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-CASE STUDYNUCLEAR AS FUTURE ENERGY FOR MALAYSIA

MOHD HELLMI BIN NORDIN

CASE STUDY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR MALAYSIA

CONTENT & PAGES


OBJECTIVE A. INTRODUCTION NUCLEAR ENERGY AT A GLANCE i. What is nuclear ii. Type of nuclear reactions iii. Nuclear fuel uranium iv. Common type of nuclear power plant reactor v. Suitable location of nuclear power plant B. PRO AND CONS OF NUCLEAR ENERGY i. Advantages of nuclear energy ii. Disadvantage / main concern regarding nuclear energy C. WORLD NUCLEAR POWER GENERATION IN OPERATION i. List of country using nuclear energy worldwide ii. Location map nuclear power plant in Europe iii. Location map nuclear power plant in America iv. Location map nuclear power plant in Asia and Africa D. COMPARISON OF VARIOUS ENERGY SOURCES E. PROFILE & ENERGY SOURCES OF MALAYSIA i. Electricity demand trend and generation capacity ii. Electricity energy sources of Malaysia F. CONCLUSION G. MALAYSIA PROFILE AT A GLANCE H. SOURCE OF REFERENCES 3 4 4 4 5 6~7 7 8 8~10 11 12 12 13 14 15 16~17 18 18 19 20~21 22 23

CASE STUDY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR MALAYSIA

OBJECTIVE
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. To gain basic knowledge about nuclear energy. To gain basic knowledge about nuclear based power plant. To know the advantage and disadvantage of nuclear power plant. To compare various sources of energy. To find out nuclear power plant operation worldwide. To resolve whether nuclear power plant is suitable to be operate in Malaysia.

CASE STUDY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR MALAYSIA

A. INTRODUCTION NUCLEAR ENERGY AT A GLANCE


i. What is nuclear? Nuclear is energy that has been produced from reactions in the nucleus of the atom. The term refers to the inner core of nucleus of the atom. Type of nuclear reactions that can be used to generate energy. a. Nuclear fission Currently all nuclear power plant throughout the world are based on this type of reaction. b. Nuclear fusion It is still under research & development and still very far to complete.

ii.

In the nuclear power plant, heat produced by splitting atoms in uranium. This splitting reaction is also known as nuclear fission. In the reactor,nuclear fission produces energy to heat water which will create steam. This steam drives a turbine to produce electricity. Uranium is the material required to fuel the nuclear reactor. Uranium is source by the mining process. The process for nuclear energy:

CASE STUDY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR MALAYSIA iii. Nuclear fuel uranium Uranium must undergo four process to convert it from an ore to solid ceramic fuels pellet. They are: a. Mining & milling Several techniques use by miners which is surface, underground and in-situ recovery. After mining, the material is milled and processed to create uranium oxide or also known as yellow cake. b. Conversion This process removes impurities and chemically converts the material to uranium hexafluoride. c. Enrichment This process to make uranium usable as a fuel by increasing the content to between 3% ~ 5% by weight. d. Fabrication Fabrication of fuel pellets from enrich uranium and assembled it in a form of fuel assembly

Since nuclear fuel contain larger amount of energy as compared to fuel from other energy sources, it will provide energy for longer period. For example 1000 Mwe capacity nuclear power plant requires only 100 metric tonnes of uranium to begin operation and of these, only 30 metric tonnes will be utilised to generate electricity for one year.

CASE STUDY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR MALAYSIA iv. Common type of nuclear power plant reactor a. Pressurized water reactor

b. Boiling water reactor

c. Gas Cooled Reactor and Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor

CASE STUDY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR MALAYSIA d. Light Water Cooled Graphite Moderated Reactor

e. Pressurized Heavy Water Moderator Reactor

v.

