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Sustainable Building Design

Module Leader: Submission date:

Prof. Abdy Kermani 2nd December 2011

Matriculation Number 10019743 MSc Architectural Technology & Building Performance Edinburgh Napier University


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Introduction ................................................................................................................................ Deconstruction/ demolishment................................................................................................. Hazardous materials .................................................................................................................... Recycling ..................................................................................................................................... Construction/design issues .......................................................................................................... Structure/foundation ................................................................................................................... SUDS............................................................................................................................................ Environmental issues ................................................................................................................... Conclusions/ recommendations ...................................................................................................

10. References .................................................................................................................................. 11. Appendix.....................................................................................................................................

Introduction In pursuit of sustainability, the construction industry has been forced to focus on improving its methods of project delivery. Sustainable construction comprises many processes through which a profitable and competitive industry creates a healthy built environment based on efficient use of available resources and ecological principles, encompassing: whole life cycle issues, procurement, site planning, material selection and use, recycling, and waste and energy minimisation. In this context engineers, specifies and product designers are ideally placed to move the resource management challenges forward by focusing on factors such as design for longevity, flexibility and efficient use/reuse of materials. In this paper I examine the sustainability issues relating to the design of a large sports centre complex for construction within a small town in Scotland that can encompass the three dimensions of sustainable development objectives, namely environmental, economic and social. And I discuss the issues relevant to the redevelopment brownfield, and if it is contaminated suggest some remedial and suggest some path to use recycling material from demolition and some issues about design, construction structure and environment and use sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS).

Brownfield Definitions
The term brownfield has not been defined by the Government in England. The term is frequently used interchangeably with Previously Developed Land (PDL) even though the two are not the same. PDL is defined as land which is or was occupied by a permanent structure (excluding agricultural or forestry buildings), and associated fixed surface infrastructure and includes the curtilage of the developed land. English provide a definition of a brownfield - As former uses of the site or surrounding land; - Are derelict or underused; - Are mainly in fully or partly developed urban areas; May have real or perceived contamination problems, and; - Require intervention to bring them back Figure 1 Redevelopment process, Source: (cabernet,2007). to beneficial use (CABERNET, 2007).

Redundant buildings and infrastructures

A common feature of brownfield sites is the presence of redundant buildings. These structures represent many types of buildings and former industrial facilities. The traditional approach of project promoters has demanded that the conditions on brownfield sites are close to that expected on a Greenfield site, in order to provide total flexibility. This approach can be extremely wasteful of resources but has clear benefits, particularly where the infrastructure has been in place for many years and cannot comply with present day standards. In many brownfield reclamation concepts complete highway layouts, utility service networks and drainage systems are destroyed and replaced by new infrastructure. In the worst case, this may include the disposal of the materials arising from infrastructure removal and the use of primary raw materials to construct replacements. Redeveloping a brownfield is a complex multi-dimensional process that can tackle environmental, social and economic problems in post-industrial urban areas (Environment Agency, 2003; RESCUE, 2005). Brownfield sites have four main stages 1. Initiation; 2. Characterisation, planning and design; 3. Implementation; and 4. Completion.

Brownfield Redevelopment and Flood Risk Many brownfield sites are located within floodplains and redevelopment has the potential to increase flood risk (Environment Agency, 2003; DCLG, 2007a). So development does not cause an increase to flood risk. Brownfield Redevelopment and Biodiversity Brownfield sites can have greater biodiversity than Greenfield sites so the potential loss of biodiversity can be a significant issue (TCPA, 2004; Hopkins, 2005).

Brownfield redevelopment requires expertise from a number of different technical disciplines, which need to be effectively integrated to achieve a valid assessment of feasibility. Decisions have to be made on such issues as;

how to manage or treat any contamination problems; whether to dismantle or reuse existing buildings and infrastructures; the influence of any naturally developing ecology. Development of techniques and procedures to address all aspects has been pro gressing for a number of years, particularly within the traditional industrial regions of Europe.

Managing Land Contamination within the Brownfield Redevelopment Process Land contamination is caused by the previous land uses or by the existence of natural substances in the ground (Rudland et al., 2001; Nathanail and Bardos, 2004). As this brownfield sites are former industrial sites may be contaminated. This means that some of the engineering solutions used to remediate contamination, such as encapsulation of contaminated soil left in situ, permeable reactive barriers, or bentonite walls. The process can be split into three stages: 1. Risk assessment; 2. Development of a remediation strategy, and; 3. Implementation of the remediation strategy. Risk assessment involves identifying potential risks and assessing if they are unacceptable. The development of a remediation strategy involves identifying all the remediation options that will reduce the risk to an acceptable level. (Remediation took place in 2 phases: first phase - on site soil washing - 1 year; second phase -soil venting in VOC (benzene) localised contaminated area- 3 years). The implementation of the remediation strategy involves planning, carrying out and verifying the work required to implement the remediation strategy. Obstacle Some respondents were concerned that higher densities in respect of urban developments, as suggested by the Urban Task Force, might lead to town cramming. Another major obstacle could be the need to change peoples views of their living requirements, for example reducing their requirement for private gardens.

