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HEMATOLOGY The hematologic or hematopoietic system includes the blood, blood vessels, and blood forming organs ( bone marrow, spleen, liver, lymph nodes, and thymus gland). Major function of blood is to carry necessary materials ( oxygen, nutrients ) to cells and to remove CO2 system and metabolic waste products. It also plays a role in hormone transport, inflammatory and immune responses, temperature regulation, fluid-electrolyte balance, and acid-base balance.

THREE BROAD FUNCTIONS OF BLOOD: 1.Transportation Respiratory transport of gases by the RBC Nutritive transport of digested nutrients from the GIT to the different cells of the body Excretory transport of metabolic wastes to the kidneys and excreted as urine 2.Regulation Hormones and other molecules that help regulate metabolism are also carried in the blood Thermoregulation Protection Blood clotting Leukocytes


2. Formed Elements Erythrocytes or RBC Leukocytes or WBC Thrombocytes or Platelets BLOOD Average volume is 5 6 liters or approximately 6 quarts pH is 7.35 7.45 Arterial blood is usually bright red in color compared to venous blood which has a darker color, due primarily to the large concentration of oxyhemoglobin found in arterial blood

a.) Plasma - fluid portion of the blood Contains : proteins / albumin clotting factors waste products fibrinogen electrolytes nutrients

b.) Cellular Components 1. Leukocytes (WBC) 2. Erythrocyte (RBC) 3. Thrombocyte (Platelets) Hematopoiesis occurs in the bone marrow ( pelvis, ribs, vertebrae sternum. Extramedullary Hematopoiesis- the liver and the spleen produces blood cells


PLASMA The liquid part of the blood;approximately 90% water

Also contains nutrients, ions (salts, primarily Na), respiratory gases, hormones, plasma proteins, antibodies and various wastes and products of cellular metabolism PLASMA PROTEINS the most abundant solutes in the plasma Three Types 1.Albumin 2.Globulin 3.Fibrinogen

FORMED ELEMENTS OF THE BLOOD Erythrocytes Also called Red Blood Cells or RBCs Function primarily to ferry Oxygen in the blood to all cells in the body Also transports Carbon dioxide out of the body Lifespan of 120 days only Hemoglobin in the RBC binds with the Oxygen as it is transported in the blood Female : 12 16 g/100ml Male : 13 18 g/100ml Normal RBC count: about 4 6 million/mm Hematocrit (HCT) percentage of RBC per given volume of blood and is an important indicator of the Oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood Female Male Leukocytes Also called White Blood Cells or WBCs Average value : 4,000 11,000 / mm Protects the body against any damage : 37 48% : 45 52%

Are able to slip in and out of the blood vessels by ameboid fashion in a process called diapedesis When mobilized, the body speeds up production which usually indicates the presence of infection in the body Leukocytosis total WBC count above 11,000 / mm Leukopenia an abnormally low WBC count

Types: 1.Granulocytes Neutrophils Eosinophils 2.Agranulocytes Lymphocytes -Monocytes -Basophils

Cells of the Immune System Lymphocytes Lymphocytes are created in the bone marrow and migrate to the Thymus where they mature After becoming immunocompetent, the B & T cells transfer to the lymph nodes & spleen

Types 1.B lymphocytes or B cells produces antibodies to incapacitate the antigen 2.T lymphocytes or T Cells attacks antigens directly Macrophages Literally means Big Eaters Arise from monocytes formed in the bone marrow Major role : to engulf foreign particles

Cellular (Cell-Mediated) Immune Response T Cells Responds directly to antigens Will destroy target cells thru secretions of Lymphokines and Perforin ( Kiss of Death) which is inserted to the cell membrane, shortly after that, the target cell ruptures They have a: License to KILL License to HELP License to Suppress Three types : Killer T Cells binds to the surface of invading cells, disrupt the cell membrane & destroy it by altering its environment Helper T cells helps to stimulate the B Cells to mature into Plasma Cells which synthetize & secrete immunoglobulins (Antibodies) Suppressor T Cells Reduces the Humoral response

Humoral (Antibody-Mediated) Immune Response B Cells Matures into Plasma Cells responsible for Antibody production 5 Classes of Immunoglobulins (MADGE) : Immunoglobulin M (IgM) 1st immunoglobulin produced in an immune responsepresent in plasma, too big to cross membrane barriers Immunoglobulin A (IgA) Sound in body secretions like saliva, tears, mucus, bile, milk & colostrum Immunoglobulin D (IgD) Present only in the plasma & is always attached to the B Cell Immunoglobilin G (IgG) 80% of circulating antibodies Can cross the placenta and provide passive immunity Present in all body fluids Immunoglobulin E (IgE) Responsible for Allergic & hypersensitivity reactions Stimulates Mast cells & Basophils to release Histamine which mediates inflammation & the allergic response

