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Answers to end-of-chapter questions
Answers to end-of-chapter questions

Chapter 11

1

a 1s 2 2s 2

b

2Be + O 2 2BeO

[1]

[2]

c

[1 mark for correct symbols and formulae;

1 mark for balancing]

[2]

[1 mark for correct symbols and formulae;

1 mark for balancing]

2Ra + O 2 2RaO

before bonding: Be O
before bonding:
Be
O

[2]

[1 mark for Be; 1 mark for O]

after bonding O 2– Be 2+
after bonding
O 2–
Be 2+

d

e

no electrons in the outer shell of Be 2+

[1]

for 8 electrons in the outer shell of O 2

[1]

for the two dots distinguished from the crosses in O 2

[1]

 

+ 2
+
2

e

e

e

e

2 +
2 +

2 +
2 +

2 +
2 +

e

e

e

e

 

 

e

e

e

+ 2
+
2

e

+ 2
+
2

e

2 +
2 +

e

 

2 +
2 +

e

e

e

e

2 +
2 +

2 +
2 +

2 +
2 +

e

e

e

e

for layers of positive ions

 

[1]

for 2+ ions

[1]

for e present between ions

[1]

In radium, the charge density on the positive ions is less than in beryllium;

[1]

the attraction between the electrons and the positively charged ions is less.

[1]

The metallic bond in beryllium

[1]

is stronger than in radium and therefore

a higher temperature is needed to melt it.

[1]

Total = 17

2

3

a

i

Ca(OH) 2

[1]

 

ii

neutralises acids;

[1]

lowers acidity of soil

[1]

b

It has a (very) high melting point; as it has a giant ionic structure.

[1]

[1]

Ions have high charge densities; and are a similar size; therefore, the electrostatic forces of attraction /

ionic bonds are very strong; so it takes a lot of energy to separate the ions and melt magnesium oxide.

[1]

[1]

[1]

[1]

 

Examiner’s tip

It

is quite obvious from the wording of this

question that you should answer it using oxidation numbers. This is always the best way to approach

a

question like this. If the oxidation number of an

element increases, it is oxidised in the reaction. If the oxidation number of an element decreases,

it

is reduced in the reaction. If the oxidation

number of an element increases and decreases, it disproportionates in the reaction.

a

Sr is oxidised, Cl is reduced oxidation numbers:

[1]

reactants: Sr 0; Cl 0

[1]

products: Sr +1; Cl −1

[1]

b

Sr is oxidised, H reduced oxidation numbers:

[1]

reactants: Sr 0; H +1

[1]

products: Sr +2; H 0

[1]

c

Mg is oxidised, C reduced oxidation numbers:

[1]

reactants: Mg 0; C +4 products: Mg +2; C 0

[1]

[1]

 

Total = 9

Examiner’s tip     f e.g. for iii : Cl 2 + 2Br − (aq)

Examiner’s tip

   

f

e.g. for iii: Cl 2 + 2Br (aq) Br 2 + 2Cl (aq)

[1]

Questions 4b and 4c ask about the boiling points of the halogens. You also need to know the trend in volatility of these elements. Although these properties are closely linked, they show opposite trends. Make sure you know which one increases up the group, and which one increases down the group, and can explain these opposite trends.

g

chlorine has a higher tendency to gain electrons; as Cl atoms have smaller radius

[1]

[1]

 

Total = 17

 

6 AgNO 3 (aq) + NaCl(aq)

a

i

 

AgCl(s) + NaNO 3 (aq)

 
 

[1 mark for correct states;

1

mark for correct equation] [2]

 

ii

AgNO 3 (aq) + NaBr(aq)

 

AgBr(s) + NaNO 3 (aq)

 

4

a Br 2

[1]

[1 mark for correct states;

b Cl 2 before Br 2 Br 2 before I 2

 

[1]

1

mark for correct equation] [2]

[1]

iii

 

c Iodine has the strongest intermolecular forces; because it has most electrons / biggest molecules.

[1]

AgNO 3 (aq) + NaI(aq) AgI(s) + NaNO 3 (aq)

[1 mark for correct states;

 

1

mark for correct equation] [2]

 

[1]

b

precipitation:

[1]

 

Total = 5

i white

[1]

 

ii pale cream

[1]

5

i

a no reaction

 

[1]

iii yellow

[1]

ii

no reaction

[1]

c

only AgCl dissolves

[1]

iii

reaction

[1]

d

AgCl and AgBr dissolve

 

[1]

iv

reaction

[1]

Total = 12

b no reaction

i

 

[1]

ii

no reaction

[1]

7 Cl 2 + H 2 O HCl + HOCl

a

i

[1]

iii

Cl 2 + 2KBr(aq) Br 2 + 2KCl(aq)

ii

oxidation numbers of Cl: 0 in Cl 2 ; −1 in HCl; +1 in HOCl

[1 mark for correct formulae; 1 mark for balancing] [2]

[3]

iv

Br 2 + 2NaI(aq) I 2 + 2NaBr(aq)

iii

water treatment

[1]

[1 mark for correct formulae; 1 mark for balancing] [2]

b

i Cl 2 + 2NaOH H 2 O + NaCl + NaOCl

[1]

c displacement or redox

 

[1]

ii oxidation numbers of Cl: 0 in Cl 2 ; −1 in NaCl; +1 in NaOCl

d strength as oxidising agent / reactivity is in order Cl > Br > I

 

[3]

 

[1]

iii bleach

[1]

e e.g. for iii: chlorine is reduced bromide ions are oxidised

[1]

c

disproportionation

[1]

[1]

Total = 11