Demolition and construction

Demolition has been defined as the removal of old or unwanted buildings. Demolition usually begins inside the building and moves to the outside in the following stages: >> Removal of hazardous materials such as asbestos; >> Soft strip: the removal of the soft furnishings (fixed or non-fixed) and non-structural elements of the building, such as doors, stud walls, skirting boards, architraves and lighting; >> Removal of the main frame; then >> Removal of foundations. Many of the processes are now largely mechanised due to: Increased complexity in building >> design that would slow up manual dismantling; >> increasing pressure from clients with regard to time and cost; >> Restrictions imposed by health and safety controls; and >> Advances in plant design. The limited time availability on modern demolition contracts can result in a lower likelihood of reclamation and recycling.

Pre-demolition audits (BRE)

The main aim of these audits is to maximise materials available for reuse and recycling and to minimise materials going to landfill. The highest tonnage of demolition materials is concrete (59%), inert (21%) and metals (10%). This was followed by timber (7%) plasterboard (1.4%) and insulation and plastics materials were below 1% of the overall quantity of demolition arising. All waste types have to be identified for diversion from landfill at preconstruction stage.

Demolition methods and equipment used Pneumatic and Hydraulic Breakers. (Often used in concrete demolition projects involving bridge decks, foundations and pavement, hand-held or boom mounted pneumatic and hydraulic breakers are currently the tools of choice). Pressure Bursting, Mechanical Bursting and Chemical Bursting Ball and Crane for Demolishing Masonry and Concrete Structures Explosives Mechanical Demolition & Dismantling

Demolition waste left in situ

We will not normally require the foundations of demolished large structures to be excavated and transported for disposal or recovery elsewhere, and will not require the operator to apply for an environmental permit in order to leave the waste in situ where: the foundations do not contain hazardous materials which could cause pollution to groundwater; the foundations are stable and resistant to degradation in the prevailing soil conditions; you meet the relevant objectives of the Waste Framework Directive; ensuring that waste is recovered or disposed of without endangering human health and without using processes or methods which could harm the environment and in particular without (i) risk to water, air, soil, plants or animals; or (ii) causing nuisance through noise or odours; or (iii) adversely affecting the countryside or places of special interest.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Characterization of Contamination Human Health Risk Assessment Ecological Risk Assessment Remedial Alternative Evaluation Engineering Design Treatability and Pilot Studies Remedial Construction

Characterization of contamination
The selection of environmental sampling techniques and locations are primarily influenced by the location of potential contaminant sources, the contamination types, the soils attributes, groundwater depth, direction and rate of groundwater flow, and other subsurface geology.

Human health risk assessments

Human-health risk assessments may consist of a complete site-specific risk assessment performed in accordance with the state regulations.

Identify Chemicals of Concern Include chemical concentrations, availability, toxicity, frequency of detection, and environmental persistence, as observed from previous investigations. Assess Exposure - Identify potentially exposed populations and realistic exposure scenarios under both "residential" and "actual land-use or potential land-use" conditions

Assess Toxicity - Attention should be given to both the chemicals acute and chronic toxicity, including the sites carcinogenic effects (cancer causing) and genotoxic effects (causing changes to human DNA), if applicable.

Risk Characterization - existing site concentrations are compared with conservatively calculated, risk-based concentrations deemed acceptable by the regulatory agencies (i.e., U.S. EPA and Utah DEQ).

Ecological risk assessments

An ecological risk assessment estimates the effect of chemicals, alteration of habitats, or introduction of new species, as well as other variables that may pose a threat to the non-human environment.

Remedial alternative evaluations

As soon as possible during the remedial design process, the amount(s) of contamination and/or the magnitude of groundwater contamination should be estimated.

Hazards are defined as:

Properties or situations with the potential to cause harm, including human injury, damage People (chemical contamination on brownfield sites has posed a major threat to human life), Nature environment (concern soil and groundwater contamination). And building (can be physical, chemical or biological in character and concerns can include poor load-carrying properties of the ground and the interaction of building materials and services with aggressive ground conditions). are at risk and not be considered in isolation from each other; an integrated approach is required.

Ground-related hazards Can be physical, chemical or biological in character and associated with four aspects of the ground conditions:

Solid phase of the ground; ground movements can damage buildings, liquid phase of the ground; groundwater and leachate can be carriers of aggressive contaminants and can affect geotechnical behaviour, Gaseous phase of the ground; gas migration through and from landfill sites, and into buildings can be a serious hazard, subterranean fires most commonly occur in colliery spoil and domestic refuse.

