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The Journal of the European Society for Textual Scholarship

General Editors H.T.M. van Vliet and P.M.W. Robinson ESTS Board Members Chairman: H.T.M. van Vliet, The Netherlands Secretary: Peter Robinson, UK Barbara Bordalejo, UK Andrea Bozzi Joao Dionisio, Portugal Daniel Ferrer, France Richard Finneran, USA (STS) Luigi Giuliani, Spain Anne Mette Hansen, Denmark Bodo Plachta, Germany Dirk Van Hulle, Belgium

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The Book as Artefact Text and Border

Edited by

Anne Mette Hansen, Roger Ldeke, Wolfgang Streit, Cristina Urchuegua and Peter Shillingsburg


Cover design: Pier Post The paper on which this book is printed meets the requirements of ISO 9706: 1994, Information and documentation - Paper for documents Requirements for permanence. ISBN: 90-420-1888-7 ISSN: 1573-3084 Editions Rodopi B.V., Amsterdam - New York, NY 2005 Printed in The Netherlands

Variants 4 (2005)
The Book as Artefact Text and Border
The Book as Artefact Edited by Anne Mette Hansen Paul Eggert Version Agency Intention: The Cross-fertilising of German and Anglo-American Editorial Traditions Peter L. Shillingsburg Practical Editions of Literary Texts Ragnhei ur Msesdttir Good white paper, with a new, clear and elegant typeface: Early Arnamagnan Editions Eva Nilsson Nylander To the Glory of Mary: Liber Scole Virginis at Lund University Library Joo Dionsio Tables of Contents in Portuguese Late Medieval Manuscripts Rdiger Nutt-Kofoth The Book in the Poetological Concept of Stefan George: Some Remarks on the Physical and Iconic Side of the Published Text with an Editorial Conclusion Dirk Van Hulle The Limited Edition Unlimited: Samuel Becketts Fugal Artefact

5 29


77 89

111 133

Text and Border: The Borders of the Text Edited by Roger Ldeke, Wolfgang Streit and Cristina Urchuegua George Bornstein The Book as Artefact: Historicizing Ezra Pounds First Thirty Cantos J Julia Briggs Writing by Numbers: An Aspect of Woolf s Revisionary Practice Michael Groden Proceeding Energetically From the Unknown to the Known: Looking Again at the Genetic Texts and Documents for Joyces Ulysses Geert Lernout The Dimension of the Text J John McCourt Writing on the Edge: Trollopes An Eye for An Eye J Jerome McGann From Text to Work: Digital Tools and the Emergence of the Social Text Fritz Senn The Potency of Error (exemplied in Joyces Ulysses) The Interpretive Consequences of Textual Criticism Edited by Peter Shillingsburg John Bryant J Versions of Moby-Dick: Plagiarism, Censorship, and Some Notes toward an Ethics of the Fluid Text Marta L. Werner Emily Dickinsons Futures: Unqualied to Scan

151 165

183 197 211

225 241

257 287


Reviews and Book Notices Edited by Dirk Van Hulle Hans Walter Gabler Thomas Bein, Rdiger Nutt-Kofoth, Bodo Plachta, eds., Autor Autorisation Authentizitt Sam Slote Jed Deppman, Daniel Ferrer, and Michael Groden, eds., Genetic Criticism: Texts and Avant-textes Geert Lernout Domenico Fiormonte, Scrittura e lologia nellera digitale Jed Deppman Louis Hay, La Littrature des crivains: questions de critique gntique Mike W. Malm Alexandra Braun-Rau, William Shakespeares King Lear in seinen Fassungen. Ein elektronisch-dialogisches Editionsmodell James Cummings Barbara Bordalejo, ed., Caxtons Canterbury Tales: The British Library Copies; Peter Robinson, ed., The Millers Tale on CD-ROM Charles F. Fraker The Latin Chronicle of the Kings of Castile. Translated with an Introduction and Notes by Joseph F. OCallaghan M. J. Driscoll Mats Dahlstrm, Espen S. Ore, and Edward Vanhoutte, eds., Literary and Linguistic Computing, vol. 19, no. 1, April 2004 Joseph J. Gwara James Moran, Wynkyn de Worde, Father of Fleet Street Carmen Peraita Pedro M. Ctedra and Anastasio Rojo, Biblioteca y lecturas de mujeres Siglo XVI Geert Lernout Andrea Bozzi, Laura Cignoni, Jean-Louis Lebrave, eds., Digital Technology and Philological Disciplines


305 312 315




337 340



Nuria Martnez de Castilla Muoz Carlos Alvar and Jos Manuel Luca Megas, eds., Diccionario lolgico de literatura medieval espaola. Textos y transmission Book Notices Matthijs de Ridder Joep Leerssen and Marita Mathijsen, eds., Oerteksten. Nationalisme edities en canonvorming Dirk Van Hulle Noah Wardrip-Fruin and Nick Montfort, eds., The New Media Reader Vincent Neyt Raimonda Modiano, Leroy F. Searle, and Peter Shillingsburg, eds., Voice, Text, Hypertext: Emerging Practices in Textual Studies Notes on Contributors




369 372

The Book as Artefact

This section consists of seven papers presented at the 2003 colloquium of the European Society for Textual Scholarship which took place at the University of Copenhagen, 21st-23rd November 2003. The Book as Artefact was hosted by the Arnamagnan Institute, the local organisers being Anne Mette Hansen and M. J. Driscoll. It was funded by the Danish Research Agency. The theme was the book, both as the material embodiment of the text and as cultural artefact in its own right, and it thus continued the material focus outlined in the inaugural colloquium in Leicester in 2001, The Book in the 21st Century, and the second colloquium in Antwerp 2002, Reading Notes. Topics of papers spanned areas such as textual theory, analytical bibliography, palaeography, codicology, textual criticism and the history of the book, with special emphasis on the relationship between form and meaning. In his paper Paul Eggert challenges the theme of the colloquium by surveying some efforts to acknowledge editorially the original embodiments of late nineteenth and early twentieth century works, and some conclusions were drawn about the limits of artefactual knowledge for the editorial arena in its differing German and anglophone traditions. Peter Shillingsburg takes a new philological approach to textual scholarship and editing to demonstrate the semiotic complexity of the book as artefact. Using examples from Thackeray and Byatt, he explores the art of the physical book in relation to the art of verbal construct it contains in the light of a books endurance as a physical fact through time and as literary fact through transmissions into other forms. Ragnhei ur Msesdttirs paper focusses on the history of the book, in her analysis of the make-up of the early editions (1772-1832) of Icelandic manuscripts published by the Arnamagnan Commission: their paper, type-faces, printing and layout, compared with other Danish publications of the same period. Attention is also given to methods of sale and to contacts with printers and publishers. Eva Nylander shows how a thorough codicological analysis of a 14th century song book of the Cathedral of Lund adds to the knowledge of liturgical text and the development of the Marian cult in Lund. Joo Dionsio reects on the function of tables of contents in Portuguese lit2 VARIANTS 4 2005

erary manuscripts written or promoted by princes of the Avis dynasty during the rst half of the 15th century, in relation to text extension, gender and programmed readership. Rdiger Nutt-Kofoth discusses how one may edit the poetry of Stefan George (1868-1933). George developed a poetological concept in which the material side of his works (paper, form, dcor ad type-face) became part of his poetry, drawing attention to the conict between the text-critical function of an editor and of a facsimile edition (the only way, it seem, to reproduce textual materiality) which has no textual consciousness. In his paper Dirk van Hulle confronts two different materializations of the same text, Samuel Becketts Stirring Still (1989) published in a limited, rst, signed, de luxe edition, and as a text in a newspaper questioning to what extent the artefactual appearance is an integral part of the text. Anne Mette Hansen

The Book as Artefact

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Version Agency Intention

The Cross-Fertilising of German and AngloAmerican Editorial Traditions
Paul Eggert I Scholarly editors have traditionally treated texts as ideal: that is, as existing independently of the materials on which they happen to have been recorded. This observation applies differentially to the German and Anglo-American traditions. As its methodology and theory was gradually developed after World War II, the German historical-critical approach came to put all its stress on historical versions, selecting one version to serve as the reading text, and recording the others in an ingenious form of non-lemmatised apparatus. Much effort was put into theorising versions. The historisch-kritisch Edition represented a marriage of the synchronic and the diachronic dimensions of text that a combination of philological method and Prague Structuralism had sensitised editors to look for and to record. The problem seemed to be solved. But the book, as carrier of text, fell out of the editorial purview. In the Anglo-American tradition, things went in a different direction. Type-facsimile or photo-facsimile editions were supposed to take care of the works documentary status, which was secondary and of merely bibliographical interest; but editorial mediation of one kind or another would be required if the text of the work itself was to be made available to readers in a new act of publication. The work, in being a work, had an ontological status that justied this editorial extraction of text not just from its material embodiments but from its historical versions as well. The accompanying imperative that a single text had to be prepared for a new readership pushed, by the 1960s, towards a seemingly unstoppable conclusion: that the text so established should rest on the editors judgement of nal authorial intention. Variant readings from rejected versions would be recorded in the apparatus criticus; but versions were not alternative versions, they were rejected versions. All the historical

versions would, to a lesser or greater extent, be rejected; but one of them would in practice have to be chosen as copy-text and emended according to the announced standard of textual authority, typically authorial intention. This conclusion has been pilloried for the last two decades. But it still has supporters, which is an interesting matter in itself; and what has to be recognised is how persuasive and practicable it was. It answered to the needs of readers and the economics of university presses. The case was argued for dramatic works of the seventeenth century, in particular Shakespeare; it was extended into nineteenth- and twentieth-century works of American and British literature and even into editions of philosophical works (William James) and was nally making a push towards dictating the terms for editions of medieval literature and editions of historical documents. We know what happened: the belief in the work as an expression of an author faltered under the twin pressures of French literary and cultural theory on the one hand, and a rebirth of old- and new-fashioned historicism on the other. Works did not have an ideal form: that was suddenly old hat. Works once again had historical forms; they sprang out of the historical and biographical contexts that affected them; or they recirculated existing discourses rather than being created ab initio. Medievalists objected that scribal culture, of its very nature, produced different texts of the same work; scribes were not printing machines but participants in an evolving, collaborative textuality. Randall McLeod fulminated (so beguilingly) against critical editors who were blinded by their own Greg-Bowers theory: he showed that some of them literally could not see the bibliographical evidence in front of their eyes. They were not true believers in descriptive and analytical bibliography: their scholarly editing had in effect betrayed bibliography.1 Under this continued assault, authorship has had necessarily to take a back seat while we inspected, once again, how the engines of textuality actually worked; and we have wanted to look at the bodywork of the
E.g. Randall McLeod, Gerard Hopkins and the Shapes of his Sonnets, Raimonda Modiano, Leroy F. Searle and Peter Shillingsburg (eds), Voice, Text, Hypertext: Emerging Practices in Textual Studies (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2004), 177297.


textual vehicle as well, at the trim and the paintwork. Many of us have been happy passengers in this new vehicle of material textuality. We have learnt to pay more attention to the carriers of texts, to their look and feel, and to how they are propelled, by what mechanisms. It has seemed more important to bear in mind, for example, that playscripts were written to be performed to specic audiences and often for specic actors; that playscripts today often emerge out of workshops and active collaboration with actors so that the playwright is only in a limited sense the author; that Victorian subscribers to circulating libraries usually had luxury three-volume novels in their hands, physically very different to Colonial or Tauchnitz editions, which usually offered much the same text but were based on a different contractual arrangement between publisher and author. Being alert to these things undoubtedly makes one more responsive to the actual conditions of production and reception of the work. But why is such responsiveness important to the editor? Here is a practical example. Let us say that one is editing a late nineteenth-century novel. One is having, in this particular case, to assess the relevance to the editorial project of the appearance of two newspaper serialisations twenty years after the early ones, in a different country, and after rst, second and third editions of the work have already appeared. Not to collate editions appearing after the authors lifetime is usually justied on the ground that the author could not, except under extraordinary circumstances, have affected their text. The practical benet of this rationale is that at least it puts limits around editorial projects and means they have some chance of being completed. But it rules out of consideration those later printings and editions in which most readers actually encountered the work. It says, in effect, that readers are irrelevant to the question of textual authority. The Cambridge D. H. Lawrence Works series, for instance, goes a step further and does not collate serialisations or magazine appearances after the rst, unless there is clear evidence that Lawrence became involved once again. There is an allied resistance in the Cambridge Conrad Works edition to collating Tauchnitz editions. These English-language editions typically appeared in Leipzig soon after the London rst edition. The
Paul Eggert Version Agency Intention 7

assumption is that Conrad was unlikely to have been involved in correcting their proofs and that, textually, they led nowhere: they had no descendants. Underlying these exclusions is the belief that the work is an intentional object needing to be tied tightly to the author: non-authorial chaff is to winnowed away, leaving behind the authorial seed in its unalloyed condition. So, in other words, the further the version in time or place from the rst manuscript and rst edition the more suspicious the editor must become. Who cares what thousands of European purchasers actually read? Equally, serialisations have little or no prestige. Descriptive bibliography, in its service of collectors, privileges the book, especially the rst edition, over the newspaper or magazine: it is not just copy-text theory that accounts for the high frequency with which either manuscript (with its authorial presence) or rst edition (with its bibliographical prestige) was chosen to serve as copy-text in Greg-Bowers editions. So, in these ways, Anglo-American editing of early modern and modern works became a right little, tight little island of self-justifying methodology, oating on but oblivious to the wider ocean of textuality that supported it. In a paper I gave in 1992 I objected to this narrowing of focus and advocated a wider conception of bibliographical study. I described what I called the bibliographical life of a work as one that should be seen as extending from the rst stirrings of the idea, through writing, revision, and through all stages of production and reception.2 Reading and writing I saw as intimately connected at every stage, and all being worthy of study. Publishers, publishers readers, typesetters and printshop supervisors, reviewers and generations of readers who make the work their own, all actualise it. A work is performed under many names, although only a couple of them the authors and the publishers appear on the title-page. With literary works, then, there is no such thing as an aesthetic object: to the extent that we talk as if there is, it is a little conspiracy we have
2 Published as Paul Eggert, Document and Text: The Life of the Literary Work and the Capacities of Editing, TEXT 7 (1994), 124. See also, The Literary Work of a Readership: The Boy in the Bush in Australia 19241926, Bibliographical Society of Australia and New Zealand Bulletin 12 (1988), 14966.


entered into because it rewards us. It names and appears to contain in an unproblematic way the thing we wish to discuss and therefore need to edit. Unfortunately this reward typically suppresses much of the evidence that texts live before, in and after the written or printed documents that record them. Readers assimilate in solitude the texts they read; they discuss them, and the texts take on a social life; but readers return to the documents for their authority. Books, though inert documents in themselves, determine how texts are physically presented, what their extent and limitations are. Books inuence how texts are read. A work that continues to be reset, or only reprinted with new dustjacket designs, is responding in some way to new ideological or other currents. Publishers sniff the cultural wind, and make their nancial decisions accordingly. So, to return to the example of the late nineteenthcentury novel, serialisations published in another country twenty years after the rst, may be revealing after all: and if, as I discovered, their bowdlerisation reveals more about a newspaper proprietors catering to the religious sensitivities of a conservative readership in Montreal when a Sydney readership had apparently had no problems with the offensive wordings twenty years earlier, then so much the better. This in fact is the situation with a popular late Empire bushranger classic that I am co-editing at the moment, Robbery Under Arms by Rolf Boldrewood. Our decision to collate and record the Montreal serialisations will not appeal to the editor who has a tight conception of what a literary work is: but who knows what it will open up, what support and stimulation it will offer to understanding of the movement of copyrights around the Empire and their textual adaptations?3 This is the kind of work that, during the 1990s, came widely to be referred to as book-historical or print-culture research.4 Supported by
3 Since giving this paper in Copenhagen in 2003, research into the political-Imperialist agenda of the Montreal newspapers proprietor, Hugh Graham, has linked the serialisations to the Boer War (18991902): see Appendix in the forthcoming Academy Edition (University of Queensland Press, 2006). 4 Its earlier formations were conceptualised and organised according to different emphases, e.g. as histoire du livre or as a subdivision of bibliography. For the latter, cf. Simon Nowell-Smiths comment in his Lyell lectures of 19656: What may be called the legal, commercial and general aspects of bibliography deserve as much attention as the enumerative and analytical because of

Paul Eggert Version Agency Intention

a very successful, professional society and already having given rise to many national history-of-the-book projects, the movement has been a 1990s and later phenomenon. A marriage between book history and the post-Greg-Bowers editorial theory of the 1980s and 1990s was, to me, a godsend. The one extended the other. I had been theorising it in the 1992 paper without knowing what to call it. The study of the book as artefact can be expressed as bibliography or as social history: the history of any particular work spans and indexes the two, as we study its versions and public appearances in its lifetime. A good edition can serve as a lightning rod of both bibliography and social history: their descriptions and generalisations get tested with the suddenly revealing emanation of an actual example in all its historical complexity. Bibliographical and textual details, and especially variants, beg for explanation in terms of agency and cause. Analysis of discourse, as a mode of historical explanation, helps relatively little at the level of detail with which scholarly editions have to deal. Nor does the idea of materiality in either of the ways that Jerome McGann or Margreta de Grazia invoke it help enough. In their different attempts to deconstruct the history of authorship and thus to dislodge it from its previously central position, they have been throwing out the baby with the bathwater.5 The marriage of book history and editorial practice, on the other hand, returns individual agency to the intellectual stage. Despite the fact that, in Germany and elsewhere, a generation of editors of historical-critical editions have laboured with great skill and dedication to record the precise sequence of revisions for the apparatus of their editions, the theory that underlies their efforts privileges authorial agency only at the level of the version. Once a version is deemed to have been authorised it may be recorded. But textual authority in the AngloAmerican sense is a different matter. It is unknown in the postwar

the assistance they can give to what I conceive to be the ultimate justication of all bibliographical exercise, the understanding of writers and their texts: International Copyright Law and the Publisher on the Reign of Queen Victoria (Oxford: Clarendon, 1968), p. 104.
5 For this argument about McGann, see Eggert, Document and Text, 1424 and, for de Grazia, The Way of All Text: The Materialist Shakespeare, Voice, Text, Hypertext, 15568.



(especially post-1960s) German tradition; it has been replaced by the concept of authorisation.6 Authorisation operates only at the macro-level of the version; textual authority, on the other hand, operates down to the level of the word or even the punctuation mark. Works have lives and they are nearly always collaborative. So it follows that, to sort out the question of authority, the editor must determine the agent responsible for the variant reading and only, in the absence of evidence, fall back upon the textual authority of the document. This is essentially how copy-text editors operate. When German editors reject such eclectic mixing of readings taken from different historical versions, they believe they are on rm ground. But in taking this principled stand they are ruling out any chance of establishing a theory to guide their choice of reading text. German editors pride themselves on the theoretical coherence that underpins their editions but the question of the reading text, which is the central one for ordinary readers, is usually adjudicated on merely pragmatic grounds.7 And when German editors emend their chosen reading text for any Textfehler (textual faults) that may be present, they attribute the necessity to a structural failure of the text when what they are doing, seen from an Anglo-American point of view, is giving textual authority to their own trained judgement. I do not object to this not at all but I would like to see their cards placed face up on the table, which is how Fredson Bowers famously described transparency in editorial procedure.8 Let us not fool ourselves about what we are doing.

6 Argued (in 2002) in Eggert, Autoritt des Textes oder Autorisation: Die postkoloniale Adaptation herkmmlicher Editionsverfahren fr Robbery Under Arms, Thomas Bein, Rdiger NuttKofoth and Bodo Plachta (eds), Autor Autorisation Authentizt, Beiheft zu editio 21 (Tbingen: Max Niemeyer, 2004), 31524. 7 For an enlightening but uncritical account of this pragmatism see Bodo Plachta, In Between the Royal Way of Philology and Occult Science: Some Remarks about German Discussion on Text Constitution in the Last Ten Years, TEXT 12 (1999), 3147 [3543]. 8 In his textual editors general introduction (A Preface to the Text) to the rst title (The Scarlet Letter ) of the Centenary Edition of the Works of Nathaniel Hawthorne (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1962). By virtue of the recording of variants putting the reader in possession of the total substantive evidence for textual transmission available to the textual editor [a]ll cards are on the table, face up (p. xlvii).

Paul Eggert Version Agency Intention


II So far I have been criticising both traditional Anglo-American copy-text editing and German historical-critical editing from the viewpoint of an expanded denition of the work that would have both text-historical and book-historical dimensions. The traditional Anglo-American editorial rationale has been premised, we can now see, upon the need for exclusion so that the intentional object, the text of a work, could emerge clean and unscathed from the corruptions and compromises involved in publication. This appealed to readers and publishers alike but it respected an ontology of the work that has now passed. The German historical-critical rationale aimed to record the historical forms of the work but only the authorised ones with minimal emendation of the reading text and as full a record of variant texts as possible. But this text-oriented approach also excluded book-historical aspects of what I have been calling the life of the work. The German approach is not as historical, or as complete and helpful in its historical recording, as it seems at rst sight to be. A counteracting, more recent development in German editorial methodology has been an increasing reliance upon facsimile presentation, forgoing an edited text in favour of a transcription, or by building the edition around the facsimile rather than the edited text. This development nearly eliminates in the rst case, or minimises in the second, the role of traditional editorial judgement in what German editors call text constitution. Looked at in another light, however, it appears to be not so much a break with tradition as the determined extension of a prevailing editorial logic that of the prime importance of authorised historical versions.9 Various attempts have been made in recent years to supersede the
9 See H. T. M. van Vliets review of the historical-critical editions of Georg Bchners Dantons Tod and Lenz: New Standards in German Editing, TEXT 15 (2002), 38493 and Plachta, Between the Royal Way, 436. Multiple presentation of the text in order to highlight different perspectives upon it (its genesis, editorial alterations to avoid censorship, and its eclectic borrowing from sources), is a feature of the Bchner edition. Plachta observes that the other, facsimile-only route transfers editorial responsibility onto the reader and leaves the question of a common source for quotation of the work unresolved. Scholarly editing becomes a mere documentary service enterprise (p. 47).



exclusiveness of the Anglo-American approach. Mainly the innovators have responded to the crisis in theoretical understanding of works and texts by trying to shift the source of textual authority away from the author: whether to performance (in the case of dramatic works) or to the document itself (in the case of poetry and the novel). I have been observing such attempts in the Academy Editions of Australian Literature series that I general-edit. Richard Fotheringham, the editor of Australian Plays for the Colonial Stage, has argued for the textual authority of performance on two grounds: (1) that popular colonial plays such as the ones he is editing were usually adaptations or extensive plagiarisms of existing plays from the London stage rather than original creations; and, not being of high literary worth anyway, their capacity to reveal, say, the workings of an important creative mind is very limited; and (2) that the plays functioned socially (as meeting place, fashion arena and mirror of the times), so that the closer the edition could get to the actual conditions of performance the more historically informative it would be. In fact some of the plays he is editing were performed only once or twice, one of them not at all because it was refused a licence by the Colonial Secretary, and in one case, a play called The Kelly Gang that had a long stage history from 1899, the only extant manuscript seems to have been used for performance but its text is contradicted in some ways by the published playbills advertising the play and summarising the plot, scene by scene. In practice, then, the appeal to performance tends to fall back to the historical authority of the text of the document. With one interesting exception the nine plays collected in the volume are extant in only one documentary form, either in manuscript, revised typescript or printed form printed usually for distribution on the night of the performance so that the audience could follow along in theatres that were still lit. This was especially the case with pantomimes where many of the verbal jokes could only be appreciated by looking at their strange spellings (see Figure 1). This is a pantomime called The House that Jack Built. It is probably a free adaptation, a loose plagiarism of a pre-existing British pantomime that is not extant but is known from a plot description. The Australian adaptation, written by William Mower Akhurst, was staged and the playscript published in Melbourne in 1869.
Paul Eggert Version Agency Intention 13

In 1871, Akhursts playscript was localised for a Sydney performance and also published. Localising a pantomime involves adding or rewriting topical references to the people or events being satirised.

Figure 1: Cast list for The House that Jack Built (Melbourne, 1869) General editors do not always get their own way, and certainly in the Academy Editions of Australian Literature series I have been encouraging editorial innovation. So when the editor insisted that, according
14 VARIANTS 4 2005

to his criterion of performance, the Sydney adaptation in relation to its audience was on an equal footing with the Melbourne in relation to its, we had to come up with a textual display that enacted this decision. The obvious solutions would not do. Parallel texts were out of the question, simply because for most of the play the two versions are virtually identical. The use of the space would not have been justied. The printing of, say, the Melbourne text as the reading text with the Sydney relegated to an apparatus at the foot of the page would not have respected the editors criterion and would also have been difcult for the reader to follow, since on some occasions the Sydney variants are whole scenes of very long passages. Fotheringham proposed an enfolded text, previously only an experimental conception.10 Settling on a page design proved to be unex10 Richard Fotheringham (ed.), Australian Plays for the Colonial Stage 18341899 (St Lucia: University of Queensland Press, 2006). Bernice Kliman had coined the term in her so-called enfolded-text edition of Hamlet published as The Enfolded Hamlet, Shakespeare Newsletter, Extra Issue (1996), 244. In her 1991 parallel-text edition of Hamlet where she presents the three versions Q1, Q2 and F1 side by side, she had the luxury of a very wide format. The enfolded-text idea was the next step. It was an innovation. It brings Q2 and F1 Hamlet together in a single reading text by designating the unique elements of either, line by line, in signifying brackets: { } for Q2-only elements, < > for F1-only. Q2 is the copy-text (p. 2). Long ss are shortened editorially and some variants in F1 deemed immaterial (p. 2) are ignored. These are mainly ones of punctuation and capitalisation. Unmarked text is implied to be invariant, but in these (unpredictable) cases of immaterial variants it may in fact be variant. This compromise helps achieve legibility. The Academy Edition of The House that Jack Built routinely records all variants, including punctuation variants, thus eliminating this unpredictability (but with the exception of the declared silent categories). Any editorial interference is recorded at foot of page. Legibility does not seem to have been compromised by our extension of the recording and by our use of a different way of signalling variation. Kliman deals with the many passages of F1-only material by using the line numbering system of Charlton Hinman for the Folio. It numbers from start to nish in one sequence rather than starting the line numbering anew in each scene. All such F1-only material is placed in < > repeated around every line. Similarly Q2-only material is allotted the F1 line number followed by +1, +2, etc. These conventions lead to a more heavily marked text than that of the Academy Edition, and the use of the Hinman line numbering also acts as limitation on clearer forms of presentation since a cut-off has to be made after every line (or after every line and its turn-over continuation, a modern habit that started with F1). Klimans use of the traditional term copy-text is clear and functional, but it seems to cut off the possibility of a theoretical breakthrough here. The Enfolded Hamlet was originally assembled as a working document for the Variorum Shakespeare project but she was encouraged to publish it. In fact, she says she prefers F1 as a copy-text for a normal edition because it is likely to have been contaminated [changed, enriched] by the theatrical experience . . . of Shakespeares colleagues on the stage (p. 2).

Paul Eggert Version Agency Intention


pectedly difcult, since we had to imagine a workable marriage between editorial policy and ease of access for the reader. Anyone experimenting with innovative layouts sooner or later realises, as they try to anticipate the preparedness of the reader to master the system of marking, that they are inventing a new grammar of the document, and that they are anticipating a new poetics of reading. The job of doing this makes one realise, with a shock, what an achievement the normal presentation of text represents, an achievement in both senses, naturalised but not inherently natural. Fifteenth-century printers must have been faced with related dilemmas: would a reader realise, for example, what a title-page was when a colophon was expected? Figures 24 show our solution, which we cannot pretend is a perfect one but is at least superior to the many alternatives we rejected. In our enfolded edition, text common to both scripts Sydney (S) and Melbourne (M) is unmarked. Text that is unique to either script is identied as follows: Single-word, short phrase and single-line substitutions are given with the M reading appearing rst, followed by the reading in S. The siglum M or S precedes and concludes each section of unique text. Where a Melbourne-only variant is immediately followed by its Sydney equivalent, a forward slash separates them. All Sydney-only material and sigla are printed in a sansserif font (the normal font is seriffed). For larger blocks of Melbourne-only or Sydney-only material a vertical line is drawn down the margins and M ONLY or S ONLY is placed in the right margin at the start of the block and at the beginning of any subsequent pages. For variants of punctuation, capitalisation, hyphenation and spelling, M is taken as copy-text and variants in S are recorded in the foot-of-page apparatus.11
11 However, if S corrects an error in M this is accepted and given as source in the apparatus, and the M variant is recorded in the same manner. Emendations noted in the apparatus to the left of the square bracket which are not sourced to M or S are editorial. Material in square brackets is editorial in origin. Other editorial emendations, signalled by a superscript letter, are listed at the foot of the page, with the exception of the declared silent categories.



Figure 2: Page 245, Academy Edition of The House that Jack Built

So, for instance, in Figure 2 (which is p. 245 in the edition), the text is common to both scripts until the sixth line where Jacks name is given as Jack Melbourne in M and Jack Sydney in S, a change picked out via the sigla and slash. Text held in common then resumes. Lines 1213 are in S only: note the change in font. Figure 3 (p. 267) has a
Paul Eggert Version Agency Intention 17

Figure 3: Page 267, Academy Edition of The House that Jack Built

series of S-only or M-only blocks of text, and a stage direction only in M, picked out by the relevant sigla, before and after. Scene IV (in Figure 4) appears only in S and is so marked in the margins. The textual assembly is operating at the level of the version: two versions are simultaneously
18 VARIANTS 4 2005

Figure 4: First page of Scene IV , Academy Edition of The House that Jack Built

displayed and simultaneously readable with very little sense of relegation. The assembly is both text and apparatus. Fotheringham has been able to make some emendations by appeal to performance as his principle of textual authority. He has emended
Paul Eggert Version Agency Intention 19

the title of one of these plays (called Arabin: Or, The Adventures of a Settler). The playbill advertisements carry this title. However, the faircopy manuscript, the copy-text, is entitled Arabin; Or, The Adventures of a Colonist. This latter title derives, as the play does itself, from a novel by Thomas McCombie. But the word Colonist was a contentious one in 1840s Melbourne when both novel and play appeared. It indicated the rich landowning class who were trying to restrict the poorer classes from getting access to good grazing land. The playwright J. R. McLaughlin (or perhaps the theatre proprietor) must have seen danger or a loss of income if the title were not changed to a more anodyne one. Thus the contemporary audiences actually saw a play about a Settler not one about a Colonist: so Fotheringham goes with the social authority of the performance and emends the reading in his copy-text. The same principle partially justies his interventions to provide stage directions when the logic of the stage requires their presence but they are missing or incomplete. For example, a character cannot come on stage if he has not yet left it. This principle of emendation is of course invoked with sensitivity to the workings of the colonial stage, not the stage of today. A German editor might designate these failures of the copy-text as Textfehler; but I see a justication in the need of the modern reader or actor to be able to make sense of the playscript. This is why characters names are conventionally presented in small capitals. It is a visual clue allowing actors to skip quickly ahead to see when their next speech or entrance will occur, and for readers to follow this process. But, like other drama editors, Fotheringham is far more conservative when it comes to emending the dialogue. He is prepared to tolerate all kinds of non-standard usages and misspellings and under-punctuation or eccentric punctuation, at least in relation to the non-printed sources, on the grounds that the manuscripts were the actual material base from which the plays were produced. But when he gets to a nonsensical reading of a particular word or phrase, there are only two choices: either stick with the reading in the copy-text (i.e. documentary authority) or ask the dreaded question of intention: what did the writer intend to write at this point? Appeal to documentary authority leaves the editor stuck with the nonsense. There are occasions when this seems the better alternative,
20 VARIANTS 4 2005

forcing the editor to salvage a possible meaning in an explanatory note, rather than suppressing it via emendation. The copy-texts are messy. But sometimes it seems quite clear what the writer intended to write but only a slip of the pen prevented it. Misnumbered scenes are an obvious example. The misremembering of a characters name is another. In Life in Sydney, for example, Tom has just been praising Miss Jane as Devilish pretty, devilish well educated for an old colonists daughter, and devilish rich in the bargain. Jerry answers Tom: Then I should say youd be a devilish foolish fellow if you didnt marry me.12 This is how the manuscript reads. It is not a suddenly camp moment in the play. Participating in the work, the editor as expert reader detects the problem and comes up with the emendation (marry her). It is obviously what the writer would have written had his attention not strayed. There is another example, in Arabin. The alcoholic and dissolute gentleman-settler Mr Willis has called in Dr Arabin to treat him for his illness. He insists on paying the doctor for his visit. Arabin, who is also a gentleman, declines payment. Willis replies (in the manuscript):
Oh, I must persist, Doctor! I shall not, otherwise, either walk or converse with you. I am not miserably poor, though I have unfortunately lost my health reckoning.13

For a long while we struggled to make sense of this. Could health reckoning, we wondered, be an early nineteenth-century idiom that had since been lost? The OED does not record it. Was it another slip of the pen? If so, for what? The editor and I were both stumped. Working on the rst proofs it suddenly hit me what the problem was. The word reckoning should have been, but is not, underlined in the MS to indicate that it is a stage direction. That is, Mr Willis is reckoning (counting out) his coins to pay Dr Arabin. What follows now made sense:
Come, you must accept of it, or we meet no more. (gives the money)

One could invoke the doctrine of Textfehler and treat the mistake as a temporary failure of a semiotic system; in this way one would be invoking
12 13

Fotheringham (ed.), Australian Plays, p. 75. Ibid., p. 144.

Paul Eggert Version Agency Intention


the authority of the denition of text deriving from Prague structuralism. But why?, when it is abundantly clear that someone an agent, a person: possibly the author or, if not, a copyist wrote a wrong sign, as we all do, whenever we are writing too fast or with our attention wandering. At this level of textual detail appeal to the document (or artefact) as a source of textual authority fails. If instead the emendation is justied as unavoidable because it creates a serious impediment for readers in their understanding of the text, the editor is appealing for recognition of the fact that the edition must serve as a mediation of the original document for present-day readers. But lurking in the background here, actuating the decision to emend even though consciously unaddressed, is an interpretation of intention, of what the writer meant: thus individual agency creeps back onto the editorial stage just when it seemed to have been dispensed with. Editors of plays may invoke the authority of performance, next nd themselves retreating to the authority of the document that underlay the actual performance, only to nd themselves ultimately back where all of this debate started: with intention. That is because, at bottom, documentary or artefactual texts are not self-identical. To be realised, texts need readers; they are inert documents otherwise. The writer, in the case of a manuscript, is continuously his own rst reader. Copyists, typesetters, editors and readers of the rst and later editions participate in the actualisation of text. To ignore this out of loyalty to the German editorial theory of the 1970s, that text is a semiotic system, is not wise. Authorisation as an editorial principle stands on shaky ground, it seems to me, the moment it descends from the level of the version to that of the individual reading. It refuses responsibility for discriminating between the agencies (the author, the copyist, the typesetter) from which the dubious reading results. The German doctrine of authorisation shields editorial attention from a basic truth: that, within the version, textual authority is a mixed one: that is, different individual agents may be responsible for different readings.



III I would like to believe that the Australian editions have beneted from exposure to both the German and Anglo-American methodologies, but are actually beholden to neither. Certainly the editorial theory movement of the 1980s and 1990s gave us some freedom to innovate. Mostly, we do not create eclectic texts: copy-texts are nearly always taken from an existing document whether printed or manuscript or typescript, and emendation is kept to a minimum. The laying out for the reader of the record of revision and correction, whether by the author or, if it is interesting, an editor or publisher, we see as a worthwhile editorial goal. We are interested in presenting what the rst Australian audiences read, and then recording in foot-of-page apparatus what changes were made to the text as it was taken up, usually by London publishers, and then distributed back to Australian readers in this new, often abridged or edited form. We want to dismantle the textual effects caused by the British domination of the colonial book trade. The Montreal serialisation of Robbery Under Arms was just an added and unexpected twist. To edit in a country that has been at the periphery of a print culture centred in London, is to be forced to recognise that literary works, produced under such conditions, cannot be treated editorially as if they existed in an ideal realm of their own as aesthetic objects: one cannot responsibly ignore the textually distorting effects of the imperial marketplace. So far our rationale is acceptably historical, somewhat in the spirit of a historical-critical edition even if neither consciously invoking its rationale nor having the luxury of extra volumes in which to lay out the apparatus. But in our critical edition in the Colonial Texts Series of Catherine Martins novel of 1890, The Silent Sea, the editor Rosemary Foxton went one bold step further.14 This edition attracted some criticism in a review-article written by H. T. M. van Vliet who was otherwise quite positive in his views about ve of the six Australian editions he was simultaneously reviewing. He expressed reservations about this one as he believed he had detected errors, deriving from Greg and Bowers,


(Sydney: University of New South Wales Press, 1995).

Paul Eggert Version Agency Intention


creeping into the editorial method.15 Catherine Martins novel was serialised in a newspaper in her home town, Adelaide, the capital of South Australia, and simultaneously in a Melbourne newspaper. The serialisations ended at roughly the time that Bentley published the three-volume rst edition in London. The printers copy for the two serialisations had been triplicate proofs of the Bentley edition. Martin was in France when she received the proofs and had to work fast to meet deadlines. She sent one set to Melbourne either unrevised or very little revised; she revised the second set for Adelaide, and then, in a separate act of revision, revised the third set for Bentley. The manuscript from which the proofs were set is not extant, nor is any copy of the proofs. Collation of the Melbourne, Adelaide and Bentley typesettings established the scenario I have described. That is, whenever there was a revision in Adelaide, it nearly always had a corresponding one in Bentley but was often further developed; and Bentley has many revisions not present in Adelaide. The Melbourne text never participates in the process and retains errors and nonsenses that both Adelaide and Bentley correct. The edition aimed to lay out for the reader the trail of authorial revision. Ideally we would have chosen the manuscript as copy-text; failing that, the proofs, but all are lost. Fredson Bowers had argued in the 1970s that whenever one has radiating texts that is, two or more new typesettings all set from a common, lost ancestor it is theoretically possible to reconstruct the text of that ancestor. He was working with the stories of Stephen Crane whose manuscripts were typically sold to a syndicating agency which set them up in type and often sold proofs (rather than plates) to many newspapers, who in turn completely reset the proofs for publication. Bowers argued that an editor can always go one step behind extant typesettings that radiate from a common ancestor, but not two steps.16
15 16

In editio 16 (2002), 16981.

Fredson Bowers, Multiple Authority: New Problems and Concepts of Copy-Text The Library, 5th ser., 27 (1972), 81115. See further my Dealings with the Firm of Greg and Bowers: A Personal Tribute to, and a Reconsideration of, the Work of Fredson Bowers, 19051991 Bibliographical Society of Australia and New Zealand Bulletin, 15 (1991), 7388.



Foxtons work conrmed Bowerss argument. There was no way to retrieve the text of the manuscript, but the text of the lost proofs was retrievable. Since the Melbourne serialisation had not been revised (or, if so, very little revised), its wordings were those of the proofs (or as close as we could get to them); but the accidentals in Melbourne had been housestyled and so could not be used for the purpose. The accidentals in Adelaide were also the result of a typesetting subsequent to that of the Bentley, plus the Adelaide substantives had been altered by authorial revision. However, the accidentals of the Bentley rst edition could be assumed to be the same as those of the proofs since they were the same typesetting, but the Bentley substantives had been altered, even more than Adelaide, by a second round of authorial revision. None of this could be established with one hundred percent accuracy, but the tendency of the evidence was overwhelming. So which version should be chosen for the reading text and which should be recorded at foot of page? Van Vliet argued that we should have chosen one of the extant versions and recorded the other two.17 It is true that one hundred percent accuracy could have been achieved in representing the text of an extant document, although there would have been perhaps two hundred or more emendations of outright error no matter which version we chose. But that would have confused matters for the reader who was hoping to use the apparatus to follow the trail of authorial revision. Some of the revisions for Adelaide, Martins home town, seem to have been made so as not to offend local sensitivities. But that was not the imperative for the Bentley revisions. Yet all versions of this text are a manifestation of the life of the work such as I was postulating in 1992. We chose to assemble for readers an agented and chronological series of textual decisions. The clearest way to do so was to reconstruct the text of the lost proofs by eclectically combining the wording of the Melbourne typesetting with the accidentals of the Bentley rst edition.
17 Van Vliet felt that the Adelaide (or Melbourne) version might serve best as reading text because more likely to preserve the authors, or at least Australian, habits of idiomatic expression. However, the collations show little or no evidence of Martin revising proofs with this purpose in mind for Adelaide, and she did not revise for Melbourne. In both cases, the Australian typesetters were working from a British typesetting.

Paul Eggert Version Agency Intention


Foxton created as nearly as possible the text of the lost proofs. At foot of page she was now able to lay out for readers the separate stages of authorial revision for Adelaide and the Bentley edition that the author undertook. To create an eclectic text, in the Anglo-American tradition is generally to desert the authority of the document or artefact in the name of an intended text. In our case, the editor recreated the text of a document that happened no longer to be extant. And she did it by the application of copy-text editing principles. So our reading text is not established as a text of nal authorial intention in the Greg-Bowers manner. Rather it is a text of the earliest stage of authorial intention that can be retrieved. A number of conclusions emerge from this discussion: 1. When we want to understand works down to and including the level of textual detail we need to know whose lives have shaped them, and how they have. Works, in other words, are always agented and they are dynamic. To assume that it is sufcient to treat texts editorially as a structure of semiotic relationships, the denition of text underlying German historisch-kritisch Editionen, allows one to be rigorous but it may not throw light on what is actually there. 2. Appeal to the artefact and to the text inscribed in it does not necessarily provide rm historical grounding. It delays and may disguise the underlying and (from the readers point of view) more fundamental question of agency. 3. If readers may be said to participate in the life of the work that is, my expanded denition of 1992, now reinforced by the book-historical dimension they cannot be deemed irrelevant to the scholarly edition either. That is, the needs of readers are a defensible source of textual authority. Naturally, appeal to this authority competes with appeals to the historical grounding of the document or artefact and with appeals to intention. 4. Editors should not be afraid of creating eclectic texts. We should create them if and only if they serve a good purpose. Recreating the text of a lost artefact (as in the case of the proofs of The Silent Sea) is, I believe, one such good purpose. Scholarly
26 VARIANTS 4 2005

editions exist to preserve the textual record accurately, but also to stimulate readers: they are there to keep study of the work alive. They should not be only museum pieces. 5. Each successive movement brings its own blindspots: the marriage of the new editorial theory and book history will in due course need to have its wedding vows inspected too.

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Practical Editions of Literary Texts

Peter L. Shillingsburg

The Problem A schizophrenia in literary scholarship dividing scholars between their research and their pedagogical commitments has been long identied as an occupational, apparently, incurable disease. Interestingly, indications that this disease disables careers and weakens teaching programs are countered by celebrations of the healthy sharing of original research with disciples in the classroom. Grants for student-conducted research as a teaching strategy support the latter view, while jazzing up courses and dumbing down scholarship for the classroom stand witness to the former. One manifestation of this division, damaging to both research and pedagogy, is found in frequent separation of textual criticism from literary criticism: the former usually associated with Dr. Dryasdust, Mr. Pedant, and Dr. Syntax; the latter associated variously with important social insights, politically charged criticism, empyrean heights of fancy, elegant articulation of the mysteries of art, or communion with the muses of art and theory. Neither of these constructions withstands close scrutiny, though cases of impacted narrowness among textual critics and of ideological biases or frivolous ights of fancy among literary critics can be found to support them. One palpable detrimental result of the rift between textual and literary criticism manifests itself in editions of literary textsthe basic tools of both research and pedagogy. Scholarly editions in magisterial tomes that few people use stand in monumental contrast to textually naive and misleading texts used everywhere in classrooms where ignorance and misinformation about textuality pass unnoticed and, worse, where the critical insights and interpretive nuance enabled by textual criticism remain hiddenin fact, are not believed to exist. This problem has been noted and discussed before. Fredson Bowers put the case very clearly in two early 1960s essays designed to provide

rapprochement between classroom needs and pure research.1 About the same time ery essays by Bruce Harkness2 and a series of reviews of paperback editions orchestrated by Joseph Katz3 lamented the problem and suggested ways to address it. The other side of the argument, represented by writers such as Lewis Mumford, Edmund Wilson, and Peter Shaw,4 exercised their righteous indignation against the ponderous, slow, pretentious, and excessively expensive scholarly editions of the day. Since those days, when editorial pursuit of authorial nal intentions and New Criticism were at their peaks, dramatic revolutions have restructured both textual criticism and literary criticism. Where textual criticism had pursued a desire to prepare the best possible, most reliable text for use by critics and students alike, it now generally denies that there can be a single best text or that one text could or should be established as more reliable than the rest, because multiple texts of the same work vie, each in its own right, for attention and interpretation. More dramatically, where once the linguistic text, as a verbal artefact, fully represented the work, the cultural and material work commands equal attention. Similarly, where literary criticism had focused on the aesthetics of the well-wrought work, for which, presumably a well-wrought edition was essential, it casts a broader eye on cultural studies and nds in discourse analysis and reader response greater and more immediate importance than in elusive authorial intention or, apparently, faithfulness
1 Fredson Bowers, Established Texts and Denitive Editions, Philological Quarterly , 41 (1962), 117; and Practical Texts and Denitive Editions, in Two Lectures on Editing: Shakespeare and Hawthorne (Columbus: Ohio State UP, 1962). 2 Bruce Harkness, Bibliography and the Novelistic Fallacy Studies in Bibliography 12 (1958): 5973; and a review of the Clarendon Jane Eyre, in Nineteenth Century Fiction 25 (1970), 9197 [see also the response from Ian Jack and Margaret Smith a few issues later]. 3 Under the heading Practical Editions Katz and a number of other scholars undertook to evaluate the currently available paperbacks of given titles. The series appeared in Proof (19701973) vols. 13. 4 Lewis Mumford, Emerson Behind Barbed Wire, New York Review of Books 19 January 1968, 35; Edmund Wilson, The Fruits of the MLA NYRB , 26 September 1968, 710; and 10 October 1968, 614. The sharply rational responses to these criticisms are found in the CEAAs pamphlet, Professional Standards and American Editions (New York: MLA, 1969). Peter Shaw, The American Heritage and Its Guardians, American Scholar 45 [197576], 73351.



to originalsa phrase suggesting nave positivism. Such easy generalizations are, of course, not to be credited, for the real changes have been far more complex and nuanced than such a summary suggests. But one would think that such deep and signicant developments in our conceptions of what constitutes textuality and in how texts are used would have had an effect on the production of both scholarly and classroom editions. Indeed, in both arenas, great changes have evolved. Yet, one thing remains constant: an unclosed gap between knowledge about textual histories and the interpretive insights of textual criticism on one side and classroom pedagogy and literary criticism on the other. Some signicant efforts have actually been made to bridge both the theoretical and practical divisions between textual critics and literary critics. Fredson Bowerss Textual and Literary Criticism (1959) put the case from one side, asking that the views of textual critics concerning the interpretive enterprise be acknowledged by literary critics. Herschel Parkers Flawed Texts and Verbal Icons (1983) presented the case from an interpretive critics point of view, but he managed to alienate both sides of the debate, telling textual critics that they had been pursuing the wrong goal and telling literary critics that adventitious readings plagued their work. There was more than a little truth in Parkers remarks on both sides, but his work failed to reconcile the disparity of views. More important have been the efforts by Jerome J. McGann, begun with the publication of A Critique of Modern Textual Criticism (1983) and Textual Studies and Interpretation (1984). In conference papers and subsequent books, like The Textual Condition (1991) and Black Riders (1993), he has demonstrated over and over that interpretation of texts is weakened when it is conceived as an activity coming after textual criticism has been completed, presenting for literary critics uncluttered, complete and perfect well-wrought urns. He demonstrates repeatedly that, instead, interpretation of a work is strengthened by grappling with its indeterminate, messy, multiple, historical texts, the products of events and forces that leave their signicant markings in texts and which complicate and enrich and destabilize interpretation. Even the most exciting recent developments in textual criticism, the recognition of the importance of the bibliographic codethe body
Peter L. Shillingsburg Practical Editions of Literary Texts 31

language of bookshas failed to make much of a dent in the traditions of classroom text publication. Among the most compelling presentations of this approach are works by Marta Werner, Nicholas Frankel, and George Bornstein, showing spectacularly that bibliography, book history and textual criticism enrich interpretive criticism.5 Nevertheless, anthologies of poetry, in particular, seem dedicated to the notion that poems exist essentially apart from their originating contexts or material appearances; for, by presenting all poems in a homogenized type font, they deny each poems body language. And yet these insights should have made a differencethough such a statement merely repeats what has been said for fty years. There must be a different thing to say or a different way to say that textual scholars know fantastic textual facts with clear interpretive consequences. Such material is, unfortunately, normally hidden away in expensive and complexly designed scholarly editions. Why does this critical material systematically fail to nd its way into classroom texts? Or when it does nd its way there, why is it truncated, misleading and off-putting? A few examples will demonstrate the critical value of textual information and show the disappearing act in classroom editions. A. S. Byatts Possession An examination of the relation between the art of the physical book in relation to the art of the verbal construct it contains leads to demonstrations of the semiotic complexity of the book as artefact. The book concerns us as art in two senses (as a material art object or, at least, a crafts object and as a lexical art object or sign object). These aspects of texts affect us both as readers of literary works and as interpreters of social and cultural histories. Literary works index social and idiolect networks or communities both by their physical attributes as well as by their literary qualities. These propositions can be demonstrated by A. S. Byatts best seller of 1992, Possession: A Romance. Its cover design imitates the covers of popular romance ction, making the book t in comfortMarta L. Werner, Emily Dickinsons Open Folios: Scenes of Reading, Surfaces of Writing (U Michigan P, 1996); Nicholas Frankel, Oscar Wildes Decorated Books (U Michigan P, 2000); and the very readable and persuasive book by George Bornstein, Material Modernism (Cambridge UP, 2002).



