car weight. Cyclic fatigue loading. Structural, Mechanical, Site Design

e e

3.1

The rotor car design concept which evolved from our studies is depicted in FiGure 12. A summary of the overall design follows:
e

Dimensions AR = 8 e/d = 2 Cylinder length = 38.1 m (125 ft) Cylinder diameter = 4.9 m (16 ft) End cap diameter = 9.8 m (32 ft) Track gauge = 11.0 m (36 ft) Car length = 19.2 m (63 ft) Car height = 3.8 m (12.5 ft) Car width = 17.4 m (57 ft) Gross car weight = 328,000 Kg (723,000 lb) Structural Configuration and Materials R0to.r :. Semimonicoque, longer on trusses, circumferential truss stiffeners, and circumferent.ially corrugated s k i n . A l l 2024-~4 Alclad aluminum alloy. 5 ' Cap: Semimonicoque, radial trusses at 4 increments, stressed skin. All 2024-T4 Alclad aluminum alloy.

~ i ~ u r 12. e

Revised Rotor Car Configuration.

S u p p o r t Tower:

Monocoque c y l i n d e r on t o p o f truncated cone, s k i n t h i c k n e s s v a r i a b l e from 9 . 5 mm t o 12.7 mm, a l l of A S T M A-242 c o r r o s i o n r e s i s t a n t steel. Semimonocoque, frame o f b u i l t - u p l o n g i t u d i n a l and l a t e r a l box beams 0.9 m t o 1 . 2 2 m d e e p , p i p e s k i r t support, rectangular tube interc o s t a l ~ ,and 3 mm-thick s t r e s s e d skin. S t r u c t u r a l s t e e l frame w i t h A S T M A-242 c o r r o s i o n - r e s i s t a n t steel skin. Floor steel-reinforced c o n c r e t e f o r b a l l a s t and e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n for e l e c t r i c a l cql..?l,pment.

Rotor C a r :

Suspension system:

F o u r , two-wheel

each

curlier

uE .Llie car. Wh@cls

t r u c k s , one a t

a r e 1 . 2 m d i a m e t e r w i t h a 2.79 mrn t r e a d , f o r g e d AISC 1045 s t e e l ~ a c h h a r d e n e d t o d e p t h o f 2 5 mm. t r u c k i s coupled through a speed i n c r e a s e r to a 2 5 0 kW, 4160 V induct i o n g e n e r a t o r . Thus, 1 0 0 0 kW of g e n e r a t i n g c a p a c i t y i s provided f o r each r o t o r c a r . See F i g u r e 1 3 .
I~""..w~o.

i.I.rrrS

' -.-

--

. .-

... ...

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.- .-.

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P-.OW.

. s . ~ ..H;?&,J ~..
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P O " .2,.,,j SIOIQ, 1 0 1 I 1 " i .

Figure 13.

R o t o r Car End Truck Asseinbly.

The p r i m a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n g i v e n t o m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e r o t o r was reduced w e i g h t and r e d u c e d s t r e s s e s c a u s e d by h i g h body s t r e s s e s r e s u l t i n g from t h . e h i g h c e n t r i f u g a l f o r c e s r e s u l t i n g from r o t a t i o n a t 186 rpm. A l c l a d aluminum a l l o y p r o v i d e d t h e b e s t d e s i g n from t h e s t r e s s and c o r r o s i o n r e s i s t a n c e s t a n d p o i n t s . Weight was n o t a problem f o r t h e car and t h e r o t o r s u p p o r t t o w e r , s o s t e e l was u s e d . was used on a l l w e a t h e r s u r f a c e s .
'

Corrosion r e s i s t a n t steel

The d e s i g n c o n d i t i o n g o v e r n i n g o v e r a l l c a r w e i g h t was c o m p l e t e l y unexpected: t h e w e i g h t of 328,000 K g (723,000 l b ) was r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e a s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e wheel normal f o r c e and h e n c e f r i c t i o n a l f o r c e t o d r i v e t h e 250 k W generator without slipping. Another c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h e s t r u c t u r a l d e s i g n was t o d i v i d e t h e r o t o r and c a r s t r u c t u r e i n t o modules and segments s o t h a t f a c t o r y p r e f a b r i c a t e d u n i t s c o u l d b e mass-produced and d e l i v e r e d t o t h e s i t e f o r f i n a l assembly. For example, t h e r o t o r c y l i n d e r and c a p would be f a b r i c a t e d i n e i g h t 45' ( r e l a t i v e t o t h e circular cross-section) s h i p p e d by t r u c k o r r a i l w a y c a r . Major mechanical components i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s u s p e n s i o n s y s t e m sh.own i n F i g u r e 1 3 i n c l u d e t h e r o t a r s p i n s y s t e m g e a r i n g , d r i v e s h . a f t , d r i v e g e a r s , and t h e r o t o r b e a r i n g s , shown i n F i g u r e 1 2 . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t a r e t h e upper and lower r o t o r s u p p o r t b e a r i n g s , which are v e r y l a r g e . The upper b e a r i n g s u p p o r t s t h e e n t i r e r o t o r w e i g h t and s u p p o r t s t h e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l amount o f r a d i a l l o a d p r e s e n t a t t h i s l o c a t i o n , w h e r e a s ~ e a r i n g ss i z e s a r e : t h e lower b e a r i n g r e a c t s only r a d i a l l o a d s . segments i n l e n g t h s t h a t could be

Upper b e a r i n g : Lower b e a r i n g :

ID,

256 m (8.39 f t ) OD by 2 . O 1 m (6.60 f t ) r o l l e r bearing.

3.39 m (11.11 f t ) OD by 3.21 m (10.55 f t ) I D , cylindrical r o l l e r bearing.