Ground-related hazards While many of the hazards are related to the previous use of the site, there may also be problems associated with the original state of the ground, which can include various types of ground movement and aggressive ground conditions

Brownfield hazards can be classified into the following two broad categories. Geoenvironmental hazards Contamination linked to the chemical and biological properties of the ground and the groundwater conditions problems associated can present an immediate or long-term threat to human health via ground or groundwater, to plants, to amenity, to construction operations and to buildings and services. Geotechnical hazard Contamination linked to the physical properties of the ground and impact principally on the built environment. Some problems from hazards are: Inadequate properties of the soil for supporting foundations and services, Chemical attack on foundations and services, Gas generation from biodegradation of organic matter and from other deleterious substances in the ground, and Combustion.

When hazards have been identified and ranked in order of the seriousness of the threat that they pose, remedial strategies can be developed and assessed with regard both to initial performance and to long-term behaviour and potential liabilities.

The management and mitigation of risks are described

Risk management
Identified hazards

Nature and degree of risk resulting from the hazards Planned response Estimated effect of response Nature and degree of residual risk and with whom it lies

Evaluating the risk

Choosing a remedial strategy involves many factors related to technical adequacy, costs, environmental effects and perception as described It may be necessary to take appropriate action to avoid, prevent, mitigate or transfer risk. There are two principal ways in which risks can be reduced: ground remedial measures, Design of foundations, substructure and services. Factors involved in selection of a remedial strategy technical adequacy costs environmental effects perception

Ground remedial measures Where ground-related risks are unacceptably high, they can be reduced by applying some form of insitu ground treatment or remedial process before building development. Some of the more common treatment and remedial techniques and their uses are listed in Table 1 Most of these techniques require the services of a specialist contractor. Many brownfield sites contain both physical and chemical hazards. In evaluating treatment techniques for physical problems, it is important to be aware of the effect that the ground treatment may have on chemical hazards, and vice versa. The interaction of physical and chemical processes needs to be carefully considered .Some forms of ground treatment have a generally beneficial effect with regard to several hazards, whereas other methods may help with one hazard but introduce other potential problems

Ex-situ remediation A distinction should be made between in-situ and ex-situ remediation. With ex-situ techniques, contaminated ground is excavated or groundwater is pumped out and treatment takes place off site. Where the ground is excavated before treatment, control can be exercised over what soil is replaced in the excavation, and placement and compaction can be controlled. Excavation also gives the opportunity to remove physical hazards such as buried foundations and services and shallow mine workings. Some of the remediation techniques described in Table 1 may be used either in-situ or ex-situ. The most common solution to the problems posed by contaminated ground on a brownfield site is the excavation and removal of the contaminated material to a licensed site. It is increasingly expensive due to the imposition of Landfill Tax and the stringent requirements of the Environmental Protection Act (1990) Material removed from a site can be treated to remove contaminants and returned to the site. The volume removed permanently from the site may need to be replaced. Suitable material should be used and placed to an appropriate engineering specification to address any problems of residual contamination and to form ground with suitable load-carrying characteristics.

Land fill The problems with landfill are numerous and wide-ranging and the cost of landfill is increasing. This increase has arisen for several reasons: current sites are becoming full; higher standards of management are required when the site is open; and greater pollution control is now required when the site has been closed.

BRE and commissioned by WRAP in collaboration with the Office of Government Commerce, has identified the following requirement to be achievable at no extra cost: 10% of the materials value of a construction project should derive from recycled content. The potential exists to recover and re-use much more material, both from construction/demolition and from other waste streams. For example: Aggregates: WRAP estimates that a further 20 million tonnes a year of suitable recycled and secondary materials could be used3. Glass: The UK generates up to 5.5 million tonnes of glass waste each year, of which we currently recycle less than 20%. Plastic: Of the 1.4 million tonnes used in construction per annum, only 10% is recycled content. Wood: Over 9 million tonnes of timber-based products are used by the construction industry each year. Only one-third of a million tonnes is recycled wood, of the 35 million tonnes of waste wood available. Most of the value and avoided landfill comes from: Foundations: cement replacements within the concrete substructure Ground floor: recycled content in beam and block flooring Upper floors: recycled timber within chipboard Internal walls: FGDS gypsum5 in plasterboard and recycled content in aerated blockwork. Green Guide ratings The external walls, internal walls, ground floor, roof, windows and kitchen worktops all receive A ratings with standard recycled input, but the upper floor and kitchen cupboard doors receive B ratings with standard recycled input.

classification of recycled materials

SECONDARY MATERIALS A secondary material is a material that potentially can be a solid and hazardous waste when recycled Spent Materials Sludges By-Products Commercial Chemical Products Scrap Metal Scrap metal is defined as bits and pieces of metal parts that are worn or superfluous.

There are three types of recycling activities: Use Constituting Disposal Directly placing wastes or products containing wastes on the land is considered to be use constituting disposal. Burning Waste Fuels Burning hazardous waste for energy recovery and using waste to produce a fuel are both covered under burning waste fuels. Reclamation reclamation is the regeneration of wastes or recovery of usable materials from wastes Use/ Reuse The direct use or reuse of a secondary material without prior reclamation is also a form of recycling. waste usually consists of bulky materials taking up considerable landfill space; and secondly, it has a high potential for recovery and reuse.