Thrombocytes Also called Platelets Average value : 250,000 450,000 / mm Lives for about 5 10 days Important in blood clotting

Hematopoiesis (Blood Cell Formation) Occurs in the Red Bone Marrow, chiefly in flat bones like Skull, ribs, pelvis, sternum and proximal epiphyses of the humerus and femur

Erythropoiesis RBC production, is a very active process RBC are continuously being destroyed by the liver & spleen RBCs have a lifespan of 120 days As RBCs are destroyed, iron is recycled to the bone marrow for use in the formation of new RBCs Erythropoietin secreted by the kidneys & released when blood levels of Oxygen begins to decline for any reason; which stimulates the Red Bone Marrow to produce more RBCs

ERYTHROCYTES > destruction - mature cells removed chiefly by spleen & liver * BILIRUBIN = byproduct of Hgb released when RBCs destroyed * IRON = freed from Hgb during bilirubin formation = transported to bone marrow via TRANSFERIN & reclaimed for new Hgb production

ERYTHROPOIESIS- RBC production Requirements : a. Erythropoietin b. Iron c. Folic Acid d. Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12 e. Vitamin C

`` Liver and Spleen- Graveyard of the RBC Hemostasis (Blood Clotting) -Three Major Phases 1.Platelet Plug Formation

Platelets adhere and stick to vessel lining that are damaged forming a Platelet Plug or White Thrombus Platelets release chemicals to attract more platelets to the injured site 2.Vascular Spasms Platelets release Serotonin causing spasms of the blood vessel, constricting it & decreasing blood flow 3.Coagulation or Blood Clotting Thromboplastin is released by damaged cells plasma Clotting Factors form an activator that triggers the Clotting Cascade a Blood Clot is formed Serum is squeezed out within the hour pulling the ruptured edges together

Plasma Clotting Factors I II III IV V VII Fibrinogen Prothrombin Tissue Thromboplastin Calcium Proacelerin Proconvertin

VIII Antihemophilic Factor IX X XI XII Christmas Factor Stuart Prower Factor Plasma Thromboplastin Antecedent Hageman Factor

XIII Fibrin Stabilizing Factor

Compatible Blood Types

ANEMIA Conditions in which the number of RBCs or amount of hemoglobin is lower than normal leads to hypoxia and ischemia

Classifications of Anemia According to Etiology

Iron Deficiency Anemia most common type of anemia manufacture of hemoglobin in RBCs Commonly results from blood loss, increased metabolic demands, syndromes of gastrointestinal malabsorption, and dietary inadequacy cause : inadequate absorption or excessive loss of iron Bleeding principal cause in adults Vegetarian diets Iron stores are depleted, resulting in a decreased supply of iron for the

Vitamin C increases iron absorption

Assessment Findings -fatigue, dyspnea, palpitatations & dizziness, pallor, brittle hair & nails, pica, glossitis, cheilosis, koilonychia Mild cases asymptomatic

Cheilosis Laboratory findings : RBCs are small / microcytic and pale hemoglobin & hematocrit serum iron & ferritin

Nursing Interventions 1. Identify the cause 2. Monitor S/Sx of bleeding stool, urine and GI contents 3. Provide rest 4. Give iron preparations ( 6 12 months ) -Ferrous Sulfate, Gluconate , Fumarate a. always give after meals or snacks b. dilute liquid preps and give thru straw c. give with orange juice (Vitamin C enhances absorption) d. warn clients the stool will become black and can cause constipation

5. For clients with poor absorption or continuous blood loss -IM or IV of Iron Dextran a. Use 1 needle to withdraw and another for injection b. Use z-track method

c. dont massage but encourage ambulation d. usually, deep IM at buttocks 6. Give dietary teaching liver, meats, nuts, egg yolk, shellfish, legumes, etc. 7. Increase intake of roughage and fluids to prevent constipation.