British Paperback

US Paperback

British Hardback

US Hardback

Peter L. Shillingsburg Practical Editions of Literary Texts


ably with the writings of Ann Rice and perhaps even Barbara Cartland as a marketed object.6 As a material object, the book resembles romance writings both for its subtitle (A Romance) and its covers, appealing by its appearance, its title, and its subtitle to a low-brow reading public. Literate audiences will at least initially disagree with this proposition because, even if they were not able to name the cover image, it evokes a Pre-Raphaelite style with a high-brow cultural and literary history. But imagine, if possible, readers unschooled in art and literary history but avid readers of romances by writers like Kathleen Woodiwiss, who might see in this image no more than a vaguely antique but arresting love story. In making this marketing ploy, Byatt and her publisher were not necessarily exploiting a gullible book-buying public, passing off a literary work of high-brow art as something that it was not. The book has most if not all of the formulae for romances as essential constitutive parts. But this Romance has led most readers to see it as a satire of the romance genre while at the same time being a very entertaining example of that type of ction. I do not believe that many people looking for another romance to feed a habit formed by reading Ann Rice, Barbara Cartland, Kathleen Woodiwiss, Sydney Sheldon, and Danielle Steele would have been terribly disappointed or have felt betrayed, for most them seem to have enjoyed the mild send-up of the genre. Perhaps one reason for that reaction is that high-brow tastes are in for the same comic treatment; for Possession, while providing somewhat tongue in check homage to the po6 The pictures are from an excellent article by Helge Nowak A.S. Byatts Possession for British and for American Readers( accessed 27/9/04) on the relation between the lexical and bibliographical codes of Byatts Possession. Nowak traces the differences between the British and American editions and Byatts negative reactions to the American changes. I do not repeat any of Nowaks points, and I recommend her article as a comprehensive discussion of the topic.



etry and love lives of Robert and Elizabeth Browning, is also a hilarious send up of scholarly and fanzine Browning groupies. That is to say, if the book provides a biting or covertly nasty depiction of anything, it is not of romances and romance readers but rather of the silly foibles and small-minded inghting and greed of run-of-the-mill academics. While appealing in these ways to the romance-buying readers, Possession appealed in a very different way to those who recognized the cover picture as a detail from Sir Edward Burne-Jones painting The Beguiling of Merlin with its high-culture traditions and its extensive implications in the art world, the world of myth, and the democratising socialism of William Morris, for whose tapestry, wall-paper, and print works Burne-Jones provided so many drawings. It does not seem to be a stretch to suggest that, at least for those who knew its connections to Morriss social agenda, the cover art invokes specically the democratisation of higher education in England, which brought into academic scholarship and the pursuit of nineteenth-century poetry characters from families with no tradition of scholarship or appreciation for art and who accepted jobs in libraries and provincial universities not so much as a calling or even an avocation but just to make ends meet (Lucky Jim springs to mind). One might imagine these neophyte academics as having come from the ranks of readers who love escape literaturea label often placed on romances. And it would be plausible to elaborate the ironic play between the high culture of poetry and the culture of money which the American academy has been able to throw at research projects devoted to poetry like that of the ctional Randolph Ash and which puts into high relief Professor Croppers greed and self-love and self-promotion. These lines of thought converge on a reading of the closing scene of the book, which brings the rival scholars together on a very stormy night in a graveyard digging in the grave of the dead poet to nd the lost letters and manuscripts buried there. Whatever our imagined unlettered romance reader might make of it, scholars have enjoyed the very satisfying, though standard, romance scene in which a violent gothic wind uproots an ancient tree and brings it crashing down on Professor Croppers Mercedes Benz, thwarting his get-away and exposing his attempted theft. Knowledgeable readers no doubt contemplate the implications of
Peter L. Shillingsburg Practical Editions of Literary Texts 35

this literal disinterring of the author in the light of literary theory proclaiming the death of the author. Possession is not yet often taught in the classroom, but that does not keep this example from demonstrating what would happen if it were subjected to or when it gets subjected to classroom textication and its covers and its complex textual history, revealed by Helge Nowak, become homogenized and ignored. Classroom texts seldom enable a belief in the fruitfulness of seeing the book as artefact and the rich interplay of the lexical and bibliographical codes. W. M. Thackerays Vanity Fair Another example, one in which speculation plays little or no role, demonstrates the interpretive importance of textual information that somehow disappears from classroom texts. William Makepeace Thackerays Vanity Fair, to judge by the number of paperback editions now available (there were twelve in May 2004) is frequently used in classrooms. Its history is well-known to scholars and there are two quite good paperbacks in print: John Sutherlands Oxford Classics edition, based on George Saintsburys Oxford edition of 1908, and my own Norton Critical Edition, based on the manuscript and rst edition. But these are exceptions. The yellow front covers of the individual serial instalments of Vanity Fair show a clown on a barrel somewhere between Hyde Park and Trafalgar Square preaching to an assembled group of other clowns. Emphasizing the fact that the illustrations for Vanity Fair were drawn by the author himself, we can hardly escape the notion that the illustrated group represents a sardonic but not completely untrue picture of himself as author and us as readers, clowns all of us with a strong tendency to take ourselves seriously. This illustration has been commented on extensively by many writers who connect its images to references in the novel to clowns and puppets and fools and performersactors all, pretending to be what they are not in factas what else could one expect in a book titled Vanity Fair and purporting to be a faithful representation of the Vanity Fair that was London. Which of us is not an actor? However, the newest paperback edition of Vanity Fair, the Penguin Classic, edited, introduced, and annotated by John Carey in 2001, is
36 VARIANTS 4 2005

a powerful witness to the gap between textual and literary critics. Put briey, this edition misrepresents the text, provides misinformation about the textual history, and misinforms readers about the editorial procedure. These matters affect every reader of the edition. Carey lists my own scholarly edition of Vanity Fair (New York: Garland, 1991) in his bibliography, but does not otherwise say whether he collated the manuscript and the rst and revised editions himself or relied upon the variants listed in that edition. My scholarly edition reproduces
Peter L. Shillingsburg Practical Editions of Literary Texts 37

the text of the rst serial printing, corrected from the manuscript and from later printings of the rst edition, and lists all Thackerays revisions. And that edition includes all 200 or so illustrations Thackeray drew for the novel. The Penguin edition, by contrast, notes that in 1853, ve years after the completion of the serialization, Thackeray was content to have the book published without the illustrations.7 Carey gives this as one of several reasons to reproduce that unillustrated edition, though Penguin does reproduce, on the page facing the claim to be reproducing the unillustrated edition, the illustrated title-page used in both the serial and rst book edition. The argument for omitting Thackerays drawings is weakened, I believe, both by lack of historical information and by misinformation. Although Jerome McGann is not a Thackerayan scholar, he does draw on the work of Gordon Ray, who was one of the best, in order to give a counter opinion of the matter:
From a scholarly point of view, it would be difcult to justify an edition of Thackeray[s Vanity Fair ] that omits the illustrative matter handled at the documentary level of the work. For the novel is not merely one of the best illustrated books in the world, it is also an important experiment in composite form as much as Edward Lears Book of Nonsense (1846)8 as much, indeed, as the more famous composite art of William Blake. Indeed, Thackeray explicitly calls attention to his own composite art in the subtitle of his novel: Pen (i.e., linguistic) and Pencil (i.e., graphic) Sketches of English Society.9

McGanns statement is not without its problems, too. In fairness to the Penguin editor it should be noted that Pen and Pencil Sketches of English Society serves as the subtitle of the work only in the 20part serial, where, in fact, those words appear only on the title-page
7 Carey does not document a source for believing Thackeray was content with this decision other than the fact that the edition was printed. There is a note in the publishers records saying a copy of the rst edition was given to Thackeray for editing in preparation for the cheap edition, and Thackeray did not turn down his prot share in the venture. Carey might have, but did not, refer to this information. It remains unclear what Thackeray actually thought or felt about the project. It was called the Cheap Edition, which might suggest an opinion of its literary value as well as of its market value. 8 Gordon N. Ray, The Illustrator and the Book in England from 1790 to 1914 (New York and Oxford: The Pierpont Morgan Library and Oxford UP, 1976), xxxix [McGanns note]. 9

The Textual Condition (Princeton: Princeton UP, 1991), 80.



printed on the yellow parts-wrappers. On the actual title page and in the running heads the subtitle is changed to A Novel Without a Hero. By 1853, the date of the edition claimed as the copy-text for the Penguin, the earlier subtitle calling attention to the illustrations is nowhere to be found. No doubt it was also missing from the edition the Penguin editor actually used as copy-text; for, a different copy-text was in fact used. Furthermore, to be accurate, McGanns and Rays remarks, by referring only to the rst, illustrated, edition fail to take up the question of what to do with the equally documentary fact of the 1853 unillustrated edition. But well-known and highly respected opinions such as theirs about the qualities and functions of the illustrations should have led the Penguin editor to re-examine carefully the forces that drove the 1853 edition; for, the mere existence of an unillustrated edition does not demonstrate that Thackeray or anyone else involved considered it an artistic advance or the fullment of a progressive goal for the novel, regardless of how contented they may have been to allow the book to be published so. Instead of re-examining the circumstances of the production of the 1853 edition, the editor justies the omission of the illustrations from the Penguin edition and, by implication, from the 1853 edition with the opinion that the drawings never approach the degree of mastery displayed by Thackerays writing. Carey nds the illustrations occasionally embarrassingly bad. He gives this opinion as the strongest reason to omit the illustrations, regardless of McGanns, Rays, and others opposite opinions of both their quality and function. Carey of course has a right to his opinion, but disappointingly he asks users of his edition to believe there is only one received or reasonable opinion. Already this edition makes serious choices for readers about how to read the novel without letting them know what alternatives might exist or that other scholars nd them more attractive. Another reason the editor gives for omitting the illustrations from Penguin is that Thackerays view of some characters changed as the book progressed, rendering some of the early illustrations inappropriateDobbin, for example, is too clumsy or awkward at the beginning of the book to square easily with his portrayal as the only real gentleman in the book by the end. This point is not argued. The editor does not say
Peter L. Shillingsburg Practical Editions of Literary Texts 39

how Thackeray, at the same time that he was writing the rst third of the book and producing the awkward drawings of Dobbin, could have written a letter to his mother in which he already declares Dobbin to be the only truly admirable charactera letter that suggests Thackerays plan for Dobbins role in the book did not in fact change but rather that Dobbin developed as planned.10 A third reason, one which Carey does not give though I believe it would have strengthened his case, is that, since the text he chose to reproduce was unillustrated, it should remain so both because it would thus be true to its origins and because the text of the unillustrated version was revised to remove references to the illustrationsanother fact not mentioned in Penguin. In the end, the Penguin edition demonstrates, without explanation, that the editors goal in making editorial decisions was to represent Vanity Fair as he wished to see it, as a retouched aesthetic object without regard to the work as a historical artefact or a historical textual version. Unfortunately, as with so many classroom editions, the editor is ambivalent and unclear in his statements about the edition he is trying to represent. He gives historical justications for some decisions and aesthetic ones for others. He is not the rst confused and confusing editor of Vanity Fair, but the unfortunate result is that readers are particularly at the mercy of the views of an editor who fails to give pertinent information that would qualify his editorial decisions. The Penguin editor does not even suggest that other approaches might be possible or fruitful, let alone better. So much for the illustrations. In textual matters the Penguin editor makes it appear that he examined carefully the textual differences between the manuscript, the rst edition and the cheap edition. He dutifully and in traditional scholarly fashion lists emendations, indicating which emendations represent restorations of the manuscript, which restore the rst edition and which are made on the editors own apparently unaided critical judgment. The emendations he draws from the manuscript and from the rst edition are all required because errors were introduced during production of the 1853 edition and survived in the
10 Letter to Mrs. Carmichael-Smyth, 2 July 1847. Letters and Private Papers of William Makepeace Thackeray, ed. Gordon Ray, II, (Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1945), 309.



edition that Carey used as his base text. One acute emendation Carey introduces regularizes the name of Ensign Stubble, which is rendered inconsistently in the manuscript and in every other edition, including the two I edited. However, all but three of the other Penguin emendations, made without support from the MS or 1848 (p. 866), had coincidentally already been made and recorded both in the 1991 Garland scholarly edition (cited in the Penguin editions bibliography) as well as in the 1993 Norton Critical Edition. One rather famous emendation that Carey and I both adopt without support was in fact rst made by George Saintsbury for the 1908 Oxford edition (p. 187.18: respected for repeatedin the phrase: the auctioneer repeated his discomposure). The two emendations that Carey makes that I did not make, I had mentioned as possible emendations in the textual notes in my edition, where I explained why I declined to emend and, on reconsideration, would still decline to emend (p. 412.18: towers for towns and p. 591.9: Sir for Mr). Carey does not mention these earlier occurrences of his original emendations. For uninformed readers, the Penguin edition furthers the impression of textual responsibility and acumen by pointing out two or three of Thackerays revisionsi.e., places in the text that do not require editorial intervention but where revision shows the author at work. Regrettably, the Penguin editor manages to misreport the most important revision as the deletion of a sentence rather than the substitution of one sentence for another.11 Moreover, readers are not told that these two or three revisions are selected from among hundreds of revisions nor that textually the unillustrated version was systematically revised from its rst published form so that it no longer referred to the illustrations. For example, in the serial and rst edition, the narrator says: But my kind reader will
11 The manuscript says: Ill-natured persons, however, say that Rebecca was born before the celebration of her excellent parents union. The rst edition says, instead, And curious it is, that as she advanced in life, this young ladys ancestors increased in rank and splendour. That is, Thackeray substituted a marginally morally acceptable statement for a marginally morally unacceptable one. John Carey leads readers of the Penguin edition to believe that the manuscript just had an extra sentence, which was wisely cut because it was a pompous irony. Of course, Carey may himself have thought the deleted sentence was a pompous irony, but he can have no knowledge of why it was cut, and he seems not to know that it was cut only when the new sentence about the advancing nobility of Beckys ancestors was added.

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please to remember that these histories in their gaudy yellow covers, (an accurate portrait of your humble servant) professes to wear neither gown nor bands, but only the very same long-eared livery, in which his congregation is arrayed. This sentence appears nowhere in Careys edition, and, to be fair, neither does the illustration to which it refers. Yet it could be argued that this sentence is a crucial clue to readers about how to evaluate the voice of the intruding narrator and about how to picture him to themselvesa comic stage presence in costume, capable of, but not necessarily always, telling the truth. The clown contemplating himself in a cracked mirror in the one illustration the Penguin does reproduce is, arguably, the same one holding forth on the cover. Deprived as they are of the cover art and of the sentence referring to it, might readers still be able to recover the lost idea from this one reproduced illustration? At the least, an edition that purports to have a scholarly base and which is designed and marketed as a study edition could be expected to include such signicant information. The real shocker, however, showing a nearly criminal navet about textual criticism and the basic responsibilities of editing, is that Carey misrepresents what he has done as an editor. The Note on the Text says plainly enough: The present edition follows the text of the rst cheap edition, revised by Thackeray and published in 1853. That is not so. The text reproduced in the Penguin edition is based on the same text used in the previous Penguin edition, which in turn was based on some unknown late reprint that is riddled with errorserrors of which Carey shows himself completely unaware. For example, in Chapter 10, Becky gives her advice as to the trees which were to be lopped in the shrubberies, the garden-beds to be dug, the crops which were to be cut, and so on. All editions in Thackerays lifetime, including the 1853, say garden-beds to be dug; Careys edition says, garden beds to bed upso did the previous, unemended Penguin edition, and so do two other cheaply produced modern paperbacks (Everyman and Pan). Somewhere in the multiple textual transmittals of the novel down through the years the corruption was introduced, and Carey preserves it.



I have not yet found the edition in which this error was rst introduced, but it is not to be found in the 1853 edition nor in the multiple reprints of that edition up through 1864, by which time Thackeray was dead. If one were to speculate about this error, it is not difcult to imagine that in some unauthoritative posthumous edition the spacer in be dug dropped out and the d of dug drifted over next to be so that the phrase appeared to say garden-beds to bed ug. An editor, basing his own new text on that unauthoritative text, might have xed that in the easiest possible way, by changing bed ug to bed up rather than by restoring be dug. Who knows when the hyphen in garden-beds was removed. Carey did not himself introduce either misreading, but he failed to detect and correct them. But why bother having to detect and correct errors in unauthoritative editions. Why not just go back to the text announced, the actual 1853 edition, and start there? Thackeray was not so sloppy a writer as to allow two forms of the same word to show up that close to one another. Many of his manuscript revisions eliminate such echoes. Had the Penguin editor actually done what he said he didfollow the 1853 editionthese errors would not have marred the edition. The Penguin edition of Vanity Fair, though undoubtedly itself now an historical artefact, in fact distorts the history of the text, chooses a copy-text of unknown provenance, and emends it to create a new neverbefore-seen text of the novel with some misinformation offered and a great deal of information missing. A little information about textual histories, especially when some of it is incorrect information, is not necessarily better than a total absence of pretence to give such information. In fact this editor has simply followed common practice in the production of practical editions: providing quasi-scholarly and quasi-aesthetic rationales for producing a cheap edition cheaplyafter all, who will notice? Given this practice, is it possible that the editor or his publisher actually believe that serious or accurate textual scholarship is necessary in a classroom? And yet, for all that, Careys critical introduction to the novel is otherwise accurate, sympathetic, insightful, and well-written. I will return to the problem of good criticism written by those who do not take the
Peter L. Shillingsburg Practical Editions of Literary Texts 43

time to sort out textual histories completely or accurately. Understanding this phenomenon is part of understanding the schizophrenia between research and pedagogy. Argument I It remains to be shown that the basic principles of textuality, a texts sources, its formats, its contexts, its histories, its textual variants, and its proofread accuracy are matters of concern or importance, not only for basic research and the high and narrow investigations of textual historians but for critics generally and for students at the beginning of their literary studies. I will begin with textual accuracy, for in the minds of most scholars, it stands as paramount, but in the practice of classroom text editions it gets scant attention. In the autumn of 2003 many persons received and forwarded a series of emails relating to an alleged study at Cambridge about the effect of scrambled orthography in the message displayed here.
Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosnt mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be at the rghit pclae. The rset can be a toatl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe.

Many thought it a good joke and passed it on to email friends for a laugh. A few thought it might have serious implications to do with dyslexia. One or two tried to trace the study and found that although there was no such study done at Cambridge, there had been a dissertation done at Nottingham University in 1976 on the subject of scrambled words on reading.12 Journalists wrote in to say wisely that yes, the ease with which the human mind corrects such errors is a common and unhappy experience in proofreading. There are bulletin boards where one can trace these discussions.13 To me the whole event struck like a bucket of ice water poured down my neck because as a textual critic much of my lifes work has been
12 Rawlinson, G. E. (1976) The signicance of letter position in word recognition. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Psychology Department, University of Nottingham, Nottingham UK. 13



dedicated to the notion that accuracy matters, that editing is not only the process of ensuring that typos are eliminated but that the precise words and the precise forms of the words in spelling, punctuation, fonts and so forth be preserved or restored as a necessary preliminary and adjunct to serious scholarly interpretation. I remember once being scandalized by a conference speaker who predicted that the holding capacity for new hard disks would in ten years time make it possible to store transcripts of the contents of whole libraries on one disk. When I asked who would vouch for the accuracy of such texts, I was told that we would just have to learn to put up with noise in the result. Looking at this rather obvious display of the fact that we can put up with quite a lot of noise made me think again about the basic assumptions of my profession. It made me want to re-examine the premises for scholarly editing. It made me think that in close communities of intellectual interest, such as that represented by textual critics and scholarly editorsa group to which I belongthere might be certain basic ideas that go rather a long time without examination because the in-group all agree and therefore can take these things for granted. Of course it is normal in any eld of knowledge for research to lead to conclusions that will form the foundation of further work. But it is also a well-known phenomenon that the foundations of any profession need from time to time to be re-examined and that its accepted practices and methodologies be reviewed. This email made me begin to wonder if it was not time for a review of foundations. Such a review will require that many persons think about and discuss the subject, but I can make some suggestions about such a possible review. And the process will shed light on the schizophrenia affecting literary text production, though it will not offer a cure. I began by trying to think about the orthographic phenomenon illustrated in the email. The rules of that game are that rst and last letters must remain the same and that no letters be left out or added. That means immediately that all one-letter, two-letter and three-letter words must remain spelled correctly. It means that four-letter words can only swap the two internal letters in one way. Thus, most words in most prose would be unaffected. But then I ran into the following three examples:
Peter L. Shillingsburg Practical Editions of Literary Texts 45

1. A vheclie epxledod at a plocie cehckipont near the UN haduqertares in Bagahdd on Mnoday kilinlg the bmober and an Irqai polcie offceir 2. Big ccunoil tax ineesacrs tihs yaer hvae seezueqd the inmcoes of mnay pneosenirs 3. A dootcr has aimttded the magltheuansr of a tageene ceacnr pintaet who deid aetfr a hatospil durg blendur The person who presented these examples (on ( and following) noted that each sentence is progressively harder to read. In part it is because of the increased length and increased technicality of the words in sentence three. In part it is because longer words allow moving letters further from their original position. And in part it is because single sounds represented by combinations of letters such as th, sh, ch, and by double letters like ee, oo, tt, ss, pp, and by multiple letters like augh, ough, and eaux can be split up or adventitiously created in the new scramble. Further reection on the implications of these examples to textual criticism brings up one more very important consideration: that when errors or inadvertent or malicious or benignly intended alterations enter the text of a literary work in the real world of book production, nobody abides by the rules of this demonstration. The results range from the introduction of irresolvable bits of nonsense to the substitution of utterly plausible wordsa substitution that usually passes under the radar screen of the most attentive readers. And yet, even this initial cursory analysis begins to do two interesting things, I think. First, it makes one look again, and from a different perspective, at one of the propositions that undergird textual criticism: the importance of textual accuracy. And second, it begins to reinstate a view that initially I thought was threatened by the rst shocking example of how easily one reads scrambled texts. That view holds that a careful analysis of texts, of the ambiguity of potential errors, and an understanding of how people process texts is what textual criticism is about. The point of textual criticism is NOT to get the text right and accurate; it is to examine the history of texts for all their clues and evidence
46 VARIANTS 4 2005

in order to get a solid view of how they were created, deployed, manipulated, and appropriated so that we can better understand the history and signicances of our books. Textual criticism is not the same as copy-editing to detect and correct typos and grammatical errors, nor is it the same as commercial editing to make texts more attractive or readable. Nor is it to be content with the publication of a text in one way because some author at some point either declared herself to be contentas Charlotte Bronte famously did when she thanked her publisher George Smith for taking care of her punctuation in Jane Eyreor failed to declare himself either content or not contentas Thackeray failed to do concerning the unillustrated edition of Vanity Fair. Textual criticism is not about settling on a text and forgetting that it has an artefactual history with both material and semiotic dimensions. It is about understanding the textual condition and the particular ways in which individual editions and printings and even individual copies of books index their own histories and the networks of social, political, and economic conditions surrounding their creation and distribution. Argument II A second approach to whether basic principles of textuality are important to the serious reading of literary texts addresses the roles of revision, of provenance of texts, and of contexts. I am distinguishing here between reading for pleasure by sophisticated readers, whose enjoyment of reading is perhaps enhanced by their performance of the highwire act of reading richly and thickly out of the wealth of their personal skill and knowledge as readersI say am distinguishing that kind of experience from the experiences of student readers confronting literary texts seriously (not primarily as a form of entertainment, though students frequently enjoy the texts they study) as intense engagements undertaken in part in order to learn how to experience an intense engagement with literary works and in part to engage a particular text intensely. How do students do that, how could they do it, and how should they do it? In some form these are questions editors should be asking as they prepare their editions. Unfortunately many instead ask, how have
Peter L. Shillingsburg Practical Editions of Literary Texts 47

these editions been done before? what are the series guidelines for this volume? One gets the feeling that parts of the classroom edition are done proforma without serious attention to design or usefulness in the presentation of their work. Biographical information is given because that is normal, not because the information about the writers life seems to affect in important ways how one understands the text of the work. Textual information is given in ways that invite readers to skip and with no attempt to indicate in what way that information might be important to the readers notion of what the text says or which available alternative text is being presented. Explanatory notes are given as minimal identication of places or names or sources for literary allusions. In this area particularly editors seem loath to indicate the signicance of materials identied in the notesperhaps because there is always a reviewer ready to declare that no note was required and further explanation de trope. My favorite example of the use of textual information to help readers determine how to read the nally accepted text is from Vanity Fair.14 It helps us deal intelligently with the question of how Thackeray uses the commenting narrator in the book when the following information is withheld? When Sir Pitt, in Chapter X, tells his son, Pitt, not to preachify while Miss Crawley, the wealthy spinster aunt, is visiting, the rst version in the manuscript reads:
Why, hang it, Pitt, said the father to his remonstrance. You wouldnt be such a at15 as to let three thousand a year go out of the family? What is money compared to our souls, Sir? continued Crawley who knew he was not to inherit a shilling of his aunts money. [italics added]

The last phrase, in the narrators voice, who knew he was not to inherit a shilling of his aunts money was cancelled. The accusation instead becomes Sir Pitts, who says: You mean that the old lady wont leave the money to you. However, after the fathers retort, the
14 I used this example in William Makepeace Thackeray: A Literary Life (Palgrave 2001), and in ManuscriptVariantGenese, ed. Edward Vanhoutte. 15

The word at replaced the word simpleton in the manuscript.



manuscript revision continued in the narrators voice, to make a bald assertion about the characters:
You mean that the old lady wont leave the money to youthis was in fact the meaning of Mr. Crawley. No man for his own interest could accommodate himself to circumstances more. In London he would let a great man talk and laugh and be as wicked as he liked: but as he could get no good from Miss Crawleys money why compromise his conscience?. This was another reason why he should hate Rawdon Crawley. He thought his brother robbed him. Elder brothers often do think so; and curse the conspiracy of the younger children wh. unjustly deprives them of their fortune. [italics added]

This unmistakable narratorial commentary, telling the reader the exact moral standing of both father and son, is then also cancelled in favour of a musingly ambiguous question. In proof the passage appeared as follows:
You mean that the old lady wont leave the money to youand who knows but it was Mr. Crawleys meaning?

When the last version appeared in proof, someone (probably Thackeray) drove the doubtfulness home by adding italics to was: and who knows but it was Mr. Crawleys meaning? The effect is to cast additional doubt on the only remaining narratorial statement in this scene. While the italics may intensify the suspicion that both Crawleys are corrupt to the core, one cannot say that the authorial commentary has actually directed the reader unambiguously. None of this information is in the Penguin edition, or any other classroom edition except the Norton Critical Edition. Should one conclude charitably that students of Vanity Fair would have no use for this kind of material? Or would it be fair to conclude that such material is left out of most editions because it is too much trouble to nd it out and present it in ways that readers might nd useful? Perhaps our biggest problem remains the basic ignorance of leading academics who are frequently called upon by leading book publishers to mediate editorially between literary texts and students. Maybe we should invite critics like the Penguin editor of Vanity Fair to explain, concerning the basic business of reading and teaching literary texts from the past, why they think the eld of textual studies is adequately addressed
Peter L. Shillingsburg Practical Editions of Literary Texts 49

by misinformation, little information, and critical but uninformed and under-explained editorial decisions. Perhaps textual critics are the ones who need to sit up and listen. On the surface, however, it appears that editors and publishers of classroom texts commonly neglect or misrepresent the intricacies and nuances of textual histories. Argument III The problems outside the eld of textual scholarship are caused, to some extent at least, by the problems inside the eld. It is time to look at the comfortable truths in the eld implied by the phrases established text and the book as artefact. It is a fact that analytical bibliography and descriptive bibliography have paid extremely close attention to material texts since their inception. There is no book more detailed than Fredson Bowers The Principles of Bibliographical Description (1949) for learning how to look at the material object that is a book. However, it takes serious dedication to read Bowers book on how to look at a book. And Bowers does not tell the whole story. It took D. F. McKenzies The Sociology of Bibliography (1986) to get people generally to see that the signicance of a work as a socio/economic object is coded into its material makeup just as much as in its lexical content. More often than not, it seems, the signals sent by the book as material object (the bibliographic code) were unintended by the author of the text (the lexical content)though that is not always so. Nevertheless, the material object does signify hugely in ways that Fredson Bowers did not discuss in The Principles of Bibliographical Description. It was, furthermore, Jerome McGann and not D. F. McKenzie who popularized the concept of bibliographical codes,16 and he did a good job, for it has been years since I have been to a conference in which bibliographical codes did not feature. Just so, it has been years since Ive been to a conference in which the tools of descriptive bibliography have been used to illuminate a lexical crux. If descriptive bibliographers can with any justice be said to have been blind to the social implications of the material objects they
16 Initially in a review of McKenzies book, Theory of Texts London Review, 18 Feb.1988, 2021; and then in more detail in The Textual Condition Princeton: Princeton UP, 1991.



were examining, would it not be a shame if we were so dazzled by the bibliographical codes that we lost sight of the lexical implications of the minute differences in texts that frequently result from production and reproduction practices. I reect for a moment on John Careys ability to produce a brilliant introduction to Vanity Fair while ignoring and misrepresenting bibliographical evidence of revision and the socio/economic signicance of the cheap edition he says he chose as the basis for his student edition and ponder on the fact that, all things considered, the vastly greater source of signication in any book is its lexical content. And I ponder further the fact that the bibliographical code may index signicances to us, but that in fact a much more important element in the historical apprehension of any work is the whole biographical, historical, cultural, and literary envelope that informed the composition and publication of the workin whatever formin the rst place. What I am suggesting here is that literary criticism is enriched by textual criticism and by the history of the book, and by explorations of the bibliographic code and by the opening up of the historical contexts of the generation and production of works, but a far more important point is that textual critics and historians of the book must demonstrate the importance of these inquiries by writing detailed and difcult and important literary criticism themselves. Textual critics must do this because literary critics are carrying the day with lip service only paid to what I here claim is worthy of careful attention. Textual critics must edit student editions, not just the scholarly ones. They must write the critical essays, not just the textual ones. They must not bury their ndings in an apparatus where it is difcult to nd. They must not present the reading public with whole alternative texts without also explaining the interpretive consequences of their differences. They must not expect literary critics to come to them and ask them what they know. Literary critics have little reason to believe that textual critics know anything of interest to them because textual critics spend most of their time talking to each other and hiding their best insights in unfriendly places. And one wonders sometimes if textual critics are listening even among themselves. I earlier referred to Helge Nowaks brilliant essay on the
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differences between the British and American Editions of A. S. Byatts Possession. It contains evidence of her very careful, detailed comparisons of the editions and her discovery of Byatts own comments on the differences. She discusses the possible implications arising from the fact that the American edition contains corrections of chronology, historical facts, and typos that are not corrected in the British editions, the fact that the American edition contains unauthorized changes actively opposed by the author, and that the later British editions contain corrections and revisions not found in the American edition. In short, there is no edition that made everyone happy or even that faithfully represented the work as it was conceived at any given point. They are all awed and yet they each have aspects that make them superior to the others. And each is also the accurate witness to a social nexus and historical event. Nowaks investigative work is clear and impressive. It is clear, too, that Nowak has been reading the literature of textual criticism, for though she (mistakenly in my view) aligns Carl J. Weber with the Greg/Bowers school of editingmistaken both by giving Weber more credit than he deserves and by making a rather simple, monolithic school out of the really wide ranging and nuanced work of Bowers17 nevertheless, as I say, Nowak refers cogently to theorists that regard texts as [the] outcome of a collaborative effort by more than just their authors, and as a product that has been presented to different
17 [This is Nowaks footnote] Over the last three decades, theorists in this eld have developed an outlook on changes made to a text during its publication history that is now incongruous with, for instance, the one Carl J. Weber took at the beginning of the 1950s. He followed up the admonition quoted in the motto to my article with further pieces of advice:

The wise man will act differently. He will know his American edition before he goes far with it. He will trust it as he would a rattlesnake. He will neither quote from it, nor rely on conclusions drawn from it, until he has compared it, word for word, with the parent English edition, or has assured himself that the English author saw and approved of what his American publisher put into print for him.[footnote 28] Not only because of its anti-American overtones, this is a very biased view, yet not an uncommon one. When it is simplied to the point that later editions not overseen by an author can do only harm to his or her text, Webers view may be taken as an example for the Greg/Bowers school of editing (named after its leading proponents, W.W. Greg and Fredson Bowers). [For the whole of Nowaks essay see accessed 27/9/04] This apparently applies also to texts travelling in the opposite direction: For a closer look at American editions of British authors, cf. Bruccoli (1969).[Nowacks note]



audiences in different historical situations. Consequently, rather than conceiving literary texts as unique stable entities as works , many theorists now point to the diversness [sic] of textual versions, to all of which they grant equal status. This is quite right and Nowak goes on to argue the various merits of each existing edition in an enlightened way. It is a bit of a shock, therefore, to read the conclusion she reaches:
Did the American editor really do some harm in the process, as the embittered author feels? Seen without Byatts understandably personal bias, and without regard to the notion of the equality of all published versions, the American paperbacks bibliographic code is arguably more reasonable, consistent, and attractive, than the British presentation of the text. Any judgment on the reworking of the text itself (the linguistic code), meanwhile, remains to my mind simply a matter of taste and not, as the author sees it, one of principle.

What can be the meaning of the throw-away phrase the equality of all published versions? And can it be the case that taste and not principles are involved in the choices among the competing editions? And why does this excellent article stop with a description of the variants and what appears to be a basic assumption that one will of course want to choose one of the options and to do so on the basis of taste? Are we so committed to the notion that either there must be a best text, or that our interactions with novels must be with one out of many editions. Are we so used to reading linearly and singly that we have not imagined the full uses of our own discoveries. I am not suggesting that there is anything wrong with Nowaks approach. She has done a splendid job of examining and presenting the evidence. But I am suggesting that even though this is very good work, its conclusion has failed in a very ordinary waya way that plagues much work by textual critics. We havent seen or presented the signicance of our ndings in conjunction with a major critical engagement with the work.

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Conclusion I would like to suggest just one idea about reading works that I think would lead us to reject the notion that we really want readers to interact with the best text or that they should interact with some taste-based choice among alternative texts. Or that classroom editors should or can oversimplify and misrepresent texts on behalf of readers. This idea is that communication and understanding of texts, both spoken and written, involve a calculation of choices among options at every point in a sentence. When we hear that it was a green house, we understand that in terms of its not being a white one or a red one rather than essentially in its being green. If we are told that the footballer is out, we probably understand that as opposed to his being in bounds, but if we are told the boxer is out, we understand it as opposed to being still conscious and ghting. If we are told that there is no doubt but that the war in Iraq will continue for years to come, we might very well understand that the phrase there is no doubt is to be understood in opposition to other possible phrases for that position in the sentence such as We fear that the war will continue or There is no possibility of a quick end or There are doubts about the duration or It will end quickly. The point of this idea is that frequently if not always our understanding of a spoken or written word or phrase involves our casting it against its possible alternatives. Applied to textual criticism this idea suggests that textual variants give us clear indications of what the chosen text is to be understood in opposition to. We are better off as readers by seeing what was considered and changed than by having just one version with which to engage. Now, obviously, textual criticism does not give us a variant for every phrase in a book, nor at any point, with the possible exception of some of Emily Dickinsons poems in manuscript, does it give all the relevant other possible phrases or words. Our reading strategies are not restricted to what textual criticism offers us or what the bibliographic codes indicate. But if we see the full potential interpretive consequences of variants both in lexical and bibliographical codes, and if we combine these observations with fuller critical readings, perhaps we can raise the consciousness of publishers and critics to the importance of full engagements with the panoply of the book as artefact. Perhaps we can have an effect on the
54 VARIANTS 4 2005

proliferation of cheap student editions and vanilla electronic texts that presuppose that the lexical text is all that matters. Perhaps even more important, such a result might help close the gap between what we know as researchers and what we present in the classroom. Perhaps we know too much to regale students with the whole load, but we dont do them a favor by suppressing whole areas of knowledge and forms of investigation.

Peter L. Shillingsburg Practical Editions of Literary Texts


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Good white paper, with a new, clear and elegant typeface

Early Arnamagnan Editions
Ragnhei ur Msesdttir On Thursday the 1st of October 1772 six gentlemen gathered for a meeting in Copenhagen. Four of them had been appointed by King Christian VII (1766-1808) to a Commission for the Arnamagnan Bequest, two had for 12 years been the trustees of the Bequest, which had been established in 1760 to fund the work and production of text editions from the manuscripts in the so-called Arnamagnan collection. The leader of this meeting was Bolle Willum Luxdorph, a royal administrator, who had taken a great interest in the collection of books and manuscripts that professor rni Magnsson had left the University of Copenhagen in his will in 1730. rni Magnsson and the manuscripts rni Magnsson (1663-1730) was an Icelander, who came to Copenhagen in 1683 to study at the university, as was customary for the sons of the better families in Iceland. Copenhagen was at this time the capital of Iceland, which was part of the Danish realm for over 500 years, from the 1380s to 1944. rni had grown up amongst books and learning. He had been specially inuenced by his maternal grandfather, pastor Ketill Jrundsson, a learned man and a student of old Icelandic texts, which he copied extensively. After rni came to Copenhagen he worked for the antiquarian Thomas Bartholin (1659-1690) and in this way he developed a keen interest in the collection and utilisation of Icelandic manuscripts, as well as Danish and Norwegian. In his public life rni was among other things professor at the University and a secretary in the Kings private archives. In 1702 rni was commissioned to go to Iceland to collect information on the scal status of the country and to conduct a universal census of the population, the rst still-extant census in the world. He stayed in Iceland for 10 years, during which time he studied, copied

and collected manuscripts containing among other things the sagas of Icelanders and the kings of Norway. When rni died in January 1730 he left behind a large number of books and manuscripts, a collection, though somewhat reduced by the great re of Copenhagen in 1728 which was and still is the largest collection of early Scandinavian manuscripts in the world. rnis will established the Arnamagnan Bequest, to give grants to two Icelandic students to work on the manuscripts and to edit the texts in his manuscript collection. Many years would pass, but nally in 1760 the Bequest became a reality. Two trustees were appointed by King Frederik V (1723-1766). They were Johann Christian Kall, royal advisor and professor of Hebrew at the University, and Bernhard Mllmann, royal advisor and also professor of antiquities at Copenhagen University. The manuscripts were kept under the observation of the librarian of the University Library, who was to make sure that they were not removed and to provide the students paid by the Bequest with the manuscripts they were to work on. Somehow, though, the publications did not materialise. This is presumably where Luxdorph stepped in. The Arnamagnan Commission Luxdorph (1716-1788) was one of the highest ranking public servants in the monarchy, a keen book-collector, and it is likely that it was at his instigation that the king appointed the Commission. He had already many years earlier inspected the manuscript collection in its new domicile in the Trinitatis church tower, and he undoubtedly had a hand in matters when the charter for the Bequest was given in 1760. The other members of the new Commission were Jacob Langebek (1710-1775), royal councillor and head of the Royal archives, whose magnum opus is Scriptores Rerum Danicarum medii vi. In his early years Langebek had also translated Kristni saga, the history of the christianisation of Iceland, the work that was to be the rst publication of the new Commission.1 Langebek and Luxdorph were joined by two other distinguished gentlemen. The Icelander Jn Eirksson (1728-1787), was a royal advisor as

Jn Helgason, Fra Langebeks auktionskatalog Opuscula 5 (1975), 181-215; 199.



well as a librarian at the Royal library and was well versed in the Nordic saga material. The fourth member of the Commission was Peter Frederik Suhm (1728-1798), the only one who was not employed by the king. Suhm was independently wealthy and published many works on history and literature.2 Hannes Finnsson (1739-1796), later bishop in Sklholt, was hired as a secretary to the Commission, and was a philologist in his own right. Thus, the members of the new Commission were men of social standing, who were both willing and able to make a difference. In the period 1772-1936 only minor changes were made to the organisation of the Commission. Members who passed away were replaced by new ones, who also were men of standing as public servants and men of letters. From 1772 to 1936 the Commission published 24 editions of texts from the manuscript collection and three facsimile editions. In addition to this there were other publications such as rni Magnssons public and private correspondence, a two volume work on the life and times of rni, and a catalogue of the manuscript collection.3 The early editions The charter for the Bequest from 1760 does give some guidelines as to how the work on the publication of the texts should be carried out. The manuscripts in the Arnamagnan collection were rst choice, but when they had been published the attention could be turned to other works concerning northern antiquity, history or language. There are clear guidelines as to the make up of the publications and the conditions of sale.
De Bger, som saaleedes af Legato oplegges, skulle alle trykkes paa godt hvid Papir, samt med nye, reene og ziirlige Typis. Ethvert Exemplar maa hftes frend det slges, paa det at Publicum kand viide sig sikker for Defecter. Priisen ansttes saa taalelig, som skee kand, da det er nock, naar Legatum omtrent bliver skadesls. [The books thus published by the Bequest shall all be printed on good white paper, with new, clear and elegant typeface. And they are to be bound in cardboard before sale so that the public can be sure that they are not defective. The price is to be
2 3

P. F. Suhm, Historie af Danmark 1-14. (Copenhagen, 1782-1828).

For a list of the text publications see: [28 October 2004].

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as moderate as possible, for it is enough for the Bequest to break as near even as possible.]4

There were, however, no guidelines as to which texts to publish. Before the appointment of the Commission in 1772, there had been talk of publishing Heimskringla (histories of the kings of Norway), Knytlingasaga (about the Danish kings5 ), and the poetic Edda. The new Commission, however, does not seem to have been interested in kings sagas. In the minutes from the rst meeting it only says, that it was decided:
at begynde enten med Christendoms-Saga, eller en anden liden Piece som da kunde trykkes i Octavo, med latinske bogstaver, samt latinsk Version og Orde Register, hvilken format for fremtiden ogsaa blev vedtagen at bruge til smaa Piecer. [to start with the history of Christianisation [of Iceland] or some such small pamphlet which could be printed in octavo format, in roman type-face, with a Latin translation and word list, the format also chosen for small pamphlets in the future.]6

One of the requirements of the Bequest was that there should be a publication at least every other year. The new Commission was hard pressed to deliver, so they needed to nd a worthy text, not too long, and which could be published without delay. Kristni saga suited that purpose well, as Luxdorph explains in the introduction to the edition. It is short, yet its contents are important: it describes the christianisation of Iceland and links Iceland to the rest of Scandinavia, especially Norway, from whence Iceland was settled. It was published in 1773 and the Commission decided that the logical continuation would be to publish Hungrvaka [An appetiser], the history of the rst ve bishops of Sklholt. But again it seems that the editorial work was going slowly, so when in a meeting in November 1773 Jn Eirksson produced a near complete edition of Gunnlaugs saga ormstungu (Gunnlaug the serpent tongue)
4 Samling af Bestemmelser vedkommende Det Arnamagnanske Legat. Udgivet af Kommissionen for Det Arnamagnanske Legat (Copenhagen: Gyldendalske Boghandel, 1892), 11. 5 Knytlinga saga had in fact been prepared for publication by Hans Gram, one of the executors of rnis will. It was indeed printed in part, but there was a dispute with the printer which led to the destruction of the impression. 6 Den Arnamagnanske Kommissions Arkiv. The Arnamagnan Institute, Copenhagen. AMKA 5: Forhandlingsprotokol 1773-1942. October 1 1772.



Figure 1: The title-page of Kristni saga, 1773

which he had worked on, the Commission took the pragmatic decision to make Gunnlaugs saga its second publication
med samme Tryk og paa samme slags Papiir som Kristnisaga, men in qvarto saaledes at Texten og Versionen trykkes paa hver anden Side, Noterne der i mod udi Spalter, da i vrigt de der i blandt som kunde udgire heele Afhandlinger, skal trykkes bag efter Bogen. [printed with

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the same type face and on the same kind of paper as Kristnisaga, but in qvarto, such that the text and the [Latin] translation are printed on every other page, the footnotes on the other hand shall be in columns, and those among them that could constitute whole treatises shall be printed at the back of the book.]7

Gunnlaugs saga is thus the rst Icelandic family saga to be published in a scholarly edition. It was published in 1775, and Hungrvaka not until 1778. In fact the Commission entered into an agreement with Sren Gyldendal that he would pay for the publication of Hungrvaka, and the Commission would pay him a xed price for each sheet of printing paper to safeguard him from suffering a loss. In return Gyldendal was to give 30 free copies to the Commission. This is not the only example of the lack of funds in the Commission, because the next three publications bearing the Arnamagnan headpiece are in fact paid for by P. F. Suhm. These are Hervarar saga, Vga-Glms saga and Eyrbyggja saga published 1785, 1786 and 1787 respectively. They are all in quarto format and resemble Gunnlaugs saga in their lay-out. Suhm was wealthy and had many students who worked for him copying manuscripts in the Arnamagnan collection. These three publications are always listed among the Commissions publications with Suhms name on the title page along with that of the Bequest, so that there is no doubt that he paid for them. In the years previously to this Suhm had published several works based on manuscripts from the Arnamagnan collection, but they do not carry rnis vignette and can therefore not be considered to be Arnamagnan editions. These are Landnmabk, which appeared in 1774, Rmbeigla and Orkneyinga saga, both published in 1780. The work that perhaps can be considered the most ambitious project embarked upon by the Commission, was the three volume edition of the poetic Edda, often called Smundar Edda after Smundr fr i Sigfsson, who bishop Brynjlfur Sveinsson in Sklholt had credited with collecting the poems.8 Already in 1773 the Commission had made arrangements with Gunnar Plsson, a poor Icelandic parson, to start translating
7 8

AMKA 5. 18 November 1773.

Philip Pulsiano (ed.), Medieval Scandinavia: An Encyclopedia (New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1993), 149.



Figure 2: Hervarar saga with the headpiece of Arnas by J. F. Clemens

the poems. But this work dragged out, and the rst volume did not appear until 1787, the second came in 1818 and the third volume nally appeared 10 years later. The Commission originally decided not to include the two most important Eddic poems, Hvaml and Vlusp, in this edition, the reason being that they had already been published
Ragnhei ur Msesdttir Good white paper... 63

by Peder Hansen Resen.9 It was however decided in a meeting of the Commission in 1818 that the third volume should contain these poems med aldeles ny Behandling, da Resenii Udgave er saa ubrugelig og fuld af Feil. [dealt with in a completely new way, as Resens edition is so useless and full of error.]10 In the rst volume there appears one of the few scholarly writings that rni Magnsson himself actually undertook, a biography of Smundur Sigfsson the Wise. This publication is also nanced in the same way as Hungrvaka by the publisher Gyldendal, except for the engravings, which the Commission paid for. One of the things that delayed the printing of the second volume of the Poetic Edda was the scarcity of paper after the Napoleonic Wars. Gyldendal was in fact unable to provide the better quality paper for the printing of the 25 copies the Commission had requested. In the list of publications by the Commission there is an edition of Njls saga, the most famous of the Icelandic family sagas, from 1772. In fact it was not published by the Commission, but rather by an Icelander named lafur lavus, who had gained royal permission for the publication. This edition differs from the ones the Commission then started publishing in that there is no Latin translation to accompany it. In 1809 the Commission published a Latin translation of the text, the work on which had already been started in the 1790s and paid for by Suhm. At his death in 1798 the Commission took over the project. Thus one can say that there were no really clear boundaries between the Commission as a royal organ and the workings of its individual members. Format The Njls saga edition from 1772 is not only different from the editions published by the Commission in that it does not have a Latin translation. The main difference is that it is set in black letter, the type face used for more popular books. This might indicate that lavius intended the book for his countrymen and not for the learned audience of Europe.
9 Peder Hansen Resen, Ethica Odini pars Edd Smudi vocata Haavamaal... (Copenhagen, 1665). Philosophia antiqvissima norvego-danica dicta Woluspa (Copenhagen, 1665). 10

AMKA 5. 16 March 1818.



Figure 3: Njls saga from 1772

The other editions here mentioned are of a different nature. Kristni saga and Gunnlaugs saga serve well to illustrate the make up of the early editions. Kristni saga is a large octavo format and Gunnlaugs saga in quarto. Their lay-out is basically the same. The text of the manuscript chosen as the main text is printed on the verso side and the Latin translation on the recto side of the following leaf. The variant readings and the notes are at the bottom of the page. They are printed in roman type-face. At the back there are indexes of names and places and in some cases also glossaries of terms. Some of the other early editions contain treatises
Ragnhei ur Msesdttir Good white paper... 65

on matters concerning the ancient times of the North. In Gunnlaugs saga there are three such treatises. The rst on the exposure of infants, the second on the Nordic tongue called Danish Tongue and nally one on the meaning of the word viking.11 It is thus clear that the Commission was true to the stipulations of The rni Magnsson Bequest: to make known to the learned audience of Europe the old texts in a form that would best enhance understanding of the eld.

Figure 4: An opening from Kristni saga, showing the lay-out of the edition This way of publishing is obviously not far from the format of modern editions of these old texts. One might indeed compare the lay-out of the edition of Eyrbyggja saga from 1787 with the Eyrbyggja edition published by the Commission in 200312 and see that there is no great difference in
11 De Espositione Infantum, De lingv septentrionalis appelatione: Dnsk Tunga and De Vocibus Vikingr & Viking.

Eyrbyggja sive Eyranorum historia quam mandate et impensas faciente perill. P . F. Suhm... (Copenhagen, 1787). Eyrbyggja saga. The Vellum Tradition, edited by Forrest S. Scott. Editiones Arnamagnan, Series A, Vol. 18. (Copenhagen: C. A. Reitzels Forlag, 2003).




the format, except that there is no Latin translation in the latter one, as we now have access to Old Norse dictionaries. But what model did the Commission have for the format of the editions? Britta Olrik Frederiksen has in a recent article13 discussed this development and has come to the conclusion that already in the early seventeenth century the practice of indicating variant readings was a reality in Scandinavian editions. Swedish scholars led the way, having presumably learned their trade from the Germans and the French. The French Scriptores series, which inspired Jacob Langebek to start his Danish series on the Danish medieval writers, of which only the rst three volumes were published in his lifetime, seem not surprisingly to have inspired him not only as far as the content but as far as the form as well. His Scriptores series are among the earliest Danish publication to place the variant readings at the foot of the page.14 Langebek was a member of the Arnamagnan Commission of 1772, so his inuence surely must be felt here, and the fact that the other members of the Commission of 1772 also were men of standing, aware of the developments in the scholarly eld of publishing, must have ensured that the publications followed the latest and most widely respected methods in text editing. The Arnamagnan editions were usually printed in 500 copies each. This would seem to have been a standard number of copies for a learned publication.15 Of these one hundred were to be printed on better quality paper, so-called writing-paper also called Dutch paper in the archives of the Commission, the rest on French paper, which is not as heavy. As said before the type-face used for the editions is roman (antiqua), except for Njls saga (1772). The main text is set with 14 points (mittel antiqua) and the notes with 10 points (korpus antikva). The translation is in italics, the same size as the main text, (kursiv antiqua).

