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Midterm Study Guide This study guide is only suggestions of what kinds of material will be on the test.

. THIS IS ONLY A GUIDELINE AND NOT THE ENTIRE TEST!!! There are 200 questions on the midterm. Just like all other tests, you must score a 75% or better. If you do not, you must take the retake.

Know the normal vital signs for adults. Study the sheet! If you do not have one it can be downloaded from Week 1 on WebStudy.

Review the D & S booklet of State Exam Skills.

What guidelines are needed to safely operate any piece of equipment? Review 24-hour time. Know positional terms (ex. anterior, posterior, fowlers, Sims and etc.) Review RACE and PASS Review the most common abbreviations (ones we use often) What is workplace violence and how can you prevent it. What can CNAs do to promote resident/patient dignity? What ages are considered young-old, old or old-old? Review body changes that occur as you age What is an ombudsman, and what is their role? Review the diet types and what types of food is included in them. What foods/fluids are considered liquids? What is indirect care? (Hint: This is not in your book; it is part of the state exam booklet) What do the terms sympathy, pity and empathy mean? What is dialysis? Who needs it? What are common causes for renal failure? What is bile, and where is it made and stored? How are the different types of Hepatitis spread?

Review the different types of diabetes and who is most likely to develop each? As a CNA what types of care is important to provide for the person with diabetes? What is Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)? What is Congestive Heart failure (CHF)? Who is at risk? What are the most common signs and symptoms of CAD or CHF? Review the different types of fractures. What is required of a CNA for cast care? What is a stroke? What are the most common causes? Who is at risk? What are the most common signs and symptoms? Review the different types of paralysis. Review the different types of arthritis. What measures will help with the pain? What are the treatment options? (They may be different depending on the type) What is Parkinsons disease? What are the most common signs and symptoms? Review the signs of pressure ulcers (stages) and what you will see at each stage. What are important steps to helping prevent skin breakdown? Review the different types skin wounds. What is the purpose of dressings? What is the purpose of drains? What are cells, organs and systems? Review the terms cancer, malignant and metastasis. Review HIV and AIDS and how are they spread. What are the layers of skin? What are the various blood cells? What is their function? Where are they formed? What is the difference between voluntary and involuntary muscles? Review the various parts of the brain and what they are responsible for. What is the difference between sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system? Review the parts of the lung Review the digestive system. Know the path the food follows for digestion and what occurs in each part. What is growth and development? What major things occur at each stage? Review Maslows hierarchy of needs.

Review communication concepts. What is meant by verbal, non-verbal, listening? What is the difference between paraphrasing, direct questions, clarifying and etc? What are some of the ways to communicate with people with disabilities? Review the terms from infection control, like asepsis, sterile, healthcare associated infection, normal flora, immunity, contagious and etc. What is the chain of infection? What is PPE and how is it used? What is a care plan? Who uses it? Who develops it? Know the difference between signs, symptoms, objective and subjective. What are the most common causes of ear problems in children, adults? What information should be reported to the nurse immediately? What information should be included in your report? What is Developmental Disabilities (DD)? What is the goal for a person with DDs? What are intellectual disabilities? What is the most common cause of intellectual disabilities? Review the different Developmental Disabilities in the chapter, like Down syndrome, cerebral palsy, autism & spinal bifida. What is the difference between delirium, dementia, confusion, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimers disease (AD)? Review the stages of AD. What is Sundowning? Review the terms with mental health, like delusions, delusions of grandeur, paranoia and etc. What is the difference between defense mechanisms and coping mechanisms? Know examples of each. Review Freuds theory of personality development? What are the id, ego, and superego? What is the conscious, subconscious and unconscious? What is PTSD? When does it occur? Review the personality disorders. What are the sign and symptoms of each? What is the difference between drug abuse, drug addiction and drug tolerance? Review the terms anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Who is most likely to suffer from these?

What is meant by mechanical ventilation? Review the different types of airways. What are the CNA roles when dealing with airways and ventilators? What should you do in emergencies involving these? There will be some terminology questions. These should be basic and terms we have used in lectures. What is a pulse oximeter? What does it measure? How is it use? Where can you attach it to on the body? What is an incentive spirometer? What is it used for? Other than the incentive spirometer how can you help prevent respiratory complications in our patients or residents? Review the devices that are used to provide oxygen. What are the CNAs roles in assisting with providing oxygen to a patient or resident? What are you allowed and not allow to do? What is the difference between constipation and fecal impaction? What are the signs and symptoms of each? What can be done to help prevent these conditions? Know about the different types of enema and what they do. Which ones can CNA give? What are the guidelines for giving enemas? Review the information about colostomies. Review the different types of urinary incontinence. What are the most common causes of each? What can CNAs do to promote comfort for individuals with incontinence? What is the goal of bladder training? About how much urine should be produced daily? What are the guidelines for urinary catheter care? How often is the bag drained? Where is it placed? How is it secured? Review the CNA guidelines and steps for providing catheter care. What kind of catheter can the CNA apply? How is it done? The person that receiving tube feedings is at risk for what common complication? How can you help to prevent it? What are the signs and symptoms that you need to report to the nurse immediately? Review the different therapeutic diets. Know what foods would be included in each. Dont forget NPO and bland diets? What are aspiration precautions? Who is most at risk? How can you help prevent aspiration in your residents who is at risk? What is the difference between prosthesis, orthotics and adaptive equipment?

What is the focus of rehab? What types of things do CNAs do to assist with rehab? Why is privacy important? Review restraint use. What are the various types of restraints? When are they used? When are they ordered? What are the CNAs roles in care for individuals that are in restraints? How do you ensure that you are doing the right care on the right resident? Terms Atelectasis Tube Anorexia Catheter Daily Value Gavage MyPlate Aspiration Nasogastric