Designing for recycling

Dorsthort and Kowalczk (2002) stated that Construction and demolition waste can be recycled, down cycled or up cycled. When the material is used for the same function again, it is called recycling. When the material is used for another function it is called down cycling and when the recycled material is used for a better function than the original material it is called up cycling.

Use of Recycled Construction Waste waste management in most countries is based on the internationally recognised waste hierarchy. Recycled material is a more feasible option than virgin material. The adoption of recycled materials in the construction industry has far reaching environmental and economic benefits. Construction and demolition waste can be described as all wastes that arise from construction, renovation and demolition activities (C.I.F. 2003). The Government has remained committed to increasing taxation on landfill to encourage alternative methods of waste disposal.

Figure 2 Figure 3Waste Management Hierarchy (Symonds 1999)

Table 1 Waste Management Hierarchy (Symonds 1999)


.In 1991 Arup1 estimated that some 70 million tonnes of demolition rubble and construction waste were generated annually. The demolition process to ensure that the bricks are not damaged; this involves performing a careful demolition of the old structure without the use of heavy plant, The most common way in which bricks are recycled is by crushing them and using the remaining material as a hardcore fill. A large force is needed in order to crush bricks, which means that heavy machinery is required. Four different types of crushed aggregate were used in this investigation. Two kinds of Figure 3 Rubber asphalt process (Better 2000) aggregate crushed from unused clay bricks, one recycled aggregate and natural granite aggregate. After crushing, the material will be uniformly graded and much easier to transport than demolition rubble. If the building was constructed using a modern hard cement, it is very difficult to remove the cement from the bricks without causing damage Bricks are usually the most valuable items in a building to be demolished, but roofing tiles and timber are also frequently reclaimed. In some circumstances, using reclaimed bricks instead of new ones can be advantageous. Reclaimed bricks

The most expensive reclaimed bricks are the oldest bricks that were made by hand.

The second most expensive type of bricks on sale are known as multis, because of their multicoloured appearance. These bricks were commonly made by unskilled craftsmen, with rough edges and missing corners. The cheapest bricks are wire-cut bricks. They are similar in colour and appearance to modern bricks, the bricks that were part of internal walls in the original structure may be recycled and used externally. Experienced bricklayers will select the bricks that are judged to be most suitable for exterior use from those suitable only for internal use. There is little difference between the financial costs of disposing of demolition rubble and replacing it by manufacturing new bricks and in recycling old bricks from demolished structures. So brick reclamation is currently only practised at small yards and the majority of bricks used in construction in the UK are new bricks manufactured by the larger companies. Ordering of materials and package waste

CIRIA 2001 stated that a general policy in construction is the over or extra ordering of materials to the effect that it can be as high as 10% waste. The large amount of packaging on products can total up to 18% of volume at the early stages of the project. CIRIA highlights two areas of good practice to minimise the occurrence of these high volumes of unnecessary waste. CIRIA 2002 identified that ordering should be undertaken such that a just-in-time delivery system is carried out. This reduces the wastage that occurs on site due to damage and loss of materials. All contractors on a site responsible for materials ordering should endeavour to use suppliers that minimise packaging requiring disposal. This may mean less packaging, or use of packaging that can be returned to the supplier and reused. As with many other aspects of the economy, use of the supply chain to impact on the environment can be effective.

Technology of C&DW Recycling Facilities

Construction and demolition waste management facilities is a combination of on-site adoption of on-site waste management practices combined with private/public waste management processing plants. The real recovery and recycling of unsegregated waste beings with the separation the waste material coming to plant in skips and being loaded into screening equipment. The 2nd process produces a part segregated material including clay (75%), which is reused. And sends metal, wood, stone, paper and plastics to a picking station where it is again segregated. The metal (5%) is compacted and sent to metal recyclers. The timber (10%) is shredded and sent to chipboard manufactures. The paper and plastic Figure 4 Recycling plant process (A1 Waste 2004) (5%) is sent compacted and sent to recycling facilities and the stone is crushed and is reused as aggregates. (Bohill Recycling Plant) This process may seem complicated but again it consists of low-tech application.

ASSESSING THE TARGET The tender assessment process should aim to measure the following:

_ Re-use of materials on site _ Use of imported recycled materials. (However, where these have to be transported over large distances the transport and energy costs may cancel out the benefits of using recycled materials. For low cost materials, such as recycled aggregates, transport over distances greater than 30 miles may negate the benefit.) _ Off-site recycling of waste material _ In calculating the percentages of recycling achieved, high value items such as stainless steel or other metals should be discounted.