13 Britta Olrik Frederiksen: Under stregen Varianter och bibliogrask beskrivning (Helsingfors: Svenska litteratursllskapet i Finland, 2003), 13-78. 14

Ibid., 28. Jacob Langebek, Scriptores Rerum Danicarum Medii Aevii 1-9 (Copenhagen, 1772-

15 Harald Ilse, Bogtrykkerne i Kbenhavn ca. 1600-1810 (Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanums Forlag, 1992), 257-258.

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Illustrations According to the charter all publications were supposed to bear a portrait of rni Magnsson. So in its rst meeting the Commission decided to set about having an engraving made from a painting owned by one of the Commissioners. In the rst meeting Luxdorph asked whether ikke hans Hoved kunde stikkes a lantiquo paa en Marmor Piedestal som Homerblot med det Ord Arnas paa Piedestalen. [...his head could not be copperplated in the ancient style like Homer on a pedestalwith only the word Arnas written on it.] And so they got Professor Johannes Wiedeweldt director of the Academy of Fine Arts to make a copy of the painting, and then the most renowned engraver of the day, J. F. Clemens, to make the vignette. There were in fact made two headpieces, one for the octavos and another one for the quarto editions. These were last used in the second volume of Snorra Edda in 1852. In 1869 a new portrait of rni was made from the same painting as the old one, yet he is here much changed. In 1929 an adjustment was made to this headpiece, and the result is still used in the publications of the Arnamagnan Commission. There were other illustrations. In Gunnlaugs saga there is a large insert engraving of the interior of an Icelandic farm in the saga-age. There are also engravings of lines from the different manuscripts used for the edition. For this purpose the Commission ordered an engraving of the rst six lines of the manuscript Sth. Perg. 4 4to, which is in the Royal Library in Stockholm. This was not to cost too much though, as the dispute between the engraver and the Commission shows.16 It seems that the practice was to send leaves from the manuscripts to the engraver. In the Njls saga manuscript AM 468 4to (Reykjabk), there is now a leaf missing which was there in the late 18th century when the manuscript was paginated. It seems that the leaf was just thrown away after it had been copied.17

16 17

AMKA 5. 6 April 1775. AMKA 35. Regnskabsprotokol 1750(59)-1897.

Njls saga. The Arna-Magnan Manuscript 468, 4to (Reykjabk). Manuscripta Islandica VI. (Copenhagen: Ejnar Munksgaard, 1962), xix.



Editorial changes and new formats Until the 1880s there were no changes in the way the editions were laid out, with a Latin translation and notes in the same way as had been decided back in 1772. The last big edition in the old style is Snorri Sturlusons Edda, the Prose Edda, published in three volumes from 1848 to 1887. In the nineteenth century the Commission was also involved in a totally new endeavour, facsimile editions of manuscripts. There are three such editions, all in octavo and in no way resembling the modern day sumptuous facsimile editions that now are getting far too expensive to produce. In addition to being a new way of publishing they are also the rst to bear the new (improved?) headpiece of rni Magnsson. The typeface has also become more modern, in line with advances in the printing process. The three facsimile editions were all produced at the instigation of P. G. Thorsen in connection with his work on runes.18 In the introduction to the rst one Thorsen expresses the wish that this may be the beginning of a way of making the vigtigste og skjnneste danske, islandske og norske Haandskrifter, som Legatet ejer, fremtrde i en saadan Monumentaludgave. [the most important and the most beautiful Danish, Icelandic and Norwegian manuscripts, owned by the Bequest, appear in such a monumental edition.] It was however not until Ejnar Munksgaard began his splendid facsimile-publications in the 1930s that this work was continued. From now on the title page is also in Danish, there is no Latin translation, and the name of the editor starts appearing on the title-page, a practice only seen once in the old edition, in the publication of Hervarar saga in 1785. There was in fact some discussion in the Commission as to whether this was a desirable thing. Professor Finnur Jnsson stated that jeg er mest tilbjelig til at holde p Traditionen. Lserne fr tilstrkkelig Oplysning om Udgiverforholdet ved at Kommissionens Fortale omtaler det. [my tentative leaning would be towards maintaining the old tradition. The readers receive enough information on the
18 Det Arnamagnanske Haandskrift No. 24 4toValdemars sllandske Lovs frste Femtedel, (Copenhagen: Gyldendalske Boghandel, 1869). Det Arnamagnanske Haandskrift Nr. 674 A 4toElucidarius, (Copenhagen: Gyldendalske Boghandel, 1869). Det Arnamagnanske Haandskrift no 28, 8vo, Codex Runicus, (Copenhagen: Gyldendalske Boghandel, 1877).

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Figure 5: The rst facsimile edition, with the new head-piece of rni Magnsson

editorial work in the Commissions introduction.]19 As this discussion arose in connection with Finnur Jnssons publication of Snorra-Edda, another member of the Commission, Johannes Steenstrup, expressed the view that the content of the publication should determine whether the

AMKA no. 5. 18 November 1930.



name of the editor appear on the title-page, but he suggested that in this case it might be in order om den nu foreliggende Udgave, der sker ved et medlem af Kommissionen at bruge udtrykket: udgivet af Komm. Ved F. Jnsson. [in the case of the present edition, which is done by a member of the Commission, to use the expression: Published by the Comm. by F. Jnsson.]. Finnur Jnsson was a member of the Commission from 1906 and its chairman from 1920 until his death in 1934 and during his time as chairman he stood for all the Commissions publications. The role of the grant-receiving students was much diminished during his time, and has since completely changed. Printers, publishers and the public The rst three editions were printed by Madame Godiche, whose print shop at the time was one of the most renowned in Copenhagen. From the start the Commission sought to make arrangements with book-sellers to take care of the distribution and sales of its publications. Kristni saga was distributed by the book-seller J. F. Heineck, which the Commission arranged to have 10% of the price of each copy sold. He was also to send some copies of the book to German journals so that it might be reviewed in time for the next book-fair at Leipzig. Gunnlaugs saga was also distributed by Heineck and he sent 50 copies of it to the Easter fair at Leipzig. But soon they came to an agreement with the publisher Sren Gyldendal, whose rm was establishing itself in the late 18th century. Gyldendal paid the publication costs of Hungrvaka in 1778, and in 1781 Jn Eirksson further negotiated with Gyldendals heirs to have the rm bear the costs of the three volumes of the poetic Edda. The rm thus became the chief distributor of the Commission. There is evidence from the early nineteenth century that the Commission also sold their publications through other book-sellers, so there must have been some money in it. From the accounts of the Commission one can see that they received between one and two hundred kroner a year from Gyldendal from the sale of the books.20 Not a very large amount of money, by any standard. But then the charter for the Bequest stated that there should

AMKA 19-20. Sager til Kommissionens forhandlingsprotokol 1916-1924 og 1925-1936.

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not be any direct nancial gain from the sale of the publications, only that they should cover the production costs.21 Certain persons were to receive a copy of all the publications free of charge. Among them were the Icelandic bishops and chief magistrates, also certain foreign universities and learned societies in Sweden, Germany and England who pursued Nordic studies. Many asked for free copies, mostly students, and there does not seem to have been any difculty in obtaining one directly from the Commission. A story from 1931 may serve to illustrate the way the publications were distributed. In that year there came a letter from the university library in Kiel in Germany asking for a free copy of the publication called Anecdoton, a thirteenth century Norwegian text, which had been published in 1815, and could in 1932 be bought from Gyldendal for one krone. Kiel also wanted a copy of the Latin translation of Njls saga from 1809, listed at eight kroner.22 The then secretary of the Commission, Jn Helgason, has obviously been asked to see if there were copies to be had. On the letter from Kiel he has then written: Af den frste bog er der i de sidste 40 Aar bortgivet 5 ekspl., af den sidste 2, medens ikke et eneste eks. i samme aarrkke er blevet solgt. 26/2 1931 J. H. [Of the rst one ve copies have been given away in the last 40 years, of the other one two copies, while not a single copy has been sold.]23 The members of the Commission have then written their consent on the letter. So one must assume that the university library in Kiel was sent a copy of the two books. One of the interests of the Commission was the distribution of the publications abroad. As early as when Kristni saga was published there was in the minutes a mention of having copies sent off to the book-fair in Leipzig. And in the nineteenth century the Commission had an agent in Leipzig, Carl B. Lorck and later his associate Alphons Drr.24
21 22

See above.

Books published by the Arna-Magnan Commission,, (Copenhagen: Gyldendalske Boghandel, 1932), 3, 5.

23 24

AMKA 20. AMKA 52. Dokumenter vedrrende salg af de af Kommissionen udgivne skrifter 1776-1977.



It seems that when we get into the 1930s the Commission is becoming more aware of the distribution side of things. And there arose a dispute with Gyldendal about advertising. The Commission suggested that Gyldendal produce a brochure in English about the Arnamagnan publications. Gyldendal was not very keen on the idea the costs would be too high, but nally in 1932 there appeared a brochure in English listing all the publications. The Commission does however seem to have been interested in changing distributor, and in 1936 they came to an agreement with the publisher Ejnar Munksgaard to take on the role. The old Commissions nal publication was slensk mi aldakv i, medieval Icelandic poetry, edited by Jn Helgason. Gyldendal published the rst volume in 1936. Munksgaard then took over and most of volume two, which appeared in 1938, has him on the title-page as publisher. This volume also marks a new era in Arnamagnan publishing, in that now for the rst time there is a copyright clause included. Munksgaard was in this way a link between the old and new Commission, as he also became a member of the Arnamagnan Commission appointed in 1936. What Munksgaard was in the publishing sphere for the Commission, professor Jn Helgason was in the editorial sphere. He also became a member of the Commission in 1936. He laid the foundation for the present-day publications of the Commission, with the two series Editiones Arnamagnan from 1958, and Bibliotheca Arnamagnaana from 1941.25 Reception As stated in the will of rni Magnsson and subsequently in the Charter for the Bequest, the intention was to make the texts of the manuscript collection available to the public. This was not necessarily the general public, but certainly those who could read Latin and were interested in the history, language and literature of the North. As mentioned, the average number of copies printed of each edition was around 500. Today there are none left, and these editions can only very rarely be bought second hand. Judging from the lists of recipients of copies of the publications there were many takers and thus one might say that the

For a list of these see <> [28 October 2004]

Ragnhei ur Msesdttir Good white paper...


purpose was reached. Within the limits of this paper it has not been possible to spend much time investigating reviews of the editions. But they were all reviewed, originally in Danish and German journals and later further aeld. In 1773 there appeared a Danish review of Kristni saga, where the (anonymous) critic rejoices at the sight of this publication. The critic comments that nally it is possible to gain access to the texts of the old manuscripts, which has been difcult for different reasons. Texterne, der ere saa vanskelige at lse, formedelst de mange, ikke altid eensformede Abbreviaturer, ere her blevne sammenlignede og udskreven, latinske Oversttelser forfrdiget, de behvede Undersgelser over mrke og vanskelige Steder anstillet og rige og fuldstndige Ordbger kompileret. [The texts, that are so difcult to read, because of the many, not always uniform abbreviations, are here compared and written out, Latin translations are made, and the necessary examinations of murky and difcult places provided, and rich and complete dictionaries have been compiled.].26 He does however criticise some of the Latin translations as not being thoroughly accurate, even if they convey the right meaning. In the same journal in 1775 there is a review of Gunnlaugs saga.27 The reviewer here is especially interested in the legal material that appears in the saga, which is not so surprising as the review is by P. Kofod Ancher, who at the time was in the process of publishing his work on the Danish legal history from Harald Bltand onwards.28 He is also very interested in the treatise on the language that is printed after the saga. He praises the typography, which he says is udfrt med Ziirlighed og Pragt. [done with elegance and magnicence.] In Gttingsche gelehre Anzeigen in 1819 there appeared a review of the two rst volumes of the poetic Edda, by Jacob Grimm.29 He is very impressed, yet surprised that

Kibenhavnske Kongl. Privil. Adressecontoirs Kritiske Journal 1773, No. 42 og 43, col. 465-474; Ibid., 1775, col. 305-310.

27 28

P. Kofod Ancher, En Dansk Lov-Historie fra Kong Harald Blaatands Tid til Kong Christian Den Femtes. (Copenhagen, 1769-1776).
29 Gttingische gelehre Anzeigen 1819, 1009-1019, reprinted in: Jacob Grimm, Kleinere Schriften I (Berlin, 1881), 212-227.



no-one in Germany at least seems to have been aware of this publication from the beginning. He complains that men have been taken (in) by the Ossian poem which has been translated into most European languages, but the Edda, which is such an important source for the ancient history of the Germanic peoples, has remained unnoticed. He praises the learned Danes for their patience and perseverance in the face of difculty in getting the poems published. The Grimm brothers had published some of the eddic poems in 1815,30 and Grimm compares their edition with this new one which he sees as being far superior. Whether this is mock modesty is open to question. These are just glimpses from reviews of the early editions. There are many more to choose from and it would be a worthy study to investigate them more closely, not only for what they say about the editions, but also what they tell us about the world of Old Norse studies in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Conclusion The 18th century saw a marked increase in book publishing in Denmark. There were many reasons for this. One may be that in 1770 freedom of the press became a reality for a short while. Another reason may be the increase in population which opened up a larger market. This meant that printers/publishers became attracted to Denmark.31 But this is not likely to have affected the workings of the Arnamagnan Commission greatly. Their work was determined by the will of rni Magnsson and the Charter for the Bequest. But they were not exempt from the workings of the real world. The res of 1795 and 1807, the Napoleonic Wars and their aftermath, the state bankruptcy in 1812, among other things, made it very difcult to obtain paper for the printing. There were problems with stretching the Bequest sufciently to pay for the publication costs as well as paying the stipends and the fees of the trustees and the secretary of the Commission. The main source for the history of
30 Lieder der alten Edda. Aus der Handschrift herausgegeben und erklrt durch die Brder Grimm. I. (Berlin: Realschulbuchhandlung, 1815). 31

Ilse, 237.

Ragnhei ur Msesdttir Good white paper...


the Commission, other than the publications themselves, is the archives of the Commission, and there one gets a glimpse of the problems there were. The Arnamagnan Commission must be seen as a forerunner for and trendsetter in the scholarly editing and publishing of Old Norse literature, as well as in manuscript studies. On the basis of their work organisations such as the Det kongelige nordiske Oldskriftselskab, founded by C.C. Rafn in 1825, could continue and publish texts for the general public. Rafn was himself a member of the Arnamagnan Commission and the same is true of most of the leading old Norse philologists in Copenhagen in this period. Even if these old editions now seem outdated and superseded by new ones, one can only agree with the words of the advertising brochure made by Gyldendal in 1932 where it says:
In earlier times the Commission brought out editions of several of the most important works among the saga literature of Iceland. Later these editions were replaced by others which were more in accord with modern requirements, but the old ones remain of importance to the history of Scandinavian philology.32


Books Published, 3.



To the Glory of Mary

Liber Scole Virginis at Lund University Library
Eva Nilsson Nylander Around 1060 the Danish king Sven Estridsen made a rst attempt to organize a Danish autonomous church province by setting up eight dioceses, each with its own bishop.1 Henrik was bishop of Lund, Egino (d. 1072) of Dalby only six kilometers away but when Henrik died in the ominous year of 1066 (choked in his own vomit according to Adam) Dalby was suppressed and Egino moved to Lund (see Figure 1).2 After Eginos death in 1089 Ricwal, a runaway canon from Paderborn, was appointed bishop.3 He was the man responsible for the increased building activity in the Cathedral, which like other projects of this size, was in continuous construction.4 The very early church dedicated to St Lawrence was initiated in around 1080 on the initiative of king Canute (see Figure 2). And when thus 40 years later, in 1103, the Northern region was nally divided from Hamburg-Bremen and organized as an independent administrative unit it was in Lund that Ascer (d. 1137), the rst archbishop of Scandinavia, took his seat. To give a worthy, architectural background to this new power the church was enlarged and embellished.
1 For the early ecclesiastical organisation of Denmark see Adam of Bremen, Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae ponticum. Monumenta Germaniae Historica. Scriptores 7 (Hannover: 1977). 2 For the early ecclesiastical history of Lund see e.g. Ragnar Blomqvist, Lunds Historia. I. Medeltiden (Lund: 1951) with references; see also Lund medeltida kyrkometropol. Symposium i samband med rkestiftet Lunds 900-rsjubileum, 27-28 april 2003, Per-Olov Ahrn & Anders Jarlert (red.), Stiftshistoriska Sllskapet i Lunds Stift rsbok 2004, Bibliotheca Historico-Ecclesiastica Lundensis 47 (Lund: 2004) and Michael H. Gelting, Da Eskil ville vre rkebiskop af Roskilde. Roskildekrniken, Liber daticus Lundensis og det danske rkesdes obhvelse 1133-1138 in Ett annat 1100-tal. Individ, kollektiv och kulturella mnster i medeltidens Danmark, red. Peter Carelli, Lars Hermansson & Hanne Sanders (Gteborg, Stockholm: 2004) 181-229. 3

For Ricwal see Lund University Library, Necrologium Lundense (Medeltidshandskrift 6) f.

143r. For the history of the Cathedral of Lund see Thomas Rydn, Domkyrkan i Lund (Malm: 1995) and idem, Lunds domkyrka det universella rummet, in Metropolis Daniae. Ett stycke Europa, Kulturens rsbok 1998, 98-115.

Figure 1: Lund University Library, Necrologium Lundense (Medeltidshandskrift 6) f. 174v: Nomina episcoporum nostrorum qui Sanctae Lundensi ecclesiae praefuerunt. a tempore Svenonis magni Regis [Here are the names of our bishops who were in charge of the holy church in Lund from the reign of king Sven the Great]



Figure 2: Lund University Library, Necrologium Lundense (Medeltidshandskrift 6) f. 1v: St Canutes deed of gift of May 21st 1085: In Nomine Sancte et Individue Trinitatis. Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti. Notum omnibus in Christo delibus esse cupimus qualiter ego Cnuto quartus Magni regis lius post susceptum paterne hereditatis regnum ecclesiam Sancti Laurentii quae sita est Lunde licet nondum perfectam dotavi ut illius agni qui tollit peccata mundi sit perpetim sponsa [In the name of the Holy and Indivisible Trinity Father, Son and the Holy Spirit. We desire that all those faithful in Christ shall know how I Canute, fourth son of King Magnus (i.e. Sven Estridsen) having inherited my fathers kingdom, have endowed the as yet uncompleted church of St Lawrence in Lund in order that for all time it shall be the Bride of the Lamb that takes away the sin of the world ].

Eva Nilsson Nylander To the Glory of Mary


The masons were most probably imported from Germany or from Lombardy in Italy (the Cathedral of Speyer, stylistically close to Lund, was about to be nished and labour was to be had) and the responsible architect, also a foreigner, was a man called Donatus. In June of 1123 the main altar in the crypt was inaugurated, in July of 1126 the north altar in the crypt, and in 1145 the main altar of the upper church, dedicated to the Virgin and to St Lawrence, the main patron of the church. More and more altars were constructed and in the late Middle Ages there were more than 60 chapels and altars scattered around the cathedral.5 In 2003, in the presence of queens, archbishops and bishops, Lund celebrated the 900th anniversary of its becoming the archbishopric of Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Iceland, Greenland, the Faeroe Islands, the Orkney Islands, the Hebrides and Rgen. For us, historians, philologists, book historians and cataloguers of mediaeval manuscripts, this was an occasion to look closer at one of the manuscripts from the Cathedral. The book chosen was, for a number of reasons, Medeltidshandskrift 14, nicknamed Liber scole virginis from a barely legible, late Mediaeval note on the upper yleaf.6 It is a composite volume (volume form par la runion d'units codicologiques indpendantes7 ) or a miscellany (recueil constitu de pices copies en des lieux et en des temps divers). It is a compilation of Marian texts with musical notation. As mentioned above it does not go back to the very early days of the church but it has on the other hand lived through and been used for maybe 200 years of liturgical life in the cathedral and
5 See Gran Axel-Nilsson, Thesaurus Cathedralis Lundensis, Lunds domnkyrkas medeltida skattsamling, Acta Regiae Societatis Scientiarum et Litterarum Gothoburgensis. Humaniora 30 (Gteborg: 1989); see also Ewert Wrangel, Konstverk i Lunds Domkyrka (Lund: 1923). 6 Angul Hammerich, Musik-mindesmaerken fra Middelalderen i Danmark (Kbenhavn: 1912); Liber scole virginis. En medeltida samling av Mariamusik i Lund. A Medieval Collection of Marian Music in Lund. Faksimilutgva av LUB Mh 14 med inledning, transkription och kommentar Facsimile edition of LUb Mh 14 with introduction, transcription and commentary by Folke Bohlin, Jeremy Llewellyn, Eva Nilsson Nylander, Nils Holger Petersen, Anders Piltz, Thomas Rydn and Eyolf strem (Lund: 2003).

See Denis Muzerelle, Vocabulaire codicologique. Rpertoire mthodique des termes franais relatifs aux manuscrit (Paris: 1985) or the on-line version: [22november 2004]



thus represents spiritual continuity in an interesting way. The nature of the book as a container of texts had changed structurally during late Antiquity.8 The classical book was unitary: a book, in the form of a papyrus scroll, consisted of one work of a single author or it might contain many works or the opera omnia of the same author gathered into an organic corpus. This was common even after the codex had replaced the scroll. In contrast the medieval world is characterized by a different type of book, the miscellany, where several texts by different authors are more or less coherently assembled in a single volume. The oldest examples of this silent revolution (as Petrucci calls it9 ), i.e. books originally produced as a miscellany with different texts, different authors, are to be found in the Christian environment among the papyrus codices of Egyptian provenance of the 4th century and the story can be followed up to the disorganized miscellanies of the church schools of the Western early Middle Ages. From a typological point of view almost all of the old examples of miscellanies belong to a rather low level of production, written in hurried, informal scripts and with none or very little ornamentation. Back to Liber scole virginis, where the term scola i.e. choir implies that is was owned and used collectively. We are dealing with a product destined for circulation in a very restricted group of users. It consists of three sections from a time span ranging from mid 14th century to the early 16th , a fact reected in the physical structure of the book with its distinct units: 1. ff. 1-4, 11-17, parchment, copied in the 14th century, generously spaced and almost elegant and with 8 music staves per page (see Figure 3) 2. ff. 18-20, parchment, copied in the rst half of the 15th century, more crowded and less elegant and with 11 staves per page (see Figure 4)

8 Armando Petrucci, From the Unitary Book to the Miscellany, Writers and Readers in Medieval Italy. Studies in the History of Written Culture, Armando Petrucci (New Haven and London: 1995), 1-18. 9

Petrucci (as in note 8) 8.

Eva Nilsson Nylander To the Glory of Mary


3. ff. 5-10, paper, copied in the late 15th century in a cursive hand and with 10 staves per page (see Figure 5) Apart from tears and wormholes there are also text gaps indicating missing leaves in at least four different cases.10 The book was further restored in 1964 by Hans Heiland und Sohn in Stuttgart, a restoration that disturbed and destroyed much evidence as well as the original collation of the book. It is generally agreed today that a close study of books as artefacts, the codicological aspect, indeed does produce new knowledge, of book production, of book markets, of literacy, of reading habits and of liturgical practice. And looked at from a codicological point of view the object Liber scole virginis, this complicated, composite manuscript/miscellany does yield more information (i.e. more than a mere analysis of the texts) even if this information is hypothetical or difcult to interpret, about the Marian cult in Lund 600 years ago. Returning to the contents and to the container: 1. The rst part (ff. 1-4 and 11-17) of Liber scole virginis starts with the ve antiphons for Vespers. These chants also belong to a Marian ofce (Stella Maria maris paris expers), traditionally ascribed to bishop Brynolf I of Skara (d. 1317) and this is supposedly the earliest source of this Vespers chants. The musicologists Jeremy Llewellyn and Eyolf strem by looking at various scribal mistakes have been able to prove that the scribe must have had a copy containing the whole ofce Stella Maria in front of him. The rest of the rst four leaves is taken up by Marian Masses. It is unusual that there are no chants for Matins and Lauds and that the Vespers and the Masses are in the same book. They usually belong to different books. Llewellyn and strem suggest that this should be seen in the context of a letter of indulgence from Uppsala of 1298 (the letter was pointed out by Hans Helander11 ) stating that those who attended the
10 11

There are lacunae between ff. 2 and 3, 13 and 14, 16 and 17 and between 18 and 19.

Hans Helander, Den medeltida Uppsalaliturgin. Studier i helgonlngd, tidegrd och mssa, Bibliotheca Theologicae Practicae. Kyrkovetenskapliga studier 63 (Lund: 2001).



Figure 3: Lund University Library, Liber scole virginis (Medeltidshandskrift 14) f. 11r. The special care of the ligranated initial might reect a scribal concern to mark a new section.

Eva Nilsson Nylander To the Glory of Mary


Figure 4: Lund University Library, Liber scole virginis (Medeltidshandskrift 14) f. 19r.



Figure 5: Lund University Library, Liber scole virginis (Medeltidshandskrift 14) f. 7r.

Eva Nilsson Nylander To the Glory of Mary


Marian Vespers on Fridays and the Mass on Saturdays would receive substantial indulgencies. What could be called a Marian Ordinary, i.e. chants to the Mass but with a Marian colouring, follow on ff. 11r-17v. The texts are the ordinary ones, the standard repertory of the Roman church in general and of the tradition of Lund archdiocese in particular, but with a Marian emphasis or twist, effected through rubrics like De domina pointing at an orientation towards Mary and through providing the chants with tropes giving prominence to her. The Ordinary cycle was in turn dissected by a cycle of Marian sequences. 2. The last three leaves (ff. 18-20) represent a second, complicated stage where chant openings are not marked and rubrics are few. They contain different poetic chants and chant types reecting a tradition of sung Marian devotion which seems to have spread across Europe. This part gives the impression both of having undergone a systematic redaction but there are also additions, emendations and marginal notes by several hands over a long period of time. This would point at a successive and constant use by generations of singers. And whereas the rubrics of the rst section refer to general feasts and to Saturday Mass, the rubrics of this part of the book refer to specic days of the week. This might indicate a change in the Marian cult from annual and weekly celebrations to a series of ceremonies throughout the week. 3. The third section, the paper part (ff. 6-10), contains a collection of chants given, unusually, in no particular order. They are sequences and responsories from various kinds of services according to no discernable logic. This selection in a way mirrors the rst section in that Vespers and Mass are together, but apart from that there is no explanation to the unusual ordering of the sequences and the responsories. Three sections, thus, copied with roughly 75 years of interval between each section. There is a parallel pattern in another context tied to the same aspect of liturgical life in the cathedral. In the same way as the
86 VARIANTS 4 2005

compiling of the choir book can be seen as a sign of intensied Marian devotion so could the building activities in the church be interpreted as signs of a Marian boom.12 In 1346, thus contemporary with the rst section of the book, a certain Niels Manderup founded an altar below the lectory wall, in close proximity of a large sculpture of Mary. Forty years later, in 1387, Queen Margaret buried the heart of her son Olof near this altar and after that it became a popular place among the Danish aristocracy and donations started coming in. The choir stalls, constructed in the middle of the 14th century, could be seen in this same context.13 Some hundred years later, between 1425 and 1434 thus contemporary with the second section of the book Archbishop Peder Lykke provided money for a new chapel to the Virgin, built close to the tower in connection to the south aisle. It was one of the most richly decorated chapels in the church and it became the tomb of several archbishops. By the end of the 15th century though it had been taken over by altars dedicated to other saints and it had lost much of its Marian connotations. Compensating for this Archbishop Birger Gunnersson in 1518, after the draining and restoration by Adam van Dren of the neglected crypt, in a very detailed foundation charter Sanctuarium Birgerianum gave instructions as to the establishment of new Marian services, contemporary with the third section of the book.14 According to several sources these services continued in some form well into the 1580s, long after the Reformation had otherwise changed both liturgy and church room. Also the Liber scole virginis was allowed a period of grace in the crypt while the winds of change had started to blow in the upper church. To conclude: the thematic, organized selection of texts with performance in mind makes this manuscript a miscellany, whereas in its physicity, that it is written/copied and assembled at different times, it could be described as a composite manuscript. By denition of course, most liturgical manuscripts, like lectionaries or missals are miscellaneous
12 13 14

Cfr. Thomas Rydn in the introduction to the facsimile edition (as in note 6) 31-33. Ewert Wrangel, Korstolarna i Lunds Domkyrka (Malm: 1930). Cfr. Eyolf strem in the introduction to the facsimile edition (as in note 6) 36-39.

Eva Nilsson Nylander To the Glory of Mary


to their character but they are part of a standard, redactional tradition, adapted to a general, liturgical use albeit with a certain variation in local custom. This book however is something different, it is a liturgical hapax, a miscellany tailormade for a specic, spiritual situation about which we owing to this artefact think we know a little bit more.



Tables of Contents in Portuguese Late Medieval Manuscripts

Joo Dionsio With the beginning of the royal dynasty of Avis, in 1385, book culture came to have a greater impact than before in Portugal.1 This apparent fact should not be disconnected from the political role book culture began to play from this time on. As far as literary genres are concerned, it seems crucial to underline how specula principum, which were scarcely documented in Portugal, from 1385 onwards turned out to be a fashionable type of literature at Court.2 This has seemingly to do with the memory and the effects of the election as king of Dom Joo I (1357-1433; King, 1385-1433) in Coimbra, a unique moment in the royal history of the country for, as Dom Joo was the natural son of King Dom Pedro I (1320-1367; King, 1357-1367), this lack of impeccable genetic credentials had to be compensated with a stronger reason for his royal accession. In fact, the representatives of the country gathered in Coimbra gave more weight to his specic competence to be a king than to his birth.3 It so happens that, apart from the importance obviously assigned to genealogy, specula principum focused on the set of qualities a king should have in order to rule well. Such a type of literature served the purpose of King Dom Joo I in the sense that it reminded the reader of what counted most in his election. Another genre supported by the royal family of Avis was the chronicle. Joos heir, Dom Duarte (1391-1438; King, 1433-1438), commissioned Ferno Lopes (138?-1459 or 146?) with the writing of a general national chronicle, starting with the rst king and
1 The presentation of this paper was supported by the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisbon. I acknowledge my debt to David Prescott, who revised and corrected my English. 2 Joo Dionsio, Il Viridarium Principum di Andrea de Pace in Portogallo, proceedings of the conference I Francescani e la Politica (secc. XIII-XVIII), held in 2002 (Palermo: Ofcina di Studi Medievali - Biblioteca Francescana di Palermo, forthcoming).

Ferno Lopes, Crnica de D. Joo I, I, Anselmo Braancamp Freire (ed.) (Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional - Casa da Moeda, 1973), 369; Armindo de Sousa, As cortes medievais portuguesas (1385-1490), I (Porto: INIC / Centro de Histria da Universidade do Porto, 1990), 88, 257, 259, 293.

ending in then present times. Lopes managed to accomplish part of this project, namely the part that has to do with the last kings before John and the beginning of his reign. One important goal of such a project was to show a linearity of royal succession that, despite the shortcomings of Joos birth, was not interrupted by his accession to power. The fact that the chronicle of John is about twice as long as Fernandos (the previous king) and approximately four times longer than Pedros (who was the predecessor of Fernando) is a clear sign of Ferno Lopess particular attention to Joos reign. Besides, although he did not conclude Joos chronicle, this piece of historiography is consensually seen at the same time as a major literary piece and his most accomplished chronicle.4 Another sign of the way the new dynasty prized book culture is revealed by Dom Duartes library catalogue,5 the rst of a non-religious kind to be known in Portugal, if one excludes lists of books inserted in testaments, which are functionally ancillary. This catalogue gives a fair idea of Dom Duartes wide literary interests, from religious books to others of an administrative, ctional or practical type. It should be also stressed that Dom Joo and some of his sons wrote or translated treatises of different kinds. King Joo wrote a cynegetic treatise, Livro da Montaria (ca. 1423-1433); Dom Pedro translated Ciceros book on the civil duties, De Ofciis (ca. 1430-1433), and, with the collaboration of a Dominican friar, Joo Verba (? post 1434), wrote Livro da Vertuosa Benfeytoria (ca. 1429), inspired on Senecas De Benefciis; and Duarte, apart from a handbook on equitation (Livro da Ensinana de Bem Cavalgar Toda Sela, nished ca. 1437-1438), concluded a moral treatise, Leal Conselheiro (i. e., loyal counsellor) at the same time. The title of the latter is substantially different from the others, in that it does not incorporate the term that is generically used no matter what genre is involved: livro (book). But not only does it omit the word livro, but it presents itself as a rhetorical personication, something that suggests the public should read this book in the same manner that one asks a loyal counsellor for
4 Teresa Amado, Ferno Lopes contador de Histria Sobre a Crnica de D. Joo I (Lisboa: Editorial Estampa, 1991). 5 Livro dos Conselhos de el-rei D. Duarte (livro da cartuxa), Joo Jos Alves Dias (ed.) (Lisboa: Estampa, 1982), 206-208.



advice. In spite of the fact that Leal Conselheiro was little read, Rui de Pina (ca.1440-1522), who wrote the chronicle of Dom Duartes reign and of his successors, came to adopt this personication, giving it a wider range when he stated that, not only does Dom Duartes book function as a counsellor, but rather every book is a counsellor.6 Apparently a statement such as this suggests that books were becoming more familiar in Portuguese court milieus. At the other end of metaphorical transactions of this type, whereby bibliographical items are taken as human beings and vice-versa, let me recall that Alphonso the Magnanimous, King of Aragon and Naples, who became a possessor of todays codex unicus of Leal Conselheiro, had the Arcimboldian phrase liber sum (I am a book) as one of his mottoes, which served as a caption for the emblem of an open book.7 In order to have a preliminary delimitation of the eld in which I will reect on tables of contents, it is useful to draw a conceptual frontier between this specic auxiliary mechanism and other similar, but substantially different devices, such as the tabulatio, the repertorium or the inventarium. To put it briey, all of these devices function as means to rapidly locate a subject, a word, or a passage in a text or in a series of texts; thus all intend to facilitate the rapid consultation of texts.8 There are, however, some conspicuous differences, for the table of contents tends to be simpler in form and data than the tabulatio, also called index. The table follows the structure of the text; the index does not because
6 [] os lyvros, postoque sejam Conselheiros mortos, sempre porm ensynam, e dam verdadeiros e saas conselhos, muy livres e ysentos das paixooens dos Conselheiros vivos [] [books, although they are dead Counsellors, they nevertheless always teach and give true and sane counsels, rather free and exempt from the living Counsellors passions]. Rui de Pina, Chronica do senhor Rey D. Affonso V, M. Lopes de Almeida (ed.), Crnicas de Rui de Pina (Porto: Lello & Irmo, 1977), 583. 7 Gennaro Toscano, La formacin de la Biblioteca de Alfonso El Magnnimo: documentos, fuentes, inventarios, La Biblioteca Real de Npoles en tiempos de la Dinasta Aragonesa (Valencia: Generalitat Valenciana, 1999). Besides, Alphonso promoted a historiographical strategy similar to the one sponsored by Joo and Duarte in Portugal in order to be recognized as the head of Aragon and Naples. See Eulalia Duran, La imatge del rei Alfons, XVI Congresso Internazionale di Storia della Corona dAragona. Celebrazioni Alfonsine, II (Napoli: Paparo Edizioni, 2000), 1401-1418.

Olga Weijers, Les index au Moyen ge sont-ils un genre littraire?, Claudio Leonardi, Marcello Morelli and Francesco Santi (eds.), Fabula in tabula. Una storia degli indici dal manoscritto al testo elettronico (Spoleto: Centro Italiano di Studi sullAlto Medioevo, 1995), 11-12.

Joo Dionsio Tables of Contents in Portuguese Late Medieval Manuscripts


it obeys an alternative order, such as the alphabetical one. The ordinary table is physically dependent on the codex that conveys the text it presents, while other indexes have a greater degree of autonomy even in codicological terms.9 Apart from this, tables usually play an absolutely instrumental role, whereas the index may be autotelic. Bearing this in mind, the Tabulae super originalia patrum by Robert Kilwardby, contrary to what its name may suggest, are an index. Sometimes we nd one after the other, a contents table and an index, as in the manuscript from the British Library (MS Royal 5.C.iii): the rst column of fol. 13r and most of the second column present the chapters that belong to the second and third parts of book III of Giles of Romes De Regimine Principum, the fteen last lines of the second column show the beginning of the Abhominacio index, marked with an A in the right margin.10 Now and then we may also nd a sequence of tables in the same manuscript, such as in Vidas e Paixes dos Apstolos, the Portuguese translation of Bernardo de Brihuegas book II of Genesi Alfonsii, which was a literary project ordered by Alfonso X (1221-1284; King, 1252-1284), King of Castile and Leon, in the third quarter of the XIII century. At the beginning of Alc. 280, a Portuguese codex that contains this text, there is a chapter list, and immediately after the conclusion of this list the series of the names of the apostles appears according to the order their stories are arranged in the text (see Figure 1). As a rule, although there are some rather complex tables that convey the authors intention (in a way similar to some academic prologues I will mention afterwards) and then a list of chapters with a brief summary of each one, tables in the Middle Ages were generally ordinary lists of

9 Malcolm Parkes, Folia librorum quaerere: medieval experience of the problems of hypertext and the index, Claudio Leonardi, Marcello Morelli and Francesco Santi (eds.), Fabula in tabula. Una storia degli indici dal manoscritto al testo elettronico (Spoleto: Centro Italiano di Studi sullAlto Medioevo, 1995), 23-42; Peter Russell, Traducciones y traductores en la Pennsula Ibrica (1400-1500) (Barcelona: Universidad Autnoma, 1985), 40-41; Charles F. Briggs, Giles of Romes De Regimine Principum. Reading and writing politics at court and university, c. 1275-c.1525 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), 108-145; Toms Martnez Romero, Algunas consideraciones sobre la Tabulatio Senecae y su traduccin catalana, Euphrosyne XXIX (2001), 95-110. 10 Charles F. Briggs, Giles of Romes De Regimine Principum. Reading and writing politics at court and university, c. 1275-c.1525 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), 140, 161-162.



Figure 1: Biblioteca Nacional de Lisboa, Alc. 280, fol. 10r

Joo Dionsio Tables of Contents in Portuguese Late Medieval Manuscripts


chapter titles, a feature that became more and more disseminated after the XII century.11 I would like to view tables as an extra-textual or para-textual issue, an auxiliary mechanism of reading that embodies an aspect of the rhetorical ideal of claritas. This concept has to do with devices such as contents or chapters tables, titlings, paragraphing or marginal glosses. The existence of these tables presupposes that there is a system of textual organisation that comprehends the division of the work into parts and the identication of these parts through number and/or word reference.12 Actually, the diversity of reading possibilities will be the more successful if other auxiliary devices are available in the codex one is using: divisio textus through the introduction of chapter numbers and/or chapter rubrics; folio numbers; and current titles. The connection between claritas and these sorts of devices is made evident, for instance, by Alfonso de Cartagena (ca. 1384-1456), a Castilian author contemporary to the Portuguese princes I am dealing with. In the introduction to his translation of Ciceros De Inventione he declares:
aun por lo ms aclarar, comoquier que en latn est todo junto e non tiene otra partiin salvo la de los libros es a saber entre el primero e segundo pero yo part cada libro en diversos ttulos e los ttulos en captulos segn me paresi que la diversidat de la materia pida.13 [in order to make it clearer, though it is in Latin in a continuous way and has not been divided other than into books (that is, the rst and the second), I have divided each book into titles and have further divided these titles into chapters according to what was called for, in my view, by the variety of the subject].

Alfonso de Cartagena adopted the same procedure in the translation of Senecas De Providentia, which he thus explains: Y aunque el tractado estava continuo sin alguna particin, partir lo he en captulos, porque mejor y ms cierto podys hallar lo que notar vos pluguiere 14 [And
11 12 13

Olga Weijers, op. cit., 15-16. Olga Weijers, op. cit., 12-13.

Alfonso de Cartagena, La Rethorica de M. Tullio Ciceron, Rosalba Mascagna (ed.) (Napoli: Liguori, 1969), 31.
14 Toms Martnez, Antoni Canals, Alonso de Cartagena i unes notes de literatura comparada, Studi mediolatini e volgari XLI (1995), 116-46; 130.



although the treatise was written continuously and without division, I will divide it into chapters because this way you may better and more accurately nd what you are pleased to read]. One curious example of this type of practice is Enrique de Villenas decision to divide his translation of the Aeneid (1427) and its enormous gloss into 366 chapters, one for each day of the year, in order to help the idle reader.15 If tables imply that there is a system of text division, the presence or the introduction of such a system does not imply that there has to be a table. In fact, as far as translations are concerned, being aware of the fact that text division might be a non-authorial feature may deter the translator from inserting a table for it could be regarded as a formal ratication of something the author was not responsible for. Although there is no reference in the translators prologue to text division, it is possible that the codex unicus of Livro dos Ofcios does not have a table for motives of this kind. It should be noted that the division in Dom Pedros and Cartagenas translation of De Ofciis do not match. Actually, although the information Cartagena gives in the prologue to his translation on the structure of the books of De Ofciis is not uniformly conclusive, it sufces, with the observation of the extant manuscripts, to evince considerable differences when compared with the Portuguese translation.16 Besides, as Dom Pedros work was concluded after the Castilian humanists translation, he was surely aware of its existence (it was completed in Portugal, sometime between January and the summer of 1422,17 before the Portuguese prince departed for his European tour, in 1425)18 and would
15 J. N. H. Lawrance, The spread of lay literacy in Late Medieval Castile, Bulletin of Hispanic Studies LXII (1985), 83. 16 On the manuscript tradition of Cartagenas translation see Alonso de Cartagena, Libros de Tulio: De Senetute, De los Oios, Mara Morrs (ed.) (Alcal de Henares Madrid: Universidad de Alcal de Henares, 1996), 101-149; on the Latin model of Pedros work see Jorge A. Osrio, A prosa do infante D. Pedro. A propsito do Livro dos Ofcios, Biblos LXIX (1993), 107-127; 111112; see also Mara Morrs, Traduccin de los clsicos y tradicin textual, Jos Mara Maestre, Joaqun Pascual Barea, Luis Charlo Brea (eds.), Humanismo y pervivencia del mundo clsico. Homenaje al Profesor Luis Gil (Cdiz: 1997), 531-538; 534. 17 Alonso de Cartagena, Libros de Tulio: De Senetute, De los Oios, Mara Morrs (ed.) (Alcal de Henares Madrid: Universidad de Alcal de Henares, 1996), 17-18. 18 Francis M. Rogers, The travels of the Infante Dom Pedro of Portugal (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1961).

Joo Dionsio Tables of Contents in Portuguese Late Medieval Manuscripts


thus be aware of its different textual division. If this is true, it might have further inhibited Dom Pedro from inserting a table in the Livro dos Ofcios manuscript. At the same time, it is Dom Pedro himself who states in the prologue that in spite of his lack of satisfaction with the translation of book III, he thought it better to deliver the work with inaccuracies due to misunderstandings of the Latin text than to postpone completion until these problems were overcome. Such a statement indicates that this work was rapidly nished because of reader demands that were somewhat welcome in Dom Pedros mind. Likewise, the absence of the table in Dom Duartes handbook of equitation, also represented by a single manuscript, can be understood as one of several internal data that suggest that the book, as well as the text, was not nished. Notwithstanding the verisimilitude of the two explanations considered before in relation to the absence of a table in the Livro dos Ofcios manuscript, one should not forget that other copies could have been accompanied by tables, especially the one addressed to Dom Duarte, a hypothesis supported by a manuscript of the Livro da Vertuosa Benfeytoria that I will refer to later. Considering the corpus I have previously dened, it is actually limited to just a handful of manuscripts and no more than three texts: Livro da Montaria19 Lisbon, National Library, cod. 4352 Arrbida, Library of the Convent, 2076/[2646] Livro da Vertuosa Benfeytoria 20 Madrid, Royal Academy of History, 9/5487 Viseu, Public Library, Cofre, n.o 12 Oxford, Bodleian Library, Lyell 86 Leal Conselheiro21 Paris, National Library, Portugais 5

19 Livro da Montaria, Francisco Maria Esteves Pereira (ed.) (Lisboa: Academia das Sciencias, 1918). Adelino de Almeida Calado is about to publish a new edition of this text. 20 Livro da Vertuosa Benfeytoria, Adelino de Almeida Calado (ed.) (Coimbra: Universidade de Coimbra, 1994). 21 The two better editions are those by Joseph M. Piel (Lisboa: Bertrand, 1942) and by Maria Helena Lopes de Castro (Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional Casa da Moeda, 1998).



A thorough analysis of Livro da Montaria is hampered by codex tradition: its XV century copy is a fragment 22 and the rst complete manuscript surviving to this day that shows a table dates from the XVII century, the Arrbida copy. In order to contextualise the following observations, and to compensate the paucity of this corpus, I will have recourse to some XV century manuscripts of texts not written by members of the royal family. Starting with the name given to a table of contents, these lists were usually designated in Latin capitula, tituli or rubrice and, sometime later, received the less analytic and more synthetic title tabula.23 It is the Portuguese form of this word that we nd in most copies: one sees the word tavoa at its head in Leal Conselheiro codex and the same noun shows up in Livro da Vertuosa Benfeytoria, not as the title of the table, which is headless, but mentioned in the authors prologue. The same word occurs in Livro da Montaria, though this assertion is based on the late copy mentioned before. All in all, tavoa, by itself or inserted in an expression, is the most usual noun used to indicate the table of contents. In books of the same period one may nd a more complete expression serving as the title (Taboa dos capitolos, [table of chapters], in Vidas e paixes dos Apstolos;24 tavoa das rubricas, in the rubric that precedes the table of the second and third parts of the Portuguese translation of Christine de Pizans Livre des trois vertus)25 or a synonym (tavoada, set of tables, mentioned in the rubric that precedes the table of contents in Corte Enperial).26 As to location, all the books considered, with no exception, present the table of contents at the beginning, a rule that was eventually altered over the following centuries. Indeed, current use in Portuguese books up to some years ago was to put the table of contents at the end of the
22 Ramn Lorenzo, Un fragmento dun manuscrito medieval do Livro da Montaria de D. Joo I de Portugal, Verba 27 (2000), 9-32. 23 24 25

Olga Weijers, op. cit., 15. Vidas e Paixes dos Apstolos, Isabel Vilares Cepeda (ed.) (Lisboa: INIC, 1982), 3.

Christine de Pizan, O Livro das Tres Vertudes a Insinana das Damas, Maria de Lourdes Crispim (ed.) (Lisboa: Caminho, 2002), 205, 259.

Corte Enperial, Adelino de Almeida Calado (ed.) (Aveiro: Universidade de Aveiro, 2000), 5.

Joo Dionsio Tables of Contents in Portuguese Late Medieval Manuscripts 97

book. Not surprisingly, several editions of the texts I am dealing with have shifted their tables of contents from the beginning to the end of the text (e.g., Piels edition of Leal Conselheiro). Out of curiosity, let me draw your attention to a passage in the XVII century copy of Livro da Montaria, by Dom Joo I, where one nds explicit reference to this type of procedure: Aqui se seguia a tauoa delles, a qual pusemos no m [Here followed their table [i.e. of the parts and chapters], which we put at the end].27 I will now focus on the correspondence of data in the table and data in the text. Since tables function through synecdoche, that is, showing a part of the text (the title) for the whole textual unity (the chapter), one might expect tables to further economise information and omit data that appear in chapter titles. That may happen, but in no way is it a regular feature, and on occasions one nds the exact opposite situation, the tables being less laconic than the text. For instance, Livro da Vertuosa Benfeytoria is divided into six books and the table of contents presents a short summary of each one in Viseu and Madrid manuscripts, but this information does not appear at the beginning of each part in the text itself. If we set aside some minor graphic differences in script, there is generally a perfect textual correspondence between the data of the table and the data of the chapter rubrics, and the exceptions to this rule have little meaning. Instead of using words, the tables sporadically show numbers such as in chapter XVI of book I, where one nds iio logar [2nd place], whereas in the chapter rubric there is segundo logar. A similar case in chapter VII of book IV: in the table chapter the number appears as an ordinal, whereas in the text it is written literally; then in book V, chapter IV, the table makes use of ordinal IVo , less space and ink demanding than the one used in the text, IIIIo . However, one comes across the reverse situation, the table presenting the rubric with more letters: in book V, chapter II, que falla das obrigaoes [that speaks about the obligations], and in the text, que falla de obrigaoes, without a determinant. But the clearer exception to a possible rule of synthesis attached to the table is
27 D. Joo I, Livro da Montaria, Francisco Maria Esteves Pereira (ed.) (Lisboa: Academia das Sciencias, 1918), 3.



found in the rst chapter of book VI. The rubric transmitted by the table says: Capitullo primeyro, que he prologo, en que sse d ensinana do que sse tractar no livro seguinte [First chapter, which is prologue, where it teaches what will be dealt with in the following book]; the text states: Capitullo primeyro, que he prologo, en que sse mostra o que sse deve tractar no livro seguinte [(), where it is shown what should be dealt with in the following book]. This difference can be interpreted as a sign of the posterity of the table, probably made after the chapter titles were written in the text. Someone (one of the authors?, a scribe?) having realized that the phrase o que sse deve tractar was equivocal, may have decided to alter it in the table to make it unambiguous. Turning now to Leal Conselheiro, although in this work the general correspondence between table and textual data is maintained, the differences happen to be more relevant than in Livro da Vertuosa Benfeytoria. The introduction to the text bears no title, but it is called a prologue [prollego] in the table and only there is this word written in a script clearly larger than the one used to register the chapters. It is also served by a decorated initial, something that does not occur in the indication of other chapters, and there is no sign of reference to folio number, a regular feature as far as the indication of chapters in the table is concerned (see Figure 2). Thus a clearly different status is ascribed to the introductory text. In an approximately contemporaneous text of the Disputatio genre, Corte Enperial, this is specied in the note preceding the table in the single extant manuscript:
Este livro he chamado Corte Enperiall, em qui he desputada a ffe crista com os jentyos e judeus e mouros, segundo claramente se mostra nos capitolos em esta tavoada escriptos, por saber a quantas folhas jazem alem do primeiro prolego.28 [This book is called Corte Enperial [Imperial Court], in which Christian faith is discussed with the gentiles, the Jews and the moors, as is clearly shown in the chapters written in this table in order to know where they are found beyond the rst prologue.]