A l l b e a r i n g l o a d s w i l l b e t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e t o w e r , and t h e n c e t o the rotor car.

Power transfer from the rotor car will be accomplished by a three-slipper, spring-loaded trolley arm attached to the car. Power will be collected by an overhead, triple-tracked, rigid trolley rail on the inside of the track. The trolley will be supported by commercial light posts spaced about 12.2 m apart. The rotor cars will be coupled together in an endless. train by two wire ropes (70 mm diameter) attached to the main frame structure mid-point of the front and rear of each car. The point of attachment will be 3-m above the track-sufficient to allow .for the catenary deflection between cars. Dynamic balancing of the rotor in the field after assembly was proven to be simple and effective in 1930: the rotor was rotated by its motor, and lead weights were fastened to structural members along the length of the rotor until smooth operation was observed on vibration measuring instrumentation. Similar methods would be used for balancing the rotors described herein. A typizal site layout, road bed, and rail configuration is shown in Figure 14. A racetrack configuration is envisioned; however, actual track length and diameter will be larger than that shown in Figure 14. The site included: Cross-section service road around the outside of the track. A spur track leading to an assembly-maintenance, and a control building. e Drains,utilities, roadbed, and track. e Trolleys, power distribution, and telemetered control system. a Two viaducts under the track to faciliate access to the "in-field" portion of the track in order that the land can be used foq agriculture. The roadbed will consist of two parallel independent tracks. Each track will be built as follows: An excavated, welleompacted soil base. e A 1.6-m high ballast foundation of crushed coarse and fine aggregate.

i . .

A 36-cm-thick

by 2.4-m-wide reinforced concrete.

pavement o f s t e e l

A f l a t r a i l made of 51-cm wide by 10-cm t h i c k s t e e l b o l t e d t o t h e c o n c r e t e pavement e v e r y 1.2-m o f t r a c k length.

3.2

E l e c t r i c a l Desiqn The e l e c t r i c a l d e s i g n c o n s i d e r e d f o u r components.

R o t o r S p i n System G e n e r a t o r System e

C o n t r o l and I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n System E l e c t r i c a l I n t e r f a c e System

The r o t o r s p i n s y s t e m s e l e c t e d c o n s i s t s o f a 4 5 0

kW, 500 v o l t d c motor on e a c h c a r w i t h a s i l i c o n - c o n t r o l l e d r e c t i f i e r d c motor c o n t r o l system. Dynamic b r a k i n g o f t h e r o t o r c a n b e e i t h e r by r e g e n e r a t i v e b r a k i n g o r by a l l o w i n g v i s c o u s d r a g t o d e c e l e r a t e t h e r o t o r . D i r e c t i o n r e v e r s a l w i l l be a c h i e v e d by r e v e r s i n g p o l a r i t y of power l e a d s t o t h e a r m a t u r e , and speed c o n t r o l w i l l b e a c h i e v e d by b a l a n c i n g t h e i n p u t power l e v e l t o t h e a r m a t u r e a g a i h s t t h e demand o f t h e c o n t r o l f u n c t i o n s i g n a l .
A motor v o l t a g e ,

c u r r e n t power, o r s p e e d p r o f i l e t i m e h i s t o r y This concept

c a n b e u s e d a s a motor c o n t r o l f u n c t i o n , o r a n e x t e r n a l s i g n a l f r o m t h e c e n t r a l computer c a n b e used f o r c o n t r o l .

w a s s e l e c t e d o v e r o t h e r methods b e c a u s e o f t h e need f o r cont i n u a i l y v a r i a b l e s p e e d c o n t r o l a s a f u n c t i o n o f wind speed and r o t o r p o s i t i o n on t h e t r a c k ; and t h e need f o r r o t o r s p i n d i r e c t i o n r e v e r s a l t w i c e e a c h o r b i t of t h e t r a c k . One o f t h e major r e s u l t s o f t h e s p i n motor s t u d y was t h e d i s c o v e r y t h a t t h e r e w e r e t h r e e s o u r c e s o f s p i n motor l o s s e s , t h a t t h e s e l o s s e s were h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t , and t h a t Madaras c o n s i d e r e d o n l y o n e o f t h e s e l o s s mechanisms. These

l o s s sources are:
Power r e q u i r e d t o overcome t h e v i s c o u s f r i c t i o n o f t h e r o t o r c a u s e d by s p i n n i n g ( t h e o n l y one c o n s i d e r e d by Madaras)

Power r e q u i r e d t o overcome r o t o r i n e r t i a w h i l e a c c e l e r a t i n g th.e r o t o r from 0 t o 186 rpm, and t h e l o s s i n power d u r i n g r o t o r d e c e l e r a t i o n (Madaras assumed c o m p l e t e r e c o v e r y o f t h e i n e r t i a l e n e r g y of t h e s p i n n i n g r o t o r by r e g e n e r a t i v e b r a k i n g ) .