Suitable location of nuclear power plant Before nuclear power is built, data on the various aspect of its site features is collected and analysed to assess its suitability as a nuclear power plant site. The chosen site must determined to be safe for the next 100 years by proving that the site has been safe for the past 100 years. The following aspects will be study to assess the suitability of its location: i. Demographic features ii. Meteorological features iii. Seismic and tectonic features iv. Geological and geotechnical features v. Geomorphologic and oceanographic features vi. Hydrogeological and hydrological features vii. Enviromental and ecological features viii. Human activities 7

CASE STUDY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR MALAYSIA B. PRO AND CONS OF NUCLEAR ENERGY i. Advantages of nuclear energy Countries throughout the world has been driven to electricity generation through nuclear power due to some factors below: a. Due technology development, nuclear power plants today are more safe. The 3rd generation nuclear power plant that has been used until today have been proven to be safe and economically competitive compare to its predescessor. Additional improvement has been continuosly apply to its system design and contruction method to enhance safety. Currently under research and development, the 4th generation nuclear power plant is said are more safe and economical, will be for deployment by 2030.

b. Reduced plant contruction time from between 10 and 12 years to only 3 and 6 years. c. Increased plant life expentancy from 25 to 40 years up to 6o years. d. Increased efficiency of uranium fuel utilisation. Other general advantages of nuclear energy: a. Nuclear energy benefits the enviroment Nuclear power plants help mitigate climate change because they dont produce greenhouse gases while generating electricity. Nuclear energy industry prevents million of tons of carbon dioxide emission every year. Nuclear power plant dont burn anything during electricity generation.

CASE STUDY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR MALAYSIA b. Nuclear power plant will help boost economies Operations of the plant will generates more employment The direct effect of plants expenditures of goods, services and labor will enhance economy activities. c. The cost of electricity generation from nuclear power plants is competitive compared to others fuel type.

d. The uranium supplies is unlikely to running out. This on contrary to fossil type fuels which will eventually will be running out. Even the price of fossil type fuel is more and more higher these day. According to World Nuclear Association, readily available uranium resources which is about 5.5 millions metric tons will last at least 100 years at todays consumption rate. An estimated additional 10.5 million metric tons that remain untapped will expand the available supply to at least 200 years at today consumption rate.

CASE STUDY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR MALAYSIA Below are comparison of amount of fuel required to keep a 1000 MWe capacity power plant running continously without downtime for a year:

e. Affordable electricity production The low and stable of nuclear energy help reduce the price of electricity paid by the consumer comparing to electricity generation based on fossil fuel is highly susceptible to fluctuations of coals and gas price.

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CASE STUDY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR MALAYSIA ii. Disadvantages / main concern regarding nuclear energy a. Concern of potential nuclear acccidents / catastrophe This probably the main concern of the people. The accidents such as at Chernobly, Three Mile Island and Fukushima Daiichi has growth the fear in people concerning its radiation. These episodes of radioactive drift and contamination are reminders that dangerous element can and will travel far. b. Concern of nuclear waste Public concern on what will happen with tons of radioactive waste. It require resolution of the long term high level waste storage. c. Cost Large capital cost because of emergenct, containment and radioactive waste and storage system.

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CASE STUDY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR MALAYSIA

C. WORLD NUCLEAR POWER GENERATION IN OPERATION


i. Despite the concerns, many country throughout the world chose to operate nuclear power plant. Below are the list of country using nuclear reactor: As of March 2012
2 1 7 2 2 18 16 6 4 58 9 4 20 1 50 23 2 1 3 2 33 4 1 2 8 10 5 6 17 104 15 436

Argentina Armenia Belgium Brazil Bulgaria Canada China Czech RP Finland France Germany Hungary India Iran Japan Korea Rep. Mexico Netherlands Pakistan Romania Russia Slovakia Slovenia South Africa Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan, China U.K. U.S.* Ukraine Total

Country

Number of Nuclear Units

Nuclear Capacity (MW)

935 375 5,927 1,884 1,906 12,604 11,816 3,766 2,736 63,130 12,068 1,889 4,391 915 44,215 20,671 1,300 482 725 1,300 23,643 1,816 688 1,830 7,567 9,326 3,263 5,018 9,703 101,465 13,107 370,461

* IAEA and EIA nuclear capacity figures vary slightly. Source: International Atomic Energy Agency

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CASE STUDY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR MALAYSIA

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CASE STUDY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR MALAYSIA

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CASE STUDY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR MALAYSIA

ii.