Corte Enperial, Adelino de Almeida Calado (ed.) (Aveiro: Universidade de Aveiro, 2000), 5.

Joo Dionsio Tables of Contents in Portuguese Late Medieval Manuscripts 99

Figure 2: Bibliothque Nationale de France, Portugais 5, fol. 1r



On the one hand, it suggests that it is needless to locate the prologue since it is placed by default at the beginning; on the other hand, it is as if the prologue did not belong to the text, something to which I will return later in this paper. Resuming the features of the Leal Conselheiro table, we see that the larger size of the chapter number reference when compared to the chapter title does not appear to be the better procedure for someone who intends to stimulate non-linear reading, but this was probably not Dom Duartes goal. It may have seemed more important to him to show the existence of a rm structure in his book than to convey information on the subject of each chapter. The difference in sizes in the table serves this purpose. Indeed, one function a table may have, if only in formal terms, is to attribute cohesion to the text, something that might occasionally be of relevance. One such case is precisely that of Leal Conselheiro, which amounts to being a compilation of texts written at different moments, most of them not originally programmed to form part of a book. In a text such as this one, cohesion results from textual data, namely found in the prologue, from non-textual data, of codicological type, and, last, but not least, from para-textual data, found for instance in the table of contents. Curiously, the possibility of non-linear reading that is facilitated through the existence of the table of contents conicts with the explicit passage in Leal Conselheiro where Dom Duarte advises the public to read the treatise from the beginning to the end. This is due partly to Dom Duartes perception of the feeble textual unity of the text he had written. As had already happened in Livro da Vertuosa Benfeytoria, there are no signicant differences between chapter titles in the table and the corresponding chapter titles in the text. One exception appears in chapter 64, the title of which is presented in the table as das deinoes speciaes dos VII pecados, primeiro da soberva [on the special denitions of the seven sins; rst, pride], whereas the text adds something at the beginning of the title: Seguem-se as deinoes () [Now follow the denitions]. Another exception has to do with the formula cuja alma Deos haja [whose soul be with God], in the title of chapter 98, which is absent in the table: chapter 98 was originally written some two years after Dom Joo I died; for the scribe who copied or made the
Joo Dionsio Tables of Contents in Portuguese Late Medieval Manuscripts 101

table and for the time, rather later, when the table was written down, this formula could be dispensed with. There could have been another exception with chapter 95, but perhaps the abbreviation .s., instead of corresponding to scilicet, as most editors in Portugal generally think, may stand in this instance for the Portuguese phrase convem a saber [that is, I mean, namely], which appears in the text chapter title (see Figures 3 and 4).29 Occasionally chapter numbers are not inserted according to the same system in the text and in the table. In fact, in number forty and the following units, the analytic form XXXX appears in the table, whereas in the text, it is the synthetic R that prevails. Let me remark, however, that number 90 and the following numbers are of the LR type in both places. A special characteristic of Leal Conselheiro is that it is composed of a treatise and of some additions, the latter having deserved a private table with the formal aspect of a chapter, number 91 (see Figure 5). As a conventional table, it appears at the beginning of the additions section and enumerates the following chapters progressively one by one; but, unlike a conventional table, each chapter is presented through a brief summary and numbered independently inside this concluding part of the text. This means that the number these chapters receive in the general table is not mentioned here, with another absence being that in this chapter there is no indication of folio number where to nd each one. As to the function of these tables, one could speak of an anticipatory role that is somewhat shared by prologues. Evidence of this role can be found in XII century academic prologues, dealt with by A. J. Minnis in his inuential study on the theory of authorship in the Middle Ages. The texts analysed were written in order to lead listeners and readers to authoritative works. As to the rst type, it evolves around two headings, ante opus and in ipso opere, with matters of order being dealt with under this latter heading. In a more extended version of this type of prologue,
29 See Adelino de Almeida Calado, Introduo, infante D. Pedro and frei Joo Verba, Livro da Vertuosa Benfeytoria (Coimbra: Universidade, 1994), XCI.



Figure 3: Bibliothque Nationale de France, Portugais 5, fol. 2r (see in the middle of the right column: Cap.o LRVo . das duas barcas .s. da ssa e da rota [on the two boats, .s., the sane one and the broken one]

Joo Dionsio Tables of Contents in Portuguese Late Medieval Manuscripts 103

Figure 4: Bibliothque Nationale de France, fol. 87r, beginning of chapter 95, which bears the title das duas barcas cue a ssaber da sa e da rrota [on the two boats, that is, the sane one and the broken one]



Figure 5: Bibliothque Nationale de France, fol. 84v, beginning of chapter 91, da tauoa e declaraom das cousas que adiante s scriptas [on the table and presentation of things that are written ahead]
Joo Dionsio Tables of Contents in Portuguese Late Medieval Manuscripts 105

observations are made on the number of books and on the order of the books. This sort of inquiry is absent in the second type of prologue analysed, one that is built up on a series of seven questions: who, what, why, in what manner, where, when and whence (or by what means). Although one might think of some sort of vague correspondence between modus (in what manner) and the structure of the text, this question has specically to do with the particular mode in which the author wrote (for instance, verse or prose). A third type of academic prologue, and the most popular one, includes among its headings ordo, that is, the order of the work, the way it is disposed or arranged. In fact, ordo libri supposed presentation of the way the author deployed his materials. In spite of the fact that this heading was lled in a variety of ways, sometimes (depending on text genre, for example) it involved stating the number of chapters contained in a text.30 As a successor to the latter, in the so called Aristotelian prologue, book structure came under observation when one dealt with the causa formalis, which referred both to the forma tractandi, the writers method of treatment or procedure, and the forma tractatus (also named ordinatio partium or divisio textus), the arrangement or organisation of the work, the way in which the author had structured it.31 Although these are academic prologues, some of their facets appear in non-academic prologues, such as those that introduce the texts I have been taking into consideration. There are explicit allusions to ordering as a source of time saving and accuracy when consulting a work in the introduction to Vidas e Paixes dos Apstolos. One such allusion in Livro da Vertuosa Benfeytoria is particularly interesting for it is corroborated by the position of the table, immediately after the prologue and before the text itself, in the copy that allegedly belonged to Duarte, by then already absorbed in time-consuming political activities as the right arm of King Dom Joo (who was in his seventies). This follows on from a long tradition, as speed in consultation is an issue frequently mentioned in
30 A. J. Minnis, Medieval theory of authorship. Scholastic literary attitudes in the later Middle Ages (Aldershot: Scolar Press, 1988), 30, 15-19, 22-23. 31

A. J. Minnis, op. cit., 29, 118.



prologues that refer to the usefulness of tables.32 According to Dominicus Gundissalvus, who wrote De divisione philosophiae in the XII century, a book is divided into parts or chapters in order to make it easier to locate something among its contents. In such a case it is easier to have recourse to a denite chapter than to read through the whole volume, and with the help of distinct chapters, he concluded, the memory is much strengthened.33 The neighbouring function of tables of contents and prologues as an anticipation of what the reader may nd in a specic book is sometimes stressed by codicological data, that is, by physical closeness. The Viseu codex of Livro da Vertuosa Benfeytoria has four non-numbered folios at the beginning, where the prologue and table of contents found their place, with the text itself starting at folio 5, the rst of the numbered leaves. As for the Madrid codex of same text, it bears codicological evidence of this exact situation, for it is made up of one quire of four folios, with the dedication to Dom Duarte and the chapter list, followed by eighteen other quires of eight folios each and concluded by a single folio. Regarding the Bodleian copy of Dom Pedros work, it starts at the folio 2r and ends at folio 166v, lacking beginning and end, both prologue and chapter list being absent.34 The fact that this situation crosses borders is illustrated by a codex with the Castilian text of Martn Prezs Libro de las Confesiones, which lacks both prologue and tables: Madrid, National Library, ms. 9264.35 More important to me than to inquire into the presence or absence of genre status in tables of contents, is to remark how this type of tool is a sign of a change in mentality. As Weijers puts it, these tables are part of a need to systemise that had been perceived since the XII century in Europe and that became evident in Portuguese non-religious milieus at
32 33 34

Olga Weijers, op. cit., 12. A. J. Minnis, op. cit., 23, 32.

Adelino de Almeida Calado, Introduo, infante D. Pedro and Frei Joo Verba, Livro da Vertuosa Benfeytoria (Coimbra: Universidade, 1994), LXXIII, LXXVIII. Martn Prez, Libro de las Confesiones. Una radiografa de la sociedad medieval espaola, Antonio Garca y Garca, Bernardo Alonso Rodrguez and Francisco Cantelar Rodrguez (eds.) (Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 2002), XV.

Joo Dionsio Tables of Contents in Portuguese Late Medieval Manuscripts 107

the end of the XIV century and mainly at the beginning of the Quattrocento. A key gure in this process in Portugal is Dom Duarte, generally as a sponsor of written culture, something that can be ascertained through the development of royal bureaucracy during his time,36 and as an active supporter of book culture. It is not without meaning that he wrote an essay on how to read religious books, inserted in Leal Conselheiro as chapter 94. It is also noteworthy that different para-textual devices, including several tables of contents, appear in codex Alc. 386, which, by the way, has Duartes essay on reading at its beginning. This manuscript, now at the National Library in Lisbon, belonged to the Monastery of Alcobaa, probably the most important centre of book production in medieval Portugal. If the hypothesis I have presented elsewhere proves correct, this codex, that transmits a Portuguese version of Cassianus Collationes VIII-XVII, is based on a Court manuscript commissioned by Dom Duarte.37 In contrast with the features of this manuscript, the monastery of Alcobaa possessed a codex (Alc. 385) that contained the previous Collationes, with text division singly supported by chapter numbers, and thus with no table at all. But the most conspicuous example of the role Dom Duarte played, as far as tables are concerned, is found in Ordenaes Eduardinas, a compilation of laws completed around 1436. This work is transmitted by three copies, and the most authoritative manuscript bears a table at its beginning that states:
Esta tauoa compos o muy alto e muy excellente el rey dom Eduarte. E he feita segundo o conto das folhas das rubricas. E onde folhas nom forem nomeadas entende-se que a rrubrica he scripta na folha susoscripta. E porque alguas lex passam duas e tres folhas se nom fara meenom mas saltara aa outra folha onde se a outra ley comea. 38 [This table was composed by the high and excellent King Dom Duarte. And it is done according to the number of the leaves of the rubrics. And where leaves are not numbered [in this table] it means that the rubric is
36 Judite Antonieta Gonalves de Freitas, A burocracia do Eloquente (1433-1438). Os textos, as normas, as gentes (Cascais: Patrimonia, 1996). 37 Joo Dionsio, D. Duarte, leitor de Cassiano (Lisboa: Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Lisboa, 2000) (Ph. D. dissertation). 38 Ordenaes del-rei Dom Duarte, Martim de Albuquerque and Eduardo Borges Nunes (eds.) (Lisboa: Fundao Calouste Gulbenkian, 1988), 1.



written [in the text] in the previously numbered leaf [in the table]. And because some laws take two or three leaves, it [the number of the second or third leaf] is not mentioned, but will jump to the next leaf where the following law begins.]

I would like to stress the importance consciously accorded to economical procedures in the introduction to this table and the unique status it has in so far as it presents us with its authors name. On the one hand, tables were thus viewed as a textual artefact which deserved an author, on the other the name of the author meant that it was not debasing for a King (at least in Duartes eyes) to be known as the maker of a table. At the same time, it showed Duarte as a both relevant promoter and agent of new forms of accessing textual information in the rst half of XV century Portugal.39

39 Aires A. Nascimento, Nova idade, nova linguagem: entre afecto e alto desempenho de funes, a palavra no sc. XV portugus, Aires A. Nascimento, Helena C. Langrouva, Jos V. de Pina Martins and Thomas F. Earle (eds.), Humanismo para o nosso tempo. Homenagem a Lus de Sousa Rebelo, (Lisboa: Fundao Calouste Gulbenkian, 2004), 41.

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The Book in the Poetological Concept of Stefan George

Some Remarks on the Physical and Iconic Side of the Published Text with an Editorial Conclusion
Rdiger Nutt-Kofoth

For hundreds and even thousands of years texts have been edited. From this tradition, textual criticism has developed into one of the main tasks of the editor, after indeed at rst being the principal task. To fulll this task, the editor examines all the records of a text. He or she uses the individual text carriers handed down to produce from them the text or the texts later printed in the edition. In 1971, Hans Zeller described this procedure in his article Record and Interpretation, which has become fundamental to German editorial philology, in the following way:
The material manuscript itself, not the text of the manuscript, is the record. The manuscript requires [editorial] interpretation, however, and the result of the interpretation is the text. This act of interpreting the manuscript is the constitution of the text. [] The manuscript is not the text; it holds, it signies the text.1

Zeller wrote this with regard to the manuscript as an object of editorial examination. He particularly referred to manuscripts that were difcult to decipher owing to numerous corrections with an obscure chronology. Yet he did not have in mind the specic nature of a manuscript, but its general character as a text carrier. In this respect, it does not
1 Hans Zeller, Record and Interpretation: Analysis and Documentation as Goal and Method of Editing, Hans Walter Gabler, George Bornstein, and Gillian Borland Pierce (eds.), Contemporary German Editorial Theory (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1995), 1758, 43; original german version: Hans Zeller, Befund und Deutung: Interpretation und Dokumentation als Ziel und Methode der Edition, Gunter Martens and Hans Zeller (eds.), Texte und Varianten: Probleme ihrer Edition und Interpretation (Mnchen: C.H. Becksche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1971), 4589, 79: Nicht der Text der Handschrift, sondern die Handschrift selbst ist der Befund. Die Handschrift bedarf der Interpretation: das Ergebnis der Interpretation ist der Text. Diese Interpretation der Handschrift ist Textkonstituierung. [] Die Handschrift ist nicht der Text, sie enthlt, sie bedeutet den Text.

make any difference whether an impression or a manuscript is chosen as the basis of an edited text. In both cases, the edited text has to be gained from the text carrier handed down. Thus, the edited text and the text carrier basic to it belong to different categories. Therefore, the text does not lose any of its characteristic features when it is taken out of the context of its transmission and critically presented in the edition. By means of editorial treatment, it is able to cast off the garment of its transmission and appear to us in a new, better and more correct dress, namely that of the critical edition. Undoubtedly, this concept is based on a certain understanding of the text, that is, a primarily linguistic one. Yet what happens if, according to the records handed down, the text to be edited cannot be reduced to its linguistic character, because it obviously shows other features which are inextricably bound up with the physical character of the records and in the extreme case even have their focal point in this material side? Among these physical features are the iconic and tangible characteristics of original text presentation. In the printed book, these characteristics manifest themselves in the whole layout, the paper, the binding of the book and the form of the cover. This includes the typography as well as any kind of artistic book shaping. The physical and iconic character of a text achieves editorial signicance if, like its pure, namely linguistic character, it was created by the author him- or herself, if the text is charged and connected with iconic and tangible meaning and thus gains its authentic and authorized form in this artistic unity. In this respect, the following considerations are, for example, close to Susanne Wehdes view on the signicance of typography. Wehde said in 2000 that types can act as semantic quantities and the arrangement of types is able to present semantic processes, values and relations.2 Referring to Jerome McGanns distinction between bibliographic code and linguistic code, George Bornstein stated in his book Material Modernism (2001) the even more fundamental idea that the
2 Susanne Wehde, Typographische Kultur: Eine zeichentheoretische und kulturgeschichtliche Studie zur Typographie und ihrer Entwicklung (Tbingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 2000, Studien und Texte zur Sozialgeschichte der Literatur, 69), 11: Ich gehe von der These aus, da Schriftcharaktere selbst als semantische Gre wirken und die Anordnung der Schriftzeichen die Darstellung semantischer Ablufe, Wertigkeiten und Beziehungen zu leisten vermag.



whole bibliographic code of the text can be understood as an important constituent of meanings which offers important supplements to the linguistic code.3 In this sense, this paper also wants to argue for integration of the iconic or semantic features of the physical text with more traditional and purely lingustic considerations, as George Bornstein and Theresa Tinkle put it in their collection of articles The Iconic Page in Manuscript, Print and Digital Culture (1998).4 The German poet Stefan George (18681933) may serve as an example of such an overlapping of pure text and text carrier and, additionally, of the integration of text and text carrier into a comprehensive poetological concept. This concept is characterized by a number of further strategies like the distribution structure of his publications or the formation of a closed circle of poets whose centre was George himself. Let me now give you an outline of these interrelations. His personal contact with the Paris circle of symbolists around Stphane Mallarm led to a formative inuence of French symbolism on young Stefan George. From the concept of the French Lart pour lart George subsequently developed his own concept of art and combined it with a carefully thought out strategy which comprised the whole area of public relations. This can particularly be illustrated by Georges magazine Papers for Art (Bltter fr die Kunst), which rst appeared in 1892. George explained the programme of this magazine in its rst issue:
The name of this publication already gives some indication of what it aims at: serving art, particularly poetry and literature, excluding anything concerning the state and society. / It strives for SPIRITUAL ART based on the new way of feeling and creating an art for its own sake [].5
3 George Bornstein, Material Modernism: The Politics of the Page (Cambridge: University Press, 2001), 2 and 1. Cf. Jerome J. McGann, The Textual Condition (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1991, Princeton Studies in Culture / Power / History), 1314. 4 George Bornstein and Theresa Tinkle (eds.), The Iconic Page in Manuscript, Print, and Digital Culture (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1998), 3. For some of the following reections cf. also Rdiger Nutt-Kofoth, Text lesen Text sehen: Edition und Typographie, Deutsche Vierteljahrsschrift fr Literaturwissenschaft und Geistesgeschichte 78 (2004), 319. 5 Bltter fr die Kunst, [series 1], vol. 1, oktober 1892, 1: Der name dieser verffentlichung sagt schon zum teil was sie soll: der kunst besonders der dichtung und dem schrifttum dienen, alles staatliche und gesellschaftliche ausscheidend. / Sie will die GEISTIGE KUNST auf grund der neuen fhlweise und mache eine kunst fr die kunst .

Rdiger Nutt-Kofoth The Book in the Poetological Concept of Stefan George 113

This programme, however, did not solely refer to the printed texts, but was also consistently mirrored in the way the magazine was organized. The Papers for Art already reect his idea of a closed circle of poets by which George provided an organizational backdrop for his concept of art and at the same time gave to it a part of its character. The magazine initiated some kind of a circle long before the George circle formed itself, in which George was revered by his disciples as the master. The Papers were virtually inaccessible to the public, because they were published only in a small number of copies and, furthermore, were delivered only to a closed circle of readers invited by the members,6 as was programmatically stated on the title page, and could be bought only in three bookshops in Paris (later Munich instead), Vienna and Berlin. Their elite character was distinctly emphasized by this form of publication.7 At the same time, the Papers were sent to select persons who made them known to a public outside the narrow circle of collaborators. By deliberately withdrawing the Papers from the general conditions of selling magazines, George managed to give them an exclusiveness which set them off against other periodicals and made them clearly distinguishable. Since a special attractiveness was attributed to them, the Papers had to be considered an extraordinary publication which corresponded to its contents, the presentation of a new form of art allegedly referring only to itself. In this respect, Georges publication strategy becomes discernible as being extremely effect-orientated.8 The understanding of the magazine and its collaborators being a closed group seemed to be in
6 Diese zeitschrift im verlag des herausgebers hat einen geschlossenen von den mitgliedern geladenen leserkreis. This note can be found on the title pages of the individual issues of the Papers which were called volumes.

How consistently this concept was kept up to the end, is made clear by the note on the last page of the last issue of the Papers: All issues as well as the works of the individual poets writing for the Publishing House of The Papers of Art are out of print. Smtliche folgen sowie die werke der einzelnen dichter im Verlage der Bltter fr die Kunst sind vergriffen (Bltter fr die Kunst, series 11 and 12, 1919, 320).
8 How strategically planned all of George's publications were, is shown in detail by: Dieter Mettler, Stefan Georges Publikationspolitik: Buchkonzeption und verlegerisches Engagement (Mnchen, New York, London, Paris: K.G. Saur, 1979, Buch und Zeitschrift in Geistesgeschichte und Wissenschaft, 2). Some contemporary views on the criticism of Georges publication strategy can be found in: Peter-Andr Alt, Hofmannsthal und die Bltter fr die Kunst, Klaus Deterding (ed.), Wahrnehmungen im Poetischen All: Festschrift fr Alfred Behrmann zum 65. Geburtstag (Heidelberg: Univer-



keeping with the idea of art for arts sake and the exclusion of anything concerning society which the magazine announced.9 Yet the distribution practice itself already shows that economic factors were not denied, but deliberately used to create a counter-concept which only supposedly strove for a retreat from social conditions and actually aimed at having a much more lasting effect by arousing interest in the above-mentioned manner. Georges publication practice has meaningfully been described with the formula exclusiveness as trademark.10 The publication of Georges own works followed very much the same pattern. Before the rst public edition of a work by George came out in 1898, he had written already four volumes of poetry since 1890 which had appeared only as private impressions with 100 and 200 copies respectively. In 1898 George came into contact with the newly founded publishing house of Georg Bondi, which subsequently brought out all public editions of Georges works. Nevertheless, George kept on publishing a new work rst as a private impression and only afterwards as a public edition. Like the individual copies of the Papers for Art, the private impressions of his works were thus made inaccessible to the broad public and achieved the same exclusiveness. This exclusiveness, however, manifested itself not only in the publication strategy, but also in the book itself. Georges collection of poems The Tapestry of Life and the Songs of Dream and Death, with a Prelude (Der Teppich des Lebens und die Lieder von Traum und Tod mit einem Vorspiel) may serve as a striking example. In 1899 the private edition of The Tapestry of Life, 300 copies of which were to appear in Georges private Publishing Company of the Papers for Art, was produced by the book artist Melchior Lechter. In 1917, almost 20 years later, Lechter emphasized in a summary of his programme of book art the overlapping of textual meaning
sittsverlag C. Winter, 1993, Beitrge zur neueren Literaturgeschichte, series 3, vol. 129), 3049, 30.
9 10

See note 5.

This is the title of a chapter in: Bodo Wrffel, Wirkungswille und Prophetie: Studien zu Werk und Wirkung Stefan Georges (Bonn: Bouvier Verlag Herbert Grundmann, 1978, Abhandlungen zur Kunst-, Musik- und Literaturwissenschaft, 249), 2541: Exklusivitt als Markenzeichen.

Rdiger Nutt-Kofoth The Book in the Poetological Concept of Stefan George 115

Figure 1: Stefan George, Der Teppich des Lebens und die Lieder von Traum und Tod mit einem Vorspiel, [private impression: Berlin: Verlag der Bltter fr die Kunst, printed by von Holten] 1900 [delivered November 1899], title page, leaf 3r (g. 14: copy No 11, Universitts- und Landesbibliothek Mnster, call number: 50 Fol 31)



and artistic book shaping, which is also a specic feature of Georges concept of poetry:
In a book which is a work of art there are no accessories: everything is in its right place and equivalent in meaning. [] The book artist has to start from the very heart of the book, which is the work of literature, and to absorb it thoroughly if he wants to give an organic vision of this artistic centre. Even when only looking at the book, at the pages we shall be surrounded by the invisible soul of their verse or prose as if it were silent music, and there should be not a single moment of doubt as to its nature.11

On 19 September 1899, George mentioned to Karl Wolfskehl that Lechters book art was of prime importance to the private edition of The Tapestry of Life: It is M.[elchior] L.[echter] who really gives greatness to my new book. A monument of highest dimensions which can hardly be put into words and explained to someone far away.12 The volume contains three sections of 24 poems, with each poem consisting of four quatrains. Lechter represented this strict text structure by means of a symmetrical shaping of the pages.13 Each page takes the form of a two-part altarpiece. On the typographic level, the symmetrical structure is underlined by the titles of the poems that are placed on the outer sides of each page. This sacred,14 diptych-like shaping of the pages, which offers the printed text by George instead of the holy picture, is completed by arabesque Art Nouveau elements. The snakes and twigs
11 Quoted by Wolfhard Raub, Melchior Lechter als Buchknstler: Darstellung, Werkverzeichnis, Bibliographie (Kln: Greven Verlag, 1969), 15: Im Buche als Kunstwerk ist nichts Beiwerk: alles hat an richtiger Stelle gleiche Bedeutung. [] im letzten Grunde bildet das Dichtwerk den inneren Ausgangspunkt und somit auch das Kriterium fr das Buch, von dem der bildende Knstler, wenn es wirklich von ihm aufgenommen worden ist, bei organischer Sichtbarmachung des Werkes auszugehen hat. / Schon beim Anblick des Buches, der Seiten, soll uns die unsichtbare Seele der Verse, der Prosa wie stumme Musik umfangen und uns keinen Augenblick ber ihren Charakter im Zweifel lassen. 12 Quoted in Stefan George, Smtliche Werke in 18 Bnden, vol. 5: Der Teppich des Lebens und die Lieder von Traum und Tod mit einem Vorspiel (Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta, 1984), appendix, 88: das grosse erst aus meinem neuen buch schaft M. L. Ein hchstes denkmal von dem man in die ferne schwer einen begriff geben kann. 13 A description can also be found in: Bert Treffers, Melchior Lechters Buchkunst: Eine Einfhrung, Castrum Peregrini 179180 (1987), issue: Melchior Lechter: Der Meister des Buches. 18651937, 519, 1517. 14

On the importance of sacred elements to Georges book conception cf. Mettler 1979 (note

8), 43.

Rdiger Nutt-Kofoth The Book in the Poetological Concept of Stefan George 117

Figure 2: Stefan George, Der Teppich des Lebens und die Lieder von Traum und Tod mit einem Vorspiel, [private impression: Berlin: Verlag der Bltter fr die Kunst, printed by von Holten] 1900 [delivered November 1899], leaf 5r



Figure 3: Stefan George, Der Teppich des Lebens und die Lieder von Traum und Tod mit einem Vorspiel, [private impression: Berlin: Verlag der Bltter fr die Kunst, printed by von Holten] 1900 [delivered November 1899], leaf 11v

Rdiger Nutt-Kofoth The Book in the Poetological Concept of Stefan George 119

winding at the bottom and in the margins of the page mirror the weaving metaphor of the tapestry of life. Carsten Strathausen described these interrelations between text and book art as follows:
This rigid and highly regulated structure points to the interconnectedness of the poems themselves and endows them with a kind of material presence. They are not only part of the larger collection, but literally constitute the book as a whole. The poems are the architectural inside, the inner skeleton of an outer shell that is commonly called a book. [] As in medieval manuscripts, Georges letters merge with the surrounding space, and his words literally nd their place between other objects, such as the two candelabras on the title page, or they form a square whose surface resembles the carpet described in the title poem.15

The symmetrical layout corresponds with the voluminous format that approaches a square in large quarto (36,5 x 38 cm). Apart from the title page, there are three full-page subtitle pictures and a concluding picture. The use of vat paper and coloured, namely red letters in the title and at the beginning of the poems adds to the aura of exclusiveness that characterizes the most lavish edition of George to that date. Even the almost square form of the editorial commentary takes up the format of the book. The text of the commentary surrounds the individual number of each of the 300 copies on three sides and furthermore makes it a part of its base. With the help of this numbering, the individual copy, which by its nature is identical with any of an arbitrarily large number of copies, appears to have the qualities of a unique specimen. This impression was deepened by the remark: On publication the [printing] plates were destroyed.16 This remark was meant to show that no further copies
15 Carsten Strathausen, The Look of Things: Poetry and Vision around 1900 (Chapel Hill & London: The University of North Carolina Press, 2003, University of North Carlolina Studies in the Germanic Languages and Literatures, 126), 1819. 16 The whole editorial commentary, which is set in red capital letters and contains no hyphenation, goes as follows: The whole layout of the book, including the title, full-page pictures, framing, and ornamental letters, was done by Melchior Lechter. Under his direction the work was printed at Otto F. Holten's printery in Berlin in november eighteen ninety-nine. Three hundred copies were made and given a serial number. The same format, paper, and cover as the ones on hand were used. On publication the printing plates were destroyed. Die gesammte Ausstattung als Titel Vollbilder Umrahmungen und Zierbuchstaben ist von Melchior Lechter unter dessen Leitung das Werk im November achtzenhundertneunundneunzig bei Otto v. Holten in Berlin gedruckt wurde Es bestehen dreihundert Abzge mit der laufenden Zahl versehen alle in vorliegendem Format



could be produced. Thus, it explicitly denied the serial character of the individual printed copy. The public edition of this work was brought out by Bondi Publishing Company in November 1900, but was given the publication date 1901. It does without Lechters book art and thus deliberately reduces the value of this and the following nine new editions of the book up to the volume of the complete edition (1932). The public edition contains the dedication Melchior Lechter instead. Now the name of the book artist is combined with the work on the semantic level instead of his book art being transferred to the public edition on the iconic level: Since this general edition has to go without the embellishments of the rst one [], I may be granted the privilege of writing the illustrious name ahead of these pages, a name so closely connected with them and worthy of gracing them forever.17 Thus, it becomes clear how the shaping of the book is related to the respective form of publication. According to Georges concept, the private impression is undoubtedly to be preferred to the copies printed in mass production, because it is much closer to the aura of the handmade unique specimen and thus to the manuscript itself. Right from the beginning, the manuscript itself played an important part in Georges literary concept. Since it was produced earlier than the private impression, it can represent the original even as a copy. Therefore, in 1891 George made 25 zincographic copies from the handwritten copy of the rst texts he translated from Charles Baudelaires Flowers of Evil (Fleurs du Mal).18 As late as 1909, George followed the same practice
Papier und Einband Nach dem Erscheinen wurden die Platten vernichtet (Stefan George, Der Teppich des Lebens und die Lieder von Traum und Tod mit einem Vorspiel, [Berlin: Verlag der Bltter fr die Kunst, printed by von Holten] 1900 [delivered November 1899], at the end of the unpaginated book, copy No 11, Universitts- und Landesbibliothek Mnster, call number: 50 Fol 31). In this sense, Lechter also regarded the individual printed copy as an artistic original. Cf. Karlhans Kluncker, Dichtung und Buchschmuck. Melchior Lechter zum 50. Todestag, Castrum Peregrini 179180 (1987), issue: Melchior Lechter: Der Meister des Buches. 18651937, 2060, 47.
17 Stefan George, Gesamt-Ausgabe der Werke: Endgltige Fassung, [vol. 5]: Der Teppich des Lebens und die Lieder von Traum und Tod mit einem Vorspiel (Berlin: Georg Bondi, 1932), 7: Da diese allgemeine ausgabe den schmuck der ersten entbehren muss [] so sei es mir vergnnt den erlauchten namen vor diese seiten zu schreiben der mit ihnen so eng verbunden ist und der sie auf immer ziere. This dedication can be found on p. 5. 18 Charles Baudelaires Blumen des Bsen, umgedichtet von [recast by] Stefan George. Zinkographic reproduction of the manuscript by C.A. Klein in 25 copies. [Berlin 1891].

Rdiger Nutt-Kofoth The Book in the Poetological Concept of Stefan George 121

Figure 4: Stefan George, Der Teppich des Lebens und die Lieder von Traum und Tod mit einem Vorspiel, [private impression: Berlin: Verlag der Bltter fr die Kunst, printed by von Holten] 1900 [delivered November 1899], editorial commentary, leaf 25v



Figure 5: Manuscript of The Year of the Soul, leaf 2r , facsimile in: Stefan George, Das Jahr der Seele: Handschrift des Dichters, im Jubilumsjahr 1968, Verlag Helmut Kpper, vormals Georg Bondi, Dsseldorf, Mnchen 1968

Rdiger Nutt-Kofoth The Book in the Poetological Concept of Stefan George 123

Figure 6: Das Jahr der Seele von Stefan George, [private impression], Berlin: Verlag der Bltter fr die Kunst [private publishing house], printed by Otto von Holten, 1897, leaf 3r (Universitts- und Landesbibliothek Mnster, call number: 1E 7569)



and produced 300 copies of his own manuscript comprising translated extracts of Dantes Divine Comedy (Divina Commedia).19 From this angle, the printed book turns out to be no categorically different medium, but a transformation of the manuscript with certain deciencies, as can be illustrated by Georges collection of poetry The Year of the Soul (Das Jahr der Seele). The setting copy of the 1897 private impression of The Year of the Soul was a collection of manuscripts by George. This collection was bound like a book and is considered a rst example of monumental creation.20 The handwriting is straight, the letters are not connected, and the initials of the stanzas and verses are alternately red and blue. Melchior Lechter, who was already in charge of shaping this private impression, tried to imitate the handwriting typographically and to transfer it to the printed book.21 He adopted both the colouring of the letters and the makeup of the manuscript pages for the impression. This procedure also shows that George was eager to preserve the character of the manuscript in the printed book and to give to it the aura of the original. An important means to this end was typography. It did not have to be restricted to the special fashioning of the private impressions, but could also be used for the public editions. Therefore, George developed a special type, which was called Stefan George type. This type had been at his disposal since 1901 and could rst be found in a publication by George in 1904.22 From 1927 onwards, George continued this strategy by adding in an appendix facsimiles of handwritten versions of certain poems to his complete edition published by Bondi. Thus, the reader of
19 Dante, Stellen aus der Gttlichen Komdie in Umdichtung, zincographic reproduction of Georges manuscript in the form of a private impression of 300 copies, printed at von Holtens printery, Berlin 1909. 20 Georg Peter Landmann in the appendix of George, Smtliche Werke (note 12), vol. 4: Das Jahr der Seele, Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta, 1982, 121: ein erstes Beispiel monumentaler Gestaltung. 21 Das Jahr der Seele von Stefan George (Berlin: Verlag der Bltter fr die Kunst [private publishing house], printed by Otto von Holten, 1897). 22 For the rst time in the third (the second public) impression of The Year of the Soul, 1904; cf. Kluncker 1987 (note 16), 53. The types of this printing got lost in the Second World War. Of late, a digital reproduction of the George type has been available. It was developed by the Institute for Texual Criticism. See <> [27 September 2004].

Rdiger Nutt-Kofoth The Book in the Poetological Concept of Stefan George 125

the printed text got an impression of what the texts looked like in the original manuscript.23 The re-connection between the printed texts and the manuscript versions was effected by the Stefan George type imitating Georges handwriting. This was preceded by a stylization of the handwriting until it approached printing: George changed the ow of his handwriting to a sequence of isolated letters that resembled a contemporary job sans serif type.24 The bound manuscript of The Year of the Soul shows an early form of this handwriting. From this basis, a type could be developed that was directly connected with Georges concept of poetry. The typographic unity of the line became the main element of this printing. The curves of the letters s and g were cut back to bring them nearer to the direction of the line. With the same intention, the letter e was modelled on the Greek epsilon and thus kept open at the right top. Moreover, the capital letters A and V lost their acute angles and their upper and lower ends respectively were combined by straight lines instead. In this way, they also contributed to the blocklike character of the line. The upstrokes of the small letters k and t were shortened, and one gets the impression that this was not done with other small letters like h, d or b only because this would have rendered them unrecognizable. Consequently, the lines assumed the shapes of blocks which made Georges use of small initial letters look as monumental as the capital letters used throughout in Ro23 Cf. Mettler 1979 (note 8), 4445; see also Georges remark to Hofmannsthal concerning an edition of Hofmannsthals poems in Georges private publishing house Verlag der Bltter fr die Kunst: Here I send to you new samples of the cover as well as of the type (it is my own one which I have tried to improve on for a long time). I think you will like it. You see that it approaches my handwriting: it is undoubtedly a good way to get away from the old thing after all modern designers of letters decorated the already existing ones with certain made-up ourishes. Ich sende hier neue proben des einbandes sowie der schrift (meiner eignen an deren besserung ich schon lang arbeite) ich glaube dass sie Ihnen gefallen wird. Sie sehen dass sie meiner handschrift angeglichen ist: jedenfalls ein guter weg nachdem alle neueren zeichner von buchstaben die bereits bestehenden mit irgendwelchen erdachten schnrkeln versahen um so vom alten loszukommen (Briefwechsel zwischen George und Hofmannsthal, [ed. Robert Boehringer], 2nd expanded edition, Mnchen, Dsseldorf, 1953, 220; letter from 3 October 1904). See various volumes of the complete edition published by Bondi: Stefan George, Gesamt-Ausgabe der Werke: Endgltige Fassung (Berlin 19271934) [Stefan George, Complete Edition of his Works. Final Version, Berlin 19271934)]. 24 Cf. Friedrich A. Kittler, Aufschreibesysteme 1800 1900, 3rd, completely revised new edition (Mnchen: Fink, 1995), 327.



Figure 7: Stefan George, Gesamt-Ausgabe der Werke. Endgltige Fassung, [vol. 4:] Das Jahr der Seele, Berlin 1928, 12

Rdiger Nutt-Kofoth The Book in the Poetological Concept of Stefan George 127

man inscriptions. Georges typography aimed not only at re-connecting the printed text with the unique aura of the manuscript, but also at giving to it an easily recognizable appearance in a world of mass-produced books. In this respect, his typography became a stereotype intended to make the product George an unmistakable one. It became a xed formula in the whole system of a specic concept of literature. This system expressed itself very clearly both on the semantic level and on the level of outward form.25 For this reason, the Stefan George type has been called a representative of Georges art.26 Going beyond typography, Carl August Klein, the ofcial editor of the Papers for Art installed by George,27 underlined the importance of the whole process of book fashioning to Georges poetological concept and said that the author had to be responsible for it: Even the technical aspects of book production have partly to be undertaken by the author. Thus, he must not be accused of being vain if he rejects the printing and the paper of the common market products and claims that his creation should wear clothes suitable to its station.28 This programmatic statement had already been published in the Papers for Art in 1893. At that time, it related not only to his arguments in favour of using Roman type instead of Gothic print, but also to the peculiarities of Georges linguistic signs, namely his unconventional spelling and punctuation as well as his constant use of small initial letters. Hence, it becomes clear that the iconic (and tangible) side of Georges texts is not isolated from the linguistic one, but inextricably bound up with it. Both sides together
25 Cf. Mettler 1979 (note 8), 7677 and 103; quotation 77: so monumental erscheinen [] lassen wie die durchgehenden Grobuchstaben in rmischen Inschriften. 26 Martin Roos, Stefan Georges Rhetorik der Selbstinszenierung (Dsseldorf: Grupello Verlag, 2000), 35: Reprsentant der Kunst Georges. 27 The actual editor of the magazine was George himself. Later, Klein even had to ask George for copies of a new issue. Cf. Karlhans Kluncker, Bltter fr die Kunst: Zeitschrift der Dichterschule Stefan Georges (Frankfurt a.M.: Vittorio Klostermann, 1974, Studien zur Philosophie und Literatur des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts, 24), 63. 28 Carl August Klein, Die Sendung Stefan Georges: Erinnerungen (Berlin: Verlag die Rabenpresse, 1935), 7576: Sogar fr das Technische eines Buches ist der Verfasser mitverantwortlich, und man darf es ihm nicht als Eitelkeit vorwerfen, wenn er Druck und Papier der landlugen Markterzeugnisse verschmht und fr sein Geschpf eine standesgeme Kleidung beansprucht. The statement can also be found in: Bltter fr die Kunst, series 1, vol. 5, 144.



form the textual image of Georges works, and this textual image is in turn part of Georges concept of the aura-like effect of the book. This aura-like effect was formulated as a maxim by the Papers for Art in 1896:
We gladly undertake to entertain you with the outer appearance a good many times, because it is the never deceiving mirror of the inner core. Have you not realized yet that your German books and magazines are most detrimental to beauty, both the rough trumpery and parvenu splendour of the ones and the at and sober ordinariness of the others?29

Thus, the outer form of the books assumed a major role within the hermetic structure of the circle of poets established by George and the publication strategy30 connected with it, a process which resulted from a broader understanding of poetical form. By means of their conceptional fashioning the books became shaped objects, works of art and thus distinguishable, separable and nally unmistakable products among a spate of mass-produced books.31 Since a literary work obviously consists of more than just the linguistic dimension of the text, which has been the basis of the critical text edition up to now, one must ask oneself the fundamental question of how the other dimensions of a text should be dealt with editorially. This applies particularly to authors in whose works these different dimensions overlap and complement each other. The iconic character of the printed text, its typography and layout, could be presented in the edition with the help of facsimiles. One has to bear in mind, however, that this presentation can only be of an additional nature. On the other hand, to present facsimiles alone would mean the abandonment of a critically prepared text. Yet textual criticism is the indispensable basis of any kind of editorial work.
29 Bltter fr die Kunst, series 3, vol. 4, 98: Wir nehmen es gern auf uns noch manchmal mit dem usseren als dem nietrgenden spiegel des innern zu unterhalten. Seht ihr also noch immer nicht dass eure deutschen buch- und zeitschriftausgaben die schnheitswidrigsten sind sowol der rohe itter- und emporkmmlingsprunk der einen als die platte und nchterne alltglichkeit der andern? 30 Cf. the concise recent survey in the chapter Character of the Circle and Publication Strategy (Zirkelcharakter und Publikationsstrategie) in Rdiger Nutt-Kofoth, Dichtungskonzeption als Differenz: Vom notwendigen Scheitern einer Zusammenarbeit zwischen George und Hofmannsthal, in: Bodo Plachta (ed.), Literarische Zusammenarbeit (Tbingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 2001), 217243, esp. 229234; with additional literary references. 31

Cf. Mettler 1979 (note 8), 11: zu geformten Gegenstnden, zu Kunstwerken.

Rdiger Nutt-Kofoth The Book in the Poetological Concept of Stefan George 129

Therefore, the offering of facsimiles of the original impressions would be solely an addition to the edition which enables the reader to gain an insight into the text that the ordinary presentation of a critical text alone could not offer. In this sense, facsimiles of printed texts could take up the method of manuscript facsimiles that in the wake of the Frankfurt Hlderlin edition by D.E. Sattler (1975/76-) has been frequently adopted in modern German scholarly editing. And indeed, several critical editions have presented facsimiles of the original impressions in the meantime. The Innsbruck Trakl edition, for example, published facsimiles of the two volumes of poetry prepared by Trakl as a supplement to the edition. The Marburg Bchner edition published in advance rst impressions of works by Bchner brought out either in Bchners lifetime or posthumously. Finally, the websites of the Institute for Textual Criticism offer, as an addition to the historico-critical Kafka edition done by the Institute, facsimiles of impressions of Kafkas works that appeared in magazines or other collections during the authors lifetime.32 In contrast to the iconic character of a printed text, the tangible dimension of a book is difcult to represent in an edition. Its paper or cover would be hard to imitate. At this stage at least, the efforts would assume unjustiable proportions. Beyond the possibilities offered by photographic reproduction, the edition seems to have to restrict itself to mere descriptions when trying to give an impression of the originals tangible qualities to the reader. Finally, a publication strategy like the one behind Georges conception of the book can of course only be presented in the edition by means of depiction. Nonetheless, I think it would be an important step if scholarly editors considered much more
32 Georg Trakl, Smtliche Werke und Briefwechsel: Innsbrucker Ausgabe. Historisch-kritische Ausgabe mit Faksimiles der handschriftlichen Texte Trakls, ed. Eberhard Sauermann and Hermann Zwerschina (Basel, Frankfurt a.M.: Stroemfeld, 1995); supplement: Nachdruck der Erstausgaben: suppl. 1: Georg Trakl, Gedichte: Originalgetreuer photomechanischer Nachdruck der Ausg. Leipzig, Wolff, 1913; suppl. 2: Georg Trakl, Sebastian im Traum: Originalgetreuer photomechanischer Nachdruck der Ausg. Leipzig, Wolff, 1915 (Basel, Frankfurt a.M.: Stroemfeld, 1995). Georg Bchner, Gesammelte Werke. Erstdrucke und Erstausgaben in Faksimiles, [Dokumente zur Textgeschichte eines zensierten Werks Originalzeugen fr die Edition. 10 Bndchen in Kassette], ed. Thomas Michael Mayer (Frankfurt a.M.: Athenum, 1987). Franz Kafka, Historisch-Kritische Ausgabe smtlicher Handschriften, Drucke und Typoskripte, ed. Roland Reu und Peter Staengle (Basel, Frankfurt a.M.: Stroemfeld, 1995); facsimiles of the prints published during Kafkas life: <> [27 September 2004].



seriously the possibilities of making facsimiles not only of manuscripts, but also of impressions. This applies especially to authors like Stefan George, whose poetological concepts transcend the limits of the linguistic level and nd expression also in the material and iconic structure of the manuscript or the printed book. In this sense, the classical practice of preparing a text for an edition, as it was illustrated at the beginning by Hans Zellers statement, would have to be extended. The editor would have to take into account the fact that he or she cannot publish the naked text without considering the dress of the records handed down, because the outward appearance of the historical text can also be part of its aesthetic structure.

Translated from the German by Dieter Neiteler

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The Limited Edition Unlimited

Samuel Becketts Fugal Artefact
Dirk Van Hulle

The act of printing is often regarded as a freezing point. This metaphor is probably as old as the history of the book. A notable example is Goethes description in Dichtung und Wahrheit of the way in which Die Leiden des jungen Werthers took shape, when all of a sudden the uid text became eine solide Masse, wie das Wasser im Gefss, das eben auf dem Punkte des Gefrierens steht, durch die geringste Erschtterung sogleich in ein festes Eis verwandelt wird [a solid mass, like water in a container on the verge of freezing, which by the smallest agitation is suddenly turned into ice].1 At the same time, the history of print is also marked by an opposite tendency. Many authors show a different attitude and regard their writing as a process, in which the printed product is only a temporary freeze. For instance, Thomas Mann saw his writing as a constant process of deliquence and tried to remelt what had become a solid product and to keep productivity in a state of ux.2 This continuous polarity in attitudes is reected in different forms of reading. With reference to Samuel Becketts later prose ction, Andrew Renton recognizes the petrifying effect of publication, but also emphasizes its eetingness: What we read as a published text is a temporary solidication.3 Instead of focusing on the stasis of the nished product John Bryant calls the readers attention to a more dynamic concept of the uid text.4 In his typology of literary drafts the French genetic critic Pierre-Marc de Biasi
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Goethes Werke in 14 Bnden, ed. Erich Trunz (Hamburg: Christian Werner Verlag, 1967), IX:585.
2 Thomas Mann, ber mich selbst: Autobiographische Schriften (Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Taschenbuch, 1994), 74. 3 Andrew Renton, Disabled Figures: From the Residua to Stirrings Still, John Pilling (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Beckett (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), 167-183; 170. 4 John Bryant, The Fluid Text: A Theory of Revision and Editing for Book and Screen (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2002), 62. 1

employs the same metaphor to describe the bon tirer moment [ready for printing], the decisive moment when what had been in a pliable and mobile manuscript state up to that point becomes xed in the frozen shape of a published text.5 As with all comparisons, however, the analogy with freezing uids does not hold in every respect, since the transition from a uid into a solid substance implies that as soon as the liquid is frozen, its uid state ceases to exist. But in many cases, especially during the last two centuries, the uidity of the composition process has materialized in manuscripts that are carefully preserved. And vice versa, when an author decides to remelt his work, as in Manns case, the frozen product does not disappear either. It continues to have an existence and an inuence, both on reading and on writing processes. Even if an author considers his writing as a nigh on endless process, s/he often needs publication as an end to write toward in order to be able to continue writing. An author may be well aware of the impossibility of reaching a solid, unchanging, frozen or static form, and yet never give up trying. To investigate the ways in which a books production affects its writing and may have interpretive consequences for its reading, an adequate test case is Samuel Becketts penultimate text, Stirrings Still. The title already indicates the tension between the dynamic and the static. It can be read as an attempt to paint a still of the human mind, which proves to be impossible because of the constant stirrings due to self-consciousness. This work was published in two completely different formats: on the one hand as an expensive, limited, signed, de luxe edition, published by Blue Moon Books (in New York) and John Calder (in London),6 and on the other hand as a text in the newspapers The Guardian and the Irish Independent of 3 March 1989.7 These extremes are the two poles that determine the dialectics of this works publication history. The present study con5 Pierre-Marc de Biasi, What Is a Literary Draft? Toward a Functional Typology of Genetic Documentation, Yale French Studies 89 (1996), 26-58; 37. 6 Samuel Beckett, Stirrings Still, illustrated by Louis le Brocquy (New York: Blue Moon Books; London: John Calder, 1988). 7 Samuel Beckett, Stirrings Still, Irish Independent (Friday, March 3, 1989): 9; Stirrings Still, The Guardian (Friday, March 3, 1989), 25. The text also appeared in The Guardian Weekly.



siders the fugal relationship between these two forms of publication, and two other poles (the avant-texte and the authors own translation), as they bear on the study of Samuel Becketts poetics of process and on the idea of literature in general. The limited edition unlimited Stirrings Still is about a man (he), sitting at his table, head on hands, waiting for the one true end: And patience till the one true end to time and grief and self and second self his own.8 In the second section of the text the protagonist wonders if he is still in his right mind (262). In the third and last section he seems to hear a sentence from deep within (264), but there is one crucial word he cannot catch: oh how and here a word he could not catch it were to end where never till then (264). This last section is a speculation on the nature of that missing word, which will determine whether it might be good or bad, great or sad to end where never till then. The absence of this decisive adjective places him in a dilemma: should he go on or stir no more? Such and much more such the hubbub in his mind so-called till nothing left from deep within but only ever fainter oh to end. (265) No matter how hard he tries, he remains in a state of uncertainty and there is nothing for it but to have patience: Time and grief and self so-called. Oh all to end. (265) Stirrings Still consists of less than two thousand words, yet Beckett needed more than ve years and a few dozens of manuscript versions to complete it. After the publication of Worstward Ho in 1983, Beckett had said that the writing was over, which at rst sight corresponds with the conclusion of Worstward Ho: Said nohow on.9 But apparently he did know how on. As the publication of his last two texts evidence, he continued writing, albeit rather hesitantly. For instance, the rst manuscripts of what was to become Stirrings Still are marked by a constant oscillation between English and French. On the rst manuscript Beckett started in French and switched to English; on the second manuscript he continued
8 Samuel Beckett, Stirrings Still. The Complete Short Prose 1929-1989, ed. S. E. Gontarski (New York: Grove Press, 1995), 259-65; 261. Hereinafter, quotations from Stirrings Still are referred to by means of the page numbers of this edition. 9

Samuel Beckett, Worstward Ho Nohow On (New York: Grove Press, 1996 [1983]), 87-116; 116.