Power l o s t i n h - e a t i n g motor w i n d i n g s d u r i n g t h e low s p e e d , a c c e l e r a t i ' o n s t a g e d u r i n g which t i m e t h e inotor i s o p e r a t i n g a t v e r y low e f f i c i e n c y ( i - e . , from 0 t o 45 p e r c e n t e f f i c i e n c y a s t h e motor speed i n c r e a s e s s l o w l y from 0 t o 70 p e r c e n t o f no-load s p e e d ) . Of t h e s e t h r e e mechanisms, t h e l a t t e r i s by f a r

t h e most s e v e r e :

o n l y 4 4 p e r c e n t of t h e power i n p u t t o t h e

motor i s d e l i v e r e d t o t h e s h a f t d u r i n g e a c h s t a r t - u p c y c l e .
Of c o u r s e , l o s s e s d e c r e a s e t o o n l y a b o u t 10 p e r c e n t when t h e r o t o r

reaches f u l l speed. Madaras a l s o e r r e d when he assumed f u l l c a p t u r e of t h e s p i n n i n g r o t o r s i n e r t i a l e n e r g y by r e g e n e r a t i v e b r a k i n g . However, e v e n during braking, viscous f r i c t i o n absorbs considerable heating losses ( l i k e the amounts of power b e f o r e it i s a v a i l a b l e f o r r e g e n e r a t i v e b r a k i n g , and t h e n t h e " m o t o r - t u r n e d - g e n e r a t o r " t h i r d t y p e o f motor h e a t i n g l o s s above) a b s o r b s o much power, t h a t t h e r e i s only about 3 percent

1400~

~= 11OFT133.5rnl ~ I

ocyl
W m , .
V,

18 F T I S . S ~ ) 45,592 186 RPM SLUG-FT2 (6305m-~q-5edI

o f t h e power o r i g i n a l l y i n p u t t o t h e s p i n motor c a n b e r e c o v e r e d during regenerative braking. Thus, we e l e c t e d t o use n a t u r a l viscous f o r c e s t o de-spin t h e r o t o r i n order t o s a v e w e a r on t h e s p i n motor and t o red.uce t h e c o s t o f power t r a n s f e r equipment.

= 3 0 MPl4(13.4m/~l

1200

I ROTOR

1~~~

7
MAXIMUM NET POWER OUTPUT

-<-.,....,:-

The s e l e c t i o n o f t h e 450 k W s i z e f o r t h e s p i n motor was governed by a t r a d e s t u d y u t i l i z i n g o u r Madaras p l a n t performance s i m u l a t i o n s t u d y , The r e s u l t s of t h i s s t u d y a r e shown i n F i g u r e 1 5 . From t h i s s t u d y , w e d e c i d e d t h a t a

- t
-400
0

O / -

/
(6:0)

(12 20) 4000

(1830)

(2440) 8000

2000

TRACK DIAMETER

6000

FEET im)

Figure 15.

Optimum Motor Size and Maximum Power Output v e r s u s Track Diameter, 13.4 m / s (30 mph) Wind Speed.

good d e s i g n p o i n t o c c u r r e d a t a 450 k W motor s i z e and a 1 3 7 2 m (4500 f t ) t r a c k diameter. This curve i s f o r a c i r c u l a r t r a c k ; however, a s w i l l

be described later, a racetrack pattern improves performance considerably over that in Figure 15. The generator selected for the Madaras system was sized for 1 MW rated output from each rotor car at a rated wind speed of 13.4m/s.~ three-phase, 60 Hz alternating current induction generator was considered to be the best for a Madaras plant. Although a synchronous generator is more efficient, the problems of aligning and maintaining precisely in phase all generators on all rotor cars in a plant seemed to overweigh the added efficiency one would gain from a synchronous generator. Since it is planned to use four 2 5 0 kW generators on each rotor car (because of wheel drive torque limitations mentioned in the structural section) the alignment problem is more severe. Then, because of possible variations in car speed caused by stretching and contracting of the interconnecting cables as well as possible wheel slippage, additional circulating current power losses could be realized.

It is believed that the efficiency of the induction generator would be in the 80 percent to 85 percent range, with a leading power factor of from 0.8 to 0.9. This power factor would be corrected by a synchronous reactor s y s t e m at the control building distribution station.
A schematic diagram of the complete electrical system on each rotor car is presented in Figure 16.

The control system will include the following component-s : A minicomputer-based primary controller in the control h01.1ae, A microcomputer-based controller on each car. A two-way radio telemetry system to link all the car units to the primary controller. A wind sensor network dispersed around the track and hard wired underground to the primary controller. e Monitoring instruments and control actuator circuits on each car and on system network components.

Telemetry Antenna

4 each l nduction Gen. 4160V, 30 , 250 KVA

4160V, 30 , 40 Amp

M a i n & Branch Breakers, Circuits, etc, 120 Vac, 10 10 each - 20 Amp Circuits

4160V, 30 , 40 Amp J160V, 30 , 150 Amp

lighting Transformer & Breaker 24001120 Vac 20 KVA, 10

4160V, 3 0 , 75 Amp

4160V, 3 0 , 75 Amp

41601500V, 30 WYI

Ground Brushes To Tracks Tracks Must Be Grounded ~ o ' p o w e rSystem Grid Ground

Figure

16.

E l e c t r i c a l S c h e m a t i c o f C i r c u i t r y on E a c h Rotor C a r .

An o p e r a t o r s s t a t i o n i n t h e c o n t r o l house c o n s i s t i n g

o f m o n i t o r i n g i n s t r u m e n t s and manual o v e r - r i d e s of t h e primary c o n t r o l l e r . S t a n d a r d equipment would b e used f o r t h e s e i t e m s , s o f u r t h e r d e s c r i p t i o n i s n o t w a r r a n t e d i n t h e summary. Power p l a n t c o n t r o l would b e a u t o m a t i c ; however, CRT, p a n e l d i s p l a y s , a n d h a r d copy r e a d o u t s would b e a v a i l a b l e f o r m o n i t o r i n g and manual c o n t r o l modes a l s o would b e p r o v i d e d . System network e l e m e n t s r e q u i r e d t o i n t e r f a c e w i t h t h e v a r i o u s e l e c t r i c a l subsystems i n c l u d e :
8

e
a a

Car t r o l l e y and f e e d e r b u s (4160V, 3 p h a s e , 500 ampere c a p a c i t y ) . D i s t r i b u t i o n c i r c u i t t o t h e t r o l l e y f e e d e r bus (power p i c k - o f f from t h e t r o l l e y e v e r y t h r e e - a n d one-half r o t o r c a r spacings t o l i m i t t r o l l e y amperage t o 500 a m p e r e s ) . Synchronous r e a c t o r s f o r power f a c t o r c o r r e c t i o n . U t i l i t y feeder c i r c u i t s . Substation. The s y s t e m network components would b e 4160V,