Countries in Southeast Asia which have plans to build nuclear power plant a. Indonesia Four nuclear plants with a total capacity of 4000 Mwe by 2016 b. Vietnam Two nuclear power plants with a total capacity of 2000 MWe by 2018. c. Thailand Two nuclear power plants with a total capacity of 2000 MWe by 2021.

iii.

Until May 2012, according to IAEA, there is 66 units of nuclear reactor under construction worldwide. 15

CASE STUDY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR MALAYSIA

D. COMPARISON OF VARIOUS ENERGY SOURCES


Every form of energy generation has advantages and disadvantages as shown in the table below.
Source Advantages Coal Inexpensive Easy to recover Fuel is inexpensive Energy generation is the most concentrated source Waste is more compact than any source Extensive scientific basis for the cycle Easy to transport as new fuel No greenhouse or acid rain effects Requires expensive air pollution controls (e.g. mercury, sulfur dioxide) Significant contributor to acid rain and global warming Requires extensive transportation system Requires larger capital cost because of emergency, containment, radioactive waste and storage systems Requires resolution of the longterm high level waste storage issue in most countries Potential nuclear proliferation issue Very limited source since depends on water elevation Many dams available are currently exist (not much of a future source[depends on country]) Dam collapse usually leads to loss of life Dams have affected fish (e.g. salmon runs) Environmental damage for areas flooded (backed up) and downstream Very limited availability as shown by shortages during winters several years ago Could be major contributor to global warming Very expensive for energy generation Large price swings with supply and demand Liquified Natural Gas storage facilities and gas transmission systems have met opposition from environmentalists. Disadvantages

Nuclear

Hydroelectric

Very inexpensive once dam is built Government has invested heavily in building dams.

Gas / Oil Good distribution system for current use levels Better as space heating energy source

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CASE STUDY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR MALAYSIA

Wind Wind is free if available Good source for periodic water pumping demands of farms as used earlier in 1900's Generation and maintenance costs have decreased significantly. Wind is proving to be a reasonable cost renewable source. Well suited to rural areas.

Need 3x the amount of installed generation to meet demand Limited to windy areas. Limited to small generator size; need many towers. Highly climate dependent - wind can damage equipment during windstorms or not turn during still summer days. May affect endangered birds, however tower design can reduce impact.. Limited to sunny areas throughout the world (demand can be highest when least available, e.g. winter solar heating) Does require special materials for mirrors/panels that can affect environment Current technology requires large area of land for small amounts of energy generation Inefficient if small plants are used Could be significant contributor to global warming because fuel has low heat content Inefficient if small plants are used Could be significant contributor to global warming because fuel has low heat content Flyash can contain metals as cadmium and lead Contain dioxins and furans in air and ash releases Very costly to produce Takes more energy to produce hydrogen then energy that could be recovered. Breakeven point has not been reached after ~40 years of expensive research and commercially available plants not expected for at least 35 years.

Solar

Sunlight is free when available Costs are dropping.

Biomass

Industry in its infancy Could create jobs because smaller plants would be used

Refuse Based Fuel

Fuel can have low cost Could create jobs because smaller plants would be used Low sulfur dioxide emissions

Hydrogen

Combines easily with oxygen to produce water and energy Hydrogen and tritium could be used as fuel source Higher energy output per unit mass than fission Low radiation levels associated with process than fission-based reactors

Fusion

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CASE STUDY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR MALAYSIA

E. PROFILE & ENERGY SOURCES OF MALAYSIA


i. Electricity demand trends and electricity generation capacity a. Peninsular Malaysia (2006 ~ 2010)

b. Sarawak (2006 ~ 2010)

c. Sabah (2006 ~ 2010)

At a glance, Malaysia electricity demand each year has increased continuously.