Dirk Van Hulle The Limited Edition Unlimited


in English and switched to French; and after four French versions of a section that eventually did not make it into the nal text, Beckett started writing in English again. During the rst three years of the composition process the writing proceeded slowly, apparently without a clear goal. It was only when the American publisher Barney Rosset was sacked from Grove Press in 1986 that Beckett found a destination for his writings. Rosset tried to set up a new publishing house and asked if he could perhaps publish Becketts rst novel, Dream of Fair to Middling Women. After careful consideration, Beckett decided he did not want to publish this early work, because he thought it was too awful.10 But he promised Rosset a new piece. The sociology of the text thus gave a sudden teleology to the loose pieces of prose he had been writing in both French and English for the past three years. Still, it took him another two years to nish the text, which raises the question what is to be considered the nished text. The date indicated on the limited edition is 1988, suggesting that it represents the texts rst public appearance. But the border between the texts private and public life is blurred because of the oral performances or public readings of the text before it was published. On Sunday, 2 October 1988, the Theatre of Literature Company (with Leonard Fenton, Karin Fernald, Sylvester McCoy) presented Stirrings Still at the Riverside Studios (Hammersmith, London). The performance, directed by John Calder (the English publisher of the limited edition), was part of the marketing. An Invitation to subscribe, preserved at the Beckett Archive of Reading University Library (RUL MS 3323), mentions that individuals or institutions ordering before 1 December 1988 could deduct 10 percent from the tidy sum of $1500 per copy. The text of the limited edition is printed on deckle edged Velin de Rives made by Arjomari, France, and the book is quarter-bound in parchment with a natural linen and cotton cloth, stamped with a motif by Louis le Brocquy in eighteen carat gold. Even though a rst edition usually marks the transition from the private sphere of the manuscripts

James Knowlson, Damned to Fame: The Life of Samuel Beckett (London: Bloomsbury, 1996), 699.



to the public domain, the limited edition was nonetheless a rather private enterprise, limited to 226 copies, numbered one to two hundred and lettered A to Z by hand and signed by both Samuel Beckett and the illustrator Louis le Brocquy. Moreover, an announcement that Stirrings Still by Samuel Beckett will be published by Calder follows the sneek preview of the complete text in the Irish Independent of 3 March 1989. The so-called 1988 edition of the book was published on Becketts eighty-third birthday in 1989, more than a month after the newspaper publications in the Guardian and the Irish Independent. A leaet in the American facsimile review copy preserved in the Beckett archive in Reading (RUL MS 3405) also indicates April 13, 1989 as the actual publication date of the limited edition. The Irish Independent treats the text as a regular piece of journalism: the rst paragraph is printed in a larger font, as if it were an introductory summary of the rest of the text, whose paragraphing is slightly changed as well. The text in the Guardian lacks a word (far as he could see instead of so far as he could see), introduces an unnecessary capital letter (Way instead of way), and has four instead of three sections. They have to make room for an advertisement of the London Review of Books, which says: Read the softback before you shell out for the hard followed by an image of a softback copy of the LRB. The slogan was inversely applicable to Calder Publicationss marketing strategy in that it encouraged the reader of the softback newspaper publication of Stirrings Still to shell out for the limited edition. What makes the Guardian publication so interesting is the tension between vulnerable integrity and condent sales talk, two extremes of literary production, two completely different attitudes presented on the same page: the London Review of Books recommends itself with the motto The best of all possible words; if anything, these words apply to the text by Beckett, but his device was: fail better.11


Beckett, Worstward Ho, 111.

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Explicit and Implicit Historical Connections: the Paratext The newspaper versions both lack the dedication for Barney Rosset, which is as crucial as the dedication (For Mrs. Henry Mills Alden) in the poem Trees by Joyce Kilmer. In Radiant Textuality12 Jerome McGann points out that this dedication line is not reproduced in the text of Brooks and Warrens Understanding Poetry. It is signicant that McGann allows the marginal, underground character Footnote to argue that of course the dedication is part of the poem itself . One could argue that the same applies to Stirrings Still. Becketts empathy with Barney Rossets situation played an important role in the decision to release the text from the private atmosphere of the authors workshop and prepare it for publication. This observation may not have direct interpretive consequences, but it might have some theoretical implications with respect to the status of other aspects of the so-called paratext. McGanns Footnote pleads against uncoupling poems from their explicit historical connections.13 The adjective explicit raises the question to what extent implicit historical connections can be taken into account as well. Implicit does not necessarily mean immaterial; it may include the material evidence of the writing process as it is preserved in manuscript archives. What is the poem itself ? Is it a product or a process? If a newspaper uncouples the dedication from the text, it excludes a crucial element of what Grard Genette called the paratexte.14 The paratext also includes the so-called avant-texte of manuscripts, typescripts and other preparatory material.15 Becketts last publication problematizes this issue. Comment dire (1989), originally written in French and translated into English by the author himself, is usually treated as a poem (for instance in the recent Calder edition of Samuel Becketts Poems 1930-1989), possibly because of its layout:
12 Jerome McGann, Radiant Textuality: Literature After the World Wide Web (New York: Palgrave, 2001), 42. 13 14 15

McGann, Radiant Textuality, 47. Grard Genette, Palimpsestes: La littrature au second degr (Paris: ditions du Seuil, 1982), 10. Genette, Palimpsestes, 11.



Comment dire folie folie que de que de comment dire folie que de ce depuis folie depuis ce donn folie donn ce que de vu folie vu ce ce comment dire ceci ce ceci ceci-ci tout ce ceci-ci ()16

What presents itself at rst sight as a poem appears to be a failed attempt to write one single sentence, which might just as well be prose. The writing of the text proceeds gradually and whenever the author is in a deadlock he asks himself what is the word, as Beckett translated Comment dire into English. The text thus appears as a transcription of a composition process: what is the word // folly / folly for to / for to / what is the word / folly from this / all this / folly from all this / given / folly given all this / seeing / folly seeing all this / this / what is the word / this this / this this here [].17 As in Bachs unnished triple fugue in the Art of Fugue, with the signature theme B-A-C-H, Becketts last text can be seen as the authors nal signature: an unnished sentence presented as a nished work, or a product presenting itself as a process. With his nal statement as a writer Beckett shows how his works as a whole can be regarded as a process. His works are interrelated by means of both explicit and implicit
16 17

Samuel Beckett, Poems 1930-1989 (London: Calder, 2002), 112. Samuel Beckett, Poems 113.

Dirk Van Hulle The Limited Edition Unlimited


intratextual references. In this case, the title of his last text refers to the paratext of the last but one: comment dire occurs in the rst sentence of the rst draft of Stirrings Still: Tout tout le temps toujours la mme distance comme cest comment dire? ... (RUL MS 2933/1/1) Becketts writing method often consisted in harking back to his previous texts in order to go on writing, in accordance with the famous last words of The Unnamable: I cant go on, Ill go on.18 Toward the end of his career, Beckett went further in the application of this method, culminating in Stirrings Still, which in Andrew Rentons words is almost entirely composed of echoes and reiterations of his previous work.19 In the manuscripts, the rst appearance of the dedication For Barney Rosset occurs in MS 2935/3/9, followed by the date July 1986. Until then the versions of the text had either had no title or the title End (in manuscripts RUL MS 2935/3/2 and 2935/3/5). In July 1986 Beckett called it FRAGMENT (RUL MS 2935/3/9) so that the dedication almost became part of the title: fragment for Barney Rosset. The inuence of the agents of book production on the writing process materialized in this and the subsequent typescripts. Thanks to this social circumstance the End turned out not to be the end after all, for Beckett considered one fragment too little to publish as a book, expanded the text with a second section, and added an S to the title: FRAGMENTS / For Barney Rosset / July 1986 (RUL MS 1935/3/13). The two fragments were still not enough, according to Beckett, but the third was harder to write than he expected. On 19 December 1986 Beckett wrote to Rosset: No sign of 3rd so far and fear little hope the way I am now. James Knowlson quotes this line to illustrate the difcult composition process of the last section: It was not until late 1987 that he was able to send on the nal fragment to complete the text, which was published in a signed, de luxe, limited edition with illustrations by Louis le Brocquy in 1988.20

18 19 20

Samuel Beckett, Molloy Malone Dies The Unnamable (London: Picador, 1976), 382. Renton, Disabled Figures, 172. Knowlson, Damned to Fame, 699.



These illustrations are also part of the explicit historical connections.21 Beckett had been introduced to Louis le Brocquy in 1978 and according to James Knowlson they remained on friendly terms until Becketts death.22 Louis le Brocquy made several studies of Becketts head. One of his portraits is the rst illustration in the limited edition of Stirrings Still. It is remarkable that an author serves as a model for the illustration of his text. It gives the text a more autobiographical outlook than possibly intended. Since the rst sentence (One night as he sat at his table ...) is preceded by Becketts portrait it becomes more difcult for the reader to make a clear distinction between author, narrator and protagonist. The reader is tempted to make a link between the portrait and the he. The same goes for the text in the Guardian, which is printed next to a large photograph of Becketts head. The text in the Irish Independent is interspersed with four caricatures of Beckett. The fourth is a copy of the rst, thus serving as an illustration of the second self . The text is also laid out around a photograph of Becketts head. All these illustrations seem to suggest that the text is about what goes on inside this head. Not unlike Endgame (with its setting consisting of a bare room with two small windows, resembling the interior of a skull) Stirrings Still may be interpreted as another skullscape. In view of the attempt to paint a still of the human mind an important scene is the moment when the protagonist sets out to take thought: To this end for want of a stone on which to sit like Walther and cross his legs the best he could do was stop dead and stand stock still (263). The stone is a reference to a famous poem by Walther von der Vogelweide, meditating on a profound existential question:
Ich saz f einem steine, d dhte ich bein mit beine, dar f sazte ch mn ellenbogen, ich hete in mne hant gesmogen daz knne und in mn wange, d dhte ich mir vil ange, wie man zer welte solte leben, ...
21 22

McGann, Radiant Textuality, 47. Knowlson, Damned to Fame, 656.

Dirk Van Hulle The Limited Edition Unlimited


[I sat on a stone, and crossed my legs. I put my ellbow on them and nestled my chin and cheek in my hand. Thus I probingly considered how one should live on this earth, ...]23

Louis le Brocquys illustration of a man with his head on his hand looks like a variation on this theme. So does Auguste Rodins famous sculpture of the Penseur. After poetry and painting, this third art form may help elucidate another aspect of Stirrings Still, which by analogy with Becketts skullscapes might be called a skullpture. It is the attempt of an old man to keep his brain in shape. He sculpts his mind from the inside, concluding, with a bright token of common sense, that he must indeed still be in his right mind: For could one not in his right mind be reasonably said to wonder if he was in his right mind and bring what is more his remains of reason to bear on this perplexity. (262) James Joyce as a young man referred to sculpture when he formulated his aesthetic view on mimesis, based on a translation of Aristotle: E tekne mimeitai ten phusin This phrase is falsely rendered as Art is an imitation of Nature. According to Joyce, the correct translation is Art imitates Nature, meaning that the artistic process is like the natural process (Paris Notebook, National Library of Ireland, MS 36,639/2/A, p. 24). This note, written on 27 March 1903, already contains most of the elements of what Linda Hutcheon calls process mimesis: Reading and writing belong to the processes of life as much as they do to those of art.24 The metactional reex draws attention to the articiality of the work of literature, suspending the suspension of disbelief. It consciously manifests a concern for the aesthetic presence of the writing novelist.25 The illustrations and pictures of the author in both the limited and the newspaper editions of Stirrings Still emphasize this concern. Hutcheon refers to the painting of The Betrothal of the Arnolni with its mirror and the line Johannes de eyck fuit hic as part of the composition. Similarly, a text can draw attention to its own
23 24

Walther von der Vogelweide, Werke. Band 1: Spruchlyrik (Stuttgart: Reclam, 1994), 72.

Linda Hutcheon, Narcissistic Narrative: The Metactional Paradox (New York and London: Methuen, 1984), 5.

Hutcheon, Narcissistic Narrative, 9.



composition process and invite the reader to participate in the artistic process by bearing witness to the novels self-analyzing development.26 In his aesthetic reection Joyce applies his idea of the artistic process to sculpture: It is false to say that sculpture (for instance) is an art of repose (...) for a work of sculptural art must be surveyed according to its rhythm and this surveying is an imaginary movement in space (NLI MS 36,639/2/A, p. 24). The notion of anxiety of inuence is perhaps not quite adequate to fully capture the complexity of Becketts relationship to Joyce,27 and if it is problematic to measure Joyces late texts to his early aesthetic viewpoints, comparing the latter to another authors writings is even more so. Nonetheless, Joyces early meditations on art may shed a light on a particular aspect of Becketts works in progress, notably Stirrings Still. While the text is always on its way towards becoming something of a sculptural object,28 the reader is invited to survey Becketts skullpture and to participate in the artistic process. The way Louis le Brocquy visualizes the idea of self-consciousness as a second self is a double contour around the male protagonist. But even though this double contour creates the effect of stirrings, the picture freezes the stirring consciousness at a certain moment, and thus inevitably misrepresents its elusiveness. Compared to the poet Walther von der Vogelweide, to the painter Louis le Brocquy and to the sculptor Auguste Rodin, Beckett is confronted with a bigger challenge: his subject does not even have a stone to sit on; even when the protagonist stands stock still his mind goes on. Becketts ambiguous fascination with motion and stillness is a constant in his work. The word on is one of the most important notions in his poetics of process as distinct from Progress, on which it is a probing commentary. Not unlike the tree in Waiting for Godot life does not go anywhere, it simply goes on. Stirrings Still is a tale about what goes on inside the skull, a tale of ratiocination, to use the term Edgar Allan Poe coined to describe
26 27

Hutcheon, Narcissistic Narrative, 9.

See for instance Barbara Gluck, Beckett and Joyce: Friendship and Fiction (Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press, 1979). David Hayman further explores shared traits in Joyce / Beckett / Joyce, Journal of Beckett Studies 7 (Spring 1982), <>.

Renton, Disabled Figures, 170.

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his rst detective stories, but without the dnouement, for in Becketts text the process of ratiocination does not come to an end. Self-consciousness prevents the human mind of making a still of its own stirrings. Poetics of Process and the Fugal Artefact The notion of an artefact may be an adequate term to describe the limited edition as a research object in its own right, as well as to emphasize that literature, like any other form of art, is inevitably made (Lat. facere). Websters denitions specify that an artefact is an object showing human workmanship or modication, a product of articial character due to extraneous agency. In literature, this agency is not conned to authors and readers. The aspect of human workmanship is sometimes neglected, but may have interpretive consequences. An artefact is usually dened in spatial terms. In the case of Stirrings Still the publications in the Guardian and the Irish Independent added a temporal dimension to this notion, exposing the text of the artefact (made for longevity) to the short-lived eetingness of a one-day stand in a newspaper. In order to nd a literary shape for the eeting nature of time and life a fourth art form proved to be of help. In musical terms, Stirrings Still can be described as a fugue. The rst French versions of Stirrings Still refer to celui qui navait pas toujous chou jadis dans ses tentatives de fuite et de poursuite [the one who in the past did not always fail in his attempted ights and pursuits] (MS 2933/3). The genesis of this work of literature can be read as a fugue that does not end with the limited edition of Stirrings Still. Apart from the counterpoint publication in the Guardian and the Irish Independent, the English version was also chased by the authors own French translation Soubresauts, published by Editions de Minuit. Becketts autotranslations create a no mans land between languages. The title of his only opera libretto, neither, suggests the perception that lifes volatility cannot be caught in any language, neither in English, nor in French. But instead of leaving it at that, Beckett kept trying to eff the ineffable and turned the fugal tension of neither into an integral part of his aesthetics. The tension between the theme and its fugal reiteration did not stop with the publication of the French translation. Chasing self-consciousness is as impracticable as reaching
144 VARIANTS 4 2005

the horizon or capturing the ephemeral. Elusiveness is therefore the greatest challenge to any creator of an artefact. The best approximation is similar to Zenos paradox of Achilles and the turtle: he can only come closer but never catch up with it, suggesting the structure of a fugue. This fugal structure also applies to the publication of Becketts penultimate text. The attempt to lay down a still of the self in a stable artefact was disrupted by its publication in the newspaper. In the same issue of the Guardian, Frank Kermode wrote a review of the limited edition of Stirrings Still, pointing out the irony of this prose, rich only in its unmatched parsimony, being published in a limited edition, available only to a happy few: The purchasers can henceforth meditate the destitution of their existence and simultaneously take pleasure in their privilege. Its a bit like buying a Porsche to mitigate angst.29 In the meantime the more democratic version of Stirrings Still on the previous page had already taken its head start. This does not detract from the beauty of the bodywork of the Porsche edition. The artefactual appearance of the limited edition is an integral part of the text because it relates to its newspaper counterpart the way the English version relates to the French, the text to the avant-texte, the still to the stirrings, the self to the second self his own (261), the End to Time. Becketts fascination with time dates back from his reading of Proust. The awareness of the past and its links with the present, most famously expressed in Prousts idea of the involuntary memory, also applies to the past of the texts in which this idea was developed, that is, the composition and publication process. What is common to present and past is more essential than either taken separately, Beckett wrote in his essay Proust.30 The adjective essential has less to do with essentialism than with essence in the sense of perfume. The best way to enjoy the volatility of a perfume is by allowing it to escape its ask. Any attempt to x the volatile is doomed to fail since the act of xation annuls precisely its most characteristic element, its volatility. Marcel Proust has explored this theme in numerous ways, for instance in the image of the carafes
29 30

Frank Kermode, A miserable splendour, Guardian (3 March 1989), 26 Samuel Beckett, Proust and Three Dialogues With Georges Duthuit (London: Calder, 1999), 74.

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in the Vivonne:
Je mamusais regarder les carafes que les gamins mettaient dans la Vivonne pour prendre les petits poissons, et qui, remplies par la rivire, o elles sont leur tour encloses, la fois contenant aux ancs transparents comme une eau durcie, et contenu plong dans un plus grand contenant de cristal liquide et courant, voquaient limage de la fracheur dune faon plus dlicieuse et plus irritante quelles neussent fait sur une table servie, en ne la montrant quen fuite dans cette allitration perptuelle entre leau sans consistance o les mains ne pouvaient la capter et le verre sans uidit o le palais ne pourrait en jouir.31 [I enjoyed watching the glass jars which the village boys used to lower into the Vivonne to catch minnows, and which, lled by the stream, in which they in their turn were enclosed, at once containers whose transparent sides were like solidied water and contents plunged into a still larger container of liquid, owing crystal, conjured up an image of coolness more delicious and more provoking than they would have done standing upon a table laid for dinner, by showing it as perpetually in ight between the impalpable water in which my hands could not grasp it and the insoluble glass in which my palate could not enjoy it.]32

The idea that the notion of coolness is evoked in a more delicious and simultaneously more provoking way by showing it only en fuite [in ight] is applied by Beckett in his own works, most explicitly and literally in the perpetual alliteration (untranslated by Scott Moncrieff and Kilmartin) between Stirrings and Still, the uid manuscripts and the solid edition. In Interpretation and Overinterpretation Umberto Eco compares the publication of a text to bottling: When a text is put in the bottle (...) that is, when a text is produced not for a single addressee but for a community of readers the author knows that he or she will be interpreted not according to his or her intentions but according to a complex strategy of interactions which also involves the readers.33 It seems important not to uncouple the text from its paratext and to try and see
31 Marcel Proust, la recherche du temps perdu, 4 vols., ed. Jean-Yves Tadi (Paris: Gallimard Pliade, 1989), I:166 (emphasis added). 32 Marcel Proust, Remembrance of Things Past, 3 vols., trans. C. K. Scott Moncrieff and Terence Kilmartin (London: Penguin, 1989), I:183-84 (emphasis added). 33 Umberto Eco, Interpretation and Overinterpretation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), 67.



the bottled product in the context of its composition and publication history, so that the artefact appears as both container and content. If we understand literature as an encounter between private subjectivity and public life, the study of both the composition and the publication history are crucial in order to show this perpetual alliteration between product and process.

Dirk Van Hulle The Limited Edition Unlimited


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Text and Border: The Borders of the Text

The papers in this section were drawn from the symposium Text and Border: The Borders of the Text, held at the Brenner archive of the University of Innsbruck from 24 to 26 of January 2003. The main objective of this conference was to intensify the dialogue between editors and philologists who focus on questions of edition and editing, both among themselves and in exchange with cultural scholars whose primary work is not in the eld of textual criticism. The two central questions of the conference were: (a) What are the specic possibilities created by electronic editions, to present and spread texts, and to develop new ways of interpretation? (b) What mutual insights can be attained in the area of tension between textual criticisms concerns with the historicity and materiality of texts on the one hand, and different theories and methods offered by general literary and cultural studies on the other? An editorial and literary scholar who has taught us how to bridge the gap between textual scholarship and literary studies is Hans Walter Gabler. Hence, this presentation of a discussion which he initiated and intensely shaped and is shaping is dedicated to him. According to the form of discussion chosen for the symposium, the different contributions were presented on site, but were accessible for all participants beforehand on the symposiums homepage. All papers, in addition to a revised transcript of the discussions, are available on the web, by request to the authors. The Brenner archive, which made its rooms available to us, proved an ideal location for the conference. The director, Prof. Holzner, provided us with the assistance of Mrs Gerti Kratzer and this contributed greatly to the successful realisation of the symposium. Thus, it was possible for the discussion to include members of the University of Innsbruck and other Austrian universities alongside the invited guests. Furthermore, we would like to thank Dr. Harald Saller and Dr. Andrew Williams of the Munich research project HyperNietzsche for their support in the designing of our webpage. Finally, our special thanks go to the Volkswagen Foundation for their generous nancing of this enterprise and to Variants for offering us a place to publish some of its result. Roger Ldeke Wolfgang Streit Cristina Urchuegua

The Book as Artefact

Historicizing Ezra Pounds First Thirty Cantos
George Bornstein

In a passage meditating the best way of recuperating Troubadour texts, Ezra Pound wrote: There are three ways of going back, of feeling as well as knowing about the troubadours, rst, by way of the music, second, by way of the land, third, by way of the books themselves, for a manuscript on vellum has a sort of life and personality which no work of the press attains.1 Original sources often indicate not only personality but also historical placement, as Pound himself both knew and demonstrated in his persistent archival labor. And while a work of the press lacked some of the stimuli and information of a manuscript on vellum, early printed forms of texts could still yield thicker description than more recent reprints, which was one reason that Pound reached back to Aldus and Wechel among other renaissance printers. Closer to his own time, from Morris onward a ne-press tradition in England created artful rst editions superior in design and richer in information than subsequent commercial incarnations. That particularly characterised work by Elkin Matthews in Vigo Street, John Lane at the Bodley Head, and Lolly Yeats at the Cuala Press in Ireland. In his ongoing war with commercial publishers, Pound often experimented with such venues, especially in the 1910s and 1920s. They offered him both nancial and artistic advantages, with a freer hand to exploit the material form of the text to carry additional levels of meaning. Most often those levels pertained to history and allowed Pound not only to add historical dimensions to the text but, even more importantly, to have the text act out its own historical contentions and to anchor it rmly in the events surrounding its own production. Nowhere was that more true than with the early forms of the rst thirty cantos.
1 Ezra Pound, A Walking Tour in Southern France: Ezra Pound Among the Troubadours, ed. Richard Sieburth (New York: New Directions, 1992), p. 84.

The rst three book incarnations of the early cantos all appeared in illustrated or illuminated limited editions from ne presses. First, in 1925 came A Draft of XVI. Cantos from the Three Mountains Press operated in Paris by William Bird. A large, oversized edition of ninety copies on ne paper sumptuously bound in gold-stamped morocco, that offering featured an initial and design to each canto by the young artist Henry Strater, whom Pound had personally chosen (and personally directed) for the work. Two years later followed A Draft of the Cantos 1727 in an edition of a hundred and one copies meant to be uniform with the rst but this time published in London by John Rodker, who operated the Ovid Press there. This time the artwork was by Gladys Hynes, who also included tail pieces for the cantos along with the opening initials and designs. And nally, A Draft of XXX Cantos appeared in 1930 from Nancy Cunards Hours Press in Paris, which Cunard had started by buying Bill Birds Three Mountains Press equipment. This time the text sported Vorticist initials executed by Pounds wife Dorothy. Only after that, in 1933, appeared the Draft of XXX Cantos from Faber in the standard commercial format which has shaped presentation ever since. The word Draft carries importance, of course, indicating the ongoing nature of the Cantos project, which continues to this day most notably in the changing endings of successive printings and the changing treatment of the forbidden cantos 72 and 73. Along the way, though, the rich early codes of the earliest printings disappeared from the page. I should like to recover here both the bibliographic and contextual codes that historicised the early cantos in terms of major events of Pounds own day, especially World War One and the revolutions in Russia and Ireland in the neglected Draft of Cantos 1727 of 1928.2
2 Of the two other scholars who have considered at length the early physical forms of the rst thirty cantos, Jerome McGann emphasizes bibliographic codes in relation to the history of bookmaking in his The Textual Condition (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991), chapter ve, and Black Riders: The Visible History of Modernism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993), chapter two. Lawrence Rainey emphasizes rst the dialectic between romantic and ironic or neo-Platonic interpretations of Sigismundo Malatesta in his Ezra Pound and the Monument of Culture (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991) and then the nancial stratagems of such ne press editions in his helpful pamphlet A Poem Including History: The Cantos of Ezra Pound (New Haven: Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library, 1989) and the more recent Institutions of Modernism: Literary Elites and Public Culture (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998). McGann and Rainey



Figure 1: Title page for A Draft of the Cantos 17-27

The title page of that volume assigned nearly equal prominence to Hyness illustrated capitals as to Pounds own linguistic text. both upper and lower case for her work as opposed to all capitals for his, it proclaimed itself A DRAFT OF THE CANTOS 1727 OF EZRA POUND: Initials by Gladys Hynes (see Figure 1). The use of red ink for the acknowledgement of Hynes looked back to Morriss famous black and red designs for Kelmscott Press, and beyond them to medieval and
both emphasize A Draft of XVI. Cantos rather than A Draft of The Cantos 1727. An alternate form of their work is included in A Poem Containing History: Textual Studies in The Cantos, ed. Lawrence S. Rainey (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1997). Cary Nelson has briefer remarks in Repression and Recovery: Modern American Poetry and the Politics of Cultural Memory 19101945 (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989), pp. 193197.

George Bornstein The Book as Artefact


Figure 2: Opening of Canto 18 in a modern edition

renaissance traditions (see Figure 3). And in contrast to Henry Straters more conventional and antiquarian designs for the previous A Draft of XVI. Cantos, only one of which (for the twelfth canto) gestured toward the contemporary world, Hyness more unusual illuminations featured three depicting distinctively modern scenes the illuminated initials for Cantos 18, 19, and 22. In oscillating among representations of Classical Greece, medieval and renaissance Italy, and the modern industrialised West her designs highlighted the parallels among the Trojan war, medieval and renaissance struggles (like those of Sigismundo Malatesta or
154 VARIANTS 4 2005

Figure 3: Opening of Canto 18 in A Draft of the Cantos 1727

Pieire de Maensac), and World War One and the Russian revolution of the poems own day. The subject rhymes of the illustrations not only mirror and extend those of the linguistic text but also contribute a new dimension of their own by altering the artefact of transmission of a poem obsessively concerned with artefacts of transmission. Canto 18 stages stunningly the difference between original and present textual environments of the early cantos. Todays reader encounters simply an ordinary black and white page with the title XVIII and an oversize typographic initial (see Figure 2). The linguistic code rst recounts the invention of paper money under the regime of Kublai
George Bornstein The Book as Artefact 155

Khan as an origin of modern nance and then limns its baleful 20th century result in the machinations of Zenos Metevsky (Sir Basil Zaharoff) and his cronies in the armaments business. In contrast, the reader of A Draft of the Cantos 1727 faced a page offering the same linguistic code but this time with the title The XVIII Canto nearly surrounded by a huge and vivid red initial and shocking hand-drawn design foregrounding the links between economics, armaments, and death under what we now call the military-industrial complex (see Figure 3). Immediately under the title, the right-hand portion of the design depicts in modern style a modern factory, with most of the fourteen erect chimneys expelling the smoke of industrial activity. More ominously, though, below the bar of the A the left-hand part of the design depicts the product of such factories, namely the artillery and guns used in the First World War and in the Russian revolution. Another such gun lies outside the A above the bar, while within the A lies a skeleton representing both those who died in the war and the deathlike state of those whom the canto argues caused the war, the arms and munitions dealers. And although the armaments industry operated internationally, neither poet nor illustrator doubted where the center of corruption embodied in rms like Maxim and Vickers lay if you look closely, you can see twice the L S d marking that indicates not a time-warp reference to the sixties hallucinogen but rather to the pounds, shillings, and pence of British currency. In one of the most grisly yet effective details, the trail of red drops down the lefthand margin represents graphically the blood spilled by the nanciers and manufacturers. The nanciers come to the fore in Canto 19, where in contrast to the familiar roman numeral and print capital of later New Directions or Faber editions (see Figure 4), another striking design by Hynes covers the entire top of the page in the 1928 text. There two well-dressed plutocrats, one on either side, act as puppet-masters of the hapless political rulers in the center (Figure 5). The accompanying text presents rst an anecdote of a large capitalist company paying an inventor to keep his invention off the market rather than allow it to reduce their prots. Pounds anecdote has its modern resonance even today, where drug companies regularly pay rivals not to produce cheaper generic versions of their highly prof156 VARIANTS 4 2005

itable proprietary drugs.3 The canto juxtaposes a series of such vignettes, including examples from Paris, Central Europe, the United States, and from the Irish, Russian, and Mexican revolutions. Here alas Hyness illustration functions insidiously, giving the entire canto an anti-Semitic spin present elsewhere in the Cantos staging of economic and social issues but largely lacking from this particular canto (though Pounds hero Arthur Grifth was a notorious anti-Semite). If you look closely at the nancier on the right, you will see that he incorporates the large nose, bald head and other features of the stock Jew in anti-Semitic caricature, one of whose pervasive themes is secret Jewish control of the sort pictured here. Plainly, Hyness illustrations could bring to the fore some of the lowest as well as highest moments of Pounds palimpsest. After two intervening cantos featuring more medieval and renaissance motifs Hynes returned to modern content and style for the design to the twenty-second canto. The cantos linguistic text (see Figure 6) juxtaposes anecdotes and vignettes illustrating the moral and social consequences of economic policies. The opening anecdote of Pounds idealised grandfather building a railway in Wisconsin and arguing for educating rather than eradicating Native Americans contrasts with the other type of railroad builder, called in the poem Warenhauser after the robber baron Frederick Weyerhaeuser, whose chicanery earned him the title the Lumber King. The ensuing gallery of portraits includes the maker of high-quality turbine parts whose price precludes a big army contract, a contrast between Major Douglas and John Maynard Keynes as economists, Pounds teenage adventure in Gibraltar (where the Jews come off better than in Hyness capital for Canto 19), and an anecdote of the failure of sumptuary laws in 13th -century Florence. Hyness capital for Canto 22 focuses the readers attention on the degradation of modern industrial production that underlies the succession of anecdotes in the following text (see Figure 7). Above the bar of the initial A it depicts a relentless armoured gure with elements of both robot and insect controlling a modern power plant or factory, while underneath
3 How Companies Stall Generics and Keep Themselves Healthy, New York Times 23 July 2000, pp. 1 and 1415.

George Bornstein The Book as Artefact


Figure 4: Opening of Canto 19 in a modern edition

the bar huddle dispirited and exhausted workers. Outside the A itself swirl three trunks recalling the nancial shenanigans of the Lumber King. Whereas the linguistic text tends to balance heroes with villains, the pictorial one emphasises instead economic oppression and its victims. The capital thus not only illustrates the words, it contributes new ideas and emphases to their meaning. I shall return to this characteristic of Hyness work at the end of this paper. The original division of the rst thirty cantos into books called A Draft of XVI. Cantos, A Draft of the Cantos 1727, and A Draft of XXX Cantos
158 VARIANTS 4 2005

Figure 5: Opening of Canto 19 in A Draft of the Cantos 17-27

shaped their signicance in a way that supplemented the bibliographic code. It changed their contextual codes as well, that semiotic system established by re-ordering or redividing linguistic contents.4 In the case of the early cantos, the contextual code established three different units (116, 1727, and then 130) all of which disappear in the palimpsest
4 For use of this term in relation to the poetry of W. B. Yeats, see my article What is the Text of a Poem by Yeats? in Palimpsest: Editorial Theory in the Humanities, ed. George Bornstein and Ralph Williams (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1993), pp. 167193, and the elaboration by David Holdeman in his book Much Labouring: The Texts and Authors of Yeatss First Modernist Books (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1997).

George Bornstein The Book as Artefact


Figure 6: Opening of Canto 22 in a modern edition

of the current collected text of the entire poem. Yet excavation of those now-lost subdivisions matters, in that like the illustrations to 1727 they reinforce the prominence of World War One and concurrent revolutions (especially the Russian one), and of parallels among the Trojan war, renaissance struggles, and modern upheavals, as well as of the importance of material objects of textual transmission. For example, A Draft of XVI. Cantos begins with the aftermath of the Trojan war in Canto 1 and ends in Canto 16 with rst the prophetic Blake gure before Hell Mouth and
160 VARIANTS 4 2005

Figure 7: Opening of Canto 22 in A Draft of the Cantos 17-27

then the disaster of World War One and onset of the Russian revolution. Correspondingly, the rst canto includes the famous passage about the renaissance publisher Wechel and his version of Homer, while the catalogue of carnage in Canto 16 emphasises the effect on writers and artists, both those like Gaudier Brzeska who died and those like T. E. Hulme who survived. A Draft of the Cantos 1727 opens with deliberate echoes of the earlier
George Bornstein The Book as Artefact 161

unit. Like the opening of the previous unit, Canto 17 harks back to ancient Greece even as its rst words So that-recall the end of the rst canto. Similarly, Canto 18 opens with the And that also began Canto 1. These verbal echoes signal a wider congruence. Once again the book progresses from an opening invocation of Greek culture through medieval and renaissance material to the First World War and Russian revolution again. This time the climax comes in Canto 27, which evokes tovarisch or comrade. But instead of assigning tovarisch solely to the Russian revolution, which Pound came to disapprove of, the canto sets up a series of subject rhymes going all the way back to the classical world. Surely we have heard this before and So that the Xarites bent over tovarisch, writes Pound. The new cantos 2830 added to make A Draft of XXX Cantos reprise the themes and parallels of the rst two books before concluding with an extended passage on renaissance bookmaking that writes large the brief reference to Wechel back in Canto 1. This last point deserves more attention. The Cantos from beginning to end displays exceptional selfconsciousness about physical artefacts of textual transmission and about itself as such an artefact. Explicit reference to bookmaking begins with the famous apostrophe to Divus and Wechel at the end of Canto 1:
Lie quiet Divus. I mean, that is Andreas Divus, In ofcina Wecheli, 1538, out of Homer.

The two lines remind us that Pound adapts here not Homer directly but rather Andreas Divuss Latin crib for Homer, and further that that book was rst printed in the renaissance by Wechel. As scholars have long recognised, this rst canto thus constructs a cultural palimpsest of transmission, in which a classical Greek text comes by way of renaissance Latin into a modern English strongly inuenced by Anglo-Saxon meters. It thus exemplies the ply over ply construction which The Cantos mention eight times, starting with Canto 4.5 Much less noticed is that Canto 30 also ends with a passage on renaissance printing, thus having the end of A Draft of XXX Cantos echo the material self-consciousness of its be5 For a commentary on this much-noticed phrase from a more linguistic point of view, see Hugh Witemeyer, Pound & The Cantos: Ply Over Ply, Paideuma 8 (Fall, 1979), 2: 229235.



ginning. Canto 30 ends with a letter from the printer Soncinus, who at Fano produced a famous edition of Petrarch for Cesare Borgia in 1503:
Whence have we carved it in metal Here working in Caesars fane: To the Prince Caesare Borgia Duke of Valent and Aemelia and here have I brought cutters of letters and printers, not vile and vulgar (in Fano Caesaris) notable and sufcient compositors and a die-cutter for greek fonts and hebrew named Messire Francesco da Bologna not only of the usual types but he hath excogitated a new form called cursive or chancellry letters nor was it Aldous nor any other but it was this Messire Francesco who hath cut all Aldous his letters with such grace and charm as is known Hieronymous Soncinus 7th July 1503 And as for text we have taken it From that of Messire Laurentino And from a codex once of the Lords Malatesta6

The passage provides an extraordinarily thick description of textual production in northern Italy during the renaissance, bringing together the famous names of the master printers Hieronymous Soncinus and Aldus Manutius, both of whom Pound admired as much for the form of their books as for the classical and other texts that they transmitted. Recuperation of the early printed forms of the rst thirty cantos reveals Pounds entire project as aspiring to just such status. That is, he both evokes that illustrious print tradition in the verbal text and enacts it in the physical texts. Here Gladys Hyness initials carry a whole new aspect into the poem. For by their very presence they associate A Draft of the Cantos 1727 with the traditions of renaissance ne printing, just as Henry Straters designs had for A Draft of XVI. Cantos and Dorothy Pounds more Vorticist initials would for the rst printing of A Draft of XXX Cantos. Hyness particular inspiration had come from an 1894 English printing of the Hypnerotomachia Poliphili or Dream of Polyphilus, itself

The Cantos of Ezra Pound (New York: New Directions, 1986), pp. 14849.

George Bornstein The Book as Artefact


originally published by Francesco Colonna in Venice in 1499, whose combination of ne design and woodcuts made it a famous example of book production.7 Pounds poem as material artefact thus exemplies the very processes that it praises. Further, it gives those processes a political spin. Just as the nely crafted industrial products of Canto 22 challenged the inferior mass products encouraged by industrial capitalism, so do the editions produced by William Bird, John Rodker, and Nancy Cunard challenge standards of modern book production and exemplify a live counter-tradition, one that goes back through Morris and other late Victorian and early Modernist printers to their distinguished predecessors in the Middle Ages and renaissance. The book as object as well as the text that it contains constitutes Pounds challenge to the modern world. The Cantos remained physically self-conscious about its own selfpresentation to the end. In Canto 116, the last complete one, Pound invoked the record / the palimpsest and wondered who will copy this palimpsest. Like the culture it championed, his own poem represented numerous layers of physical and cultural transmission. Some important ones of those layers have disappeared from the editions produced by modern publishers who copy the palimpsest of the words only. We must return to the original editions of A Draft of XVI. Cantos, A Draft of the Cantos 1727, and A Draft of XXX Cantos to recover their lost artifactual meanings. Pound meant it literally when he wrote in Canto 11 and elsewhere:
And they want to know what we talked about? de litteris et de armis, praestantibusque ingeniis, Both of ancient times and our own; books, arms, And of men of unusual genius, Both of ancient times and our own, in short the usual subjects Of conversation between intelligent men.

The Cantos itself is just such a book, if we will only take the time to uncover the palimpsest.

Rainey, A Poem Including History, p. 11.



Writing by Numbers
An Aspect of Woolf s Revisionary Practice
Julia Briggs Thanks to the synoptic edition of Ulysses, various studies of Yeatss revisions, Valerie Eliots edition of The Waste Land manuscript and the transcription and publication of many of Virginia Woolf s manuscripts, it is no longer possible to read modernist texts without some awareness of the complex process by which they came into being.1 Typically, that process includes a formalising or tightening of structure at some stage, perhaps along musical lines. It might even be seen as a call to order after what Woolf (in the course of a discussion of Joyce) termed the usual smash and splinters.2 T. S. Eliot actually entitled the poems he wrote between 1935 and 1941 The Four Quartets, yet their structural model was not so much the classical quartet, which normally has four parts (although there were four poems), but rather the work which had established his reputation the ve-part structure, with a divided second section and a lyrical fourth section that was The Waste Land. As the manuscript notoriously shows, that structure was, in turn, the outcome of Pounds judicious editing of the original drafts (I DO advise keeping Phlebas3 ). Though perhaps accidentally arrived at, it became the model for the later sequence of poems, part of the process of building an oeuvre as if it were an architectural monument such as Mallarm had proposed. Comparable processes of revision or restructuring can be seen in the work of Yeats and Joyce, who opened up new levels of meaning and signicance as they worked (though Audens rewriting or
1 See, for example, George Bornsteins Introduction to Representing Modernist Texts: Editing as Interpretation (Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, 1991), pp. 23, as well as articles by Richard J. Finneran and Vicki Mahaffey in that volume. 2 The Question of Things Happening: The Letters of Virginia Woolf, 19121922, ed. Nigel Nicolson, with Joanne Trautmann (London, Hogarth Press, 1976), p. 598, to Gerald Brenan, Christmas Day 1922. 3 T. S. Eliot, The Waste Land: a facsimile and transcript, ed. Valerie Eliot (London, Faber and Faber, 1971). p. 129.

suppression of earlier poems in the light of his own changing convictions, involves a rather different concept of the relationship between the artist and his work). The revisionary practices of Eliot and Yeats were evidently very different. Eliots compositional process characteristically involved re-using and re-arranging sequences, so that the opening of Burnt Norton was rst composed as a chorus for Murder in the Cathedral, while the Phlebas lyric was originally written in French and appeared at the end of his poem Dans le restaurant, then at the end of a long sequence entitled Death by Water; only in the published text of The Waste Land does it stand more or less alone as the fourth section. Yeats, on the other hand, reworked individual poems and re-ordered them within individual volumes. The novelists Joyce and Woolf revised towards the point of publication, making few changes thereafter. But both of them structured their material according to a formalist aesthetic, seeking to elicit further designs and meanings from it. Woolf s process of revision, I shall argue, sometimes included a consciously formalist phase, as the work neared completion. Prose ctions central concern with the nature of time, lived or remembered, and its regularly repeated rhythms contributed to the number patterns thus produced.4 Most of the manuscripts of Woolf s novels have been transcribed and published5 all except Flush and Night and Day (of which too little survives); yet despite the intense scholarly focus on her work over the last
4 Christopher Butler discusses the work of Yeats and Joyce in Number Symbolism (London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1970), pp. 1625; see also his essay on Numerological Thought in Silent Poetry: essays in numerological analysis, ed. Alastair Fowler (London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1970). 5 Melymbrosia: An early version of The Voyage Out, ed. Louise DeSalvo (New York: New York Public Library, 1982); Jacobs Room: The Holograph Draft, ed. Edward L. Bishop (New York, Pace University Press, 1998); The Hours: The British Museum Manuscript of Mrs. Dalloway, ed. Helen M. Wussow (New York, Pace University Press, 1996); To the Lighthouse: The Original Holograph Draft, ed. Susan Dick (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1982); Orlando: The Holograph Draft, ed. Stuart Nelson Clarke (London: S. N. Clarke, 1993); The Waves: The Two Holograph Drafts, ed. J. W. Graham (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1976); The Pargiters: The Novel-Essay Portion of The Years, ed. Mitchell A. Leaska (Hogarth Press, 1978); Pointz Hall: The Earlier and Later Typescripts of Between the Acts, ed. Mitchell A. Leaska (New York: University Publications, 1983). In addition, S. P. Rosenbaum has edited Women and Fiction: The Manuscript Version of A Room of Ones Own, (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1992).



thirty years or so, there has been comparatively little research devoted to her processes of revision, even though Woolf preserved much of the material needed for such a study in the form of the holograph drafts of her novels (which she normally kept, recognising their future importance), comments in her diary on the progress of her work, and to a lesser extent in her letters. She increasingly came to use her diary as a means of analysing and reecting upon what she was doing: at the inception of The Waves, she noted I want to watch & see how the idea at rst occurs. I want to trace my own process.6 Indeed, in this instance, the diary account is so invitingly full that Leonard himself at one stage planned to use it for a discussion of Woolf s methods of composition: I should like to compare her rst draft with the nal draft and also with what she says in her diaries at the moment about writing them. It happens that the last part of The Waves is extraordinarily interesting from this point of view as she gives a description in her diary of the actual writing of it.7 Two complete drafts of The Waves have survived, excellently transcribed and edited by J. W. Graham, and many pages of her diary are devoted to the difculties Woolf encountered in the course of writing it; even so, a great deal more is evidently missing. Though the second draft closely resembles the published text in terms of structure and sequence, it differs substantially in terms of the actual words on the page. In fact, as she recorded in her diary, Woolf carried out two further substantial revisions between the second draft and the rst edition, rst retyping the whole text since she could see no other way to make all the corrections, & keep the lilt, & join up, & expand & do all the other nal processes. She added, It is like sweeping over an entire canvas with a wet brush.8 This revision took from 1 (or perhaps 5) May to 22 June 1931, and then, when that had been retyped by Mabel, her professional typist, she made a further set of changes, revising the interludes and the Hampton Court
6 The Diary of Virginia Woolf, vol. III, 192530, ed. A. O. Bell, with A. McNeillie (London, Hogarth Press, 1980), p. 113, Thursday 30 September [1926]. 7 Frederic Spotts, ed., Letters of Leonard Woolf (London: Bloomsbury, 1990), pp. 25960, 24 May, 29 May 1941. 8 The Diary of Virginia Woolf, vol. IV, 193135, ed. A. O. Bell with A. McNeillie (London, Hogarth Press, 1982), p. 25, Wednesday 13 May [1931].

Julia Briggs Writing by Numbers


scene, between 28 June and 17 or 18 July.9 But the intervening typescripts on which she worked have not survived, either in the case of The Waves, or of any other of her novels. Virtually no typescripts of Woolf s novels have survived, although it was her practise to type up her mornings work in longhand after lunch, and later to have the complete text professionally retyped for Leonard to read, and forward to the printers R. & R. Clarke in Edinburgh (who printed all but her rst two novels on behalf of the Hogarth Press). Typescripts have only survived under exceptional circumstances, for example in the case of the Time Passes episode of To the Lighthouse, which Charles Mauron translated into French and published in the Winter 1926 issue of Commerce, before the novel itself was published on 5 May 1927 (in this case, the surviving typescript represents an intermediary stage of revision).10 Occasionally other such stages exist in the form of passages in proof. In the case of To the Lighthouse, a substantial passage describing the unhappy years after Mrs Ramsays death, remembered by James as he sails to the lighthouse appeared at proof stage, only to be cancelled (as Susan Dicks edition records).11 Woolf s holograph drafts, exciting as they are for their record of the primal scene of creation, thus only tell a part of the story of composition. The rest of it must be inferred from the differences between the manuscripts and the published text. It was usually at this late stage of revision, and on the missing typescripts, that Woolf s formalist principles most evidently came into play. And at this stage, her diary and letters often have less to tell us about what she was doing, so that our knowledge of such changes depends on differences, additions or omissions, even on specic gaps such as divide one section from another (not quite the evidence of asterisks, nor of the aposiopesis that Woolf was so
9 And yesterday, 22nd June ...I nished my re-typing of The Waves. Not that it is nished oh dear no. For then I must correct the re- re- typing. This work I began on May 5th, Diary IV, p. 30, [Tuesday 23 June], and cf. pp. 356, entries for 14, 17 July 1931. 10 See James M. Haule, Le temps pass and the Original Typescript: an early Version of the Time Passes Section of To the Lighthouse, Twentieth Century Literature, vol. 29, no. 3 (Fall, 1983), pp. 267311. 11 To the Lighthouse, ed. Susan Dick (Oxford, Blackwell for the Shakespeare Head Press, 1992), pp. 2078.



fond of, yet not so very different). Woolf nowhere describes what must have been a comparatively conscious and even deliberate process, and it is disappointing that the sums written in the margins or on the verso pages of her notebook usually seem to refer to the numbers of words she had written, or to the state of her nances. Much can be learned about Woolf s writing practise from her diary, letters, reading notebooks and unnished autobiography, as well as from the hefty biographies of Quentin Bell (1973), James King (1994), Hermione Lee (1996), Panthea Reid (1996), Mitchell Leaska (1998) and others, yet there is still much to uncover. Woolf s rst two novels, though far from conventional, were written according to a contemporary formula, that of the novel of thirty-two chapters, referred to in her polemical essay on Modern Novels where she complained that they were constructed after a design which more and more ceases to resemble the vision in our minds.12 The Voyage Out has twenty-seven chapters and Night and Day has thirty-four, but between them and her third novel, Jacobs Room, Woolf came to terms with modernism, as that novel graphically reveals. It reached her through the formalist theories of Roger Fry and the modernist practice of Katherine Manseld in Prelude, T.S. Eliots Poems and Hope Mirrleess poem Paris, all of which Virginia typeset by hand; they became the second, fourth and fth publications of the Hogarth Press, which from April 1917 stood in the Woolf s dining-room at Hogarth House, Richmond.13 Laura Marcus has argued that The experience of laying out Eliots poetry on the page inuenced Woolf s decision to use white spaces in Jacobs Room; the gaps provide the reader with a sequence of separated scenes rather than a narrative, and create new forms of connection.14 Certainly that novels white spaces were part of its experimentalism, but
12 Modern Novels (1919), The Essays of Virginia Woolf, vol. III, 191924, ed. A. McNeillie (London, Hogarth Press, 1988), p. 33 (this essay was later revised and published as Modern Fiction in The Common Reader). 13 In fact, Mirrleess Paris was published in May 1920, a year after Woolf s Kew Gardens, but it is dated 1919, and listed fth in J. Howard Woolmers A Checklist of the Hogarth Press (London, Hogarth Press, 1976), whereas Kew Gardens is listed as seventh (p. 31). 14 Laura Marcus, Virginia Woolf and the Hogarth Press, Modernist Writers and the Marketplace, ed. Ian Willison, Warwick Gould and Warren Chernaik (London, Macmillan, 1996), p. 132.