Foundations on brownfield sites can also act as a barrier to contaminants. The performance of foundation materials can be adversely affected by contaminants. The most common construction elements and materials at risk from ground contamination are listed in Table 2

Elements Foundation (Strip, trench fill, pad, raft, pile) Floor slabs, oversite concrete Basement Moisture and gas protection measure within building Water supply, drainage, gas, electricity and telephone services, inspection chambers.

Materials Concrete, reinforced concrete, steel, masonry(mortar, bricks, concrete blocks) concrete Concrete, masonry Geomembrance, tanking materials, concrete Concrete, plastic, ceramic and metal pipes, coating for pipes, sealing rings for pipe joints, sheathing and insulation of electric cables.

Table 2 Building materials at risk from contaminated land , Source: A1 Waste 2004)

In many cases, ground-related risks can be substantially reduced by appropriate foundation design without incurring major expenditure. Geotechnical and geoenvironmental specialists understand the requirements of the structural designer and that the structural designer, in turn, has realistic expectations of ground behaviour. Interaction with contamination can result in loss of strength or change in volume of the foundation material, causing damage. The selection of foundation type will be influenced by: Type of building or construction (eg loading, settlement criteria), Ground conditions (eg type and nature of ground and groundwater conditions, presence of contamination or old foundations, ground properties subsequent to ground treatment), Construction requirements and constraints (eg access, location, noise, vibration). Protection against chemical attack The attack of building materials can be mitigated by: removing the source of contamination, protecting the building materials by a coating or barrier, or using appropriately durable material. Raft foundations Where the subsoil is weak, a stiff raft foundation can be used to spread the loading and reduce distortion of the superstructure. Raft foundations are generally built close to ground surface above the water-table and therefore the availability of contaminants to the foundation is much less than for deeper foundations. Deep foundations that effectively by-pass nearsurface soils with poor load-

carrying properties but from an environmental perspective it may be better to have shallow foundations which do not penetrate deeply into contaminated ground. Deep foundations are frequently provided by piles. Buildings with basements are also effectively founded at depth . Piles Bored, driven and cast in-situ piles can be used to carry loads to greater depths than shallower types of foundation. Piles can alleviate any effects due to seasonal ground movements. Where piles pass through poorly compacted fill, they may be subjected to downdrag forces associated with settlement of the fill. Where expansive ferrous slag, or some other type of expansive fill, is present it may be necessary to sleeve the piles to accommodate ground heave. On brownfield sites, piles are likely to pass through any contamination and come into contact with groundwater; consequently the pile materials need to be sufficiently durable to resist degradation. Basements Structural loads can be transmitted to depths at which the soil is stiffer and stronger by the provision of basements in buildings. The loading applied by the building to the ground is reduced by the weight of excavated soil. However, foundations at depth are more likely to come into contact with any contamination on the site and with contaminated groundwater; therefore the building materials need to be sufficiently durable to resist degradation. The design of basements should also prevent or control the ingress of hazardous gases, including methane and radon, and chemical contaminants, particularly volatile organic compounds.

Services Building developments inevitably involve a variety of services being placed in trenches excavated in the ground: Pipework carrying water, gas, electricity, telephone cables, Foundations for services carrying over-ground electricity or telephone cabling, Drainage, including gullies, culverts, sewers and foul drainage, soakaways for rainwater. Bring the following materials into contact with the ground: unreinforced concrete, reinforced concrete, Plastics, ceramic and metal pipes, Coatings for pipes, joint sealing rings for pipes, sheathing and insulation of electric cables, Mortar, bricks (ceramic, concrete, sand-lime), concrete blocks (dense, lightweight, aerated), Plastics membranes. Both physical and chemical hazards need to be addressed in the design of the services. Protection against physical hazards Physical hazards may include excessive differential settlement and buried obstructions. Differential settlement will be more critical for a gas main than for a pipe carrying telephone cables Protection against chemical attack Chemical attack can be mitigated as for foundation materials .Services can be placed in trenches with clean backfill material to isolate them from the contaminants. A major hazard is the permeation of polyethylene pipes by organic chemicals, particularly diesel spills.

Design and construction

This can be relatively cheap to build into a design from the start, but is often extremely expensive to add on to existing buildings. Simple things can make a big difference in the right applications Planning and design infrastructures must adapt to climate change, according to the Environment Agency. This includes planning for the long term (a timeframe of 100 years for flood risk management), choosing locations

for development, and supporting the infrastructure and services wisely by incorporating resistant and resilient design features.

1. Using modern method of construction 2. Energy demands

The way a building uses energy can quickly make it unsustainable, so more strides towards sustainability can generally be made through optimising the fundamental energy requirements of a building. And it is possible from simple and free things, for example: orienting the building to make optimal use of solar gains, progresses through passive design; correct plan form and three-dimensional shape can reduce heat losses, use natural light and ventilation, choose the right materials with correct insulation, and ensuring the building ventilation is designed to minimise heat and cooling requirements. You can also design in measures to encourage energy efficient behaviour by building users; Well-managed user behaviour alone can reduce energy demand in a building by 25%.