60 H z , 3 p h a s e equipment.

The s u b s t a t i o n would i n c l u d e t r a n s -

f o r m e r s t o i n t e r f a c e t h e s y s t e m w i t h t h e commercial power g r i d a s w e l l a s t h o s e t o produce 4 8 0 V , 3 phase a r ~ d120 V 1 phase power f o r u t i l i t y c i r c u i t s used f o r l i g h t i n g and p l a n t equipment. The s u b s y s t e m would be l o c a t e d a d j a c e n t t o t h e c o n t r o l house t o s i m p l i f y and s h o r t e n a l l f e e d e r c i r c u i t s .
4.

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

(1) t o c o n d u c t a d e s i g n The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s s t u d y were: t r a d e s t u d y of t h e v a r i o u s p l a n t o p e r a t i o n a l p a r a m e t e r s ; ( 2 ) t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t o f mutual i n t e r f e r e n c e between r o t o r s

o n power p l a n t o u t p u t a s a f u n c t i o n o f i n t e r r o t o r s p a c i n g ; and
( - 3 ) t o d e t e r m i n e t h e n e t power o u t p u t i n t h e form o f power

d u r a t i o n c u r v e s c o r r e c t e d f o r mutual i n t e r f e r e n c e e f f e c t s .

Objectives of the major investigations in the design trade study were to select for final cost analysis: a Most efficient rotor geometry and size a Spin motor size and track diameter (already described in Figure 15). a Track speed and rotor rpm. a Spin motor schedule. These results then were merged to define the plant configuration and operating conditions that appeared most attractive from a performance standpoint and in view of certain cost and efficiency consideration;. Our Madaras plant performance simulation program was used for this study. This program has provisions for inputting all data, geometrical and operational parameters, and all losses developed in the earlier studies, and simulates plant performance for any set of these conditions for any wind speed. Output in the terms of power output/rotor for a circular track of diameter D, and for a racetrack having straight section S of any length required. As a result of these studies, the following plant configurations and operational conditions were selected for the cost analysis.
e

Rotor Geometry a AR=8 a e/d = 2 .a height = 38 m (125 E t ) a diameter = 4.9 m (16 ft)

r,
,

end plate diameter = 9.8 m (.32 ft) two end plates 2 a~ea - 18G m2 (2000 ft )

Spin Motor Schedule (see Figure 17 for 1/2 of cycle) 8 filaximum angular acceleration at 450 kW to ,186 rpm a Constant 186 rpm until track position of 245O a Viscous drag braking to stop 8 Reverse rotation direction and repeat cycle
9

Track Speed a Circular Track = 8.9 m/s (20 mph) a Race Track = 13.4 m/s (30 .mph)

1.6-

,, V , = I3Am/s AR = 8 Vt = 55.9 m/s e/d = 2 I ROTOR DIAMETER = 4.9m n = 186 RPM TRACK DIAMETER = 1372 m

INSTANEOUS POWER GENERATED

a
-0.8-

INITIAI. CYCl F : WITH RFGFNFRATIVF RRBKING ; 3 A f l kW LYLLt W l l H t l t S l VlSLUUS H H A K I N t i : 4 S b kW -******** EFFECT OF USING 3 - S T E P TRANSMISSION : 505 kW AND IMPROVED VISCOUS BRAKING

-----I

90 1 0 0

120

140 160 180 ROTOR POSITION ON TRACK

200 220 8 DEGREES

2 40

260 270

F i g u r e 17.

Net Power O u t p u t f o r One R o t o r , S p i n Motor Power, and Motor rpm v e r s u s R o t o r P o s i t i o n on Track a s A f f e c t e d by u s e o f Viscous B r a k i n g , R e g e n e r a t i v e Braking, and a T h r e e - S t e p Transmisskon t o Vary t h e S p i n Schedule.

C i r c u l a r Track = 1372 m ( 4 5 0 0 f t ) R a c e t r a c k - 1 3 7 2 m r n i i d . i a m c t e r w i t h 3050 rn (10,000 f t ) t o 19,210 m (63,000 f t )

Wind Speeds 1 3 . 4 m / s (30 mph) max 3.0 m/s ( 1 0 mph) min


A p l o t showing t y p i c a l performance o f a c i r c u l a r and a

r a c e t r a c k p l a n t i s p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 18.

It i s interesting t o

n o t e t h a t t h e l o c i o f optimum performance o f t h e r a c e t r a c k and c i r c u l a r p l a n t s o c c u r a t a l l wind s p e e d s a t t r a c k s p e e d s of 13.4

m/s

and 1 1 . 2 m / s ,

respectively.

(The p a r a m e t e r X r e p r e s e n t s t h e

t r a c k s p e e d (VL) t o windspeed (VW) r a t i o . ) A lower t h a n optimum t r a c k speed f o r t h e c i r c u l a r p l a n t s was s e l e c t e d t o improve a n n u a l mutual i n t e r f e r e n c e , l o s s e s . e n e r g y y i e l d by r e d u c i n g i n t e r - r o t o r ,

The d a t a i n F i g u r e 17 d o n o t i n c l u d e t h e r e d u c t i o n i n performance c a u s e d by m u l t i p l e r o t o r mutual i n t e r f e r e n c e .