Julia Briggs Writing by Numbers


they were not the result of setting Eliots work, since the Poems of 1919 were written in quatrains and rhyming couplets, not in vers libre, and she did not begin setting The Waste Land (1922; Hogarth Press edition, 1923) until she had nished writing Jacobs Room (1922).15 Instead, it was Hope Mirrleess typographically highly experimental poem Paris that introduced her to the signicance of the spaces on the page. Three accidentally surviving pages in proof with detailed instructions on lay-out from Mirrlees indicate just how difcult that task was, suggesting, moreover, that Mirrlees may have played a larger part than has previously been supposed in Woolf s turn to modernism. Very little of their correspondence has survived, but when Hope wrote to congratulate Virginia on Jacobs Room, she responded with an expectation of understanding I dont feel satised that I have brought it off. Writing without the old bannisters, one makes jumps and jerks that are not necessary.16 The impact of a modernist aesthetic is rst fully apparent in Woolf s short story Kew Gardens, written in the summer of 1917, though not published until May 1919. It reects a post-impressionist sensibility, presenting the scene in terms of a painting with the primary colours, red, blue and yellow giving place to green-blue...Yellow and black, pink and snow white, and shining from among heart-shaped and tongue-shaped leaves. These sequences of colour and form occur within a highly formal design that depends (as some of her later structuring would do) on the alternation of binary opposites.17 The rst, and most fundamental of these oppositions, later to be used as a key structural element in To the Lighthouse and The Waves, is the antithesis between the human and the natural world. Kew Gardens takes
15 Early in 1923, according to J. H. Willis, Jr., Leonard and Virginia Woolf as Publishers: The Hogarth Press 191741 (Charlottesville, University of Virginia Press, 1992), p. 72; see also her Diary, vol. II, 192024 (1978), p. 256 [Tuesday 17 July 1923], where she records herself telling Tom, Ive been setting up your poem. Its a good poem. 16 The marked-up sheet of page proofs of Paris (pp. 13, 14, 15) are in the E. J. Pratt Library of Victoria University, Toronto; for the poem Paris, see my forthcoming edition in Gender in Modernism, ed. Bonnie Kime Scott (Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 2005/6); Woolf s letter to Mirrlees in A Change of Perspective: Letters, vol. III, 19231928 (1977), p. 3, [6 January 1923] 17 Kew Gardens, The Complete Shorter Fiction of Virginia Woolf, ed. Susan Dick (London, Hogarth Press, new ed., 1989), pp. 905.



the form of a dialogue in which ordinary conversations alternate with the minute events taking place on the oor of the owerbed, where we are given a snails eye view. But within that overarching distinction, the human conversations are themselves arranged in various binary combinations that create different pairings within the original division. The rst and last of the four conversations take place between a man and a woman. The rst couple are married and have a son and a daughter with them; they recall their earlier experiences of love: Doesnt one always think of the past, in a garden with men and women lying under the trees?,18 while the last couple are courting. In between we overhear the conversations rst of two men, and then of two women, the rst tuned to the spiritual, the second to the economic consequences of the war. The four couples are not only arranged according to gender, but also along lines of class difference, so that the rst two couples are upper middle-class, and discuss metaphysical topics, while the second two are lower middle-class and discuss food. Within these divisions, there are further contrasts between homosexual and heterosexual erotic feeling, between madness and sanity, even perhaps between outside (the gardens) and inside (a tea-room, the palm house), creating a series of boxes within boxes, or wheels within wheels, as the story itself acknowledges: But there was no silence; all the time the motor omnibuses were turning their wheels and changing their gear; like a vast nest of Chinese boxes all of wrought steel turning ceaselessly one within another the city murmured.19 Such complex, binary alternations also recall the layout of blocks of print on paper that constitute a key stage in the process of hand printing. Kew Gardens was the second text that Woolf wrote to be printed on their new press; arguably, the rst, The Mark on the Wall, was begun before she had fully grasped the processes involved. The Woolfs rst printing press was small, and their earliest work was printed in folio, folding a single sheet of paper across the centre to form four pages.
18 19

Ibid., p. 91. Ibid., p. 95.

Julia Briggs Writing by Numbers


They probably began by setting up the rst three, printing off the two inner pages of the fold rst, then adding page four, and printing the other side. Limited supplies of type would have made it difcult to set up more than four pages at a time (the surviving page proofs of Paris print the rst three of a sequence of four pages). The folding of a single sheet of paper (with two sides) into two pages (each with a further two sides), and the rearrangement of these into pages 1 and 4, and 2 and 3 (or their equivalents) could be seen as corresponding to the binary opposition of the human and the natural world, then of men with women (1, 4) versus the same-sex conversations (2,3), and then the further divisions by class and content (1 and 2, which are back to back; 3 and 4). Thus the techniques of hand-printing may have reinforced the formalist lessons implicit in the modernist texts the Woolfs were printing. For Leonard, Kew Gardens was in its own small way and within its own limits perfect; in its rhythms, movement, imagery, method, it could have been written by no one but Virginia. It is a microcosm of all her then unwritten novels, from Jacobs Room to Between the Acts.20 Certainly Jacobs Room is the rst of Woolf s novels to employ spaces as a way of breaking up the text, a method visibly different from the asterisks used, for example, in Joyces Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916) a writers division as compared to a printers, perhaps. Jacobs Room is also the rst novel to employ signicant chapter numbers, though the process by which Woolf arrived at these has to be inferred from a comparison of the surviving (but incomplete) manuscript with the published text. Woolf made many further changes after completing the surviving holograph; she added or omitted sequences, and altered the numbering of the chapters. The holograph ends, as does the published text, with a scene in Jacobs room between his friend Bonamy and his mother, Betty Flanders, as she holds out his empty shoes. This scene, numbered XXX in the manuscript, has become XIV in the book itself, partly, it would seem, to allow the previous chapter to become XIII. This long and brilliant chapter (which does not appear in the manuscript)
20 Leonard Woolf, An Autobiography, vol. II, 19111969 (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1980), p. 229 (cited by Laura Marcus, op. cit., p. 126).



takes place in London on the afternoon and evening of 4 August 1914. The traditional ill-luck associated with thirteen is usually derived from the number of those present at the Last Supper, an allusion appropriate enough for a chapter whose unwritten but expected climax was the betrayal, torture and death, not of an individual young man, but of a generation. The book as a whole gestures silently towards an ending signied as (MCM)XIV.21 Woolf s next novel, Mrs Dalloway, conceals its structural principle altogether: there are no formal chapter divisions, yet an examination of the spaces left in the text reveals a clear and appropriate twelve-part structure, corresponding to the twelve hours of the day (the books original title was The Hours).22 The individual sections do not correspond to sequential hours in the day, because Woolf recognised that Time travels in divers paces with divers persons. Noon, the twelfth hour of the day, is clearly the novels caesura, and a key moment. The ninth section accordingly opens,
It was precisely twelve oclock: twelve by Big Ben; whose stroke was wafted over the northern part of London... twelve oclock struck as Clarissa Dalloway laid her green dress on her bed, and the Warren Smiths walked down Harley Street. Twelve was the hour of their appointment... (The leaden circles dissolved in the air.)23

Big Ben also strikes near the beginning of the novel, and again at 11.30 a.m. (between the third and fourth sections), and nally at the end of the eleventh section. The sentence The leaden circles dissolved in the air is repeated on each occasion, and as David Bradshaw has pointed out, Big Ben is associated with patriarchal authority, perhaps even with coercion.24 Other section breaks are signied by different overheard
21 Jacobs Room: The Holograph Draft, ed. Edward L. Bishop, p. 274, but the chapter numbers here are problematic, jumping from XVIII to XXX; Jacobs Room (Richmond, Hogarth Press, 1922), pp. 268, 289. 22 Though at one stage, Woolf seems to have envisaged a sixteen-hour day (see The Hours: The British Museum Manuscript of Mrs. Dalloway, ed. Helen M. Wussow, Appendix 2, p. 416), and the novels action seems to run to fourteen or more, if it begins at ten a.m. and go on till after midnight. 23 24

Woolf, Mrs. Dalloway (London, Hogarth Press, 1925), p. 142.

Ibid., pp. 89; 74; 2801; David Bradshaw, ed., Mrs Dalloway (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2000), pp. xxxiiiiv.

Julia Briggs Writing by Numbers


sounds a car back-ring begins section two, an old woman singing section eight; the ambulance bell (fetching Septimuss corpse) opens section ten, while the third section uses the aeroplanes sky-writing as a link with the second section, and between individual consciousnesses.25 Through moments of shared awareness, Woolf sought to formalise the comparatively arbitrary transitions from one consciousness to the next, transitions that had characterised the writing of Jacobs Room. And she seems also to have alternated male and female consciousness, at least in the opening sections, so that they run from Clarissa (section 1), to Septimus (though Clarissa and others also gure later) (2), to Clarissa again (3), to Peter Walsh (4). The comparatively short fth section is a visionary sequence that is not thought by any individual character, but represents the mind in sleep or vision, a shared unconscious, anticipating the Time Passes sequence in To the Lighthouse. Thereafter the alternations become more complicated. Section nine, which begins at twelve oclock, is by far the longest, and effectively starts a new movement. It takes place within the consciousness of Septimus and Rezia, Richard Dalloway, Clarissa, Miss Kilman, Elizabeth, and then Rezia and Septimus again. The ambulance bell at the beginning of section ten takes us back to Peter Walsh whose consciousness has been absent from the preceding sequence, and redirects the action towards Clarissas party. In terms of a conventional time sequence, the rst eight sections take place in the morning, before noon; section nine includes all the events of the afternoon, and sections ten to twelve are devoted to Clarissas evening party, so that in addition to the twelve sections, there is a further three-part time structure (in a ratio of 8: 1: 3). Woolf s next novel, To the Lighthouse, also employs a three-part time structure, beginning with an afternoon and evening (The Window), followed by a night (Time Passes), and a morning (The Lighthouse). The correspondence of the afternoon with the Ramsays lives, and the morning with their childrens also anticipates the more complex interweaving of hours, times and seasons with human lives in The Waves. To the Lighthouse was written very fast Woolf later compared the

Ibid., pp. 23; 125; 227; 45.



experience to Blowing bubbles out of a pipe.26 From the outset, she pictured its three-part structure as further divided into sections, and there are fteen of these in the manuscript version of the rst part, though they dont precisely correspond to the section divisions of the published text, which has nineteen sections, alternating, at least initially, between male and female viewpoints, as she had done in the early sections of Mrs Dalloway, though here too the alternation was not consistently maintained. Nevertheless, the oddly numbered sections 1,3,5,7 seem to be particularly connected with Mrs Ramsay (as they had previously been with Clarissa), and the even-numbered sections correspond to the male characters, Mr Ramsay or Charles Tansley, and to the world of reason and fact, contrasted with maternal warmth and kindness; for example section 2 begins with Tansley saying No going to the Lighthouse, James, whereas sections 1, 3 and 5 begin with Mrs Ramsay saying Yes, of course, if its ne to-morrow, Perhaps you will wake up and nd the sun shining and the birds singing and nally, even if it isnt ne to-morrow will be another day.27 Mrs Ramsay begins and ends the rst part of To the Lighthouse; her completeness and her desire to unify her family link her with the odd numbers, while her husbands divisiveness associates him with the even numbers. Woolf s linking of the unity of women with the number one, and perhaps with prime numbers more generally, and of men with the doubleness (duplicity?) of two shows that she is creating her own structures rather than drawing on traditional numerology, where (according to Philo Judaeus), it is the odd that is male, and the even female.28 Writing Time Passes gave Woolf a great deal of trouble: it was to be eyeless,29 by which she meant, among other things, that there was
26 A Sketch of the Past, Virginia Woolf, Moments of Being, ed. Jeanne Schulkind (2nd ed., London, Hogarth Press, 1985), p. 81. 27 To the Lighthouse, intr. Hermione Lee, ed. Stella McNichol (London, Penguin, 1992), pp. 19, 7, 19, 31. 28 Christopher Butler, Number Symbolism, p. 22; see also his article on Numerological Thought in Silent Poetry, where 2 is dened as the rst female number, and 3 the rst masculine one, p. 7. 29 Woolf described it as the most difcult abstract piece of writing I have to give an empty house, no peoples characters, the passage of time, all eyeless & featureless with nothing to cling to, Diary III, p. 76, Sunday 18 April [1926].

Julia Briggs Writing by Numbers


no single point of view, whether of character or narrator: like section ve of Mrs Dalloway, it is concerned with the unconscious, the dreaming mind as it oats through the house, or along the beach, imagining tidal waves or houses tumbling to destruction. The typescript that Woolf sent Charles Mauron for translation was divided into nine sections, and is substantially closer to the holograph than to the rst edition. Preparing it for independent publication would have inuenced its development, while having to re-integrate it into the novel involved further rethinking and rewriting (at this stage, a tenth section appeared). There may be some equivalence between the original nine sections of Time Passes and the nine chapters of The Waves, the novel that takes up the challenge thrown down by Time Passes to write of the world seen without a self ,30 and of the place of mystery beyond selfhood which we all share, and from whose dark materials spring both creation and destruction (as the nal paragraphs of Between the Acts would make explicit). This is also the world of the novels italicised interludes which represent non-human nature the cries of birds, the slow procession of sunlight and starlight, the breaking of the waves on the shore, and the life of the creatures that creep on the earth the life that had also counterpointed the human conversations in Kew Gardens. The third part of To the Lighthouse (itself entitled The Lighthouse), gave Woolf the most trouble: The problem, she admitted to her diary, is how to bring Lily & Mr R[amsay]. together & make a combination of interest at the end. There were to be two endings Mr Ramsays arrival at the lighthouse and the completion of Lilys picture, and she wanted, if she could, to make them happen simultaneously: Could I do it in a parenthesis? so that one had the sense of reading the two things at the same time? she asked herself.31 In the end she used the parenthesis for a different purpose and retained the alternation, bringing Lily and Mr Ramsay together not at the end, but at the centre of the third part. And just as the rst part had initially alternated between the soothing voice of the mother, and the harsh voices of fact, so the third part
30 31

The Waves, ed. K. Flint (London, Penguin, 1992), p. 221. Diary III, p. 106, [Sunday 5 September 1926].



alternates between Lily on the lawn, searching for her vision, and Mr Ramsay in the boat, sailing towards the lighthouse. Lilys search for creative form (in parallel with that of her author) is contrasted with Mr Ramsays single-minded journey towards his goal. Here, too, the whole sequence begins and ends with the female principle, the principle of life, alternating with the even-numbered sections describing the voyage. Exactly half-way through, in the seventh of thirteen sections, Lily begins to feel Mrs Ramsays spirit return (a sense of someone there, of Mrs. Ramsay), and she sees the brown spot in the middle of the bay that is Mr Ramsays boat, now half way across the bay, at the same time as the reader is half-way through the third part. The voyage as a metaphor for the progress of a narrative is as old as the Odyssey.32 Such self-conscious, self-reexive writing, conscious of the reader reading as the writer writes, is nowhere else achieved so elegantly or unobtrusively, though Orlando provides an intriguing parallel in its sixth and nal chapter: here Orlandos pregnancy seems to have originated (signicantly, surely) in Kew Gardens in October, but lasts only for six months instead of nine, so that she is delivered on March 20th, the date that Virginia wrote to Vita to tell her that she had nished the book (which she had begun the previous October).33 That Woolf regarded the art (or should it be the act?) of creation as analogous to the sexual act (the writer must lie back and be receptive) is made explicit in the sixth chapter of A Room of Ones Own, the book written consecutively and closely linked to Orlando, as Winifred Holtby recognised in the rst book-length study of Woolf s work.34 Each has six chapters and there are some striking parallels between them, Judith Shakespeare being the tragic female double of the Elizabethan Orlando.
32 To the Lighthouse (1992), pp. 196, 197. For an example of the poem as boat, see Spensers Faerie Queene, book 1, canto xii, stanza 42 (though Woolf did not apparently read it until 1935 see Diary IV, p. 275. Wednesday 23 January [1935]). 33 Orlando, intr. S. Gilbert, ed. B. Lyons (London, Penguin, 1993), pp. 2024; see also A Change of Perspective: The Letters of VW, vol. III, 19231928 (1977), p. 473 [20? March 1928], and Diary III, p. 177, Thursday 22 March (though the novel gives the date as Thursday, March the 20th). 34 A Room of Ones Own and Three Guineas, ed. Michele Barrett, (London, Penguin, 1993), p. 94 (and see p. lix for act, the U.S. variant). Different as they are in form, the two books are complementary, noted Holtby, Virginia Woolf: A Critical Memoir (London, Wishart, 1932), p. 161.

Julia Briggs Writing by Numbers


The thirteen sections of the third part of To the Lighthouse, with their careful joining of the two narrative strands at the mid-point, provided the initial impetus for this investigation,35 but their status is problematic since they were misnumbered in the rst British edition, and Woolf apparently failed to notice or correct the numbering at proof stage (as sceptical readers will be amused to learn). The second section was misnumbered 3 (the numbers in the rst British edition are in arabic, though Woolf used Roman numbers in the holograph), and thereafter they run through consecutively until 14, so that from section 4 onwards, it is the even numbers that portray Lily on the lawn, not the odd.36 This misnumbering was corrected in the American rst edition, but remained in the uniform edition and its immediate derivatives. The Everyman edition (1938) kept the fourteen chapters, but introduced a new division in the rst section, so that a second section begins as Mr Ramsay Suddenly...raised his head as he passed.37 In the published text, the sections of To the Lighthouse are numbered nineteen in part one, ten in part two and (correctly) thirteen in part three. This tripartite structure may also correspond to the three beams of the lighthouse. Mrs Ramsay feels that the long steady stroke, the last of the three, was her stroke,38 though in the book, the longest part, Mrs Ramsays part, comes rst, rather than last. Conrming the connection between women and odd numbers, the third part belongs to Lily, while the second part is dedicated, not to the world of male reasoning but to its antithesis, the irrational world of nature and the unconscious. The sections in the rst and third parts add up to prime numbers (13, 19), and with the 10 sections of Time Passes, the total adds up to forty-two, a multiple of six and seven, though whether this is an accident is difcult to decide. While it appears that Woolf took little or no interest in numerological patterns (unlike many renaissance poets, or contemporaries such as Yeats and Joyce), the number forty-two
35 36 37 38

Their relationship was rst pointed out to me by Hans Gabler. To the Lighthouse (London, Hogarth Press, 1927), pp. 233, 242, 318. To the Lighthouse (London, J. M. Dent, 1938), p. 169. To the Lighthouse (1992), p. 70.



seems to have been on her mind as she worked on the third part of To the Lighthouse, since the later pages of the manuscript include two separate sums adding up to forty-two, written out on verso pages.39 The Waves could be seen as playing variations on the sixes and sevens lurking behind the suggestive gure of forty-two, for it has six speaking characters and a silent seventh in the redemptive gure of Percival. The six are divided into three men and three women, and are then paired off in further ways: Susan and Bernard are linked by their different forms of creativity; Neville and Ginia by their focus on sexual love (both homo- and hetero-sexual), and Louis and Rhoda are linked by their sense of inadequacy, and the pressure of their inner lives. Percival is the silent hero, whose death at the centre of the novel takes place at noon, when the sun is at its zenith (he is also Jane Harrisons Spirit of the Year, whose life and death are dedicated to reconciling the human community with nature 40 ). After the speed with which Woolf had written To the Lighthouse, Orlando and A Room..., the writing of The Waves seemed particularly slow. As discussed, it went through two complete drafts, and a further set of revisions in typescript. At a very late stage, Woolf ensured that all but one of the italicised interludes recorded the progression of the sun across the sky.41 It was in the process of transferring the manuscript to typescript that Woolf made another series of structural changes designed to bring out the novels innate form. She rewrote her text so that the different chapters themselves formed the structure of the wave whose rhythm and sound
39 The rst sum (facing what would become section 4 of the third part) runs 25+17= 42, with the words the stagnant past or part) written beside it; the second sum is written on the back of a sequence not nally used, but located in section 11. This one runs 10+20+12=42, which is not so very different from the novels nal structure, 19+10+13, except that the 10 and 20 are written in the reverse order in which they occur in the book. See To the Lighthouse: The Original Holograph Draft, ed. Susan Dick (London, Hogarth Press, 1983), pp. 265 verso, 335 verso. It is certainly an interesting number: the computer Deep Thought in Douglas Adamss The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy (1979) gave Forty-two as the answer to the (unformulated) Great Question Of Life, the Universe and Everything. 40 See Jane Harrison, Themis: A Study of the Social Origins of Greek Religion (1912; London, Merlin Press, 1989), esp. pp. xvii, xix. 41 J. W. Graham, ed., The Waves: The two holograph drafts (Toronto and Buffalo, University of Toronto Press, 1976), introduction, pp. 356.

Julia Briggs Writing by Numbers


already permeated her novel: thus chapters 1 and 8 correspond and are concerned with being, alone and together; chapters 2 and 7 are concerned with time, 3 and 6 with language and self-awareness, while 4 and 5 reach the crest of the wave at noon, and its relapse, enacting the communion supper and the death of the hero, as described in the Gospels (or as the sacred feast and mourning that reconcile the tribe to nature in Jane Harrisons Themis). Viewed both as individual particles and as a wave, the chapters allude to contemporary debates in physics: Gillian Beer has demonstrated Woolf s familiarity with the popular science of Arthur Eddington and James Jeans.42 Chapter nine, Bernards soliloquy, remains outside this wave gure, being at once a summing-up of everything that has happened, and the deliberate abandonment of the structural principles from which narrative ction is traditionally constructed, as the wave breaks on the shore. Numbers, like language, constitute a pattern-making system, and seem to carry some innate signicance, whether in the form of a deck of cards or the numbering of chapter and verse in the Bible, or of any other structure that lays itself open to interpretation. It was Mallarm, in part responsible for the formalist principles of modernism, whose last experimental poem warned that A single throw of the dice will never abolish chance (Un coup de ds jamais nabolira le hasard). Some of the revisions that Woolf made in the process of preparing her novels for publication seem to have imposed on them formal, and even numerically signicant structures, yet the texts and their author seldom display an awareness of this process. And though her last two novels depict the ight of time across a half-century and a day, respectively, they do not so obviously share in the formal precision that characterises To the Lighthouse and The Waves. Whatever justication Woolf had for her revisionary practise ultimately lies embedded in the structure of The Waves itself, with its complex interactions between the natural and the human world, its celebration of and mourning for the relentless numbers of time. The suns hourly progress across the sky, the earths yearly orbit, the monthly
42 Gillian Beer, Physics, Sound, and Substance: Later Woolf , Virginia Woolf: The Common Ground (Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 1996), pp. 112124.



cycles of moon and tides constitute the primal rhythms of life on earth; our human need to nd meaning in our circumstances, our desire to recreate form in art, as it negotiates its way through time and space, derive from these determining conditions of our existence.

Julia Briggs Writing by Numbers


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Proceeding Energetically From the Unknown to the Known

Looking Again at the Genetic Texts and Documents for Joyces Ulysses
Michael Groden

Near the end of Ulysses, just before the two main characters part, the encyclopedically voluble narrator of the Ithaca episode tells us that Stephen Dedalus afrmed his signicance as a conscious rational animal proceeding syllogistically from the known to the unknown and a conscious rational reagent between a micro and a macrocosm ineluctably constructed upon the incertitude of the void. Leopold Bloom, barely understanding what Stephen has said, takes comfort from the fact that, again in the narrators words, as a competent keyless citizen he had proceeded energetically from the unknown to the known through the incertitude of the void. One character moves abstractly out from what he earlier called the now, the here, the other moves experientially into what once was an unknown future but now is a known present.1 Stephens void is the gulf between the known and the unknown, Blooms between the present and the future (or, eventually, the past and the present). Earlier in the book, Stephen had put these two voids together in his thoughts about events that might have seemed possible but never came to pass: They are not to be thought away. Time has branded them and fettered they are lodged in the room of the innite possibilities they have ousted. But can those have been possible seeing that they never were? Or was that only possible which came to pass?2 Genetic critics face voids of various kinds as they confront the gap between the manuscript archive that they construct as the avant-texte
1 James Joyce, Ulysses, 1922, ed. Hans Walter Gabler with Wolfhard Steppe and Claus Melchior (1984; New York: Vintage, 1993), 17:101215, 17:101920, 9:89. (All quotations from Ulysses are identied, as here, by episode:line numbers.) 2

Ulysses 2:4952.

and the text as it was published, and especially the gap between the traces of the creative process that the documents permit them to study and the process itself. As they move backwards from the nal, known text to the unknown process that brought it into being, and attempt to reconstruct the unknown process that proceeds forwards to the known text, they also immerse themselves in the temporal movements that Stephen and Bloom together outline. Doing this, though, forces genetic critics to deal with two troublesome concepts origin and teleology and in doing so they restate Stephens and Blooms positions in quite different terms. Jean Bellemin-Nol, for example, warns against reintroducing the idea of teleology into genetic studies and says that we must never forget this paradox: what was written before and had, at rst, no after, we meet only after, and this tempts us to supply a before in the sense of a priority, cause, or origin,3 but Daniel Ferrer argues that teleology is inherent in the genetic mechanisms4 and that each genetic state not only depends on all the previous states but also alters their status in a kind of retrospective teleology. Each stage [...] identies the relevant documents in the preexisting archive and turns them into the avant-texte leading toward that stage.5 Louis Hay memorably describes the moment of the writing itself as stretched out between the authors life and the sheet of paper like a drumskin on which the pen beats its message.6 Hays drumskin, in some ways like Stephens and Blooms void, is a border between the known
3 Jean Bellemin-Nol, Psychoanalytic Reading and the Avant-texte, Genetic Criticism: Texts and Avant-textes, ed. Jed Deppman, Daniel Ferrer, and Michael Groden (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004), 31. Originally Avant-texte et lecture psychanalytique, Avant-texte, texte, aprs-texte, ed. Louis Hay and Pter Nagy (Paris: CNRS; Budapest: Akadmiai Kiad, 1982). Italics in original. 4 Daniel Ferrer, Clementiss Cap: Retroaction and Persistence in the Genetic Process, trans. Marlena G. Corcoran, Drafts, ed. Michel Contat, Denis Hollier, and Jacques Neefs, Yale French Studies 89 (1996): 230. Originally La toque de Clementis, retroaction et rmanence dans les processus gntiques, Genesis 6 (1994). 5 Daniel Ferrer, Production, Invention, and Reproduction: Genetic vs. Textual Criticism, Reimagining Textuality: Textual Studies in the Late Age of Print, ed. Elizabeth Bergmann Loizeaux and Neil Fraistat (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2002), 51. 6 Louis Hay, Does Text Exist?, trans. Matthew Jocelyn and Hans Walter Gabler, Studies in Bibliography 41 (1988), 73. Originally Le texte nexiste pas: Rexions sur la critique gntique, Potique 85 (1985).



and the unknown, between the authors conception and the words that he or she can get onto the paper or screen and also between the existing text and the scholars attempt to reconstruct and interpret the writing process. But, unlike the void, the drumskin does not have to remain silent in another memorable phrase Hay remarks that manuscripts have something new to tell us: it is high time we learned to make them speak.7 Genetic criticism lets us hear the music of the manuscripts, the drumbeat of the drafts. Paul Valry wrote in one of his notebooks that nothing is more beautiful than a beautiful manuscript draft [...] A complete poem would be the poem of a poem starting from its fertilized embryo and its successive states, unexpected interpolations, and approximations. Thats real Genesis.8 I claimed in Ulysses in Progress that Joyce presented Ulysses as a palimpsest of his development from 1914 to 1922,9 and if this statement is even partially true, then Ulysses is an example of those works that the editors of the Yale French Studies issue on Drafts describe as having managed to retain something of the aura of their potentialities.10 In such works, the various relationships between the texts past and present the ways in which the process leads to the text and the ways in which the text affects our sense of the process are visible or at least implicit in the text itself. What happens when the unknown becomes more known not because we proceed more energetically or with better syllogisms but because the record itself changes? We are in a unique position at this moment because the manuscript archive for Ulysses is indeed changing. The huge collection of manuscripts that the National Library of Ireland acquired in May 2002 contains four notebooks with notes for all the episodes of Ulysses and fourteen copybooks representing ten drafts
7 Louis Hay, History or Genesis?, Drafts, p. 207. Originally Histoire ou gense?, Les Leons du manuscript, issue of Etudes Franaises 28:1 (1992). 8 Paul Valry, Poetry, Cahiers/Notebooks, vol. 2, ed. Brian Stimpson, Paul Gifford, and Robert Pickering, trans. Norma Rinsler (Frankfurt and New York: Peter Lang, 2000), p. 219. Originally Cahiers, facsimile ed., 29 vols. (Paris: CNRS, 195761). 9 10

Michael Groden, Ulysses in Progress (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977), 23. Michel Contat, Denis Hollier, and Jacques Neefs, Editors Preface, Drafts, 1.

Michael Groden Proceeding Energetically From the Unknown to the Known 185

of eight episodes. In some cases drafts for the Sirens, Cyclops, and Oxen of the Sun episodes the new manuscripts ll in holes and complete draft stages that have been only partially extant for the past fty years. In other cases drafts for Proteus, Sirens, and Circe new documents are now extant that represent additional stages of development for episodes that were partially documented before. In yet other cases Scylla and Charybdis, Ithaca, and Penelope early drafts have surfaced for the rst time. This is a tremendously exciting development, and Joyce scholars have begun to look carefully at the manuscripts now that the National Library has made them available for investigation. I had the thrilling opportunity to spend two days with the manuscripts in November 2001. I was able to gain only a general overview of the documents and their contents and to notice only a few specic details in that short time, but some fascinating examples of Joyces writing did catch my eye.11 In the remaining space of this essay, I will look at three small details from the new manuscripts. I My rst example comes from the very end of Ulysses. We have known for a long time that Joyce only gradually built up the rhythms of the last words of Molly Blooms monologue tapping out yeses with his pen on the drumskin of the proofs. The fair copy of the books last words reads [...] and rst I put my arms around him and drew him down to me so he could feel my breasts all perfume and I said I will yes.12 He added yes and his heart was going like mad after perfume on the typescript, yes after I said on the rst placards, and another yes before I said on the second placards, where he also capitalised the nal
11 I have discussed my involvement with the manuscripts and summarised my ndings about them in three articles: The National Library of Irelands New Joyce Manuscripts: A Statement and Document Descriptions, James Joyce Quarterly 39:1 (dated Fall 2001), 2951; The National Library of Irelands New Joyce Manuscripts: A Narrative and Document Summaries, Journal of Modern Literature 26 (dated Fall 2002), 116 and The National Library of Irelands New Joyce Manuscripts: An Outline and Archive Comparisons, Joyce Studies Annual 14 (2003), 517. 12 Buffalo MS V.A.22; reproduced in James Joyce, The James Joyce Archive, ed. Michael Groden et al., 63 vols. (New York: Garland, 197779), 16:297.



Yes. On the fourth placards and rst page proofs he added more yeses a few lines up.13 The National Librarys collection contains a draft of the Penelope episode the rst pre-fair-copy draft of the episode to become extant and it contains a big surprise at the end: Joyce originally wrote and I said I would yes, before he crossed out would, and, in a currente calamo revision, wrote will next to it on the line.14 Richard Ellmann claimed long ago that Joyce came up with yes as the last word of Ulysses only in mid-1921 as he was drafting Penelope,15 and our sense of any genetic instability lying behind the ending of Ulysses has focused for the most part on that word. The new draft reveals something else: even after Joyce had settled on the concluding yes, his sense of the endings grammar, and hence of the emotional force of Mollys closing memory, was in ux. The drafts original ending is grammatically smoother than the revised version, since it continues Mollys thoughts in a consistent verb tense, but it is also much less dramatic. The switch to will turns the last words into a memory of spoken dialogue as it changes the ending from the subdued subjunctive would to the decisive indicative will. Will no longer stands as the only possible penultimate word of Ulysses. The superseded would now appears just under will in the palimpsest. This new piece of evidence from the avant-texte allows the reader who has experienced it to have a new possible text in mind, one that, as Jerome McGann demonstrated regarding the different versions of Marianne Moores poem Poetry, allows or even forces the interplay of the two texts to be at the centre of the reading experience.16
13 Buffalo TS V.B.16.c, three sets of Harvard placards, Texas page proofs; reproduced in The James Joyce Archive 16:349, 21:368, 21:370, 21:37576, 27:277. 14 The words are on page 19r (39) of the National Librarys Penelope draft (NLI II.ii.8). I thank Daniel Ferrer for pointing out to me that that the change was a currente calamo revision. 15 Richard Ellmann, James Joyce (New York: Oxford University Press, 1959), 531; rev. ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982), 516. 16 The Monks and the Giants: Textual and Bibliographical Studies and the Interpretation of Literary Works, The Beauty of Inections: Literary Investigations in Historical Method and Theory (Oxford: Clarendon, 1985, 1988), 87.

Michael Groden Proceeding Energetically From the Unknown to the Known 187

II My second example, an especially appropriate one in light of Louis Hays metaphor of an authors pen beating out a text on a drumskin, comes from the Sirens episode. The National Library collection contains two new documents for this episode, one a very early draft (in the same copybook as an early draft of Proteus) and the other a later draft of the rst half of the episode (a Buffalo manuscript contains the second half of this draft).17 The early document is quite startling: ten pages of a very early draft of part of the episode, followed by over fteen pages containing fragmentary scenes. Most intriguingly, this draft of the episode that both deals with music and is written in the form of verbal music is pre-musical it contains musical effects in some of its words, but the musical structure that intrigues, bewilders, and sometimes infuriates the readers of the published text is completely absent. The draft suggests an episode substantially similar to the rst nine episodes of Ulysses, with their combination of narration, dialogue, and interior monologue plus local variations in language and imagery based on each episodes particular theme. In that sense, the Sirens draft seems like the early parts of the rst draft of the Cyclops episode, which, as I argued in Ulysses in Progress, indicated that Joyce at least briey planned to continue using the narration-dialogue-interior-monologue technique before he entirely eliminated it for the rst time in Ulysses.18 The later of the two new drafts is most immediately interesting because of its inside front cover. There Joyce wrote and underlined the words Fuga per canonem, followed by eight numbered Italian terms, including soggetto, contrasoggetto, esposizioni, and pedale. In a letter to Harriet Shaw Weaver from August 1919, Joyce wrote that various passages she had mentioned in a letter to him are all the eight regular parts of a fuga per canonem,19 and critics have been puzzled and
17 18 19

Buffalo MS V.A.5; reproduced in The James Joyce Archive 13:3256. Ulysses in Progress, 12425.

James Joyce, Letters, ed. Stuart Gilbert and Richard Ellmann, 3 vols. (New York: Viking, 1957, 1966), 1:129. He also used the phrase Fuga per canonem to describe the technique of Sirens in his 1921 schema for Ulysses; see Stuart Gilbert, James Joyces Ulysses (New York: Vintage, 1930, 1952), 30.



vexed by what, if anything, Joyce meant by these words. The copybook indicates that Joyce was serious about writing a verbal fuga per canonem. It also suggests what Joyce meant by the eight parts of a fugue. Critics have usually been frustrated in their attempts to locate eight musical voices in the episode, but Joyces list suggests that by parts he meant something like structural sections.20 What is clear is that he imposed a musical structure onto an episode that was already partially drafted, somewhat parallel to the way he superimposed the newspaper heads onto the Aeolus episode to break up the episode into a series of small article-sized units. At the top of the later drafts rst recto Joyce wrote the words, Repeat phrases episode. The draft does not include the bizarre and notorious series of fragmentary phrases that open the nished episode and that are usually interpreted as something like a musical overture, and this note might be Joyces reminder to himself to extract some phrases in order to construct that opening. The two Sirens drafts have the potential to signicantly affect our sense of how Joyce wrote Ulysses. The earlier draft, located as it is in the same copybook as a very early draft of Proteus (which now becomes the earliest extant draft of any part of Ulysses), suggests that Sirens was drafted quite early, even as early as the rst three Stephen Dedalus episodes. This might be what Joyce meant in a letter from 1916, three years before the fair copy of Sirens, where he said that he had written part of the middle of the book.21 I have always assumed that he referred to the fourth Stephen episode, Scylla and Charybdis, but he might have been speaking about Sirens and maybe even other episodes in addition to, or instead of, Scylla. The draft also conrms speculations about Joyces writing of Ulysses that Rodney Owen made in the early 1980s. In James Joyce and the Beginnings of Ulysses, Owen studied the few documents from the period 1912 to 1918 that were extant at the time in an attempt to piece together
For help in interpreting Joyces list, I thank Stephen Adams, Ruth Bauerle, Zack Bowen, Timothy Martin, and Adrienne OHenly.
21 20

Letters 2:387.

Michael Groden Proceeding Energetically From the Unknown to the Known 189

what Joyce might have done in those years. In particular, he compared some notes at Cornell with the few Ulysses drafts from those years and concluded that the rst third of Sirens was earlier and more complete than the rest and that the presence of the notebook echoes in Proteus, Scylla, and to a lesser extent in Sirens and Wandering Rocks suggests these episodes were among the earliest planned.22 After twenty years, the new documents show that Owen was correct to put Sirens into the group of early-written episodes, with implications yet to be discovered.23 III My third and nal example involves the most prominent restored passage in Hans Walter Gablers edition of Ulysses. In the Scylla and Charybdis episode, as Stephen discusses his wound-and-the-bow theory of Hamlet with three skeptical listeners in the National Library of Ireland, he rst says and thinks these words:
If you want to know what are the events which cast their shadow over the hell of time of King Lear, Othello, Hamlet, Troilus and Cressida, look to see when and how the shadow lifts. What softens the heart of a man, shipwrecked in storms dire, Tried, like another Ulysses, Pericles, prince of Tyre? Head, redconecapped, buffeted, brineblinded. A child, a girl, placed in his arms, Marina.24

Then, after Stephens thoughts and spoken words get briey deected, he returns to Marina:
Marina, Stephen said, a child of storm, Miranda, a wonder, Perdita, that which was lost. What was lost is given back to him: his daughters
Rodney Wilson Owen, James Joyce and the Beginnings of Ulysses (Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1983), 6768. The Cornell notebook is called The Alphabetical Notebook in Robert Scholes, The Cornell Joyce Collection (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1961), 12, item 25, and The Trieste Notebook in The Workshop of Daedalus: James Joyce and the Raw Materials for A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, ed. Robert Scholes and Richard M. Kain (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1965), 92105, where it is transcribed. It is reproduced in The James Joyce Archive 7:10956.
23 For further discussion of the new Sirens manuscripts, see Daniel Ferrer, What Song the Sirens Sang Is No Longer Beyond All Conjecture: A Preliminary Description of the New Proteus and Sirens Manuscripts, James Joyce Quarterly 39:1 (dated Fall 2001): 5368. 24 22

Ulysses 9:4007.



child. My dearest wife, Pericles says, was like this maid. Will any man love the daughter if he has not loved the mother? The art of being a grandfather, Mr Best gan murmur. Lart dtre grandp Will he not see reborn in her, with the memory of his own youth added, another image? Do you know what you are talking about? Love, yes. Word known to all men. Amor vero aliquid alicui bonum vult unde et ea quae concupiscimus His own image to a man with that queer thing genius is the standard of all experience, material and moral. Such an appeal will touch him. The images of other males of his blood will repel him. He will see in them grotesque attempts of nature to foretell or to repeat himself.25

The text in the Gabler edition includes a line of dialogue and a paragraph of interior monologue (from Will he not to concupiscimus) that are not in any previous printed texts of Ulysses. Gabler explains the absence of these lines from the previously published texts by speculating that, after typing one phrase from the lost nal working draft ending in ellipses and underlined to signal italics (ending with grandp), the typist jumped to another phrase also underlined and with ellipses (ending with concupiscimus) and omitted the words between the two sets of ellipses.26 The restored phrase, Love, yes. Word known to all men, is especially intriguing in light of Stephens questions from earlier and later in Ulysses as to what the word known to all men might be.27 One of the manuscripts in the National Library of Irelands new collection is a three-notebook draft of Scylla and Charybdis, the rst pre-fair-copy draft of this episode to become extant. The passage in question is present in the draft, but, interestingly, only Love, yes forms part of the drafts original text Word known to all men is an addition. The paragraph of Stephens interior monologue in the new draft thus reads, Do you know what you are talking about? Love, yes. Amor vero aliquid alicui bonum vult unde et ea quae concupiscimus.28 This forms
25 26

Ulysses 9:42135. Italics in original.

Ulysses: A Critical and Synoptic Edition, ed. Hans Walter Gabler with Wolfhard Steppe and Claus Melchior, 3 vols. (New York: Garland, 1984), 418, 1738.
27 28

Ulysses 3:435 and 15:419293.

The passage is on the second recto of the second of the three Scylla notebooks; Joyce numbered the rectos of the three notebooks continuously, and this one is his page 14. Italics in

Michael Groden Proceeding Energetically From the Unknown to the Known 191

an unbroken string of thoughts. Stephens mind darts from detail to detail: from Pericles and his granddaughter Marina to Miranda to Perdita, back to Pericles, then to Shakespeare and his relationship with his wife and daughter, which brings in the question of love. He resists being deected when Richard Best picks up not the idea of love but the role of the grandfather and then answers Love, yes as the response to his selfinterrogation regarding whether he knows what he is talking about. The Aquinas fragments, which Don Gifford and Robert J. Seidman identify as conjoining various phrases from one sentence in Summa Contra Gentiles, distinguish between true love and desire: love wills something to someone [] will some good [] when we want a thing [] desire it []29 In their form, these fragments from Aquinas resemble Stephens skimming of Deasys letter about foot and mouth disease earlier in the book, where a few prominent phrases registered in his mind.30 In their content, the fragments and the sentence they come from establish a contrast between seless love, which wishes something to somebody, and the more selsh desire, in which we rather love ourselves for whom we desire the something.31 Stephen then picks up his last spoken words about a granddaughter and another image as he talks about the artist whose standard of experience is his own image, a phrase which William Noon, in his study of Joyce and Aquinas (published in 1957, long before
original. The rst of the two underlined/italicised phrases, Lart dtre grandp ....., is not in the Rosenbach manuscript fair copy (Ulysses: A Facsimile of the Manuscript, Clive Driver (ed.), vol. 1 [New York: Octagon, and Philadelphia: Philip H. and A.S.W. Rosenbach Foundation, 1975], Scylla and Charybdis, fol. 13). Gabler speculates that it is present in the lost nal working draft, since it is part of the typed text on the typescript (Ulysses: A Critical and Synoptic Edition, 418, 1738; James Joyce Archive, 12:357). I did not transcribe the National Library draft fully enough to know whether or not the phrase is in the draft. Don Gifford with Robert J. Seidman, Ulysses Annotated: Notes for James Joyces Ulysses, revised ed. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 221.
30 Foot and mouth disease. Known as Kochs preparation. Serum and virus. Percentage of salted horses. Rinderpest. Emperors horses at Mrzsteg, lower Austria. Veterinary surgeons. Mr Henry Blackwood Price. Courteous offer a fair trial. Dictates of common sense. Allimportant question. In every sense of the word take the bull by the horns. Thanking you for the hospitality of your columns. Ulysses 2:33237. 31 For love wishes something to somebody: hence the things that we desire, we are properly said to desire, not to love, but in them we rather love ourselves for whom we desire them. St. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Contra Gentiles, Book 1, Chapter 91, section 3, trans. Joseph Rickaby, 1905. Online: 91.htm> [14 December 2002]. 29



Gabler restored Stephens quotation from Aquinas to the text of Ulysses), links to Aquinass idea of man as an image of God.32 What, then, about word known to all men? Since the publication of Gablers edition in 1984, critics have certainly focused on it as the core of the restored passage. They have usually seen the phrase as a deliberate echo of the earlier passage in Proteus where Stephen thinks, Touch me. Soft eyes. Soft soft soft hand. I am lonely here. O, touch me soon, now. What is that word known to all men? I am quiet here alone. Sad too. Touch, touch me.33 They also connect it to Stephens later plea to his mother, in one of the Circe fantasies, to Tell me the word, [] if you know now. The word known to all men.34 (Here, his boast to Bloom in Ithaca notwithstanding, Stephen seems to want to proceed from the unknown to the known or from what he thinks is known to everyone but him not by syllogism but by interrogation, by catechism, by recognizing Blooms strategy of relying on personal experience.) It is likely that Joyce at least sketched out Scylla and Charybdis around the time of Proteus, so a conjunction between those two episodes would not be surprising.35 But word known to all men appears in very different contexts in each of its three appearances in Ulysses: guilty and erotic in Proteus and guilty and anguished in Circe,36 but theological and artistic in Scylla. This suggests to me that the three phrases have little connection with each other.

32 33 34 35

William T. Noon, S.J., Joyce and Aquinas (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1957), 57. Ulysses 3:43436. Ulysses 15:419293.

In 1948 Buffalo bought a ten-leaf draft of Scylla described as consisting of fragmentary conversations, which appear altered in the nal version, but the manuscript got lost between Paris and Buffalo and has never surfaced. See John J. Slocum and Herbert Cahoon (comp.), A Bibliography of James Joyce 18821941 (1953; rpt. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1971), 140, item 5.b.iii (the source of the description); also Bernard Gheerbrant, James Joyce: Sa Vie, Son uvre, Son Rayonnement (Paris: Librairie La Hune, 1949), item 254; and Peter Spielberg (comp.), James Joyces Manuscripts and Letters at the University of Buffalo: A Catalogue (Buffalo: University of Buffalo, 1962), vii. The National Library Scylla draft is not the lost document but a later, more developed draft.
36 Cheryl Herr, Theosophy, Guilt, and That Word Known to All Men in Joyces Ulysses, James Joyce Quarterly 18 (1980): 5152. When Herr wrote this article, the phrase appeared only twice in Ulysses.

Michael Groden Proceeding Energetically From the Unknown to the Known 193

It is possible, of course, that Joyce added word known to all men in order to restore some text that he neglected to copy into the draft. As an insert, however, it seems to throw the passage off balance, disrupting the movement from Love, yes to the Amor of the Aquinas quotation. Isolated as an addition to an already consistent passage in the Scylla draft, the phrase can be interpreted in at least three different ways. First, it may be what it is often assumed to be: Stephens answer to himself that Love is the word known to all men. Second, the phrase is itself part of Stephens answer to his question, Do you know what you are talking about? He rst answers Love, yes, but, as if recognising the inadequacy of that response, adds that love is a word known to everyone. Interestingly, Stephen seems to assume that the word being known to everyone demonstrates that he knows what he is talking about, whereas the original problem that he seemed to recognise was that he has not experienced a fathers love for a daughter.37 Finally, word known to all men might be a quotation that pops into Stephens head, perhaps a response to the word love that he thinks of as if by rote association.38 It might be a phrase from the Bible or from any of the Biblical commentators that Stephen knows so well, including Aquinas. Rather than identifying love as the word known to all men, it might mean something like love as the means by which the Word was made known to all men. It thus appears more like a momentary, isolated mental intrusion than an answer to Stephens questions. To appropriate Louis Hays metaphor one last time, the new Ulysses manuscripts will allow scholars to begin to get a more detailed and subtler sense of the drumskin on which Joyce tapped out his book. In the rhythms of Molly Blooms concluding yeses, the fugal structure
37 Gifford and Seidman say that the key to the mystery seems to be not the word itself but the word-made-manifest. Only in the experience of love can the word known to all men be truly known (221; italics in original). For a different analysis of the passage, including textual arguments for including or not including it in the text of Ulysses, see Richard J. Finneran, That Word Known to All Men in Ulysses: A Reconsideration, James Joyce Quarterly 33 (1996): 56982. 38 Earlier, in the Aeolus episode, Stephen listened to Professor MacHugh quote John F. Taylor I heard his words and their meaning was revealed to me. and a phrase from Augustine entered his mind, as if involuntarily: It was revealed to me that those things are good which yet are corrupted which neither if they were supremely good nor unless they were good could be corrupted. Ah, curse you! Thats saint Augustine. Ulysses 7:83944.



of Sirens, and the concordance or dissonance of the word known to all men, they provide us with a better opportunity than we have ever had before to let the Ulysses manuscripts speak to us. In small and large ways, they will help scholars close the gap between the known and the unknown of Joyces writing processes.

Michael Groden Proceeding Energetically From the Unknown to the Known 195

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The Dimension of the Text

Geert Lernout

The theoretical point I want to make was inspired by Hans Walter Gablers genetic edition of James Joyces Ulysses: I want to show that, despite the theoretical claims that have been made for genetic editions with three or four dimensions, editions can be linear or unidimensional without losing crucial information. Gotthold Ephraim Lessing was right: literature is an art of the nebeneinander and texts are by their very nature linear. Unlike twodimensional paintings or three-dimensional sculptures, texts are, like music, daughters of time. Naturally there are a number of exceptions such as some of Mallarms poems or so-called concrete poetry in general, or even some modernist and post-modernist prose works that exploit the possibilities of the two dimensions of the written or printed page. But the point about these exceptions is that they foreground and thus presuppose the essential linearity of both the writing and the reading act. Let us begin with an example from expository prose. When Jacques Derrida published his startlingly original book Glas, in which he juxtaposed in one textual space an essay on Jean Genet with a philosophical treatise about Hegel, no critic suggested that the philosopher wrote both columns at the same time, or that he rst wrote the rst line or rst sentence of one column to jump to the rst line of the other one, alternately writing a line or sentence in each. Even in the case of this overwhelmingly novel format, we can only presuppose the existence of a classically linear writing act which is, in the case of Derrida, usually based on a series of seminars that I at least cannot imagine as having been delivered in two simultaneous voices. The more cynical among Derridas readers may conjecture (as I do) that the philosopher rst wrote one essay and then the other, and only then, discovering that they were of approximately the same length, adjusted the font and typography to make sure that the text on Hegel and the one on Genet ended at roughly the same time, or better, in this case, at roughly the same place (or page). The

same cynical readers look at reports of perceived connections between the two columns as purely coincidental effects that have more to do with the pressures that readers feel to make sense of what presents itself as coherent because it occupies the same space, than with anything within the text. The difference between these two is crucial: the fact that some of Derridas readers have found profound connections between the two columns does not in itself constitute proof. Textual critics know from experience that blatant misprints or other non-intentional Leerstellen stop neither ordinary readers nor sophisticated critics of making sense of sequences of letters or words that were never meant to mean anything and in the case of an experimental writer like James Joyce this is all the more so. The critical resistance to Hans Walter Gablers recovery of the word known to all men passage in Ulysses demonstrates both the strength and the weakness of the arguments of textual study against literary critics. The arguments of textual study are based on common sense and on empirical evidence, while the aesthetic or poetological arguments of the literary critics diverge in all aspects while only agreeing in their rejection of the disputed passage. In the case of Glas one might argue against those critics who manage to nd meanings in the dialogue between the two columns of text, that the two editions of this book, the original one-volume Galile edition and the two-volume paperback issued by Denol/Gonthier, must carry different meanings since what the former presents as two columns the latter gives on different pages. For important parts of the text, the two editions do not coincide and what we see happening on the page in one edition differs from what happens in the other. But this does not seem to have obstructed the reading and enjoyment of this central text by an important contemporary philosopher who, needless to say, at this particular point of his career was engaged in actively attempting to deconstruct all textual coherence. As part of the same strategy, Glas does not have a beginning or an ending, with both texts abruptly starting and ending in the middle of a sentence. Textual coherence is to a large extent hard-wired in readers of texts and this nding has not just been noticed by writers of literature but is conrmed by neurological studies. Homo sapiens sapiens is, as Michael
198 VARIANTS 4 2005

Schermer and others have repeatedly demonstrated, the animal that will create causal (or linear) sense even when there is no sense available. Maybe Hugo von Hofmannsthal has put this most succinctly at the end of Der Tor und der Tod, when Death, shaking its head, exits the stage with this nal speech:
Wie wundervoll sind diese Wesen, Die, was nicht deutbar, dennoch deuten, Was nie geschrieben wurde, lesen, Verworrenes beherrschend binden Und Wege noch im Ewig-Dunkeln nden.1

Humans can nd coherence in a text, even when its spatial distribution differs from the practice that Western writing has adopted ever since the rst Mesopotamian scribe put stylus to wet clay. It is possible to observe in the history of human writing that there are no cases where narrative or expository writing is not essentially linear, from the cuneiform tablets with writing that ran from one side of the tablet over the side to the back and, if necessary, also on the four sides of the tablets, to the scrolls and codices that already have the columns of text we still use to organise our textual materials, even in an electronic form. The fact that some writing runs from right to left or boustrophedonically, in alternating lines in both directions, does not take away from the fact that most forms of writing and especially the alphabetical one are essentially linear. Most obviously, the act of writing itself is linear. It seems to be physically impossible to write more than one text simultaneously, just as one sentence has to follow the previous one, one word, one letter, even one stroke of a letter, follows another, and this despite the fact that some of us are ambidextrous and could physically write two different texts at the same time. If we compare writing on typewriters or on computer keyboards with making music on a piano or another keyboard instrument, one could argue that strictly speaking at least some music is not purely linear, because the performer plays a different piece
1 How remarkable are these creatures, / Who can understand what is not understandable, / Can read what was never written, / Can masterfully bind what is mixed up / And who can nd roads in the Eternal Dark. Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Gesammelte Werke: Gedichte-Dramen I. 1891-1896 (Frankfurt am Main: Fischer, 1979), 297-8.