3. Costs
Sustainable building projects should take design decisions based on long-term availability of local fuel supplies. This means looking first at whats free for instance: solar, wind and hydropower.

4. Technologies
Solar and wind power, gas boilers or electrical heating: wind turbines and solar panels are some technologies but they are work very well if use them in suitable place, So at the first step can design them into the development in a way that work very well.

5. Waste
Use facilities for easy recycling into buildings, such as segregated waste facilities. And also design minimising water supply recycling water are useful.

Some issues:
Air permeability Particular attention should be paid to sealing gaps in masonry, particularly around floor joist bearings. Thermal properties Heat loss from buildings through materials, gaps and ventilation are key issues in respect of walls.

Construction elements
Foundation and Basement New construction must not put the stability of foundation at risk. If new foundations are placed close to those of an existing building, the loading on the ground will increase and movements to the existing building may occur. And basement be resistance to moisture. Both the type of construction and the subsequent use of the building are important determinants of foundation design, so the durability of it is more important. Pile Piles are individual columns, suggest that construct with concrete and steel, that support loading through a combination of friction on the pile shaft and endearing on the pile toe.

External walls The key issues for the designer are the connections between walls and the rest of the structure and the compressive strength of the materials used. External claddings It is important that cavity trays are tucked under the breather paper so that any moisture in contact with the inner leaf is directed away from the frame. Windows Windows have two prime purposes: The admission of daylight and sunlight, (Surveys have shown that in nearly all building types, people prefer to work by daylight.) The admission and emission of air needed for ventilation purposes. Glazing Insulating glass or double-glazing units have a lower heat transmittance (U-value) than single glazing, and can improve the comfort of building occupants in areas of rooms near to windows. Masonry separating wall There should be no gaps into any cavity in the external wall to provide flanking sound transmission routes, routes for fire spread or air penetration. Partition Well-designed lightweight stud walls with effective isolation between each side of the wall can have good airborne sound insulation, particularly at high frequencies.

Environmental issues
The Environment Agency is committed to bringing more land into sustainable use. Concentrating development on brownfield sites can help to make the best use of existing services such as transport and waste management. It can encourage more sustainable lifestyles by providing an opportunity to recycle land, clean up contaminated sites, and assist environmental, social and economic regeneration. It also reduces pressure to build on Greenfield land and helps protect the countryside. Brownfield land is often more expensive to develop than Greenfield. So it is suggested that restricting Greenfield consumption by re-using brownfields. The regulatory complexities of reclaiming some brownfield land may also be a barrier to new development. Some brownfield and derelict land can represent important wildlife habitat, public green space or a core part of urban green networks. These are important in providing good quality of life, and brownfield reuse must strike an appropriate balance in the interests of sustainable development. As this site is former industrial sites may be contaminated. And the pollution of water would be under control. At the present time there is confusion concerning the treatment of flood risk when brownfield Sites are redeveloped. It is expected that the area of land at risk of flooding will increase substantially by 2050 due to climate change. Areas of industrial and brownfield land currently not considered being at risk of flooding may be at risk in the future. This means that some of the engineering solutions used to remediate contamination, such as encapsulation of contaminated soil left in situ, permeable reactive barriers, or bentonite walls, may not be appropriate if the site is to be subject to inundation by flood waters. The Agency's role The Environment Agency is the Governments principal adviser on the environment, and can contribute to the successful re-use of brownfield land in a number of ways. English Partnerships have been asked by ODPM

(Office of the Deputy Prime Minister) to lead a National Brownfield Strategy. This can provide the mechanism to set out a national approach to re-use of previously developed land which brings together social, economic and environmental needs. The Agency, with others, is contributing to the development of this strategy. Development The land use planning system is a key delivery mechanism for brownfield land regeneration. Consulting on Structure Plans, and when development of a certain type, or in a certain location, is proposed. Flood risk Many brownfield sites lie within floodplains. Government does not wish to increase flood vulnerability, but it does want to re-use brownfield land. Providing advice to developers and planning authorities on flood risk issues, identifying which areas are at high risk of flooding. Such information allows planning authorities and developers to target and prioritise development locations. Contaminated land Many brownfield sites have been contaminated by previous uses. Long-term contamination and the lack of economically viable remediation methods may be at the heart of their neglect. Providing guidance on the ways to assess risks from land contamination and on ways to remediate land where necessary. Working closely with government, local authorities and industry to protect human health and the environment from such contamination. Contributing to the National Brownfield Strategy and the Land Restoration Trust. Issuer of licences/permits The various permits may be required to treat contaminated land. Regulating special sites and provides general advice and information to local planning authorities. At present, the regulatory complexities of reclaiming some brownfield land act as a barrier to new development. Assessing the regulatory route that can be streamlined to enable brownfield development to be brought forward more quickly.