Figure 18.

N e t Power Output from one Rotor v e r s u s

X as a F u n c t i o n o f Wind Speed. Performance is P r e s e n t e d f o r Both a 1370 m (4500 ft) Diameter C i r c u l a r Track and a R a c e t r a c k h a v i n g 1370 m (4500 f t ) Diameter Ends and 4880 m (16,000 f t ) S t r a i g h t S e c t i o n s .

The mutual i n t e r f e r e n c e s t u d y , conducted by P r o f e s s o r


H.C.

L a r s e n o f t h e A i r F o r c e I n s t i t u t e o f Technology, made u s e o f t h e v o r t e x a n a l y s i s which h e d e v e l o p e d f o r a n a l y z i n g t h e G i r o m i l l , now under development by t h e McDonnell A i r c r a f t Company.

S i n c e t h e G i r o m i l l and t h e Madaras system a r e e s s e n t i a l l y comp a r a b l e i n c o n c e p t , and s i n c e t h e a n a l y s i s h a s been v a l i d a t e d by w i n d t u n n e l s t u d i e s , t h e method was c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e Madaras r o t o r m u t u a l i n t e r f e r e n c e s t u d y . Professor Larsen's a n a l y s i s e s s e n t i a l l y determines t h e e f f e c t o f a l l v o r t i c e s shed from e a c h r o t o r i n t h e p l a n t on t h e v o r t i c e s sh.ed by a l l o t h e r r o t o r s i n a power p l a n t , and t h e n d e t e r m i n e s t h e e f f e c t o f t h i s v o r t e x f i e l d on t h e wind v e l o c i t y v e c t o r a t a l l p o i n t s a r o u n d t h e t r a c k o r b i t . The n e t e f f e c t i s t h a t t h e v o r t e x f i e l d c a u s e s c h a n g e s i n t h e wind v e l o c i t y v e c t o r which r e d u c e s t h e magnitude o f t h e r o t o r ' s p r o p u l s i v e f o r c e al.ong t h e t r a c k . A s r o t o r s p a c i n g d e c r e a s e s , mutual i n t e r f e r e n c e l o s s e s i r i c r e a s e u n t i l a p o i n t i s r e a c h e d where it i s c o u n t e r - p r o d u c t i v e t o add m o r e r o t o r s The e f f e c t o f i n t e r f e r e n c e

is intensified as
The

t h e number of r o t o r s , N i n c r e a s e s and wind s p e e d d e c r e a s e s . Beyond t h a t p o i n t , o u t p u t power i s u n d e f i n e d . The d a t a from

wind s p e e d a t which a c u r v e e n d s r e p r e s e n t s t h e c u t - i n wind s p e e d . F i g u r e 1 9 were used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d a t a from F i g u r e 1 8 t o d e v e l o p t h e n e t o u t p u t from a t o t a l Madaras p l a n t t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t a l l e l e c t r o m e c h a n i c a l , aerodynamic, and mutual i n t e r f e r e n c e losses. The l a s t a s p e c t o f t h i s s t u d y was t o d e v e l o p power d u r a t i o n c u r v e s f o r v a r i o u s - s i z e d Madaras p l a n t s . These power d u r a t i o n c u r v e s w e r e o b t a i n e d from t h e s t a n d a r d wind d u r a t i o n

a t a height of 9 m e t e r s i n accordance with our design s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . This curve was u p r a t e d t o a h e i g h t of 2 5 m ( t h e c e n t e r h e i g h t of t h e Madaras r o t o r ) by t h e u s u a l 0.167 power law. An a d d i t i o n a l wind d u r a t i o n
c u r v e f o r Medicine Bow, ~ y o m i n g , a l s o was used t o p r o v i d e a means f o r comparing Madaras p l a n t performance w i t h t h a t o f a l a r g e a r r a y o f MOD-1 wind t u r b i n e g e n e r a t o r s a t Medicine Bow. These wind d u r a t i o n c u r v e s and t h e r e s u l t i n g power d u r a t i o n c u r v e s from two Madaras p l a n t s i s p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e s 2 0 and 2 1 , respectively.

c u r v e h a v i n g a mean wind speed o f 8 . 1 m / s

F i g u r e 19

Mutual I n t e r f e r e n c e Loss F a c t o r v e r s u s Wind Speed f o r Various Numbers of Rotors on a 1524-m Diameter Track, Constant Rotor Speed and Track Speed o f 1 8 6 rpm and 1 3 . 4 m / s , R e s p e c t i v e l y .

CUMMULATIVE HOURS 2 GIVEN WIND SPEED OCCURS

Figure 2 0 .

M o d i f i e d Design Wind D u r a t i o n Curve t o R e p r e s e n t Wind C o n d i t i o n s a t a R o t o r Mid-Height o f 2 5 m ( 8 2 f t ) Above Mean T e r r a i n Level.


PLANT l

PLAN'T l o

HOURS I N ONE YEAR

Fiqure

21.

Power D u r a t i o n C u r v e s f o r t h e Two P l a n t s Shown i n F i g u r e 6.14 Based on t h e V = 9.6 m / s Design Wind ~ u r a t i o nCurve a t 25-m H e i g h t ( F i g u r e 6 . 1 3 ) .

5.