Geert Lernout The Dimension of the Text


of music with each of his hands (conveniently written on two separate scores) and when he plays the organ, his feet can play a third voice, and in the case of Johann Sebastian Bach, who put a stick in his mouth for this purpose, even a fourth one. But whatever way you perform it, the music remains linear, both for the composer who surely did not write the different parts simultaneously and for the listener who cannot easily distinguish which hand (or foot, or stick-in-mouth) is playing which notes. Although at every moment of the performance the performer must be able to make a distinction between his hands, simply in order to know what he has to do with them, for him too there is only one piece and that is linear. Something similar is true of orchestral music where the outcome depends on very many different musical lines played by a large group of musicians. But each of them reads and plays his own linear score and even the conductor, the person who is responsible for the overall effect, can in practice only attend to one group of musicians at a time: even the most accomplished director cannot simultaneously read a complete score both vertically and horizontally. Despite all modernist and post-modernist attempts to lure us into a textual eld that is no longer one-dimensional, reading too is essentially linear. Of course we are quite capable of perceiving spatial relations between words or letters on a page and of course I have already mentioned the attempts on the part of writers and readers to break through the linear conventions of poetry and prose, but whereas on the stage we can have two or more singers and actors speaking or singing simultaneously (and some people even pretend to be capable of comprehending the different utterances of all participants), the sad reality is that when we read, we can only do so when we read one word or group of words after the other. This is the sense in which I claim that reading is linear: readers treat the different lines of the normal written, typed or printed page as one continuous line and the line breaks, at least in prose, or not only not perceived as meaningful (after all, these breaks depend only on the width of the paper), I think we can agree that line breaks, just like page breaks, are arbitrary and thus without signicance. For both line and page breaks, we can carry out a very simple thought experiment to prove
200 VARIANTS 4 2005

this point: think of the prose text with which youre most familiar, in the edition you have used most often, and then ask yourself which word occurs at the end of the rst line and at the end of the rst page of text. Some people claim to have photographic memories, but I havent met anyone yet who was able to do this. It demonstrates that reading prose is rst and foremost a linear activity in which the two-dimensional lay-out of the text is not really relevant. The same is true of writing. As editors, and a fortiori as genetic editors, we should concentrate on the writer, and writers always write a word after they have nished writing another. This is most obviously the case within a single version of a text. Of course sometimes writers add or delete words or sentences to an already existing text, but the new words and sentences then t into a new linear text, which is what the author is creating by this act of correction or addition. This is demonstrated when, as in the case of Joyces work on Ulysses and Finnegans Wake, the manuscripts become so complicated by additions upon additions that the result is a barely legible textual mess. If single versions, however complicated, consist of a single line of text, this does not change when we turn our attention to the texts genetic history and consider different versions and drafts. What Joyce did next in the process of writing Ulysses and Finnegans Wake was to copy the barely legible textual mess of a particular draft, including all the different additions and emendations, onto a new page, with as a result a single and clean line of text. That he then proceeded to complicate that simple line with ever new additions does not matter all that much, because like before that new textual complex could be translated easily enough into a new linear text, eventually ending in the clearly linear texts that were published in 1922 and 1939. If anything, Gablers 1984 edition of Ulysses has demonstrated that most of the operations a writer can perform on a written text can be represented linearly. Although rhetorically there may be a benet in referring to the second, third and fourth dimension of the text as many critics and theorists have done, that does not, in my opinion, alter this basic fact of life. Writing and reading seem to be essentially linear, but it is quite another thing to claim that they are one-dimensional. This may be to a
Geert Lernout The Dimension of the Text 201

large extent purely a matter of vocabulary. A number of factors in the last hundred and twenty years have conspired to turn the word onedimensional into the ideological equivalent of pass. On the one hand we had Flatland by Edwin A. Abbott, a delightful geometric ction in which a world of only two dimensions is disturbed by rumours of a third (and possibly fourth) dimension. Just a few decades later Einsteins work conrmed the role of time as the fourth dimension in a time-space continuum and the ideological death-blow to the metaphor of a single dimension was certainly delivered by Herbert Marcuse in his for my generation so inuential book One-Dimensional Man, which I read as a rebellious sixteen-year-old and of which, after all these years, I only remember that, if anything, it was denitely not a good thing to be one-dimensional. A second point is related to the rst: as I will try to show, it is impossible to nd a convincing metaphor to represent the role of the temporal dimension in the transmission of texts and it also seems impossible for an edition of a text (at least one that exists in different versions), to do justice both to the relationship between documents and to the integrity of each individual document. If we represent the genetic development of a literary text, we should, like Gabler, in each individual case make the impossible distinction between the entirely different acts of transmission and of creation, between on the one hand the author as passive scribe, trying to copy carefully the previous draft and in that process making the same mistakes as the traditional scribes, and on the other hand the author as creator of his own text, purposely altering his text whenever he feels it is necessary. Both in the case of Ulysses and in that of Finnegans Wake I see no way in which it would be possible to represent faithfully both the development of the text, which ends in and works towards the nished product in 1922 and 1939, and that of each individual draft independent of that development. This does not mean that some of the more autonomous stages, such as the publication in periodicals of chapters of both books, did not represent signicant moments for Joyce and for his readers, or that these could not serve as the end-point of genetic editions. What I do mean is that after their publication, Joyce treated the Little Review or transition pieces in exactly the same fashion as any other draft in the series. The textual critic or editor should be well advised to
202 VARIANTS 4 2005

do likewise. This basic fact about texts and about language in general is reected in the images with which genetic and textual theorists have dened themselves and their work. The most obvious metaphor for what it is that editors do, is that of restoration: over the years the work has accumulated the grime of time and has become unrecognisably different. This means that in order to be useful again we must polish it; the layers of dirt have to be taken away to reveal the original that was hidden there all that time. A slightly less palatable metaphor for the process of undoing the inevitable effects of textual corruption was used by Daniel Heinsius in the rst draft of a most important text in the history of textual criticism. The expression textus receptus for the version of the Greek New Testament that would remain the standard edition of the most important Christian text until the end of the nineteenth century, was rst used in the introduction to the second 1733 edition: Textum ergo habes, nunc ab omnibus receptum: in quo nihil immutatum aut corruptum damus. Thus you have here the text that is now generally received, in which we offer nothing that is changed or corrupted. The fact that this was no more than a proud boast (we would now say blurb) for an edition that was in fact not only cobbled together quickly on the basis of manuscripts that belonged, in the words of the Alands, to the youngest and worst of the text types in which the bible has been preserved,2 but that was in all respects (with the exception of the ink quality) inferior to the rst Elzevier edition, should not concern us here. What is more interesting is that Daniel Heinsius has been shown to be the author of this introduction, on the basis of a rst draft of the introduction, written on the rst blank page of a Greek manuscript of the second half of the sixteenth century, after the Commentarii in Octateuchum, Reges, Paralipomena I-II by Procopius of Gaza. Again, it does not concern us here that we are able to date these pages and that we can be sure that Daniel Heinsius wrote them. Nor should we mention that at the time of writing the manuscript itself was the property of the University Library at Leyden and Heinsius himself the Head Librarian, not just writing in
2 Kurt Aland and Barbara Aland. Der Text des Neuen Testaments (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1989), 14.

Geert Lernout The Dimension of the Text


one of the manuscripts under his care but doing it in effect in order to moonlight for a commercial publisher. What does interest us is that the rst version of the famous phrase was slightly different: Textum habes, iam receptum, ab omnibus receptum, in quo nihil immutatum, aut pe corruptum, nihil couriositati, nihil novitati datum. Quemadmodum a cibis muscae merito arcentur, ita istas ad hosce non admittimus, quos contactu. You have here the text which is now generally received, in which we offer nothing changed or corrupted, nothing left to strangeness, nothing to innovation. Just as from food ies are rightly fended off, so we do not permit these corruptive factors to contaminate the present food. The textual corruptions are ies that should be chased off, in order to protect the heavenly nourishment that lies underneath.3 Although there seems to be enough food for thought here, a third metaphor for textual corruption and its undoing is also concerned with pollution. According to a way of thinking that is even older than the annotations in Erasmuss edition of the Greek New Testament, contemporary manuscripts of the bible or of other classical texts stand in the same relationship to the original as a polluted river to the purity of its spring: it is told of Charlemagne that he settled a dispute about the text of the antiphonar with the question: Where do we get purer water, from the spring or from the brook?4 . In that context it is the responsibility of the textual critic and editor to use his critical skills to imaginatively follow that river all the way back to the clear sparkling spring of the original form of the text. As Dirk Van Hulle has shown in a forthcoming book, both Proust and Joyce use related images in La recherche and Finnegans Wake. In the latter book, it is the river Liffey, born in the hills of Wicklow who carries the dirt and grime of the city to her death in the Irish sea. Still another image was used by the appropriately named Paul Maas in his highly inuential book of 1927 Textkritik. First he introduced the traditional Lachmannian idea of the stemma and pointed out that it derives from genealogy: the witnesses are related to the original somewhat

H. J. de Jonge, Daniel Heinsius and the Textus Receptus of the New Testament (Leiden: Brill, 1971),

4 Quoted in U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, History of Classical Scholarship (London: Duckworth, 1982), 17.



as the descendants of a man are related to their ancestor and he adds, somewhat mischievously, one might perhaps illustrate the transmission of errors along the same lines by treating all females as sources of error. But this image is unsatisfactory and Maas compares textual transmission to a river in an uncharacteristically lively and complex simile that deserves to be quoted in full:
A river comes from an inaccessible source under the peak of a high mountain. It divides underground, its branches divide further, and some of these branches then come to the surface of the mountain side as springs; the water of these springs at once drains away and may come to the surface at several places farther down the mountain side and nally ows onward in visible form overground. The water from its source onwards is of ever-changing but ne and pure colours. In its subterranean course it ows past several places at which colouring matters from time to time dissolve into the water; the same thing happens every time the stream divides and every time it comes to the surface in a spring. Every inux changes the colour of a certain part of the stream, and this part keeps the colour permanently; only very slight colour changes are eliminated by natural processes. The distinction between the dyed water and the original remains always visible to the eye, but only occasionally in the sense that the eye at once recognises a colour falsied by inuxes; often only in the sense that the difference between the colours of the various springs is discernible. On the other hand, the falsied elements can often be detected and the original colour restored by chemical methods; at other time this method fails. The object of the investigation is to test the genuineness of the colours on the evidence of the springs.5

From this simile it seems clear that Maas is more interested in the exact course of the water from the different springs and in the balance of the colours than in the pure contents of the original spring, which is of course inaccessible by denition. Despite the shape of an obviously three-dimensional mountain, Maas depicts a world that is just as two-dimensional as the traditional Lachmannian stemma and that closely resembles it. But there is an important difference: no river is ever fed by a single source. In fact, if like Maas we talk about manuscript traditions deriving from a single archetype, we must turn the river image on its head in order to presuppose an inverted delta with a single source feeding very many different and increasingly

Paul Maas, Textual Criticism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1958), 20.

Geert Lernout The Dimension of the Text


more polluted streams. And even then, Maass simile slips through our ngers the more we try to grasp it. Essential to owing water is the factor of time, so where exactly on Maass mountain do we nd the concrete text we are trying to reconstruct? Where is the original and where do we nd each individual version? If Heraclitus was right when he claimed that you cannot step into the same river twice, it should also be impossible to cut a slice of the river or to identify an individual text or work in what is essentially just owing water. Incidentally, this is also a problem that Joyce encountered when he was writing Finnegans Wake. In one of his textual sources he found that during one particularly dry summer the river Liffey had been dry for two minutes. This led to Anna Livias request at the very end of Finnegans Wake: If I lose my breath for a minute or two dont speak, remember! (625.28) and this passage is ultimately based, according to Roland McHugh, on the Dublin Annals which report that the Liffey in 1452 was dry for the space of two minutes [my italics]. But how can you measure the absence of water in units of time, or, for that matter, how could the Dubliners of 1452 measure two minutes? Isnt it much more obvious that the river was dry for two miles? The problem of nding a spatial representation of the temporal dimension is one that is, as we have seen, as old as Flatland and in most popular expositions of the time dimension we nd similar difculties, as in another of Joyces sources, J.W. Dunnes An Experiment with Time. In the same book that I quoted earlier Dirk Van Hulle points out that another sophisticated modernist writer, Marcel Proust, was also aware of the dimensional debate when he wrote about cette quatrime dimension, celle du Temps, que je trouvais autrefois lglise de Combray.6 The same can be said about the textual scholars: a representative of the German approach, Hans Zeller, uses an image that we recognise from the popular books on Einstein that were being published in the beginning of last century:
If one imagines the textual history in the shape of a 3-dimensional cylinder standing upright, then the different versions are horizontal planes perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder. The purpose of the historical-critical edition (apart from the necessary correction of mutilated text) is to create

This fourth dimension, that of Time, that I had found before in the church of Combray.



an appropriate reproduction of this cylinder, that is to say, of the complete textual history; while the purpose of a critical edition is to reproduce a particular plane, that is to say, an individual version. Contamination would mean the projection of one plane onto another.7

This is quite similar to what French geneticists have written on this subject: Louis Hay calls the genetic approach the third dimension of literature, which presupposes the two dimensions of the page in a similar fashion as Zeller does, while Pierre-Marc Biasi calls the genetic dimension, in keeping with the reference to the role of time in modern physics, the fourth dimension, which would really complicate Zellers picture of a three-dimensional cylinder. What these accounts have in common is that they all presuppose the supra-linear dimensions of a text. Before we go on, we must point out that there is an important difference between on the one hand Maass use of a stemma in the study of a work that exists in different manuscript copies and on the other the relationships between different genetic versions of a modern work such as Finnegans Wake. The difference, again, is one of dimensions: the stemma of a modern work will almost always be much more linear than that which attempts to describe different copies of a single work. When Michael Groden reconstructs the stemma of Ulysses in his introduction to his book Ulysses in Progress, we do not have a tree with different branches, but essentially a central trunk, one single line, with just a few short accidental branches, of which the Rosenbach Manuscript is the most important. Only occasionally will you have a branch that does not result in a new text but only leads to a private collectors cupboard or vault. For most of the time, what we have in modern genetic manuscripts is a rst draft that serves as the basis of the second draft, which is copied and revised again, and again, and again, ultimately leading to the printed book. Even what may appear to be endpoints such as the periodical and booklet publications of sections and chapters of Finnegans Wake are for Joyce mere stations on the way to the nal form of the text. The printed versions simply became the base for more overlay in the next document in the genetic history of the nal text.
7 Hans Zeller, A New Approach to the Critical Constitution of Literary Texts, Studies in Bibliography 28 (1975), 244.

Geert Lernout The Dimension of the Text


But this is not all: the relationship between the different documents is also different in the two kinds of stemma. Whereas in classical or medieval texts each document represents a copy and thus a version of the same text, modern manuscripts and drafts all have different texts, from a rough sketch to the nished form of the nal page proofs. But even this is not all, of course, because two consecutive genetic texts may have radically different meanings and intentions and must thus be considered different texts. Yet as I said earlier, on at least one level they do resemble traditional manuscript versions: the later text begins its life as a not always very good copy of the earlier text which rst had to be copied faithfully before new additions and revisions can be made. It is clear that the copying of a text, even when it is done by the author of the original, always remains a hazardous business that is subject to the same general types of mistakes that we can observe in classical or medieval manuscript traditions. This similarity extends to the most recent interest in individual documents, both in manuscript and in genetic traditions. There are theorists in the German, French and Anglo-American traditions who argue strongly against what they call eclecticism: the creation of an edition of a work on the basis of evidence from two different versions, because in that case you create a version that has never existed before. This is perhaps expressed most clearly by Siegfried Scheibe who writes From an editorial point of view the text of a work consists of all the textual versions that have been produced in the course of the genesis of the work by the author himself or on his request.8 Similar attitudes can be found among the genetic critics in France, most authoritatively in Almuth Grsillons Elments de critique gntique when she denes the genetic edition as an edition that represents exhaustively and in the chronological order the witnesses of a genesis.9 In the French view, one should not try to establish a synoptic edition (which brings several levels together in one document) but instead editors should reproduce faithfully and one
8 Siegfried Scheibe, Zum editorischen Problem des Textes, Zeitschrift fr deutsche Philologie. Sonderheft 101 (1982), 28. 9

Almuth Grsillon, Elments de critique gntique (Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1994),




by one all the manuscripts of the avant-texte. What happens here, and what happened in a different manner in the Anglo-American schools of editorial theory, is the disappearance of the nal printed form of the work as the telos of editorial labour. The ideal of this new type of edition is a diplomatic representation of a series of individual manuscripts. A similar movement can be found in studies of classical and biblical manuscripts in their attitude, not to the telos, but to the arche: if manuscripts used to be employed purely as a means of access to the allusive original text, there are now calls to look at them as artefacts in their own right.10 Of course, the careful examination of each individual version, be it manuscript or genetic, has always been a prerequisite for textual scholarship, but it is only when we stop instrumentalising these texts in seeing them purely as a means of understanding another text, that we can properly consider them as texts in their own right. Each version can then be seen as a text that deserves individual study and that should be seen as more than just a link in a long chain. Yet both in manuscript and in genetic versions, a single document only rarely represents a single state of the text. Manuscript versions have been corrected, either by the scribe or by somebody else, and glosses or marginal notes have been added. This is even more clear in the case of genetic manuscripts: almost by denition these consist of more than one layer of text. In the case of Finnegans Wake, Joyces fair copies are but a starting point of ever new additions and corrections, which ll up the page until the writer has no other alternative than to make a new draft. The result is that every individual stage of the genetic process contains traces of several different writing acts. Ideally the rst stage is a simple transcription of the previous stage and the end result the basis of the simple transcription that will result in the next stage; but in between these two there may be several years worth of emendations or additions. Thus, even if we restrict our attention to single documents, we cannot avoid having to deal with the temporal dimension that is hidden in every document and most of the time we end up with at least two dimensions,
10 See Thomas Beins contribution to Bodo Plachta and H. T. M. van Vliets Perspectives of Scholarly Editing. Perspektiven der Textedition (Berlin: Weidler, 2002).

Geert Lernout The Dimension of the Text


exemplied in the classic German synoptic edition that uses different lines and different fonts to represent the successive versions that can be isolated in one document, as with D.E. Sattlers famous Hlderlin edition. But Gablers Ulysses shows that with the use of diacritical signs it is easy to represent intradocument changes in a linear fashion. Gablers solution has two major advantages over Sattlers practice. The rst is that Gablers method makes it possible to represent interdocument changes too. For those users who want to be able to have immediate access to the genetic history of a particular passage without having to study either the documents, facsimiles of the documents or diplomatic editions, Gablers linear representation offers exactly what they need, at least from the Rosenbach manuscript onwards, and there is no practical reason why it could not also incorporate all kinds of earlier documents. The second advantage is even more dramatic: for those readers who are particularly interested in one stage of development of the text, the electronic base of the linear Gabler text should allow users to generate a linear version of any stage in the development of the text, which, after some more electronic manipulation, could link up with facsimiles of the appropriate documents. But what needs to be kept in mind is that Gablers genetic approach is decidedly author-centered and teleological: each individual document is not edited in its own right, but always in function of the editors reconstruction of the authorial contribution to the nal text. In recent years different groups in Dublin, Buffalo, Eugene and Antwerp have been working on electronic editions of parts of the texts of Finnegans Wake and on that of Ulysses. Different solutions have been offered for the problems inherent in a genetic presentation of Joyces late texts, but what they have in common is that all either start from Gablers method or end up applying it. The central advantage of Gablers synoptic text is that at least in paper form, it offers a completely linear text that incorporates most of the information contained in the various documents that are relevant to the texts genesis. What is lost, of course, is the appearance, the two-dimensional shape of the page of the individual document, whether it is a rst draft or the nal text. But that, it seems to me, is a small price to pay.



Writing on the Edge

Trollopes An Eye for An Eye
John McCourt

For the purposes of this article, I interpret text as a body of writing and by border I mean margin, frontier, limit, periphery, both edge and boundary, the beginning and end that frame a text such as a printed book, just as a picture frame contains an image or set of images. The borders of a text are arbitrary a novel, for example, is expected to conclude within a commonsensical number of pages just as the borders of images are arbitrary and actually non-existent lines conventions with which we read reproductions of physical reality. As real objects spill beyond the borders within which we limit them in their reproductions in the forms of painting or photography, so too books too can spill over beyond the arbitrary limits within which they were once placed becoming hypertexts, being (re)placed in collected editions, being changed by discoveries of their avant-textes or by the corrections to mistakes included in earlier editions, being adapted for stage, for television screen or for movie screen, being re-written, expanded in sequels or reformulated in post-modern re-formulations. Around the issues of textual borders I would also like to keep in mind the theoretical turn commonly known as Border Studies and which signies a sort of no-mans land, what Bhabha refers to as an inbetween space1 in which issues of identity and of cultural politics can be located and discussed, a borderlands of postcolonial discourse which constitute a textual contact zone where the dominant and the marginal cultures meet.2 Conservative, Victorian Trollope might not initially seem a very promising case to be studied in these terms which are more usually
1 2

Homi K. Bhabha, The Location of Culture. London: Routledge, 1994, p. 38.

Jaishree K. Odin. The Edge of Difference: Negotations between the Hypertextual and the Postcolonial. Modern Fiction Studies, 43, 3, Fall 1997, p. 615.

applied to indigenous writers attempting to nd narrative means of expressing the disrupted and disjunctive nature of their realities. At least at times, however, he did attempt to throw off the straitjacket of English colonial politics and of conservative English literary form, and thus became a liminal gure breaking into a new space, a borderland of encounter between the dominant British culture and the marginalised Irish periphery. As a result, he sometimes gave voice to the Irish experience in a new way for English readers and partially managed to break beyond the limits of the classic English novel in order to nd a form more suitable for the subject matter he encountered in nineteenth century Ireland. Yet, in most of his Irish novels, we are confronted with an uneasy mixture of Irish content which is ultimately too fragmented and ungainly to be successfully packaged within the polished and linear English forms he adopted. Trollope was a writer who knew no quantitative limits. He wrote some 47 novels, most of them big, convoluted triple-deckers, many of which initially saw the light in a very different textual form as newspaper serialisations. Many others resist standard closure and leak into sequels and serialisations, becoming instalments in a bigger story. This is true of his Barsetshire Chronicles and of the more political Palliser novels. While Trollopes habit of writing sprawling series of novels allows his readers renew acquaintance with well-known characters over a prolonged period of time, it also reveals a lack of discipline which is symptomatic of the formal weaknesses of much of his output but in particular of his Irish novels. Indeed the formlessness of the Irish novels cannot be fully explained by Trollopes saying: I have never troubled myself much about the construction of plot or by the fact that, as Walter Allen puts it he did not always know where to stop, where to draw his boundaries.3 If a common criticism of Trollopes novels is that they are sometimes weakened by their very length, this is often coupled with the belief that he acquiesced rather too easily in the conventions of midVictorian realism, and therefore in the social and moral assumptions
3 Walter Allen, The Last Chronicle of Barset in Tony Bareham, ed., Anthony Trollope. London: Vision Press, 1980, p. 90.



those conventions express.4 For this, Trollope is sometimes compared negatively with Thackeray or Dickens or George Eliot, who were bold enough to push beyond the conventional boundaries of the novel form,5 while Trollope, in Henry Jamess words, accepted all the common restrictions, and found that even within the barriers there was plenty of material.6 In his early Irish work, and on occasion afterwards, Trollope seems morally compelled to break beyond the common boundaries of literary England, to go beyond the English Pale and return to matters Irish, to try and see beyond the stereotypes about the country that made him as a writer. There was no getting away from the fact that in order to become one of the quintessential English novelists, he had been forced to move beyond England, the psychological as much as the geographical entity. His autobiography reveals that prior to going to Ireland his views of the country were supercial and negative but he soon found that Ireland was pleasant and before long he was pleased to nd himself
to be in pecuniary circumstances which were opulent in comparison with those of my past life. The Irish people did not murder me, nor did they even break my head. I soon found them to be good-humoured, clever the working classes very much more intelligent than those of England oeconomical and hospitable.7

Thus, for personal and professional reasons, there is sometimes a sense of Trollopes feeling obliged to write of Ireland and her wrongs for the English public. By accident or design he had become a border crosser, one who would have to accept that, following his initiation as a successful public servant and writer in Ireland, his outlook would, at least in part, be betwixt and between, be bicultural and biconceptual.8
4 Robin Gilmour, A Lesser Thackeray? Trollope and the Victorian Novel, in Tony Bareham, ed., Anthony Trollope. p. 182. 5 6

Ibid, p. 183.

Henry James, Anthony Trollope in Donald Smalley, ed., Trollope: The Critical Heritage, 1969, p. 540.

Anthony Trollope, An Autobiography, ed. P.D. Edwards, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999,

8 Emily Hicks, Border Writing: The Multidimensional Text. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1991, p. xxvi.

John McCourt Writing on the Edge


This would initially be a creatively liberating stance because the border crossing is a site in which the border subject often discovers the cultural creativity and cultural authority to formulate new models, symbols, and paradigms.9 As Anzalda puts it: Living in a state of psychic unrest, in a borderland, is what makes poets write and artists create.10 But rather than embrace models from his new country or invent ones with which to portray it, Trollope too often seems simply to crank into movement the classic turns and dynamics of the English novel. Thus he strains to encompass what he essentially considers an unruly and disorderly country within the connes of ordered English forms more suited to describing, as Declan Kiberd puts it, a land of stable gradations of made lives than an unstable society of lives in the making.11 What the Irish critic, James Pope Hennessy wrote of Trollopes rst novel holds for most of his Irish output:
In form, The Macdermots of Ballycloran is an inchoate work, and, naturally enough in a lengthy rst novel, it lacks discipline. But then it deals with a society in conditions of disruption that chronic Irish state of disruption which had always persisted through the long centuries of British rule.

The more genuine Trollopes attempt to penetrate surfaces, to break beyond the borders of a colonial reading of the country, to render the state of disruption which reigns in Ireland, the more the form of his novels suffers. His most successful Irish novel, Phineas Finn, works precisely because it domesticates Phineas, it withdraws from Ireland, making the country little more than a point of departure and of occasional return for the eponymous Irish parliamentarian, and revolves around London, the metropolitan centre of the British Empire (Phineas actually becomes Undersecretary for the Colonies). The novel is a success within the terms of classic realism, it is replete with linearity, centredness, coherence,
9 Mae G. Henderson, Introduction to Borders, Boundaries, and Frames, ed., Mae Henderson. New York and London: 1995, p. 5. 10 Gloria Anzalda, Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza. San Francisco: Spinters/Aunt Lute, 1987, p.73. 11 Declan Kiberd. The War against the Past. In The Uses of the Past: Essays on Irish Culture, eds. Audrey S. Eyler and Robert Garratt. Newark, N.J., University of Delaware, 1988, pp.2453.



causation, closure, but it fails to give voice to Ireland, its contradictions and needs, except in a cursory and sometimes supercial way. When Trollope attempts to marry the typical effects of the realist novel to a more thorough exploration of the contradictions of the Ireland he knew, form and content are seen to clash and content is usually sacriced. Thus, a novel such as his most courageous and most anticonformist Irish work, An Eye for An Eye, which tries hard to represent Ireland from within, and whose chief representative of British colonialism, Fred, is overcome with a sense of disorientation, displacement, ambivalence, a radical alienation when in Ireland, has to be judged as, at best, an aesthetic challenge, an only partially successful foray into Irish tragedy. No wonder then that Trollopes more conservative English critics would chose to see his Irish novels as aberrations. Michael Sadleir, for instance, sees Trollopes Irish ction as something from which he was fortunate to escape into more congenial subjects which came to him when he fell beneath the slow, wise, soothing spell of rural England .12 He continues:
Ireland produced the man; but it was left to England to inspire the novelist. Indeed one may go further. Ireland, having by friendliness, sport and open air saved Trollope from himself, all but choked the very genius that she had vitalised by her insane absorption in her own wrongs and thwarted hopes.13

Which makes for rather offensive reading when one considers that Irelands insane absorption shortly after Trollope arrived there was with nothing less than the Great Famine. For Sadleir, it is as if Trollope was in some way infected by Ireland. The implication is that he should have turned a blind eye and not got his pen dirty there, he should have followed the path of Maria Edgeworth who, following Catholic Emancipation in 1829, decided to cease writing about Ireland because the realities are too strong, party passions too violent, to bear to see, or care

John Cronin, Trollope and the Matter of Ireland in Tony Bareham, ed., Anthony Trollope, Michael Sadleir, Trollope: A Commentary. London: 1927, p. 143.

p. 24.

John McCourt Writing on the Edge


to look at their faces in a looking glass.14 Sadleir goes on to claim that another of Trollopes Irish novels Castle Richmond is not in the classsic sense Trollope at all [] Castle Richmond must claim the attention of readers of Trollope for its Irishisms and not for its ctional signicance. It is a document, not a work of art; its appeal is to nationalist enthusiasm, not to the literary appreciation that knows no nationality.15 Trollopes sin appears to have been to pause to open a chink in the ctional frame which allows some light fall away from the comedy of manners and onto the harsh Irish situation, to give realistic voice to some of the horrors of the famine which is the novels ill-tting background and which the English reading public the literary appreciation that knows no nationality clearly had little stomach for. But Sadleir can rest at ease: the fact that Trollope includes harrowing material connected to the Famine does not erase the fact that, more often than not, he fails to nd an adequate representational mode for Ireland; in a word, starvation and silk do not sit easily together, as the chapter The Last Stage, reveals. Polhemuss description of the novels priggish heros harrowing epiphany is telling:
Taking shelter from the rain, he enters a peasant cottage where a young woman is slowly starving to death. He see a baby lying near the woman on the ground, and when he goes over to look at it, he nds that the baby is dead. All his grandiose schemes for Ireland end in the hopeless gesture of covering the little corpse with a silk handkerchief, and he learns the reality of suffering.16

While John Cronins assertion that Trollopes combination of the thesis novel with a novel of manners makes for an uneasy work17 is correct, at least from the works formal unease with its own content, from the presence of a variety of material that does not t harmoniously
14 Quoted in Marilyn Butler, Maria Edgeworth: A Literary Biography. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1972, pp. 452453. 15 16

Michael Sadleir, Trollope: A Commentary, p. 387.

Robert M. Polhemus. The Changing World of Anthony Trollope. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1968, p. 65.

John Cronin, Trollope and the Matter of Ireland, p. 29.



together, one gets a sense of the discomfort felt by Trollope when he chooses to linger in close proximity to Irelands woes. Id like now to consider in more detail the case of An Eye for An Eye, which was published in book form in 1879. In a marked departure from his often light hearted early Irish works, it seems to more successfully nd a suitable form with which to represent Ireland tragedy and it manages to foreground unexpected issues concerning both Ireland and England which had remained beyond the focus of Trollopes creative scope up to that time. The novel, one of Trollopes darkest, is dominated by two strange locations Scroope Manor and the OHaras cottage in County Clare both of which are singularly unhomely, both a little off or deviant from the standard England of so many of his other novels. The image of a third location presented in the opening of the book is also unusual: it is a private asylum housing an unfortunate lady and it is furnished with every luxury which it may be within the power of a maniac to enjoy. She has no one left belonging to her and does not even sigh for release. Her mind works unconsciously as she repeats the Old Testament line incessantly An eye for an eye, and a tooth of a tooth. The author then tells us that the story shall be told of the lady who dwelt there the story of her life till madness placed her within those walls. From the asylum we pass to Scroope Manor in Dorsetshire, an Elizabethan structure of some pretensions whose park itself was large, and the appendages to it such as were t for an earls establishment but there was little about it that was attractive (An Eye, p. 3). Trollope sets it apart, outside the English norm, writing that there was none of that nished landscape beauty of which the owners of places in England are so just proud (An Eye, p.4). Sometimes its features are Gothic, and often it is described in negative terms of what it was not, being constantly compared unfavourably to a generic English ideal:
The atmosphere of the whole place was gloomy. There were none of those charms of modern creation which now make the mansions of the wealthy among us bright and joyous (An Eye, p.4). To a stranger, and perhaps to the inmates, the idea of gloom about the place was greatly increased by the absence of any garden or lawn near the

John McCourt Writing on the Edge


house (An Eye, p.5).

But it is home to the Earl of Scroope and its very solidity is seen positively. Familiarity breeds safety and should guarantee continuity:
The earl could talk for ever about the estate, every eld, every fence, almost every tree on which was familiar to him. That his tenants should be easy in their circumstances, a Protestant, church-going, rent-paying people, son following father, and daughters marrying as their mothers had married, unchanging, never sinking an inch in the social scale, or rising this was the wish nearest to his heart (An Eye, p. 82).

The supposed continuity from generation to generation soon reveals itself to be false: we nd out that the Earl lost his rst wife as well as his only daughter just as she became a bride, and that his son who was thoughtless, lavish, and prone to evil pleasure had married a wife from out of the streets [] a painted hussy from France. Shortly after the Earls second marriage, this only son also died and the Earl of Scroope was forced to choose his nephew Fred Neville as his heir and has him brought to visit the estate. Trollope locates Fred in his dismal, new home out of the world and shows him to be even further displaced by his being the impoverished son of a renegade member the Earl of Scroopes family. Trollope moves his novel even further beyond the realm into Ireland by having Fred spend one last year there as an ofcer of the British army. He probably felt that Ireland was largely virgin territory for the English novel, being the subject, more often than not, of little other than travel writing. His attempt would be to make this land which was so foreign to most English readers seem both Englands Other and her double an emptier, more chaotic version of the real thing. Seamus Deane has written tellingly about the English impulse to write about Ireland, commenting on
selected aspects of this process whereby the urge to make what was strange a recalcitrant Ireland familiar, a part of the United Kingdom, produced not only a subversion of that initial urge but also did this by opening a new space for discourse. In the new space, various attempts to represent Ireland were predicated on the shared belief that the country had never been adequately (or at all) represented before. The sense of an initiatory



blankness, or emptiness, and the evolution of the techniques by which it could be lled is an abiding one in Irish writing.18

Ireland was, in order words, largely beyond the border of orderly English experience and of the limited frame of the ordered English novel. An Eye for an Eye, which contains several passages giving a vision of Ireland as a place which is strange, empty, and foreign, is an exception to typical British treatment of Irish subject matter. Trollope plays of his own vision of Ireland as sketched in the book against a more stereotypically biased English attitude which is expressed through the thoughts of Lady Scroope who bemoans Freds refusal to leave the army and complains of his failure to assume his responsibilities as heir to Scroope Manor:
But this had not been done; and now there was an Irish Roman Catholic widow with a daughter, with seal-shooting and a boat and high cliffs right in the young mans way! Lady Scroope could not analyse it, but felt all the danger as though it were by instinct. Partridge and pheasant shooting on a gentlemans own grounds, and an occasional days hunting with the hounds in his own country, were, in Lady Scroopes estimation, becoming amusements for an English gentleman. They did not interfere with the exercise of his duties. She had by no means brought herself to like the yearly raids into Scotland made latterly by sportsmen. But if Scotch moors and forests were dangerous, what were Irish cliffs! (An Eye, p. 18).

For Lady Scroope, safety, both physical and moral, is only guaranteed within the borders of familiar England, within the boundaries of a gentlemans own grounds. In ironic passages like this, Trollope reveals himself to be an effective critic of aristocratic English thought on the subject. Lady Scroope is shown to be limited by her own closed, familiar world, to have become a prisoner of her blind acceptance of accepted values and as such she is the root of much of the novels tragic conclusion. As is shown in the following passage describing in the omniscient narrators voice the cottage in which Kate OHara and her mother live in County Clare, sometimes Trollope too falls into stereotype and denes the Irish cottage and landscape in terms of what they are not, that is, their English equivalents:
18 Seamus Deane, The Production of Cultural Space in Irish Writing in Boundary 2, An International Journal of literature and culture, Volume 21, no. 3, Fall 1994, p.120.

John McCourt Writing on the Edge


It was the nearest house to the rocks, from which it was distant less than half a mile. The cottage, so called, was a low rambling long house, but one storey high very unlike an English cottage. [] It was a blank place enough, and most unlike that sort of cottage which English ladies are supposed to inhabit, when they take to cottage life. There was no garden to it, beyond a small patch in which a few potatoes were planted. It was so near to the ocean, so exposed to winds from the Atlantic, that no shrubs would live there. Everything round it, even the herbage, was impregnated with salt, and told tales of the neighbouring waves. [] About a half a mile from the cottage on the way to Liscannor there were half a dozen mud cabins which contained Mrs OHaras nearest neighbours and an old burying ground. (An Eye, p. 30)

What we notice immediately (apart from the topographical accuracy of the description) is that the house is located in a wilderness, an unsafe blank space and that it in no way corresponds to the English standard of what a cottage should be. While elsewhere Trollope contributes to a common English domesticating strategy of integrating Ireland culturally with Great Britain, presenting her as a ragged, uncouth but fundamentally similar to its nearest neighbour, or, in Castle Richmond writing that Castle Richmond might have been in Hampshire or Essex; and as regards his property, Sir Thomas Fitzgerald might have been a Leicestershire baronet, in An Eye for an Eye, he stresses the Clare regions wildness, its Otherness, from Freds point of view as he thinks of the OHara ladies and their home:
Accident, and the spirit of adventure, had thrust these ladies in his path, and no doubt he liked them the better because they did not live as other people lived. Their solitude, the close vicinity of the ocean, the feeling that in meeting them none of the ordinary conventional usages of society were needed, the wildness and the strangeness of the scene, all had charms which he admitted to himself (An Eye, 42).

Fred comes to hate the place whose very strangeness had once offered the possibility of adventure. Now its poverty is a cause for blame, for accusations of a lack of humanity or civilisation:
How ugly the country was to his eyes as he now saw it. Here and there stood a mud cabin, and the small, half-cultivated elds, or rather patches of land, in which the thin oat crops were beginning to be green, were surrounded by low loose ramshackle walls, which were little more than heaps



of stone, so carelessly had they been built and so negligently preserved. [] The burial ground which he passed was the liveliest sign of humanity about the place. Then the country became still wilder, and there was no road. [] Now the place with all its attributes was hideous to him, distasteful, and abominable (An Eye, 109110).

But Trollope does not identify with Fred, who sees Ireland, through the supercial, colonial lens offered him from his post in a regiment stationed at the Ennis cavalry barracks, as a romantic, exotic, wild place in which he can be a character in a personal romantic ction and full his aunts prophesy that he was exactly the man to fall in love with a wild Irish girl (An Eye, p. 17) and indulge in that wild district the spirit of adventure which was strong within him (An Eye, p. 13). He is also assured in his belief that he was among people who were his inferiors in rank, education, wealth, manners, religion and nationality (An Eye, p. 150) and condescends towards the girl who was his Irish sweetheart whom he fails to see as a woman worthy of his love but rather as a plaything for an idle hour (An Eye, p. 150) and later, as a mere animal, a wretched, ignorant creature (An Eye, p. 161). Trollopes view of Ireland is more complicated. It is apparent that he is grappling with Irelands situation in a domestic plot being managed to do ideological work. He goes beyond the connes of stereotype and seeks to adopt and adapt indigenous visions of Ireland by engaging in an appropriation and a rewriting of a classic myth of Ireland as perpetuated in songs, orations, poems he would no doubt have heard as a helpless young maiden who is victimised and abused by a brutal English foreigner, by England itself. This is the underlying theme of the Gaelic aisling or vision poem, in which the speirbhean or dream woman is seen as both innocent and sexually attractive but is also viewed in political terms as the incarnation of the country which is abused. In the aisling, the woman-victim is often represented by Kathleen ni Houlihan who has lost her land and her rights. She has been violated, raped, by England.19 She awaits the day when her destined husband will come and restore her. Trollope presents us with two alternative versions of this
19 Robert Tracy, Introduction to The MacDermots of Ballycloran. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989, p. xv.

John McCourt Writing on the Edge


feminised Ireland in an ironic parallel to the Earl of Scroopes image of daughters marrying as their mothers had married, unchanging. Both Mrs OHara and her daughter can be read within the frames of this familiar trope of the Irish woman-victim: the former has been abandoned with her daughter by her husband, Captain OHara, who, according to Father Marty, is a low blackguard (An Eye, p. 94) while the latter, the sweet innocent young lady (An Eye, p. 97), Kate OHara (whose name sounds and reads like an anglicised version of Kathleen Ni Houlihan), falls in love with another deceitful Englishman, Fred, who makes her pregnant and disappears. Unlike other wronged Irish women who await an idealised foreign suitor, in an ideological and political twist of the familiar trope, Kate longingly awaits the very man who has wronged her. For Trollope, she has been treated disgracefully but it is clear that Fred must now assume his responsibilities and that this is the only solution that will make her happy. Father Marty is the spokeswoman for this belief: Have you thought of the life of that young girl who now bears in her womb the fruit of our body? Would you murder her because she loved you, and trusted you, and gave you all simply because you asked her; and then think of your own life? (An Eye, p. 157). Read as an allegory of Irelands situation, Trollope goes along with the Irish version that England has wronged its sister isle but sees the solution in terms of England righting the wrong and marrying the Ireland it has mistreated, in terms of the Liberal campaign to save the Union that English recklessness had endangered by instituting justice for Ireland.20 As far as Kate is concerned this is a consummation devoutly to be wished. The tragedy of the novel is that Fred does not face up to his duties, that he is unable to shoulder the very real responsibilities which are fruit of his desire for adventure. England too, is criticised by Trollope for treating Ireland with too much lightness, and it is being warned (through Kates mothers cold blooded murder of Fred) that the inevitable outcome of continued mistreatment will be violent. When the
20 Mary Jean Corbett. Allegories of Union in Irish and English Writing. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2000, p. 187.



violent reaction comes it is unstoppable and totally predictable, bearing all the hallmarks of a tragic climax. The victims pile up: Fred is killed, his aunt, the Countess of Scroope is driven to the verge of insanity, Kates mother is put in an asylum, and Kate herself reduced to a passive state and longs for death But as death cannot be barred from the door when he knocks at it, so neither can he be made to come as a guest when summoned. She still lived, though life had so little to offer her. Only two very secondary characters, Freds brother Jack and Sophie Mellerby, girl the Earl of Scroope had hoped Fred would marry, benet by marrying and taking over the estate. With them a partial re-composition is achieved. Trollope has taken us across many borders in this text. He has turned the novels attention to issues beyond his own usual remit as well as that of many of his Victorian counterparts exploring psychological paralysis, madness, unmarried pregnancy, murder and all in a most liminal location, a remote West of Ireland cottage, a place where a world ends and a harsh unforgiving ocean begins, where life is separated from the abyss by a drop of several hundred feet from the nearby cliffs, the cliffs of Moher. Mindful of Gloria Anzaldas contention that a border is a dividing line, a narrow strip along a steep edge21 , we cannot fail to acknowledge that Trollope has walked his reader down a series of narrow dividing lines (symbolised by those same cliffs of Moher which feature so prominently), which arbitrarily create a divide between England and Ireland, between Protestants and Catholics, between foreign and domestic, between stereotype and reality, between Other and Double, between madness and sanity, and that he has offered a vision of Ireland not only as Englands other but as its possible double, a worrying world where the safety of home seems almost impossible, where sanctuary is but an illusion, where events are tragically doomed to repeat and not instruct, where fragmentation dominates over closure and circularity prevails over chronological optimism. Within remarkable brevity, in just one hundred


Gloria Anzalda, Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza, p. 3.

John McCourt Writing on the Edge


and sixty nine pages, he has crossed an important psychological border and written his one truly Irish novel, and for once enclosed himself within a form that of tragedy which leaves him no room for returns, rethinks or sequels.



From Text to Work

Digital Tools and the Emergence of the Social Text
Jerome McGann

I J. C. C. Mays much longed-for edition of Coleridges poems and plays, the Poetical Works,1 has nally, magnicently, appeared. Like another important edition of our time, Gablers Ulysses,2 these six books three volumes, each in two parts set an inspiring example of scholarly thoroughness and integrity. But their strength rests ultimately in something else something quite rare in the scholarly editions of English speaking authors produced in the last 50 years. Mays is deeply sympathetic to Coleridges poetry not unaware of or reticent to address its failings and limitations, but fronting all the work with what Desmond McCarthy, writing of Coleridge, called the most delicate sympathy. When he writes of it [] his words are singularly moving in their subtlety and simplicity (xc) That is McCarthys description of Coleridge on the subject of affection-love a shrewd judgment unearthed by Mays from a 1939 newspaper review. The words perfectly describe Mayss editorial treatment of Coleridge. The edition also has a most delicate sympathy with our own epoch and its remarkable scholarly adventures, of which Gablers Ulysses has been a famous instance. Mayss edition is every bit as signicant and challenging, and in this paper I want to investigate some of the issues raised by his work. They will help to clarify my principal subject, which I pose as a question: where is information technology driving literary and cultural studies and not least of all scholarly editing, the foundational discipline of those broad elds of work?
1 J. C. C. Mays, (ed.), The Collected Works of Samuel Taylor Coleridge: Poetical Works. Vols. IIII, Parts 1, 2. (Princeton: Princeton UP, 2001). 2 Hans Walter Gabler et al., Ulysses. A Critical and Synoptic Edition. Vols. 13 (New York: Garland Publishing Co., 1984).

Let me briey sketch the scholarly horizon, as I see it, of that question. We inherit two basic types of scholarly editorial method: facsimile and diplomatic editing, on one hand, and eclectic editing on the other. Both were deepened and renewed when the disciplines of modern philology emerged out of the historicism born in eighteenth-century Enlightenment. Two systematically presented variants on these basic methods emerged in 20th century editorial practice: the Anglo-American critical eclecticism culminating in the Greg-Bowers school, and the European genetic methods developed by a line of German and French scholars of the mid and late century. A third variant, social-text editing, was most vigorously proposed by the late D. F. McKenzie, who unfortunately died without completing his edition of Congreve, which was to demonstrate the praxis of his theory. I see my own work as a critical pursuit of McKenzies ideas. Mays deliberately locates his edition in relation to this general scholarly context. He is editing both the poems and plays of Coleridge, including the translations from Schiller. While he is forced to take a slightly different practical approach with the plays, a single editorial vision controls the project. In the interests of clarity, I shall concentrate my attention on Mayss treatment of the poetry. The basic division of each Part of the edition into two volumes, one called the Reading Text, the other the Variorum Text, signals Mayss editorial purposes. Corresponding to the numbered sequence of reading texts is an equivalently numbered series of variorum texts. The symmetry between the two texts extends to the graphical editorial presentation: the reading text is preceded by an introductory editorial note, more or less extensive, setting the poem in its biographical and socio-historical contexts, and (often) its later reception history. The variorum text begins with an editorial discussion of the textual witnesses that authorize its production. In many cases, of course, the variorum commentary discusses contextual matters that have far more than a narrowly technical (textual) import. While Mayss editorial point of departure is, as we would expect, Anglo-American, this work is most strongly marked by the inuence of the European genetic editorial methods as they were developed in var226 VARIANTS 4 2005

ious German and French editions beginning with Beissner3 and Becks edition of Hlderlin (19431985). However, certain complexities in the material, which he explains in scrupulous detail in his editorial Introduction, lead him to develop what he calls a severely modied (cxxi) version of a genetic edition (see especially cxxiicxl). Mayss deviations follow from his double editorial commitment to an edition that supplies both a critical and a readerly text. [R]eaders approach texts for different reasons, Mays observes, so that The distinction is not between scholarly and literary readers [] but between different occasions for the same readers (cxliv). Let me briey postpone further consideration of this presiding editorial idea. For now its more important to complete our view of Mayss general approach to the synoptic presentation he adopts in his Variorum text. His object, he writes, is to enable a reader to hold in mind a sense of the way the poems move [] simultaneously in several planes: that is, the way the poems move laterally, as a series of independent versions, and vertically, as one version overlays and succeeds another (cxxiii). Mays goes on to promise a reader of his edition that the mechanics of his graphical apparatus will not present such an algebraic nightmare as to obscure ones sense of the uid reality of the way [Coleridges] poems move. These remarks are highly signicant, signaling once again Mayss desire to refuse a distinction [] between scholarly and literary readers. What is this uid reality that Mays perceives in Coleridges work and that he wishes us to experience? Mays uses the phrase to characterise a textual condition that is anything but continuous, uniform, smooth. On the contrary, an unsettled restlessness and mutability is pervasive, so that Mays speaks acutely of the bewildering, shifting detail which encumbers the poems (cxicxii). Mayss general Introduction rings the changes on the changing, veering, random, and accidental characteristics of the corpus as a whole and of its individual works. Coleridges verse appears from the start to be unfocused and uncertain within shifting
3 Friedrich Beissner, (ed.), Hlderlin. Smtliche Werke. 7 vols. (Stuttgart: Cotta, 19431985). Friedrich Beissner, Hlderlin. Reden und Aufstze (Weimar: Bhlau, 1961).