Recommendation Environmental improvements to form an integral part of regenerating brownfield land. Brownfield redevelopment should minimise the effects of development on the wider environment through using resources efficiently and limiting pollution. The sequential flood risk test takes precedence when redeveloping brownfield sites within areas at risk of flood. Some test should be revised to ensure that when brownfield sites within flood risk areas are redeveloped, the sequential flood risk test is applied, and takes precedence, to ensure that development type matches the risk of flood. Some sites within areas of high flood risk may only be suitable for reuse as open space uses, such as a nature reserve. The setting of new regional targets for brownfield lands. The availability of land in each region suitable for redevelopment. These should be enshrined in Regional Spatial Strategies. Support for setting up the proposed Land Restoration Trust , a partnership between English Partnerships, Groundwork Trust, Forestry Commission and Environment Agency, to provide a way to fund brownfield regeneration for uses such as open space or wildlife reserves. It will aim to provide long-term management solutions (including remediation) for land with contamination problems, providing and promoting remediation of sites where there is little economic incentive for redevelopment or decontamination. Co-ordinated permitting. To accelerate development on brownfield sites, the Department of Environment, Farming and Rural Affairs should implement a unified permit process (single remediation permit) to reduce the regulatory complexities associated with development of contaminated brownfield sites.

A comprehensive series of measures to be produced and supported by economic instruments to promote the sustainable re-use of contaminated brownfield sites. This should include measures for those sites where an intensive end-use may be inappropriate, and could include landfill tax exemption, corporation tax relief, and the use of landfill tax receipts to subsidise open space / leisure functions, which are currently uneconomic. This position statement applies to England only. New planning guidance is being developed for Wales which may require different policies.

Sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS)

Water quality, water quantity, and amenity should be considered for SUDS to provide the basis for sustainable development. Traditional surface water drainage used underground piping systems to convey run-off from built-up areas as quickly as possible without consideration of the effects downstream. Conventionally, surface water would combine with wastewater (sewage) and drain through combined sewers. This method of drainage could become overloaded during rainstorm surcharge and would cause an intolerable burden on the wastewater treatment works. Separate piping systems of surface water to watercourses and wastewater Figure 4 Integrated design, to sewers can deal with quantity of water run-offs but are not able to Source: Julie Bregulla and provide the means to manage the risk of flooding and cannot control the John Powell, BRE, July 2010 poor quality of surface run-offs to minimise the impact on the water environment. These systems were generally not designed with the objective of sustainable development in mind and cannot contribute to the management of water resources, amenity, and landscaping potential, or improve biodiversity. As increasing population and demand for new housing and traffic cause increasing stress on the water supply. (In Figure shows the effect of urbanism). Sustainable drainage is a concept that includes long-term environmental and social factors. It takes account of the quantity and quality of run-off, and the amenity value of surface water in the urban environment. The changing environment as a result of global warming has further exacerbated the supply of water problem, as well as the increasing occurrence of flash flooding and heavy rain. Incorporating SUDS aims to balance environmental, social, and economic requirements for a site development to provide a sustainable, healthy, pleasurable environment as well as adequate management of surface water drainage by attenuating excess stormwater flow to reduce the risk of flooding having an impact on the social community. SUDS also reduce the impact on water quality by treating wastewater.

Figure 5 Note: demonstrates the changes that urbanisation can cause in terms of increasing surface water runoff. This can reduce opportunities for water to be managed naturally with the potential for pollution and localised flooding when the piped systems cannot cope with rainfall.

The provision of SUDS improve the natural drainage of surface water and provides green space, which encourages further biodiversity, enhancing different species

living and growing in the areas. The incorporation of SUDS can restore wetlands and habitats. The additional green space also provides amenity value for the residents in the housing development. SUDS have little risk of structural failure because SUDS do not require complicated structures and components (extensive ducts, piping, and sewerage network) for plumbing, labour and material costs for routine maintenance should be less than conventional drainage systems. Less excavation and disposal of soil than required for sewerage Figure 6 SUDS management train (adapted from an original pipework could also result in cost savings. illustration, courtesy of Construction Industry Research and
Information Association CIRIA).

According to the Scottish Building Standards: Every building, and hard surface within the curtilage of a building, must be designed and constructed with a surface water drainage system that will: (a) ensure the disposal of surface water without threatening the building and the health and safety of the people in and around the building; and (b) have facilities for the separation and removal of silt, grit and pollutants. Drainage techniques should provide a multifunctional approach to meet the design criteria of attenuating flow, reducing risk of flooding, improving water quality by filtration and absorption, preventing drying of soil, and recharging of groundwater. Separate drainage systems should be provided where materials used or stored on site could cause pollution. There should be a separator or treatment system to intercept the flow, and the flow should be discharged into a system suitable for receiving the polluted effluent. In most cases, built development tends to cover the area with impermeable ground, increasing total and peak water flows rather than allowing water to percolate into the ground, which could lead to flooding. By introducing vegetated areas in the development, water run-off would be attenuated.