COST/PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

Cost estimates in a modular form suitable for scaling Madaras plants to a wide range of sizes were developed by a professional engineering firm which specializes in cost estimating. In addition, generalized equations describing plant geometry were developed in terms corresponding to the modular cost variables. Our analysis indicated that even the most efficient circular plant was not sufficiently economical for further consideration. Even when accounting for the effects of an 85 percent learning curve on the rotor and track, the manufacture of 500 plants comprised of 20 rotors on a 1372-m diameter track and a 16.5 percent annual cost and a 30 year life; the minimum installed cost of a 7.85 MW circular plant would be $1539/kW in a region where mean wind speed is 8.1 m/s at a 9-m height. For this same plant, the expected energy cost would be 6.2C/kW-hr, based on annual energy output of 37.76 x lo6 kW-hr, and land cost of $1500/acre. On the other hand, large racetrack plants appear to be quite attractive. Figures 22 and 23 contain parametric plots, respectively, of cost/kW and cost/kW-hr versus rated power. These plots indicate the relationship of the following parameters on cost and'rated power output: b : inter-rotor spacing in number of rotor diameters, d, where d = 4.9 m (16 ft) S r length of the straight section of the racetrack N = number of rotors These curves do not reflect the effect of learning curves, do not include land cost, and Figure 23 is based on annual costs equal to 16.5 percent of total plant cost.

It should be remembered that the racetrack plant is dependent upon a unidirectional wind (including reciprocal directions) for proper operation. Such areas as those near 'large bodies of water or near the Great Plains area, such as Medicine Bow, Wyoming, would be ideal sites for such a'plant.

RATED POWER

MW

F i g u r e 21.

U n i t P l a n t C o s t v e r s u s Rated Power f o r R a c e t r a c k Conf i g u r a t i o n a s a F u n t i o n o f I n t e r - R o t o r S p a c i n g , Length o f S t r a i g h t S e c t i o n o f T r a c k , and Number o f R o t o r s . DOE Design Wind D u r a t i o n Curve: V = 8 . 1 m / s @ 9 m.

RATED POWER

MW

F i g u r e 22.

Energy C o s t v e r s u s Rated Power f o r R a c e t r a c k Conf i g u r a t i o n a s a F u n c t i o n of I n t e r - R o t o r S p a c i n g , Length o f S t r a i g h t S e c t i o n of T r a c k , and Number of Rotors. DOE Design Wind D u r a t i o n Curve: V=8.1 m / s @9m. 32

Table 2 presents cost and performance data for the two largest Madaras plants studied. Plant numbers indicate size; i.e., for Plant 49-60, inter-rotor spacing is 49 rotor diameters (d - 4.9 m), and the length of the straight track section is - indicates a Medicine Bow, 60,000 ft (18,300 m). The suffix M Wyoming, wind duration curve. Sea level air density was used for Table 2 configurations. TABLE 2 EFFECT OF LAND COST, LEARNING CURVES, AND MEAN WIND SPEED ?LAXT AND' EiiERG-Y COST - SEA LEVEL DEiJSITY

(7) ON

v
Plant No.

--

43-60

9 -m ' Height R MW m/s 8.1 211

Annual Output *n 10bkW-hr Acre 745 931

No. Plts.

No. Rotors

1 10 100 1 10 100 1 10 100 1 10 100

170 1700 17000 190 1900 19000 170 1700 17000 190 1900 19000

44-60

8.1

228

975

748

49-60M

9.7

211

1103

745

14-60M

9.7

228

1170

748

--Rotors-85%L.C.; Track 9aL.C. Energy Cost s C/kW-hr (2) P l a n t ' ' ' Land Cost $/Acre Cost 3000 1500 500 1000 0 $/kW 2.73 722 2.69 2.70 2.71 2.72 1.88 492 1.84 1.84 1.85 1.86 1.32 342 1.28 1.28 1.29 1.30 2.66 681 2.62 2.63 2.64 2.64 1.82 463 1.78 1.79 1.79 1.80 1.27 321 1.24 1.24 1.25 1.25 2.31 2.27 2.28 2.28 2.29 722 1.58 492 1.55 1.56 1.56 1.57 1.11 342 1.08 1.08 1.09 1.09 2.22 2.19 2.19 2.20 2.20 681 1.50 463 1.49 1.49 1.50 1.50 1.06 321 1.03 1.03 1.04 1.05

(1) Does not include land cost (2) Based on annual cost = 16.5% of plant cost. The separate and combined effect of learning curves, land .cost, and mean wknd speed on Madaras plant and energy cost are shown in Table 2. Costs are in 1978 dollars. These data indicate that land cost has an insignificant effect on energy cost because plant cost is high relative to land cost, and also because we elected to purchase only that land required for the track and road, the power station, and the area enclosed by a fence line offset 100 ft from The "infikld" area all plant tracks and buildings (An in Table 2 ) . inside the track would be retained by the owner for agricultural purposes. Viaducts under the track at each end would provide
i

access to the property, and the property would be a large, open, unbroken expanse that would be attractive for large scale farming (about 6460 acres for Plant 44-60). The learning curve effect on energy cost for a given plant can be seen by comparing one column of figures under a given land cost or by comparing Plant 49-60 with Plant 44-60. These data indicate that energy from Madaras plants is sensitive to learning curves. Madaras plants also are more economical as they are built larger, as shown drammatically in Figure 22, and to a much smaller extent on Table 2 (compare Plant 49-60 with Plant 44-60 energy costs)

