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Basic Chemical Engineering

Lecture - 2

Basic Concepts of Chemical Engineering


Units & Dimensions
What are Dimensions:
Dimensions are our basic concepts of measurement such as length, time, mass, temperature, etc. But dimensions alone cannot suffice for our requirements. We need to quantify these concepts of measurement for our day to day use.

Basic Concepts of Chemical Engineering


Units & Dimensions
What is a Unit:
A unit of measurement is a definite magnitude of a physical quantity, defined and adopted by convention and/or by law, that is used as a standard for measurement of the same physical quantity. Unit is how you define a quantity under discussion. If we say that weight of the computer is 10 kilogram, weight of the computer is the quantity under discussion & 10 kilogram is its unit. Similar Common examples of Units are meter, Co, Km/hr, etc. Units are determined relative to a physical quantity, which is taken as a standard.

Common Systems of Units


Over time a lot of international unit systems have evolved, few of which are in use worldwide.

Basic Mathematic Operations on Units


Add or Subtract Units & Dimensions are SAME
5 kilograms + 3 kilograms = ? 10 kilograms 6 joules = ? 20 kilograms + 10 pounds = ? Possible Not Possible Possible

Basic Mathematic Operations on Units


Multiply or Divide Units are NOT SAME
But You cannot cancel them with each other unless they are the same.

20 centimeter 5 seconds = 4 cm/s 4 kilogram x 20 miligram = 80 kg 10 Newton x 3 meter = 30 N.m 50 ft2 2 ft = 25 ft

Possible Not Possible Possible Possible

2 hp 2 horsepower 746 Watt = 746 watt

Not Possible

Unit Conversion & Conversion Factors


Conversion Factors

Unit Conversion & Conversion Factor


Dimensional Equation Example 1.2:
If a plane travels twice the speed of sound (assume that the speed of sound is 1100 ft/s), how fast it is going in miles per hour? Practice Yourself: Convert 20 gal/hr to m3/s.

Unit Conversion & Conversion Factor


Example 1.3:
Change 400 in3/day to cm3/min.

Practice Yourself: Convert 25 ft3/year to m3/s.

Units for Constants Used in Equations


Units for Constants vary according to the System of Units being used. Let us consider the example of the equation F ma F=Cma

F m a

F = Force C= Constant of Proportionality m = Mass a = acceleration

Units for Constants Used in Equations


Example 1.4 Use of gc:
One hundred pounds of water is flowing through a pipe at the rate of 10 ft/s. What is the kinetic energy of this water in (ft)(lbf)? Practice Yourself: What is the potential Energy in (ft)(lbf) of a 100 lb drum hanging 10 ft above the surface of the earth with reference to the surface of the earth?

Being Careful About Units


Some times Units may sound the same but they belong to different dimensions, you have to decide based on common sense. A man is 6 feet tall but has only two feet. N . m vs. m . N m . s (meter . Second) vs. ms (Milli Second)

Course Outline for BSc. Chemical Engineering


CHE116 Basic Chemical Engineering Introduction to chemical engineering: Introduction to Engineering Profession. Responsibilities and ethics for engineers. Role of chemical engineer. History of profession and future directions. Career opportunities in Chemical Engineering. Basic concepts of Chemical Engineering: Units and dimensions, conversion of units. Process variables; pressure, temperature, concentrations and Composition of mixtures. Material balances: Fundamentals of material balances; Program of analysis of material balance problems, material balance calculations, Balances on non reactive systems, balance on reactive systems and Processes, Recycle, By-pass and purge calculations, Case studies on balances for important industrial processes. Ideal gases, equations of state for real gases. The compressibility factor equation of state. Energy Balance: Concepts and units, Forms of energy: The first law of thermodynamics. Calculation of enthalpy changes. Applications of the general energy balance without reactions occurring. Ethics: Professional ethics: The ethics challenge and ethical case studies. Credit hours/ Contact Hours - 2

Quick Review
Differentiate between Units & Dimensions? Units are determined relative to a _________, which is taken as a standard. Solve Practice Yourself Questions on Notebook.