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CASE STUDY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR MALAYSIA ii. Electricity energy sources of Malaysia

ELECTRICITY GENERATION SOURCE IN MALAYSIA


Gas Hydro 5.11%

Coals 39.50% Gas 52.15%

Coals

Hydro

Diesel 1.25% Others 0.20%

Diesel Oil

Biomass Others

Biomass 1.01% Oil 0.78%

Malaysia main sources of electricity generation is gas based power plant which 52.15% from total capacity and coal based power plant placed second with 39.50%. This indicate Malaysia rely so much on fossil fuel power plant which highly exposed to fluctuation of its price. The fossil fuel is also gradiently running out throughout the year which will contributed much higher price in the market.

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CASE STUDY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR MALAYSIA

F. CONCLUSION
i. Since Malaysia in depend so much on fossil fuel, nuclear energy is the next generation power sources which is probably the most viable and relevant power source to replace fossil fuel energy. Price hike and fluctuation of fossil fuel these day will contribute to high electricity price paid by the consumer, while the electricity generation cost by nuclear is much more stable and competitive. It is expected by 2020, Malaysias natural gas is to run out. By that time, if Malaysia still rely on gas for electricity generation, Malaysia will have to import gas at much high international price which mean electricity price will rise as well. The electricity demand in Malaysia increasing continously each year. If this trends continue, Malaysia government has to figured a way to meet the demand. It is not smart to just depend of fossil fuel anymore. Others sources of energy is available but the range of capacity produced cant be compare to nuclear power plant. Among its reason: a. Solar power plant it requires large area but only produced small capacity of electricity. For example, the largest solar plant in US, the Nevada Solar One with capacity of 64MW, taking area of 400 acres can only produced an average 370,000 kWh per day. b. This goes the same for wind based plant and biomass power plant. We have to admit that such facility will never succeed to replace countrys main power generator. c. Coals the used of this type of power plant will emitted million tons of greenhouse gases each year. It is not enviromental friendly. Nuclear energy on the other hand, will not. The price of coals also not stable and expected to increase each year. d. Hydro effect the flora & fauna due to it construction and operation. If Malaysia wants a reliable source of power that is also reasonably priced in the future, all roads lead to nuclear energy. Malaysia has long term plan to become a developed nation by 2020. Cheap and reasonable price energy is a must since it is factor to attract investor and boost industrial activities. Even Malaysias neighbouring country such as Indonesia & Thailand already has plan to build nuclear power plant. If we oppose the existance of nuclear power 20

ii.

iii.

iv.

v. vi.

vii.

CASE STUDY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR MALAYSIA plant here in Malaysia, we should oppose the existance of nuclear power plant at our neighbouring countries if safety factor were concern. Since were are very closed. viii. If Malaysia decide to have nuclear power plant, a thorough and full details study of every aspect must be made to ensure its safe operation. Malaysia government should plan and act now because it is not only about contruction of the plant, Malaysia should start now to generate human capital, develop local experties, enchance technical know how and promote public awareness. Malaysia have to choose this next power generation not by option but as a neccessities. Malaysia actually has start on doing research on nuclear technology and already have its own nuclear reactor known as Reaktor Triga Puspati since 1982 for the sole purpose of research and development. What need to now is to take one more step ahead.

ix.

Nuclear power plant

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CASE STUDY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR MALAYSIA

G. MALAYSIA PROFILE AT A GLANCE

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CASE STUDY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR MALAYSIA

H. SOURCE OF REFERENCES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
http://www.nei.org/

http://www.mosti.gov.my/ http://www.iaea.org/ http://www.nucleartourist.com/ http://www.tnb.com.my/ http://www.kettha.gov.my/

http://www.world-nuclear.org Suruhanjaya Tenaga Malaysia

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