Comparisons of the Madaras system with horizontal


axis wind turbine generators (HA-WTG) were made to determine whether or not Madaras plants showed promise of producing electrical energy at a lower cost than HA-WTGts ( the basic objective of this study). Comparisons were made with HA-WTG plants proposed by Mr. S .J. Hightower2 of the Bureau of Reclamation, Department of Interior for installation at Medicine Bow, Wyoming. These two plants consisted of 49 and 98 MOD-1 WTGts, respectively, designed 3 by the General Electric Company . These plants were selected for the comparison because they utilized large, modern HA-WTG1s, and because the study included all costs required to connect the HA-WTG array into a complete plant, just as this Madaras plant study has done. Equitable bases for the comparison were developed, and these bases were coordinated with Hightower. The more important ground rules for the comparison were: 1978 dollars 5 year construction period Construction interest at 7% Plant Life of 30 years Financing: Federal Annual Fixed Rate = 8.41% Private Annual Fixed Rate = 15%

a a

Operation and ~aintenanceannual cost 2% of base plant cost Land purchased a Net area (An) in Table 2 for Madaras Plant a 1500 ft diameter per HA-WTG (specified by Hightower) Same learning curve equations and 85% learning curve for WTG and Madaras rotor

Cost elements in the estimate for both plants included all direct costs for equipment, electrical connection, and land; management, engineering, and overhead; contingencies; and interest. The comparison was made for the following two sets of conditions: Medicine Bow -air density ratio=0.81 (2131 m elevation)

a a a a
a

Two plant sizes, each type: z 98 MW, 196MW Mean Wind speed = 9.7 m/s @ 9-m height Federal financing Land cost = $200/acre
=

Other Site -air density ratio

1.0

sea level

a a

Same two plant sizes Mean wind speed = 8.1 m/s @ 9-m height Private financing Land Cost = $3000/acre

The results of this comparison are shown in Table 3, which describes the geometry, performance, installed cost, and annual cost and energy of each plant. Plant ID numbers assist in the comparison; i.e., Madaras Plant 1 is compared with HA-WTG Plant la; Plant 2 is compared with HA-WTG Plant 2a, etc. Plant 3 (also 6) was added for completeness since it was the largest Madaras plant analyzed. The cost results for Plants 3 and 6 in Table 3 do not agreg with those in Table 2, bccause costs in Table 2 were altered to conform to the comparison ground rules upon which the data in Table 3 are based.

TABLE 3 OVERALL COMPARISON O F SEVERAL MADARAS AND HA-WTG PLANTS AT TWO WIND REGIONS

(1)
(2)

(3) (4)
(5) (6)

(7)

W T G s p a c e d i n t h r e e rows, s t a g g e r e d , e q u i l a t e r a l t r i a n g u l a r a r r a y a t 1 5 r o t o r d i a m e t e r (d = 6 1 m) Contingencies i n H A W T G p l a n t inched i n s i t e and f a c i l i t i e s f i q u r e . I n c l u d e s a l l o w a n c e f o r f u n d s used d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n , due t o o u t r i g h t p u r c h a s e o f I l h d . The s u f f i x l e t t e r M r e f e r s t o Medicine Bow p l a n t s ; a l l o t h e r s f o r wind d u r a t i o n c u r v e V = 8 . 1 m/s. Contingencies f o r H A W T G p l a n t s a r e included i n t h e e l e c t r i c a l connection c o s t . F i x e d c h a r g e s f o r M e d i c i n e Bow p l a n t s b a s e d o n F e d e r a l f i n a n c i n g a t f i x e d c h a r g e o f 8 . 4 1 p e r c e n t . A l l o t h e r s , fixed charge = 15 p e r c e n t . Based o n a i r d e n s i t y r a t i o o f 0.81-7000 ft(2134rn) above m s l .

Cost estimates of MOC-1 systems, used without modifications, were obtained from ~ i ~ h t o w e and r ~ from General 131ectric3. Both the Madaras estimates and the MOD-1 estimates2t3 were based on engineering studies, not on manuractured hardvrare cost.

The major observations drawn from the data in Table 3 are :


o

Plant cost is about equal for both systems. Annual energy output and hence plant factor is higher for the Madaras plants than for the HA-WTG plants at the 8.1 m/s mean wind speed region. MOD-1 performance data for this other site were obtained from General Electric.1 Madaras plants use considerably less gross land area than HA-WTG units spaced 15 rotor diameters apart (915 m); less net area needs to be purchased for Madaras plants; and the remaining land area in the "infield" of a Madaras plant can be used more efficiently for agriculture or industry than the broken up tracts of land scattered among arrays of HA-WTG plants. Annual operation and maintenance costs of Madaras plants are greater because of their added complexity. Energy cost of Madaras plants at Medicine Bow varies from 4 percent to 12 percent higher than that for comparable HA-WTG plants; and at the other site, Madaras plant energy cost is from 13.5 percent to 22.2 percent less than HA-WTG cost.

Madaras plant energy cost relative to HA-WTG energy cost is unaffected by the magnitude of the annual fixed cost rate, but land affects the relative cost position of HA-WTG plants because HA-WTG plants use considerably more land area than Madaras plants.

6.

CONCLUSIONS

This conceptual design study of the Madaras Rotor Power Plant included an analysis of all major components of the Madaras system. The study has successfully addressed each of the unanswered questions outlined in Paragraph 1, and has fulfilled the basic study objective. It is believed that a reasonably efficient conceptual design for the Madaras system has been developed, and that this design fulfills all criteria initially established. '~orneich ,T.R. , Proceedings of the Third Biennial Conference and Workshop on Wind Energy conversion Systems, Volume 1, September 19 to 21, 1977, Sponsored by the United States Department of Energy.

The more significant conclusions drawn from this study are itemized below. 1. Madaras plants having capacities from 7.9 MW to 228 MW with annual energy output varying from 32 x lo6 kW-hr to 1170 x lo6 kW-hr are feasible. No limitations were noted that would restrict maximum plant capacity to 228 MW. Thus, Madaras plants are capable of providing plant capacities of interest to electric utility companies.
2. Madaras plants having circular Lrack coaIiyurdLiur~s are not economically competitive with HA-WTG plants because of the large electric losses of the spin motor and the mutual interference losses which limit the number of rotor cars to about 20 per plant. The minimum track diameter appears to be 1372 m (4500 ft) , and little improvement in performance is noted as track diameter increased.