Pernicious Anemia Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemia caused by inadequate Vit. B12 intake or deficiency in intrinsic factor Vit. B12 combines with intrinsic factor so it can be absorbed in the ileum into the bloodstream the result is abnormally large erythrocytes and hypochlorhydria ( a deficiency of hydrochloric acid in gastric secretions). Lack of intrinsic factor is caused by gastric mucosal atrophy (possibly due to heredity, prolonged iron deficiency, or an autoimmune disorder), can also result in client who have had a total gastrectomy Usually occurs in men and women over age 50, with an increase in blue eyed persons.

Assessment : Anemia- symptoms are: Fatigue, weakness Palpitations & dizziness Pallor Confusion intellectual function Sore tongue dyspnea paresthesias wt. loss

Lab Results -Decrease RBC -Decreased free Hydrochloric acid -Large RBC / Megaloblast -Positive Schilling Test definitive test for Pernicious anemia - used to detect lack of intrinsic factor

Positive schilling test Measures absorption of radioactive vitamin B12 both before and after parenteral administration of intrinsic factor. Definitive test for pernicious anemia. Used to detect lack of intrinsic factor. Fasting client is given radioactive vitamin B12 by mouth and nonradioactive vitamin B12 IM to saturate tissue binding sites and to permit some excretion of radioactive vitamin B12 in the urine if it is absorbed. 24-48 hour urine collection is obtained; client is encouraged to drink fluids. If indicated, a second stage Schilling test will be performed 1 week after first stage. Fasting client is given radioactive vitamin B12 combined with human intrinsic factor and the test will be repeated.

Nursing Interventions / Treatment 1. Drug Therapy a. Vit. B12 injections monthly for life b. Iron Preparations c. Folic Acid

2. Transfusion therapy 3. Bed rest 4. Mouth care 5. Dietary teaching 6. Teach about importance of lifelong Vitamin B12 therapy

Hemolytic Anemias rate of RBC destruction short life span of RBC G6PD Sickle cell anemia Thalassemia DIC Transfussion incompatibilities

Sickle Cell Anemia Most common inherited disease among black Americans. Also found in Arabian, Mediterranean and Caribbean descent Hgb S ( abnormal hemoglobin ), which has reduced oxygen carrying capacity, replaces all or part of the hemoglobin in the RBCs. Life span is 6-20 days instead of 120, causing hemolytic anemia. Death often occurs in early adulthood due to occlusion or infection. During decreased O2 tension, lowered pH, dehydration and severe infections, RBCs change from round to sickle or crescent shape Sickled cells dont slide thru vessels as normal RBCs do, causing clumping, thrombosis, arterial obstruction, increased blood viscosity, hemolysis and eventual tissue ischemia and necrosis

Sickle Cell Crisis : Cause : infection, dehydration, fever, cold exposure, hypoxia, strenuous exercise, extreme fatigue or extreme changes in altitude VASO-OCCLUSIVE CRISIS: -most common and most painful type of crisis caused by stasis of blood with clumping of the cells in the microcirculation leading to ischemia & infarction. -signs include fever, pain, and tissue engorgement -trreatment hydration, electrolyte replacement, bed rest, broad spectrum antibiotics, transfusions & oxygen therapy.

SPLENIC SEQUESTRATION: -Life - threatening crisis caused by the pooling of blood in the spleen. (from congestion of sickled cells) -signs include profound anemia, hypovolemia, and shock -treatment : blood transfusions and splenectomy

APLASTIC CRISIS: -Occurs infrequently and is caused by: diminished production of RBC increased destruction of RBCs triggered by a viral infection or the depletion of folic acid. and PANCYTOPENIA.

-signs include profound anemia, pallor,

-treatment Transfusion of packed RBCs Frequent infection esp. with H. influenzae

Infants may have Dactylitis (hand foot syndrome) symmetrical painful soft tissue swelling in the hands and feet in the absence of trauma

Assessment Signs and symptoms of anemia pallor, weakness Hepatospleenomegaly Dactylitis (Symmetric swelling of the hands and feet) called hand-foot syndrome Other problems : CVA MI Growth retardation initial manifestation Decreased fertility Priapism Recurrent severe infections

MEDICAL MANAGEMENT A. Drug therapy > analgesic/narcotics to control pain Avoid meperidine (Demerol) due increased risk of seizures in children > antibiotics to control infection. B. Blood transfusions C. Hydration:oral and IV D. Bed rest E. Surgery: splenectomy

INTERVENTIONS Administer O2 & Blood Transfusion as Rx Maintain adequate hydration

