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BIO

100L Lab 5 PHOTOSYNTHESIS & RESPIRATION PHOTOSYNTHESIS Plants are called producers because they are capable of manufacturing their own food. Most of the worlds BIOMASS, the mass of living matter in a given area, consists of plant matter. Plants have 4 primary requirements for growth: - Water - Sunlight - Soil Nutrients - Carbon Dioxide (CO2) PHOTOSYNTHESIS is the conversion of light energy into chemical energy in the form of glucose (sugar). It is arguably the most important biological energy in reaction because it is responsible for sustaining the majority of life on this planet. Plants provide the oxygen necessary for other organisms to metabolize their food into usable energy. Light 6 H2O + 6 CO2 C6H12O6 + 6 O2 Water Carbon Dioxide Glucose Oxygen The combination of 6 water molecules and 6 carbon dioxide molecules when energized by light in the chloroplast produces glucose and oxygen. The energy stored in glucose is then released via CELLULAR RESPIRATION processes.

CELLULAR RESPIRATION CELLULAR RESPIRATION consists of a series of metabolic reactions that converts biochemical energy into Adenine TriPhosphate (ATP) and then releases waste products. ATP: principle energy source for reactions in living cells Cellular Respiration is NOT the same as the respiration humans participate in cells do not breathe! Cellular respiration primarily takes place in the mitochondria. We will discuss two key types: ANAEROBIC and AEROBIC RESPIRATION. ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION DOES NOT require oxygen to proceed. GLYCOLYSIS , an anaerobic process, breaks down glucose and releases energy that is captured in ATP for later use by the cell If oxygen is NOT present, the two products of anaerobic respiration are: o Lactic Acid in animals cells o Alcohol (Ethanol) in some microorganisms via FERMENTATION Lactic acid and Alcohol represent the incomplete breakdown of glucose in the absence of oxygen and produces only 2 ATP per glucose molecule. AEROBIC RESPIRATION DOES require oxygen to proceed The KREBS CYCLE completely breaks down glucose. The energy released by glucose is then transferred to the ELECTRON TRANSPORT SYSTEM (ETS). This results in H2O and 36 ATP per glucose molecule. Much more energy is produced during aerobic processes, hence the greater output of ATP per glucose molecule. Just as plants provide oxygen to non-producer organisms, these latter organisms provide plants with the carbon dioxide they need to manufacture carbohydrates. C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 H2O + 6 CO2 + 36 ATP Glucose Oxygen Water Carbon Dioxide Note that respiration is the reverse reaction of photosynthesis. IMPORTANT: Plants both photosynthesize and respire. Video demonstration of cellular respiration: http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animations/content/cellularrespiration.html

LEFT. A simple depiction of both anaerobic and aerobic cellular respiration.

RIGHT. An illustration of the connection between photosynthesis and respiration.

CLIMATE CHANGE The Earths climate has changed rapidly in the past few decades, with temperatures increasing in a phenomenon called GLOBAL WARMING. However, a more accurate term is CLIMATE CHANGE, as all sorts of fluctuations are expected to occur, including increased storm activity (e.g., more aggressive hurricanes), drier conditions during drought periods, stronger floods during wet seasons. CLIMATE CHANGE is caused by GREENHOUSE GASES that trap heat inside the Earths atmosphere (similar to a greenhouse for plants). The GREENHOUSE EFFECT helps regulate the temperature of the planet and facilitates life on earth. Without this mechanism, the earth would be extremely cold. Water Vapor is the most abundant greenhouse gas. CO2 is the second-most abundant greenhouse gas, and the one we have the most control over. Greenhouse gases created through the burning of fossil fuels (e.g., coal, oil, gas) are raising the temperature of the earth due to the high concentration that is entering the atmosphere due to these activities. This graph is known as the KEELING CURVE. Through data taken every day in Mauna Loa since the early 1960s, it demonstrates that CO2 concentrations have been rapidly increasing over the last 50 years, with an initial concentration at 315 parts per million (ppm) and a current concentration of ~390 ppm. The annual fluctuations shown in the graph demonstrate changes in photosynthesis (which involves the uptake of CO2) throughout the year. Declines occur in summer, when there is MORE light available for photosynthesis and peaks occur during the winter, when there is LESS light available for photosynthesis.

Elodea and CO2 In our first test tube, we added phenol red to water. In the second and third tubes, we added phenol red to water and CO2 via our own respiration. We then added the Elodea to the second tube. Through photosynthesis, the Elodea absorbed the CO2 present in the water+phenol red solution. Therefore, the first test tube (No CO2 present) is our positive control, while the third test tube (CO2 present) is our negative control. Yeast and Glucose In the first tube, we had only yeast and water. In the second tube, we had yeast, water, and glucose. In the third tube, we had yeast, NaN3 (sodium azide) and glucose. We added phenol red to all three tubes. We saw the most drastic change in the second tube, which was evidence by the presence of CO2 bubbles and color change. We saw minimal change in the third tube, because NaN3 inhibited aerobic respiration. We saw no change in the first tube because there was no glucose (and, therefore, no nutrients) for the yeast to break down.

EXAMPLES FROM LAB 5

CRITICAL THINKING KEY TERMS - Biomass - Krebs Cycle - Photosynthesis - ETS - Cellular Respiration - Greenhouse Gas - ATP - Greenhouse Effect - Anaerobic Respiration - Global Warming - Glycolysis - Climate Change - Fermentation - Keeling Curve - Aerobic Respiration QUESTIONS 1. How is photosynthesis different from respiration? 2. What do lactic acid and alcohol represent? 3. Describe anaerobic cellular respiration. 4. Describe aerobic cellular respiration. 5. How are photosynthesis and respiration related? 6. Describe the differences between the positive and negative control in our Investigation with Elodea. 7. What purpose did glucose serve for the yeast? 8. What did phenol red detect in all three investigations of this lab? 9. How do greenhouse gases get their name? 10. How is the greenhouse effect beneficial? 11. Which greenhouse gas do humans have the most control over? 12. Why shouldnt we continue to destroy forests (kelp and rainforest alike)? 13. Draw the Keeling curve and label the x-axis, y-axis, describe what the graph tells you and explain what the fluctuations mean. 14. Does deforestation add or reduce the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere? Why? FROM THE LAB Yeast in Fermentation Tubes Explain what happened when glucose was present with yeast. How was this different from when glycerol (lipid) or protein was present with yeast? Why did the glycerol and protein have different reactions from the glucose?