3. Losses in a Madaras plant are significantly larger than those of a HA-WTG plant. The aerodynamic and mechanical losses are tolerable, but there is need to reduce the electrical losses significantly. Until electrical and interference losses are substantially reduced, racetrack plant confiqurations must be used for Madaras plants.
4. For both circular and racetrack plant configurations, minimum energy cost is obtained where minimum inter-rotor spacing is about 44 rotor diameters (d = 4.9 m) and the minimum track diameter (end diameter of a racetrack) is about 1372 m.

5. The free stream and boundary layer wind tunnel data obtained during this study are the most complete set of data on rotating cylinder versus geometry and wind speed profile available in the literature. Thls set of data can be used directly to predict full-sized rotating cylinder performance. 6. It is believed that the 125-ft high (38 m) Madaras rotor offers a. superior structural alternative to 200-ft to 300-ft (61 m to 91 m) diameter, flexible wind turbine blades when subjected to wind, gust, and tower loads.

7. The potential problem areas and disadvantages of Madaras plants relative to HA-WTG plants are:

The Madaras system is more complex, has higher losses, and will require higher operation and maintenance costs than a horizontal axis wind turbine system. The use of a racetrack plant configuration is necessary for optimum Madaras plant performance (at this time). Thus, Madaras plants will be limited to regions having nearly unidirectional winds or to those regions in which off-axis winds have an angular variation of less than f45O and which occur only a small portion of a total year. The advantages of the Madaras plant over a comparablysized HA-WTG plant are:
8.

A rotating cylinder rotor structure is simpler and can be built to have greater structural strength, durability, and reliability as compared to large, flexible rotor blades exposed in a wind and gust environment.

a
o

Madaras plants show higher sensitivity to economy of scale. Madaras plants use land more efficiently and use less land than HA-WTG plants.

9. The Madaras Rotor Power Plant concept using a racetrack plant configuration appears at least to be economically competitive with horizontal axis wind turbine generators, and more probably the concept shows promise of out-performing horizontal axis systems from a number of standpoints: structural durability, economy of scale, energy yield, and efficient use of land. The results of this study indicate that, although the Madaras concept does not represent a major breakthrough in wind energy conversion technology, Madaras racetrack plant energy cost varied from 12 percent higher to 22 percent lower than the energy cost of MOD-1 plants. This advantage, although attractive, is diminished by the Madaras system's limited application arising

from a possible scarcity of large, flat, land areas having sufficiently unidirectional wind velocities, if further studies indicate only racetrack plant configurations are feasible.

10.

Although more efficient HA-WTG systems (MOD-2)

are being developed, it is believed that more efficient Madaras systems also can be developed given the opportunity to conduct the necessary design studies. 11. At this stage of the investigation, it is not possible to state conclusively whether or not the Madaras system will significantly out-perform a similarly-sized horizontal axis wind turbine system. However, the results of the present study, which are thought to be conservative, are sufficiently encouraging to warrant further investigation. Areas requiring y i nnl i . i i l , : e further fit.11d Definition of mutual interference for racetrack plants and for circular track plants havinq track end diameters greater than 8000 ft (2439 m) Development of optimal spin schedules which include modulating rotor speed at all points along the track such that the propulsive force is optimized at all times
a

Further consideration of different types of electrical equipment, transmissions, and braking techniques Analyses of different end plate designs which promise to reduce viscous friction and inertia loads, and hence reduce spin power, without a prnpnxtionate d e e r e a s t in aeroilyr.iesn\il: per Lur.~~~irl.ri(:~-! Reduction of rotor weight and inertia by optimized design and use of new materials and construction techniques that ire cost effective. Included in this analysis should be the consideration of larger rotors, and ti Pam en^. w i n . d. i n g techniques. In-depth otudiea of power collection a ~ ~distribution il as well as system control
technique^ t n dnvel.op the most cost-effective methods for. producing Madaras plants, and the determination of detailed costs of mass-produced units
A I . i . f e cycle cost study to include cystem reliability, as well as maintenance, operation, and depreciation ,:' costs of the system
A thorough study of manufacturing

REFERENCES
1.
i.l.i.t: '. 'I.n.v.e.s't:ia:a.t i'o.n. .+he. ' ~ i . ~ . ~ .for .~.i'l.l' B r u l l e , R . V . , Fe.a..s.i.b -No.v'einber G e n e r a t i o n o f ' E l e c t r ' i c ' Powe'r',' Midte'r"m. Repo'r't,' Ap'r'i'l' 1975, Energy R e s e a r c h and Development A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , November
2

1 n7c

2.

Hightower, S t a n l e y J . , "A Proposed P l a n f o r I n t e g r a t i o n o f Wind T u r b i n e G e n e r a t o r s w i t h a H y d r o e l e c t r i c System," P r e s e n t e d a t t h e Annual Meeting of t h e M i s s o u r i B a s i n Systems Group, S i o u x F a l l s , S.D., March 9 , 1977. Korneich, T . R . , P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e . T h i r d B i e n n i a l Conference and Workshop on Wind Energy Conversion Systems, Volume 1, S e p t e m b e r . 1 9 t o 21, 1977, Sponsored by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Department of. Energy. Paper by R . J . B a r c h e t o f t h e G e n e r a l E l e c t r i c Co., Volume I , page 76.

3.

*U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1979-640-258-18?i6

41