Avoid tight clothing that could impair circulation. Keep wounds clean and dry. Provide bed rest to decrease energy expenditure and oxygen use. Encourage patient to eat foods high in calories, CHON, with folic acid supplementation. Analgesics: Acetaminophen Morphine avoid aspirin as it enhances acidosis,which promotes sickling Avoid anticoagulants( sludging is not due to clotting ). Antibiotics. Avoid activities that require so much energy. Keep arms and legs from extreme cold. Decrease emotional stress. Provide good skin care

THALASSEMIAMAJOR (Cooleys anemia) B - thalassemia refers to an inherited hemolytic anemia, characterized by reduction or absence of the B-globulin chain in Hgb synthesis Fragile RBC & short life span Autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance Insufficient B-globulin chain synthesis allows large amounts of unstable chains to accumulate Precipitates of alpha chains that form cause RBCs to be rigid & easily destroyed, leading to severe hemolytic anemia = chronic hypoxia Skeletal deformities: pathologic fractures

Hemosiderosis excess iron supply, which leads to iron deposits in the organ tissues leading to decreased function

CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS onset is usually insidious Sx are primarily related to progressive anemia, expansion of marrow cavities of the bone & developmemnt of hemosiderosis Early Sx often include progressive pallor, poor feeding & lethargy Further signs: hemorrhage, bone pain, exercise intolerance, jaundice, & protuberant abdomen

hemosiderosis of the eye and lungs DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION Decrease hemoglobin RBC= increase in number Hgb elctrophoresis elevated levels of HgF ( doesnt hold O2 well ) limited amount of HgA Management Frequent and regular transfusion of packed RBCs to maintain Hgb levels above 10 g/dL Iron chelation therapy with deferoxamine (Desferal) reduces toxic effects of excess iron & increases iron excretion thru urine & feces Splenectomy Supportive management of symptoms Bone marrow transplant Prognosis and Survival rate is poor because of no known cure Often fatal in late adolescence or early adulthood

Complications Splenomegaly Growth retardation in the second decade Endocrine abnormalities : delayed development of secondary sex characteristics most boys fail to undergo puberty, girls menstruation problems DM due to iron deposits in the pancreas Hypermetabolic rates Skeletal complications Frontal & parietal bossing (Enlargement) Maxillary hypertrophy leading to occlusion Premature closure of epiphyses of long bones Osteoporosis & pathologic fractures Cardiac problems: pericarditis & CHF usual cause of death

Complications Gallbladder disease Gallstones that often require surgery Skin bronze pigmentation caused by iron deposits in the dermis Leg ulcers

ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FETALIS Rh Incompatibility Destruction of RBCs that result from Ag-Ab rxn Characterized by hemolytic anemia or Possibly caused by Rh incompatibility fetus (Ag & Ab reaction) hyperbilirubinemia between the mother & the

ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FETALIS Sensitization of Rh (-) woman by transfusion of Rh (+) blood from her

Sensitization of Rh (-) woman by presence of Rh (+) RBCs fetus conceived with Rh (+) man

Approximately 65% of infants conceived by this combination of parents will be Rh (+) Mother is sensitized by passage of Rh (+) RBCs thru during pregnancy (break/leak in separation of the placenta placenta, either

membrane) or at the time of after delivery.

RH INCOMPATIBILTY FIRST PREGNANCY - mother may become sensitized, baby rarely affected INDIRECT COOMBS TEST - Tests for anti-Rh(+) Ab in mothers circulation - performed during pregnancy at first visit & again about 28 weeks gestation. RESULTS: - If (-) at 28 weeks, a small dose of (MicroRhogam) is given prophylactically to prevent sensitization in the 3rd trimester. amniocentesis - Rhogam may also be given after 2nd trimester

- If (+), levels are titrated to determine potential effects on the fetus DIRECT COOMBS TEST - Tests done on the cord blood at delivery to determine presence of (+) Ab on fetal RBCs RESULTS - If both indirect & direct Coombs test is NEGATIVE & infant is Rh(+): - NEGATIVE: No formation of Anti-Rh (+) Ab

- Rhogam (Rho[D] human immune globulin is given to the Rh(-) mother to prevent development of anti-Rh(+) Ab as the result of sensitization from present or just terminated pregnancy. In each pregnancy, an Rh(-) mother who carries an Rh (+) receives Rhogam if both the mother and infant is (-) indirect Coombs test. If mother is has been sensitized: anti-Rh(+) Ab are present fetus

to both direct &

- Rhogam is not indicated Rhogam must be injected into unsensitized mothers system within 72 hours of delivery of Rh(+) infant

ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FETALIS CLINICAL FINDINGS Anemia Jaundice that develops rapidly after birth and before 24 hours or that occurs within 24 - 36 hours Enlarged placenta Edema Ascites

NURSING INTERVENTIONS Determine blood type and Rh early in pregnancy. Determine results of direct Coombs test early in pregnancy at 28 weeks. Determine results of direct Coombs test on cord blood. - type & Rh, Hgb, Hct Implement phototherapy or exchange transfusion. & again

NURSING INTERVENTIONS Administer Rh0 (D) immune globulin to the mother during the first 72 hrs. after delivery if the Rh(-) mother delivers an Rh (+) fetus but remains unsensitized Assist with exchange transfusion as prescribed. The baby undergoes transfusion of blood to stop the destruction of babys RBC - the transfused blood is replaced with the babys own blood gradually Reassure the mother that the newborn will suffer no untoward effects from the condition the

MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDER POLYCYTHEMIA VERA Underlying cause is unknown Hyperplasia of all bone marrow elements > increase RBC mass > increase blood volume viscosity > decrease marrow iron reserve > Splenomegaly

ASSESSMENT Reddish purple hue of skin & mucosa, pruritus Splenomegaly, hepatomegaly Epigastric discomfort, abdominal discomfort Painful fingers & toes from paresthesias Altered mentation Weakness, fatigue, night sweats, bleeding tendency Hyperuricemia from increased RBD formation and destruction


MANAGEMENT HYPERVISCOSITY = phlebotomy @ intervals determined by CBC results to decrease mass =generally 250-500ml removal @ a time HYPERPLASIA = myelosuppressive therapy, = generally using hydroxyurea or IV radioactive biologic response modifier, ie alpha interferon HYPERURICEMIA= allupurinol (Zyloprim) PRURITUS = antihistamines (cimitidine), low dose acetyl salicylic phosphorus (32P), RBC

acid; certain anti-depressants (paroxetin), phototherapy, cholestyramine

INTERVENTION Encourage/assist ambulation Assess for early S/Sx of thromboembolic complications : swelling of limbs, increased warmth, pain Monitor CBC & assist with phlebotomy as ordered Patient Education Educate about risk of thrombosis; encourage patient to maintain normal activity pattern & avoid long periods of rest Avoid hot showers Report @ regular intervals for follow up blood

DISORDERS OF PLATELETS and CLOTTING MECHANISM HEMOPHILIA Hereditary coagulation defect, usually transmitted to affected male by female carrier through sex linked recessive gene, resulting in prolonged clotting time. Most common type is Hemophilia A or Classic Hemophilia - factor VIII deficiency (called Antihemophilic Factor / AHF) Hemophilia B or Christmas Disease factor IX deficiency (called the Christmas Factor) Male inherits hemophilia from their mothers, and females inherit the carrier status from their fathers. Found predominantly, but not exclusive, in male offsprings Bleeding occurs due to impaired ability to form fibrin clot

ASSESSMENT Abnormal bleeding in response to trauma or surgery. (muscles/joints) Joint bleeding causing pain, tenderness, swelling, and limited range of motion. Tendency to bruise easily. Epistaxis Hemarthrosis (bleeding in joints causing pain, swelling and limited movement)

IMPLEMENTATION Administer factor VIII concentrate. Monitor for bleeding and maintain bleeding precautions. Monitor for joint pain; IMMOBILIZE the affected extremity if joint pains occur. Monitor urine for hematuria.

Instruct the parents regarding activities for the child, emphasizing the avoidance of contact sports. Instruct the parents on how to control bleeding (direct/indirect pressure) DDVAP (Desmopressin) promotes the release of Factor VIII in hemophilia A Use soft toothbrush and point out need for regular dental checkups Refer to National Hemophilia Association Emphasize avoidance of Aspirin Provide diet information as excess weight places further stress on joints

IMPLEMENTATION RI CERest Immobilize Cold Compress Elevate

Dissimenated Intravascular Coagulation DIC is a disorder of diffuse activation of the clotting cascade that results in depletion of clotting factors in the blood. occurs when the blood clotting mechanisms are activated all over the body instead of being localized to an area of injury. grave coagulopathy resulting from overstimulation of clotting & anticlotting processess in response to disease & injury Small blood clots form throughout the body, and eventually the blood clotting factors are used up and not available to form clots at sites of tissue injury. Clot - dissolving mechanisms are also increased stimulated by many factors including infection in the blood & severe tissue injury burns and

head injury, reactions to blood transfusions, carcinomas and obstetrical complications such as retained placenta after delivery.