Hydrology, ground, and geotechnical considerations

The topography of the site will determine the likely direction and concentration of run-off. Vegetation there will be the potential for contamination of the water in various forms. Vegetation can hold rainfall and allow both evaporation and infiltration to take place, even when the ground beneath is clay. It can be seen that the ground type and topography are very important when considering infiltration systems. Infiltration devices must allow water to permeate Figure 7 The hydrological cycle, Source: Julie Bregulla and the ground and storage or attenuation devices John Powell, BRE, July 2010 must hold water and then allow controlled release either into the ground or to a watercourse or drain. All systems that are expected to infiltrate must be above the groundwater table; infiltration device may attract water flow into it from the surrounding soil. All infiltration devices should have a geotextile barrier (a fabric) at the interface between the ground and the device.

Geotechnical issues would be considering (the history of the site information on groundwater levels and
information on groundwater levels and ). As one of the potential impact of geotechnical for example if : if locating infiltration systems too close to structures can result in softening or weakening of the foundation soils, resulting in the potential for foundation movements and building distress.

Figure 8 SUDS techniques, Source: Julie Bregulla and John

Powell, BRE, July 2010

Figure 10 Water infiltrating into the ground, Source: Julie

Bregulla and John Powell, BRE, July 2010

The term SUDS covers a wide range of urban drainage facilities: End of pipe facilities eg wetlands or retention ponds Source control systems eg pervious paving Storm control devices eg soakaways Site controls eg infiltration trenches and basins and swales. (All devices are provided as appendix A)

Health and safety considerations as no need for manhole covers and road drains, which sometimes cause accidents particularly to cyclists, motorcyclists, and pedestrians. Pervious surfaces reduce the risk of local flooding or puddle formation, which could lead to accidents as a result of the wet and excess water on surfaces.

Reduced peak flow discharge to watercourses or sewers, thus reducing the risk of flooding downstream. Reduced volumes and frequency of water flowing directly from developed land to watercourses or sewers to mimic natural drainage and reduce flood risk. Improved water quality by removing pollutants by filtration, sedimentation, and biodecomposition from diffuse pollution sources. Harvesting rainwater to reduce demand on potable water and abstraction of water. Improved amenity by provision of more public open green spaces and water features. Enhanced habitats for wildlife, thus improving the biodiversity value of the development. Reduced surcharges and overflowing sewers and minimising the flow of sewage pollutants to watercourses. Natural drainage of surface water, allowing recharging of groundwater so that base flow is maintained and reduced drying up of ground soil that causes problem for the environment and on building foundations. The reduced use of underground piping systems and impermeable paving also reduces construction and maintenance costs for a development.

The position of government are : 60% of all new houses be built on Brownfield sites by 2008. To relieve the pressure on Greenfield sites and preserve the countryside. Brownfield describes as an abandoned, idled, or under-used industrial and commercial facilities, Concentrating development on Brownfield sites can: help to make the best use of existing services such as transport and waste management. And Encourage more sustainable lifestyles by providing an opportunity to recycle land, clean up contaminated sites, and assist environmental, social and economic regeneration. To redevelopment there is some risk as contaminated soils and Ground fills prone to settlement and Subterranean gasses we need remedial as remove or reduce the hazard And isolate the hazard and target and if there are more than one contaminant Range of potential hazards can cause Legal liabilities , Delay costs And Escalating decontamination there are 2 option: Remediation options (1): Traditional civil engineering techniques to address contaminated land by removing or encapsulating include: Excavation/Cover systems/In-ground barriers/Hydraulic measures And Remediation options (2)suggest: Alternative methods through which contaminants are biological processes, such as biopiling Or chemical processes, such as stabilisation/solidification Or physical processes, such as soil vapour extraction Or thermal processes, such as incineration. Recognize hazard material are very important, Hazards are defined as: Properties or situations with the potential to cause harm, including human injury, damage People , Nature environment and building. Some hazard material categories as : Ground-related hazards/ Ground-related hazards/ Geoenvironmental hazards /Geotechnical hazard We can use the waste of demolition and recycle them, the are types of recycling Use Constituting Disposal/ Burning and Waste Fuels and we can also reclamation material which is time consuming Foundations on brownfield sites can also act as a barrier to contaminants. The performance of foundation materials can be adversely affected by contaminants. And the structure of basement can be transmitted to depths at which the soil is stiffer and stronger by the provision of basements in buildings. The loading applied by the building to the ground is reduced by the weight of excavated soil. For Design and construction I SUGGEST USE OFFSITE AND Modern Method of construction and consider some issues as Energy demands Costs Technologies And Waste As increasing population and demand for housing and effect of urbanism we cant use piping system for daring so it is better to use sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS)which is Reduced peak flow discharge to watercourses or sewers, thus reducing the risk of flooding downstream and Reduced volumes and frequency of water flowing directly from developed land to watercourses or sewers to mimic natural drainage and reduce flood risk and Improved water quality.


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