ASSESSMENT purpura on lower extremities & abdomen hemorrhagic bullae, acral cyanosis, focal gangrene in skin

Dx Tests: marked decrease of blood platelets low levels of fibrinogen & other clotting factors prolonged prothrombin & partial thromboplastin times erythrocyte morphologic characteristics & abnormal

Nursing Interventions / Treatment 1. The objective of treatment is to determine the underlying cause of DIC and provide treatment for it. 2. Replacement therapy of the coagulation factors is achieved by transfusion of fresh frozen plasma. Cryoprecipitates may also be used if fibrinogen is significantly decreased. Platelet transfusions if platelets are diminished 3. Heparin, a medication used to prevent thrombosis, is sometimes used in combination with replacement therapy. ( still controversial ) 4. Prevent further injury a. avoid IM injections b. apply pressure to bleeding sites c. turn patient frequently and gently d. provide mouth care soft bristled toothbrush 5. Teach patient the importance of avoiding aspirin.

IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIA PURPURA Increased destruction of platelets with resultant platelet count of less that 100,000/mm3 characterized by petechiae and ecchymoses of the skin. Exact cause unknown; may be autoimmune. Spleen is the site for destruction of platelets often triggered by URTI or Childhood communicable disease Measles & chickenpox

ASSESSMENT: Petechiae Ecchymosis Blood in any body secretions, bleeding form mucous membranes, nosebleeds. Decreased platelet count Anemia easy bruising blood in stool or urine CBC reveals platelet count below 20,000/mm3 Bone marrow aspiration done to rule out leukemia

MEDICAL MANAGEMENT: Drug therapy: Prednisone decreases anti-platelet antibodies (monitor for infection) IVIG (Intravenous Immune Globulin) helps to effectively increase platelet count Anti-D Antibody one dose treatment Given to pts 1 year but less than 19 years old Normal WBC and hemoglobin no active bleeding present

no concurrent infection Diphenhydramine and hydrocortisine are made ready for possible allergic reactions to the medication Platelet transfusion Splenectomy

Intervention Prevent, control and minimize bleeding. Prevent bruising Provide support to client and be sensitive to change in body image. Protect from infection. Administer analgesics (acetaminophen) as ordered; avoid aspirin. administer meds orally, rectally, or I.V. rather than I.M.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LIPID AND HEMATOLOGICAL PROFILES WITH ADIPOSITY IN OBESE ADOLESCENTS Ferreira LC, da Silva HJ, Lins TA, do Prado WL. Rev Bras Hematol Hemoter. 2013; Source Universidade de Pernambuco - UPE, Recife, PE, Brazil.


BACKGROUND: An excess of weight including obesity have reached epidemic rates in all age groups, both in developed and developing countries. It is notable that overweight children and adolescents have a higher likelihood of becoming obese adults and to present health-related problems early in life.

OBJETIVES: To verify associations of the lipid and hematological profiles with adiposity in obese adolescents beginning multidisciplinary weight loss therapy.

METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 85 adolescents of both genders, aged 12-19 years (Tanner staging 3 or 4) and body mass index greater than the 95(th) percentile. The sum of the triceps, subscapular and calf skinfolds and the waist circumference were used to estimate adiposity. Blood samples were collected from all patients after overnight fasting to analyze blood lipids (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, very lowdensity lipoprotein and triglycerides), blood sugar and the hematological profile (hemoglobin, platelets and red blood cells). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and

Spearman and Pearson correlation coefficients were used for statistical analysis with significance set for p-values 0.05.

RESULTS: There were statistical differences between genders for red blood cells (pvalue = 0.000), hemoglobin (p-value = 0.000) and platelets (p-value = 0.002). Positive correlations were found for red blood cells (p-value = 0.031) and hemoglobin (p-value = 0.024) with waist circumference. There was a negative correlation between hemoglobin and the sum of skinfolds (p-value = 0.022).

CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate an association between the lipid

and hematological profiles and body adiposity in obese adolescents thus reinforcing the importance of treating obese adolescents early to prevent health related problems in adult life.

KEYWORDS: Adiposity, Adolescent, Body mass index, Cross-sectional studies, Female, HDL/blood, Hematologic tests, Humans, Lipid metabolism disorders, Lipoproteins, Male, Nutrition disorders/epidemiology, Obesity/epidemiology, Triglycerides/blood

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WEB REFERENCE efault.aspx