Jerome McGann From Text to Work


margins, Mays points out. Consequently, the reader must expect to move between shifting centers of gravity, must constantly refocus his or her attention, is required to interpret the text on the page with reference to several other kinds of text. The original materials thus lead Mays to advise Readers of the following pages readers of this edition to proceed like the readers of Finnegans Wake [] xed in a permanent state of multiple vision (clvi). Coleridges poems are not uid Wordsworthian rivers like the Duddon or Derwent or Dove. They are uid like that more ominous sacred river Alph in Kubla Khan, moving with odd and unpredictable motions, as if hesitating and testing passages through a maze. The poetry therefore must be handled with care, always understanding that There is no rule (cxliv) or coherent set of rules that can guide a scholar to safe and certain editorial choices. Mayss sure sense of the indeterminate character of the work helps to make him the excellent editor that he is, keeping him close to his natural, native modesty. Because Coleridge, unlike Yeats or Stevens, had no steady idea of the literary persona he was putting before the world, very few of his poems, Mays observes, are revised according to constant standards (xcv). The relevant poetical materials therefore tend to be not merely unstable, but haphazard in their irregularities. They are uid the way mercury is uid. Mayss description of Kubla Khans textual condition nicely illustrates the pressures and considerations which a reader needs to bear in mind as he or she interprets the material in this edition:
The lack of evidence bearing on the composition of the poem, the curious nature of its single manuscript, the context and occasions on which Coleridge is reported to have recited it, the uncertainty of its paragraphing, Coleridges disinclination to annotate it, the obliquity and inconsistencies of the Preface, its separate half-titles and its classication as an Ode or Miscellaneous Poem in the collected editions, its dimension of political allusion. These considerations combine to suggest that Kubla Khan should be read very differently from a poem of pure enchantment. (xcv)

This editorial representation of Kubla Khan returns us to the pressures and considerations that drove Mays to the edition we have. Here is Mayss summary statement of his governing view: Coleridges
228 VARIANTS 4 2005

mind operated on several levels, in several ways, and moved easily between them. An edition should display not obscure the variety and vitality of his mind working (lxxxviii, my italics). To say this is to adopt an essentially genetic editorial position. What brought Mays to modify it? Partly, I think, he recoiled from what he saw as the algebraic nightmare (cxxiii) of a genetic apparatus criticus, which in fact Mayss edition nds means to simplify. A far more salient issue is at stake for Mays, however, and it surfaces most clearly in his twice-posed Coleridgean question: What is a Coleridge poem? (cviii, cx) Mays clearly intends us to ride this question back to Biographia Literaria, where Coleridge argues that the kind and essence of a POEM and of POETRY itself are nearly the same question with, what is a poet (chapter 14). An edition that displays Coleridges working brain needs to show how the poem existed in Coleridges mind (cxx). A strictly synoptic procedure wont do for Mays because many of the poems have multiple ways of existing in that mazy mind: often deliberation alternates with chance, and different intentions exist side by side (cxx), or they shift and mutate hapazardly. There is no clear tendency which could provide the basis of a rule [] (cxxi): Mays keeps repeating versions of that formula in his Introduction. Coleridges materials are unruly. The editor must therefore be, like the poet, uid and opportunistic and like the reader, xed in a permanent state of multiple vision. Mayss editorial opportunism, however, always runs along genetic and intentionalist lines because the poems are always seen as Coleridges unique if also uniquely various creatures. This edition is a machine for a deep critical investigation of Coleridges working mind. Mays assiduously sets the Reading Text and the Variorum Text in a mirroring relation in order to facilitate an intimate dialectic between the two. But the relation is uneasily maintained, as we see when he says that the Variorum Text is the foundation of the Reading Text, which makes the latter its completed visible superstructure. But in fact Mays and his edition do not mean what that gure of speech implies. The gure is drawn from an editorial approach that is to say, Greg-Bowers which Mays himself, as he says, do[es] not like (cxliv) because it suggests
Jerome McGann From Text to Work 229

that an edition could be denitive. More than that, it suggests that any text of any individual poem could be denitive. Later in the paragraph containing those remarks Mays explains himself more clearly. The Reading Text, he says, is both clarication and simplication of the textual condition visible in Coleridges unruly materials. The Reading Text is [] necessary, given the complexity of some of the Variorum details. The Reading Text, in other words, supplies a hypothetical platform from which one can survey and study both Coleridges materials and ones own process of investigating those materials. In this view the Reading Text is a still point though a relative still point in the turning world of the unruly witnesses and their fellow-travelers. It is the editorial version of what Della Volpe called an interpretational quid. Its very important to see Mayss ambivalence on this crucial point. Consider this summary sentence: The Reading Text is literally the edition, or one edition, for which the Variorum provides the materials (cxliv). We want then to ask: well, which is it, the edition or one possible edition? From everything he writes in his Introduction we can see that Mays wants us to regard the Reading Text as only one of the possible reading texts that could have been settled upon (see especially cxlivcxlix). As he points out, in such a complex set of conicting pressures and considerations generated by the materials themselves, choices of text are debateable because, ultimately, The grounds of choice are subjective and provisional (cxlvii, cxlviii). But while the provisional character of the choices is admitted, an editor must nally make choices that will come into print: The alternative [] is to refrain from editing. There is no other way (cxlix). Because Mays is a learned and sensitive scholar we are more than happy to take his provisional reading texts as our points of critical departure in these volumes. Mays does not want to hide any textual complexity from our consideration, so taken is he with the mazy motions of Coleridges mind, so committed to putting those motions on display. Nonetheless, he doesnt shrink from editing because, in his view, The problem is more acute in theory than in practice. The text for each poem in all but a few cases selects itself (cxlix). This self-selection follows
230 VARIANTS 4 2005

from what Mays calls The principle which has guided my choice of Reading Text: to give the version of the poem which reects Coleridges concern, up to the time he lost interest (as he so often did) (cxlvi). The principle is simply a version of the principle of nal intentions. The reading texts select themselves because Mayss methodology has been so carefully considered and executed. The texts are following their marching orders, as they should. Not that other local textual choices might not have been made for particular poems, or even that wholesale differences might not emerge if one were (for instance) to take initial intentions rather than nal intentions as a basic guiding principle. In any case we would look for texts that seemed to select themselves. II Would computer technology be able to improve Mayss editorial project in appreciable ways? For the project as such, I think the answer is no. Online accessibility is a publishing improvement and to that extent an educational improvement as well for any work of scholarship. But now imagine Mayss six volumes transported into a browser environment. String searches would be possible, and with considerable effort one could prepare a digitally encoded version of the edition for different kinds of automated pattern analysis. All that would be clear gain. But then the downsides begin to declare themselves. We arent even close to developing browser interfaces to compare with the interfaces that have evolved in the past 500 years of print technology. A sophisticated, exible, and stable system of graphical design and bibliographical codes stands ready to hand for a scholar wishing to build a critical machine for the complex analysis of textual works. If your object is to display how the poems existed in Coleridges mind a mind you understand to be veering, unruly, and full of contradictions these books blow away anything one might think to develop in our current and immediately foreseeable machine technology. (Of course if one had access for ve years to the full resources of, say, MIT, I think something new and powerful could be designed and developed. But humanists like ourselves are not recipients of those secular blessings.) A good interface develops symbolic coding mechanisms that translate
Jerome McGann From Text to Work 231

abstract relations into forms that a human being can optimally manipulate. In this respect, monitors no matter how large or virtually dimensional lack a key multitasking capacity possessed by books, which integrate visual and kinetic knowledge acquisition. When we escape the limits of the monitor that situation will change. But if Mayss edition in electronic form seems an uninviting prospect, other digital projects have distinct attractions for instance, a scholarly edition of Campion or Burns or Tom Moore. A bibliographical presentation of their work is crippled from the start, for obvious reasons. The greatness of Burns in particular has all but escaped academic attention because our critical interfaces have been bibliographical. To the degree that a computerized environment facilitates what digitists call interactivity, it necessarily brings a certain degree of tactile involvement. This will be far less complex and demanding than the kinetic environment summoned (and symbolically coded) in books. The difference explains itself when we recall a simple fact: that personal computers today function most powerfully as scholarly tools when we use them on our desks and in our libraries at home and elsewhere. In those places they get embraced by the more sophisticated, stable, and dispersed network of book technology. Remember how the explosion of the personal computer market took the business world by surprise? Had they a clearer grasp of their culture the world engaged by Don McKenzie in Bibliography and the Sociology of Texts4 this event would not have escaped their commercially-trained radar screens. Not without reason has the initial period of computerisation focused on linking library resources and digitizing reference tools. These events register the depth and importance of our bibliographical inheritance. At some point books and their technology will cease to be our encompassing informational environment; they will get incorporated into the digital network of artefacts and information that is springing up around us like what? Tares among the wheat? A New Instauration?

4 D. F. McKenzie, Bibliography and the Sociology of Texts. The Panizzi Lectures 1985 (London: The British Library, 1986).



So far as humanists like ourselves are concerned, thats an event beyond good or evil. We have our hands full managing two imperative immediate tasks: deepening our understanding of book technology, and acquiring the skills needed to practice digital scholarship. The remarkably nished quality of Mayss Coleridge edition makes it an especially rich resource for those related critical interests. To this point Ive tried to describe as carefully as I can what the edition sets out to do and what it succeeds in doing. Now I want to ask what it doesnt do. More specically, what doesnt it edit? One thing: it doesnt edit what McKenzie called the social text. I give two examples, a small one and a big one. First the small one. In preparing the variorum text for poem no. 143, To a Young Man of Fortune who Abandoned Himself to a Causeless and Indolent Melancholy, Mays begins with a census of the documentary witnesses. These include three manuscripts (two holograph, one transcript copy in the hand of Mrs. Coleridge) plus eight printed texts (as well as a possible ninth, a variant of one of the eight). Of the transcript in Mrs. Coleridges hand Mays has little to say except this: An untitled transcript in the hand of Mrs. C. [] has no textual signicance (II (Part I). 430). For an edition aiming to expose [Coleridges] mind working, Mrs. Coleridges transcript needs no further comment, especially in the case of a relatively minor poem. And of course the transcript remains separated from the critical apparatus, which is geared to analyzing the linguistic text its substantives and its most substantial accidentals. The example may stand for scores of others. It follows from the kind of edition Mays has undertaken. Although in cases like Christabel the discursive treatment of the witnessing documents is much more robust, the apparatus remains textual, and it scarcely begins to capture the contextual and transmissional information supplied in the commentaries and associated notes. For Christabel we get 30 closely printed pages that elucidate the material witnesses simply as they are bibliographical objects. This is the data that alone, for McKenzie, gives signicance to the linguistic text by shaping it in terms of its social textuality. How the poems existed in Coleridges mind is a dialectical not a positive function. It is in fact an idea that
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is in continual process of construction by Coleridges readers and those other persons who engage to pass along Coleridges texts. We study and reconstruct the documentary record not to know how the poems existed in Coleridges mind but to see how they were perceived to exist. That Mays shares this view with McKenzie is proven by these splendid editorial commentaries and notes. In critical editions, this material is arranged to introduce and subserve the apparatus criticus, and so it does in Mayss edition. But the commentary information is so replete and even excessive in relation to the needs of the apparatus that one registers a disfunction between the two. The discrepancy is particularly urgent in Mayss interesting discussion of untraced, recited, and memorised Christabels and the nexus of related persons and occasions, including the secondary witnesses by which these works are known In the event, Mayss apparatus comes to seem no more than his editions one publically acknowledged analytic offspring. Other children, legitimate and bastard, wander all about. A curiously reversed dynamic thus pervades Mayss edition: the Reading Texts become, as he himself observes, devices for illuminating and negotiating a heterogeneous body of poetic materials, and the apparatus emerges as no more than one cutaway view of the complexity of that eld of discourse. A traditional apparatus is organized as a body of self-identical facts testifying to the truth of the Reading Text they generate. In Mayss edition, however, as the commentaries and notes for works like Christabel demonstrate with special clarity, the apparatus seems but one helpful means of nding our way into a more mazy, amazing, semiotic world. McKenzie wanted to develop more precise critical procedures for studying that kind of world. In his Panizzi lectures of 1985, Bibliography and the Sociology of Texts, he made his case for a social text editorial procedure. His critics most notably Thomas Tanselle5 and T. HowardHill6 remarked that while McKenzies ideas had a certain theoretical appeal, they could not be practically implemented. The ideas implicitly
5 Thomas Tanselle, Textual Criticism and Literary Sociology, Studies in Bibliography 44 (1991), 83143. 6 T. H. Howard-Hill, Theory and Praxis in the Social Approach to Editing, TEXT 5 (1991), 3146.



called for the critical editing of books and other material objects. But critical editing as opposed to facsimile and diplomatic editing was designed to investigate texts, which are linguistic forms, not books, which are social events. This practical objection raised by Tanselle and Howard-Hill can no longer be sustained. It is premised in the understanding that facsimile editing and critical editing are distinct and incommensurable functions. The Rossetti Archive was undertaken to demonstrate that the incommensurability is paper-based and can be overcome in a properly designed digital network. The demonstration has been replicated at least twice at U. of Virginias Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities: in The William Blake Archive 7 and, even more comprehensively, in the emerging Walt Whitman Archive.8 One can build editorial machines capable of generating on demand multiple textual formations eclectic, facsimile, reading, genetic that can all be subjected to multiple kinds of transformational analyses. This means that the standard dialectical mechanism of a critical edition like Mayss can be scaled up in a digital environment. One does not have to work from the pair of xed platforms called (in Mayss volumes) the Reading Text and the Variorum Text. Given the complexity of the materials some sort of hypothetical position, or platform, is needed for any analysis to be undertaken at all. The underlying logic of The Rossetti Archive was designed so that scholars using it could make choices about their platforms of critical attention, as well about the specic kinds of analyses they would choose to undertake. A digital organisation thus makes possible a signicant departure from a paper-based apparatus. Mayss edition follows the general model of lemmatized variants that all types of traditional editions use including genetic editions, which do however develop some innovative graphical signing devices. Variant readings are culled for specic information from the apparatus analytic options. Because this information is
7 Morris Eaves, Robert Essick, Joseph Viscomi, (eds.), The William Blake Archive (<>). 8 Ken Price and Ed Folsom, (eds), The Walt Whitman Archive (< whitman/>).

Jerome McGann From Text to Work


formally structured in The Rossetti Archive (by inline markup), the analyses can be automated. But greater advantages follow from an automation process than analytic speed. The critical operations also acquire much greater exibility. The scholar can dene and specify the analyses, narrowing them to some particular question (e.g., which of the texts have uncorrected print material not in the chosen reference text as well as hand corrections to texts that are part of that reference text?); or expanding to questions that embrace documents outside the framework of The Blessed Damozels specic documentary materials (questions about genre, provenance, the physical character of documents, and so forth). For some of these analyses a database model is preferable to inline markup, and standoff markup offers other useful options. However the analyses are formally structured, a digitized approach facilitates social text editing. An even more interesting line of critical activity can be computationally accessed through user logs. This set of materials the use records, or hits, automatically stored by the computer has received little attention by scholars who develop digital tools in the humanities. Our neglect of this body of information reects, I believe, an ingrained commitment to the idea of the positive text or material document. The depth of this commitment can be measured by reading McKenzie, whose social text editing proposals yet remain faithful to the idea of the primacy of the physical object as a self-identical thing. Reecting on digital technology in a late lecture, McKenzie saw that its simulation capacities were forcing him to rethink that primary article of bibliographical faith. He did not live to undertake an editorial project in digital form. Had he done so I believe he would have seen his social text approach strengthened by the new technical devices. All editors engage with a work in process. Even if only one textual witness were to survive say that tomorrow a manuscript of a completely unrecorded play by Shakespeare were unearthed that document would be a record of the process of its making and its transmission. Minimal as they might seem, its user logs have not been completely erased, and those logs are essential evidence for anyone interested in reading (or editing) the work. We are interested in documentary evidence precisely because
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it encodes, however cryptically at times, the evidence of the agents who were involved in making and transmitting the document. Scholars do not edit self-identical texts. They reconstruct a complex documentary record of textual makings and remakings, in which their own scholarly work directly participates. A central purpose of The Rossetti Archive project was to prove the correctness of a social-text approach to editing which is to say, to push traditional scholarly models of editing and textuality beyond the masoretic wall of the linguistic object we call the text. The proof of concept would be the making of the Archive. If our breach of the wall was minimal, as it was, its practical demonstration was signicant. We were able to build a machine that organizes for complex study and analysis, for collation and critical comparison, the entire corpus of Rossettis documentary materials, textual as well as pictorial. Critical, which is to say computational, attention was kept simultaneously on the physical features and conditions of actual objects specic documents and pictorial works as well as on their formal and conceptual characteristics (genre, metrics, iconography). The Archives approach to Rossettis so-called double works is in this respect exemplary. Large and diverse bodies of material that comprise works like The Blessed Damozel get synthetically organized: 71 distinct printed texts, some with extensive manuscript additions; 2 manuscripts; 29 pictorial works. These physical objects orbit around the conceptual thing we name for convenience The Blessed Damozel. All the objects relate to that gravity eld in different ways, and their differential relations metastasise when subsets of relations among themselves get exposed. At the same time, all of the objects function in an indenite number of other kinds of relations: to other textual and pictorial works, to institutions of various kinds, to different persons, to varying occasions. With the Archive one can draw these materials into computable synthetic relations at macro as well as micro levels. In the process the Archive discloses the hypothetical character of its materials and their component parts as well as the relationships one discerns among these things. Though completely physical and measurable (in different ways and scales), neither the objects nor their parts are self-identical, all can
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be reshaped and transformed in the environment of the Archive. Dont misunderstand me. Our successes, as I say, have been minimal and some of our greatest hopes for the Archive have not been realised. Nonetheless, the proof of concept was a crucial break with tradition, freeing us to imagine what as yet we dont know: how to build much better and more sophisticated machines of this kind. Building the Archive, for instance, has brought me to realise a possibility for these kinds of instruments that stared us all in the face from the beginning, but that none of us thought to try to exploit. A critical edition can clearly be built in digital form that allows a dynamical tracking and analysis of that recent literary discovery, the readerly text. This clearly also means that the fundamentally dynamical character of the textual condition can be digitally realised: the dialectic of the eld relations between the history of the texts transmission and the history of its reception. In a late lecture, Whats Past is Prologue,9 McKenzie speculated briey on computerisation and textual criticism. His remarks came in the context of two ways that scholars were using digital tools: on one hand for electronic storage of large corpora, on the other for the dynamic modeling of textual materials. McKenzie saw the latter as the more interesting prospect, even if it would represent a radical departure from his central article of bibliographical faith: the primacy of the physical artifact (and the evidence it bears of its own making). (There is quintessential McKenzie: entertaining an idea that shook the ground beneath one of his cherished convictions.) Had he become more involved with the making of electronic editions, I believe McKenzie would have realised that, far from departing radically from such primacies, digital tools return us to them in the ways he found most interesting. For the physical artifact and the evidence it bears of its own making are both social in the sense that such objects, in particular such bibliographical objects, have been made and remade many times in their socio-historical passages. No book is one thing, it is many things, fashioned and refashioned repeatedly under different cir9 D. F. McKenzie, Making Meaning. Printers of the Mind and Other Essays, Peter D. McDonald and Michael Suarez S.J.(eds.), Amherst and Boston: U. of Massachusetts Press, 2002).



cumstances. Its meaning, as Wittgenstein would say, is in its use. And because all its uses are always invested in real circumstances, the many meanings of any book are socially and physically coded in and by the books themselves. They bear the evidence of the meanings they have helped to make. One advantage digitalisation has over paper-based instruments comes not from the computers modeling powers, but from its greater capacity for simulating phenomena in this case, bibliographical and socio-textual phenomena. Books are simulation machines as well, of course, with hardcoded machine languages (we call those typography and graphic design) and various softwares (modes of expression expository, hortatory, imaginative and genres). The hardware and software of book technology have evolved into a state of sophistication that dwarfs computerisation as it currently stands. In time this discrepancy will change, we can be sure. McKenzie probably saw the computer as a modeling machine because of his attachment to the primacy of the physical object. Computers can be imagined to make models of such primary, self-identical, objects. But suppose, in our real-life engagements with those physical objects, we experience them as social objects, as functions of measurements that their users and makers have chosen for certain particular purposes. In such a case you will not want to build a model of one made thing, you will try to design a system that can simulate all the realised and realisable documentary possibilities the possibilities that are known and recorded as well as those that have yet to be (re)constructed. McKenzies central idea, that bibliographical objects are social objects, begs to be realised in digital terms and tools. The Rossetti Archive proves that it can be done. But The Rossetti Archive as presently constituted at the level of interface has scarcely moved beyond the proof-of-concept stage. Despite the exibility of its logical design, The Rossetti Archive largely appears as a website of accessible resources. Indeed, to this very moment most people even scholars who use digital technology think that building websites is the paradigm for digital scholarship in the humanities. Making hard-toaccess documentary materials available and searchable is clearly a useful
Jerome McGann From Text to Work 239

thing, but it is only the opening move in the comprehensive transformation of humanities research resources that we already see taking place. Scholars using The Rossetti Archive ought to be given not a website of resources but an apparatus of tools that facilitate critical reorganisations and reconceptions of the underlying data. Right now the tools provided by the Archive have been largely built out of models drawn from the technologies of the book. Given what we know about the people who designed and built the Archive, that is hardly surprising. But having done what we have done, we now can see what we didnt do and what we might and should do with our digital resources. In the next two years, then, as the Archive completes its nal two installments, we will also be designing a set of interface tools that should be as critically exible as Archives underlying hypermedia and markup tools.



The Potency of Error (exemplied in Joyces Ulysses)

Fritz Senn Whatever pivotal forces are at work in Joyces verbal universe, an emphasis on how things go wrong plays an effective part. All his works exemplify the humanity of error. Joyce may have carried platitudinous insights farthest, into the processes of the mind and, above all, into verbal expressions, style and language. Nothing, on its surface, is ever right in Finnegans Wake (the wright side and the wronged side signals the principle and acts it out, FW 597.11), but the practice set in at the very outset, say them with the rheumatic wheels in the rst story of Dubliners. As publishers, reviewers and outraged readers testied all along, Joyce did things wrong without fail, he never seemed to conform. Like his selfappointed predecessor Daedalus, the arch-articer, he sent his mind out towards structures or arts that were not as yet known, or accepted ignotas in artes in the proud boast lifted from Ovids Metamorphoses which is prefaced to A Portrait of the Artist As a Young Man. In this headlong advance Joyce lost admirers as he pursued his provective path, irrespective of conventions; no-one ever could have predicted the next stage to come. Joyce was censured and censored all along. In his own Ireland the pendulum gradually swung the other way; at rst the country vilied or neglected him (there are still letters to the Irish Times to this effect), in the meantime he has become a national icon. Nowadays genuine appreciation is at variance with crass commercialism. This outline focuses on errors, mistakes, whatever goes wrong, and it wisely refrains from any denition of what is right or wrong in which circumstances. Terms like wrong, error, mistake are employed in relation to goals or expectations; the main emphasis is on structural or lexical disruptions, a disregard for commonly observed, traditional norms (grammar, concordance, register). One of the effects of Joyces liberal training is a basic skepticism about all types of absolutes (though one still nds unquestioning certitude in Joyce scholarship.)

Plots generally hinge on a chain of mistakes, transgressions, errors of action or judgment, of wrong turnings, often criminal. Without them there would be neither tragedies, comedies nor epics. The authors of Genesis emphasized fatal disobedience, misdeeds, felonies, sin or deceit; in Greek mythology spite and an apple of discord triggered off an abduction and a disastrous war. History, the Irish variant in particular, consists of aggression, repression, catastrophes, these are, in their original sense, turnings down, wrong ones (at least for one side of any conict). In this respect Joyce did nothing innovative. If anything he might have intensied a seemingly pessimistic view; he refrained from anything sensational and reduced his scale to apparent tries and commonplace events. Joyce not only seems to withhold happy endings, he often does not seem to offer any endings at all. Conclusions are left to the readers. In Ulysses nihilistic readings have always been in conict with amelioristic ones: will the Blooms marriage change in an essential way, is there any signicance in the chance meetings of Stephen and Bloom? There is need to elaborate on Joyces realistic depiction of the state of colonial Ireland, its church, the poverty, the day to day frustration, stunted lives, stale marriages all that is often subsumed under what he termed paralysis. his minds bondage (U 9.1016) The soul of man according to Joyces by tongue in Charles Lambs cheek can change her view at every new approach, her age is changeable as her mood (U 14.1038, the whole episode, Oxen of the Sun, acts this out in style). The human psyche also changes everything within its province. More and more Joyce narrowed in on the human mind and its errant, labyrinthine and hazardous ways. From Dubliners to Ulysses perception and interpretation become increasingly subjective, individual. One way to characterize Joyces evolution was a growing discontent with the inevitable simplication that any verbalization of mental processes must entail. He tried to get closer to their presentation by rening or distorting classical techniques and adding some novel ones of his own. The interior monologue has become the best known device to depict the mind in its memories, its fumbling explorations and
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perpetual assimilations. It seems to leave few things unchanged, that is as they were, right. Associations may go against linguistic rules, thoughts jostle each other and may or may not form themselves into tidy grammatical sentences. In a sophisticated mind like Stephens they generally do, but less so in Leopold Bloom: A run like out of all the taxes give every child born ve quid at compound interest up to twentyone, ve percent is a hundred shillings and ve tiresome pounds, multiply by twenty decimal system, encourage people to put by money save hundred and ten and a bit twentyone years want to work it out on paper come to a tidy sum, more than you think (U 8.383) is easy to parse, but even so may briey conjure up a misleading collocation like ve tiresome pounds. The French translation, not realizing that Bloom interjects a comment on the oddity of British pounds (pounds are tiresome in calculation) did take a wrong turning and came up with: cent shillings plus ces fameuses cinq livres (UF 158). What would not be permissible in written or even spoken prose may serve as verbal realism, as in Molly Blooms eeting comment on genital hygiene: hed be so clean compared with those pigs of men I suppose never dream of washing it (U 18.1356) where those pigs of men rst functions as a complement in the preceding sentence and then as a subject for its sequel. In their nature budding associations are not concerned with right nor wrong, they just happen. As utterances they might become mistakes. Academics tend to note misquotations in Ulysses, and in fact the novel abounds in faulty citations (according to scholarly standards). Memory as a misrule conserves transformations; in an interior monologue there is hardly such a thing as a wrong quotation as it appears in Mollys recall of a letter she received long ago, including: your glorious Body everything underlined that comes from it is a thing of beauty and of joy forever (U 18.1177). Possibly she misremembers Keatss famous line which Bloom may have quoted accurately, it is also conceivable that Bloom already adapted the line on purpose. What technically would count as a mistake is an instinctive metamorphosis (in Finnegans Wake such approximations have become the norm).
Fritz Senn The Potency of Error (exemplied in Joyces Ulysses) 243

considerably misunderstood (U 16.1596) When, in the very rst story of Dubliners, Aunt Elizas refers to newfangled carriages them with the rheumatic wheels (D D 1.263 f), she infringes rules of grammar and lexis. Joyce does not edit what characters say and less so what they think. This besgins and continues as linguistic realism and ends up as muddled semantic abundance in Finnegans Wake. A scrupulous editor faced with Joyce's prose would have been tempted to interfere and red-pencil numerous passages. Authors of less reputation than Joyce, let alone students in their formative years, would be accused of sloppy writing: Stephen heard warm running sunlight; Bantam Lyons voice and hand said (U 1.282, 5.519). Carelessness in lesser minds in such cases turns into crisp, artful synaesthesia. How does one render in words something heard as indistinct noise or the semblance of known words? Molly Bloom ask her husband a sophisticated word that he does not seem to pick up. The text is a blank, and we only hear his response (a response to nothing on the page): Met him what? (U 5.336). He appears to have understood met him but not the sequel, which is instantly provided when the word is visualized in an open book: Metempsychosis. It turns out later that Molly, presumably out of ignorance, transformed the Greek term into common words of her own experience, a suggestive met him pike hoses. Molly mispronounces a foreign word and splits it into homely familiar ones that Bloom does not hear accurately. The miscreation takes on a life of its own and will reverberate throughout. Straightforward communication would have caused no ripple at all. There is some convoluted point in Bloom's' wife meeting some him in the course of the day, hose adds an appropriate touch of eroticism (as in shapely limbs in welllled hose later on, U 13.170). The uninformed mispronunciation of metempsychoses underlines a key word: all Ulysses is also reincarnation of themes. In Finnegans Wake a phrase met him pike hoses would hardly look out of place any longer. As in real life, Joyces characters misunderstand each other. Blooms motives are generally suspect, partly because of his position as an outsider and on account of racial stereotypes. He in turn frequently uses the wrong, that is inappropriate, register, when in an impending argument
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with an Irish nationalist he brings up such an eminently British sport as lawn tennis; the Irish nationalist, the Citizen, true to form, sees everything in (British or Jewish) black and (Irish) white. Bloom, generally on the wrong foot, tries to impress Stephen with the clichs he assumes to be intellectually sophisticated and, for example, misapprehends an offhand theological description of the soul as a simple substance and reduces it to a commonplace simple soul (U 16.765). Out of necessity, reports, since they requireselection, condensation, translation into language falsify what they have to convey. Documents are unreliable; a seemingly factual newspaper account lists that a funeral of a most popular and genial personality (witnessed as a very paltry affair) was attended by CP McCoy (a name that Bloom obligingly had slipped in) and Stephen Dedalus B.A. , both were, as the subsequent comment puts it, conspicuous by their absence (U 16.1248-65. A researcher or biographer would have little reason to doubt the accuracy of such a marginal historical document. Oral tradition is even more chancy. According to newly circulated Dublin rumours Leopold Bloom (rendered as L. Boom in the same report) has won a lot of money on a race he never cared for and hardly knew about; this would be added to a suspicion that he was a sort of grey eminence for an emergent political leader, Arthur Grifth. Bloom in turn may go on believing that his transient acquaintance Stephen Dedalus has been lucky in meeting a girl, a Miss Ferguson Best thing could happen him. Miss Ferguson, doubly ctitious, originates from a misconstruction of the Celtic god Fergus overheard in fragments of a Yeats poem (U 15.4950). Any distinction between fact, historical evidence, report, legend, fairy tale, quotation, or rumour is completely suspended in Finnegans Wake. Which, by never being right, has eliminated falsity. In such trivia Ulysses infuses doubt as to what may be termed historical facts. Stephen Dedalus is meditating on what will become part of history as it is handed down, a few events, decisive or anecdotal in the life of some salient gures (Pyrrhus in this case), the accidentals of recording. Often bias is at work, so that we can choose between an noble, epic characterization of a woman, Mrs. Breen, lady wife a dame of peerless lineage, fairest of her race, and a malicious caricature: the wife hotFritz Senn The Potency of Error (exemplied in Joyces Ulysses) 245

foot after him, unfortunate wretched woman, trotting like a poodle (U 12.247-56). Blooms more sober view of the same woman in the morning may be more on target, he noticed her [s]ame blue dress Seen her best daysShabby genteel. Lines round her mouth (U 8.260). Our readers memory may potentially link the actual lines round her mouth with her idealized peerless lineage. Lines tend to become distorted, the real Mrs Breen remains a matter of parallactic speculation. In imitations or parodies (whatever the designation) period style or conventions tend to override not only expression but even facts. They may convert a hospital into a medieval castle or an Ottoman ceremonial court. The Oxen of the Sun chapters patent forgeries provide transient historical roles that are patently spurious for the same handful of unsuspecting contemporary characters. It is then the compulsively accurate Ithaca episode that tends to rectify subjective license by resorting to neutral, emotionless, accurate description in comic laboriousness. It also truthfully details falsications, a spurious visit to a theatre and an invitation to supper (U 17.2251). In particular it does not distinguish between straightforward, jocular or ironic use of language (what looks like a malicious ducking under a pump in the village of Swords is impassively counted as a baptism, along with two genuine, ceremonial ones, U17.340). What starts out in Ulysses as solid realism gradually gives way to a sense of unreliability. the usual crop of nonsensical howlers and misprints (U 16.1267) Since this conference is in honour of Hans Walter Gablers manifold achievements some remarks about dilemmas he had to face as an innovative textual scholar may be apposite. Because of Joyces not very systematic and at times disarrayed procedure on top of the inherent faultiness which is here being highlighted as a main concern errors in the text (what went wrong in its laborious composition and transmission) had to be separated from those that are integrated in the ctional texture. What happens when an author who exposes human aws and deviation is himself prone to error as, given the conditions, he must be? Is a misplaced royal canal bridge (U 10.1273; the passage moves the
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Royal Canal North side to the south, the site of the Grand Canal) due to the inattention of an author who is otherwise so supremely familiar with his Dublin landscape, or is there some subtle play at work? And if a lapse could be proved, would an editor have to step in? The Critical and Synoptic Edition of 1984 refrains from corrective meddling. But frequently editors are in a quandary and, it appears, a no-win situation. Someone will always take another position, not infrequently reinforced by ignorance of the criteria involved. In a pedantic listing of the data by which the Church determines its movable feasts all older editions carried faithfully what Joyce had put down: dominical letters C B, Roman indication 2, Julian period 6617, MXMIV (p. 622 of the rst edition1922). The Roman date for 1904 is obviously off target. Less obvious, indication is equally wrong, the rare technical term is indiction. The Critical and Synoptic Edition substituted Indiction and MCMIV, both factually impeccable; a textual note justies the editorial interference: Joyce intended the correct forms but somehow, under the pressure of hectic last minute revision, was distracted when the insertion was written down. The editor supplied what was inferred the author wanted to write, in conict with what he did write, a departure from general principles in unusual circumstances. It is conceivable however that Joyce deliberately inserted the wrong term and number, which would be in tune with the many unquestionably erroneous items in an episode which strenuously aims at an accuracy it manifestly fails to achieve an instance of all those right-go-wrong aspects that have here been belaboured. This view would open up a new set of questions (to whom, or which narrative agency, can the mistakes be attributed?) and lead into devious bypaths of interpretation. What might be simple editorial decisions in other texts become intrinsically delicate in Joyce. The Critical Edition is fully aware of the issues involved and preserves all the options for individual judgment. Not so a more recent editor, Danis Rose, who in 1997 provided a Readers Edition which set out to clarify the spelling and, above all, to repair the authors own mistakes (as determined by the editor). A list in the Ithaca episode details possible (though highly improbable) careers for Bloom in the past, it contains real existing persons, among
Fritz Senn The Potency of Error (exemplied in Joyces Ulysses) 247

them the reverend T. Salmon, D.D. (U 17.790). The editor interposes a factually correct Reverend G. Salmon, D.D., provost of Trinity College (Readers Edition, 602). The minor substitution of a G for an authorial T is based on a former Provost of Trinity College Dublin, George Salmon, the emendation is in accordance with external facts. The errant T however is in tune with, not a Dublin civil register, but an earlier association of Bloom who had passed the Provosts house: The reverend Dr Salmon: tinned salmon. Well tinned in there (U 8.496). This alimentary connection is also staged in the fantastic Circe episode where the reverend Tinned Salmon forms part of a hue and cry (U 15.4344). The Critical Edition judiciously retains the original wording. The deviant initial T in its twisted wrongness invigorates the passage that otherwise would be trite and unmemorable. It is not a single letter that is at stake. The wayward T substantiates a view that the overt factuality of Ithaca is partly problematic or at least intermittent. Errors also thicken the plots. inadequate words (U 12.796) Our use of language generally falls short of its aims to put reality or thought into adequate sounds or graphic symbols. It often fails to come to terms with its own innate standards. Stephen Dedalus can speak in faultless, intricate, allusive periods, sometimes, as in the Library chapter, beyond the range of realistic probability. In contrast Bloom's endearing fumbles in conversation appear all too human. He appears to co-author the Eumaeus chapter which is bristling with sentences that aim at literary elevation and yet seem to be carried along by thoughts evolving at the spur of the moment. The results are less than grammatical and, at best, awkward. In Eumaeus many, if not most, passages would hardly pass muster. Have a shot at it now, he ventured to say of the coffee after being stirred (U 16.807). where the shot suddenly introduced (in a book which also acknowledges some derivation from Homers Odyssey) is only determined with some delay. The result is a statement readers have to unscramble. Translations often act as control groups as they tend to streamline the ad hoc muddle into clearer coordination; no transitory misreadings occur in Jetzt versuchen Sie mal einen Schluck, wagte er bezglich des Kaffees zu sagen, nachdem derselbe umgerhrt war
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(UG 792). Literary style uneasily intermingles with ad hoc mind-script in Eumaeus. If a sentence begins Anyhow, upon weighing the pros and cons, getting , readers are conditioned to expect a human subject (one that seems to be both weighing and getting something), but tracks are changed: getting on for one as it was, it was high time to be retiring for the night (U 16.1603). The beginning of the sentence has been lost sight of in the process, this is common enough in daily speech but is not supposed to occur in the kind of well-wrought sentences the prose is trying to achieve. Again translators are reluctant to render the grammatical botch adequately and opt for plain sailing: Jedenfalls aber war es, wenn man das Pro und contra abwog, nachdem es ja schon auf eine zuging, hohe Zeit, sich fr die Nacht zur Ruhe zu begeben (UG 827). It may be generalized that all translations of Joyce are more correct than the original which would be one way to characterize the author (and the gist of this submission). Precise language, where it occurs, inevitably has a ring of parody. The scrupulous enumeration of the Ithacan mode draws attention to its own mannerism: Under a row of ve coiled spring housebells a curvilinear rope, stretched between two holdfasts athwart across the recess beside the chimney pier, from which hung four smallsized square handkerchiefs folded unattached consecutively in adjacent rectangles and one pair of ladies grey hose with lisle suspender tops and feet in their habitual position clamped by three erect wooden pegs two at their outer extremities and the third at their point of junction. (U 17.150). Geometrical pedantry looks at variance with the trivial vignette, and for all endeavours towards impassive accuracy disturbing overtones (ladies hose and erect pegs) cannot quite be eliminated. incongruity and disproportion (U 17.2213) Each episode of Ulysses, and distinctly so the ones in the second part, seems to have its own set of rules or code, evidenced in perspective, narrative slant, diction, style. At times even the typographical layout makes them instantly recognizable. Within such highly idiosyncratic textures occasional disruptive passages obtrude, erratic blocks, that are
Fritz Senn The Potency of Error (exemplied in Joyces Ulysses) 249

set off in tone or mood. As Bloom walks home in the morning in the midst of prosaic observations and thoughts, a small paragraph abruptly aunts poetic metaphors in a seemingly epic upbeat: Quick warm sunlight came running from Berkeley Road, swiftly, in slim sandals, along the brightening footpath. Runs, she runs to meet me, a girl with gold hair on the wind. (U 5.240). The sunlight brightening Blooms mood is real, the girl with gold hair presumably not. For a few beats a mode has been turned on that feels out of context. A similar lyrical burst diverges from the prevalent quasi-scientic vocabulary of the factual Ithaca chapter: The heaventree of stars hung with humid nightblue fruit (U 17.2039); so does an incongruous chain of Anglo-Saxon compounds with homely neologisms: of what did bellchime and handtouch and footsteps and lonechill remind him? (U 17.1249). If homogeneity were an aim such oddities would constitute stylistic aws. Such black holes disarrange the surrounding narrative pattern and call for special assessment. On a smaller scale, in what purports to be a simulation the Gothic Novel style in Oxen of the Sun a mockery of Synges disalect or a contemprorary inset like History is to blame (U 14.1010-37) appear out of place. Disrupted patterns or changing textures encroach in later episodes. Joyces unsettling procedure might provoke us to replace the worn-out metaphor text for literary artefacts by something more appropriate. The invention of weaving (texere, textum) made consistent patterns possible whereas Joyces macro and micropatterns keep changing. In other words, the formal design of the earlier chapters could not possibly predict what Sirens, Circe, Ithaca or Penelope would be like. In contrast to the Odyssey (whose hexameters at any rate ensure a formal consistency) every new weaving creates a different fabric. If anything, Joyce is not so much weaving consistently or, like Penelope weaving and unweaving (yet her new webs must have been identical with the one undone) as rhapsoding in the original sense of stitching pieces (or songs) together. Ulysses can be seen as contrived patchwork, a chaffering allincluding most farraginous chronicle (U 14.1412) Many of the humorous effects depend on incongruities, mismatching of themes, words or styles, or odd metaphorical mixitures. But that
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vile decoction which has ruined so many hearths and homes had cast its shadow over her childhood days (U 13.296). Minute discordant notes are struck throughout, the terms in Bloom was inclined to poopooh the suggestion as egregious balderdash (U 16.1030) agrantly move on dissimilar stylistic levels. Such dissonances are faintly pregured in the pairing of Stately with plump in the books opening pair of adjectives; they already point to an elevated, stately diction that will preen itself mainly in the parodistic passages and, in contrast, to a predominant plump, down to earth rendering of ordinary life. The insidious errors and misapprehensions naturally affect our readings and interpretations. It is easy to be misled, to draw doubtful conclusions, to misapprehend magnicent scope of course for conjectures and theses. Ulysses may well be the unique prose work to whose (factually) wrong scholarly interpretations a whole study has been devoted, Paul van Caspels Bloomers on the Liffey: Eisegetical Readings of Joyce's Ulysses, 1986, almost 300 closely packed pages of judicious fault-nding (with, no wonder, a few aws of its own). signal benets to be derived (U 16.557) Mistakes of course authenticate reality, they are part of the common texture of life, thought or utterance. Narratively they disconcert and titillate. Above all they economically compress signicance. Each mistake carries its correction along, even minor errors become portals of discovery (U 9.229) and speculation. When Molly Bloom phonetically or by false analogy mistakes alias for a mendacious person mentioned in sacred scripture (U 17.686), a more adequate name, Ananias, is invoked from a stock of traditional knowledge (or else supplied by intrusive commentary). That Arno Schmidt once opted for a less pertinent German form Elias merely indicates the necessity for corrective supplementation. That alias gratuitously provides a term for multiple nominal confusions in a book where Leopold Bloom is also Henry Flower, or Don Poldo de la Flora (just as Homeric Odysseus, famous liar, can also be Outis) is a possible fringe benet on a meta-level of constant self-reection.

Fritz Senn The Potency of Error (exemplied in Joyces Ulysses)


The most vulnerable point too of tender Achilles in Blooms mind (U 16.1640) nearly misses the proverbial tendon or heel of Achilles (Ireland as the Achilles heel of England occurred some pages earlier and was anatomically illustrated as a tendon, U16.1004). The misapplication may imply Blooms own tender feelings towards Stephen Dedalus: it certainly charaterizes him much more than heroic Achilles (who, however, in the Iliad did have his tender moments in relation to his friend Patroklos). It so happens that the diction of the Eumaeus chapter, full of such malapropisms, generally lacks semantic or syntactic tightness, its prose is abby as though its sinews or tendons were loose (the sinews were utterly powerless, U16.10854). Such extrapolations are not at all compelling and merely represent our predisposition to convert mistakes into signicance. Mistakes, or trite deviations from what is expected, energize many of Joyces sentences and turn them into linguistic events, full of tension or conicts. This may account, at least in part, for their fascination. A resulting uneasiness calls for interaction where plain stylistic sailing might be insipid. The famous two sentences that Joyce claimed he laboured a whole day on, Perfume of embraces all him assailed. With hungered esh obscurely, he mutely craved to adore (U 8.638), do not quite automatically resolve into plain sense but appear to vibrate hauntingly. Grammatically, a description like His slow feet walked him riverward, reading (U 8.10) would not pass a nit-picking schoolmaster; feet cannot be reading but the trailing apposition reading may account for the slowness of the feet; the lumbering syntax may reect a hazardous synchronization of walking and reading. Awkwardness is part of the message. Finnegans Wake pushes speculative repair work to well-known extremes. Two birds, at least, can be hit with one stone. From nobirdy aviar soar anywing to eagle it (FW 505.17) we extract the plain surface meaning effortless from the avian embroidery. A graphic unit like Bismillafoulties (FW 357.5) of no previous lexical existence appears to strive towards the Irish traditional formula Cead mille failties (a hundred thousand welcomes) as well as the Islamic Bismillah (in the name of Allah): as a distortion it may well be blasphemous. Numerically Bismilla may be felt closer to two than ten thousand. A fault seems to
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be included, or else something foul and thereby not fair. Possibly the extractions offered here are foul ties; a French fou is thrown in for good measure. Some readers have discovered an adulteration of Bushmills whiskey. Nothing is right, but it would be hard to compress more semantic stimuli into 16 letters. By implication Joyce questions the very notion of right, correct or true, which does not mean that everything has to be relegated into nebulous relativity without any contours. It may be typical that Leopold Blooms rst action is righting her breakfast things on the humpy tray (U 5.7). Objects are often defective, humps may be in the way of satisfactorily arranging cups and plates. To put things right remains a continuous endeavour, though hardly ever an achievement; it affects Joyces works and may well motivate a corresponding disposition in their readers. Abbreviations: D James Joyce, Dubliners, ed. Hans Walter Gabler and Walter Hettche (New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1993). James Joyce, Finnegans Wake, 1939 (London: Faber and Faber, 1975).. James Joyce, Ulysses: A Critical and Synoptic Edition<, 3 Vols, ed. Hans Walter Gabler with Wolfhard Steppe and Claus Melchior (New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1984). James Joyce, Ulysse. Traduction intgrale par Auguste Morel, assist de Stuart Gilbert entirement revue par Valery Labaud et l'auteur (Paris: Gallimard 1948). James Joyce, Ulysses, translated by Hans Wollschlger (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1981).




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The Interpretive Consequences of Textual Criticism

The following two essays began as part of three sessions at the 2003 STS conference in New York City and represent a response to a challenge issued to the authors, to explore the interpretive consequences of their own editorial work. The essays are devoted to teasing out the potential for either principles or practice in the interpretive consequences of textual criticism. It is anticipated that a dialogue will develop in this area and that the importance of textual work to general criticism and interpretation will become more apparent in our profession, in our classrooms, and in literary criticism. This pair of essays supplements a similar collection to be published in volume 16 of TEXT, the annual of the Society for Textual Scholarship. The TEXT essays are: H. T. M. van Vliet, Compositional History as a Key to Textual Interpretation; Geert Lernout, Finnegans Wake: Annotation, Translation, Interpretation; Dirk Van Hulle, Undating Dante: Samuel Becketts Poetics from a Textual Perspective; Burghard Dedner, Editing Fragments as Fragments; and Christina Urchuegua, Critical Editing of Music and Interpretation. Peter Shillingsburg

Versions of Moby-Dick
Plagiarism, Censorship, and Some Notes toward an Ethics of the Fluid Text
John Bryant Readers of Moby-Dick often go through several interpretive crises as they attempt to gure out Melvilles novel. Its really about a one-legged man seeking revenge, but then, what does one do with Ishmaels redemptive voice and the vast cetological center he composes, replete with chapters on blubber and metaphysics? All right, then; Moby-Dick is really about Ishmael, whales and whaling, or rather The Whale and the White Whale. But this takes the prose novel to be a meditative lyric poem of sorts or rather an essay, or better a poeticized essay; and if so, what then are we to make of the staged and highly Shakespearean drama going on in and around Ahab, poetic in its own way yet utterly incognizant of Ishmael (except for artful interweavings toward the end)? Thus, one interpretive crisis begets another. And still others. Moby-Dick is really about two gay guys, Presbyterian and Polynesian, Ishmael and Queequeg arm in arm, bedded and wedded, making a new religion of their sensualized friendship, demanding brotherhood in a water world of sharks, anticipating Whitmans more pronounced sexualized democracy. And if it projects a gay sensibility, it is also about race, Africa, the orient and middle east, in short, blackness not just whiteness. Moby-Dick, then, is a prophetic culture text, a ctive world that recreates and repositions the readers world and cultural relations, one that interrogates as it combines sex, metaphysics, race, ethnicity, and politics. Moby-Dick is certainly one, the other, and all of the above. And as nineteenth-century Americas most post-modern novel, it represents the very crisis of interpretation itself; that is, the fact that texts are subject to multiple interpretation. I call this a crisis because for the many in our culture who view the humanities as a haven for relativism, the critics license (apart from being a license to kill) allows us to interpret any which way we can (just as the equally dangerous poetic license is permission

to break all rules). Moby-Dick can mean one thing and then its opposite: an acceptance of God or a denial. Perhaps more puzzling for conventional readers is that many of the multiple interpretations of Moby-Dick, while quite different, are not simplistic binary oppositions with one exclusive of the other: the novel can be a celebration of individualism and free enterprise but also of a gay sensibility, brotherhood and communalistic democracy. The seemingly at contradictions and simultaneously co-existing divergences in the interpretation of Moby-Dick are a joyful marvel for humanists, but for many readers (and often many students forced into literature classes), the range of interpretation is a threat to a stabilized understanding of the novel; and some readers, rather than engage the threat, either learn to ignore or moodily dismiss it. Even those who become adept interpreters recognize the limits of their own particular arguments in support of this, that, or the other reading of Moby-Dick; and, rather than try to address readings that counter their interpretation, they promote Moby-Dick as a kind of Free Ameriky of interpretation where everyone has a place. Anyone who might seek out a single unied eld theory that accounts for all constructable interpretations of MobyDick, well, he or she would be considered just another crazy Ahab. The crisis of interpretation, simply put, is that interpretation always exists in resistance to itself. I raise this matter concerning the multiplicity of meaning in MobyDick and the inherent crisis of the critical endeavor we call interpretation because I want to explore the notion of Moby-Dick as a uid text, and this term, something of a private usage which helps me articulate the condition of textuality, is not yet in common parlance and needs some explanation, if only to dispel the most likely of misunderstandings about the term. At the same time, I want to consider how plagiarism and censorship, as adjuncts of textual uidity, gure into our interpretation of Moby-Dick. And, nally, since plagiarism and censorship are not generally incorporated into aesthetic or social interpretation, I want to contemplate the groundings for an ethics of the uid text in hopes that it might facilitate the analysis of uid texts.



Interpretive Consequences of the Fluid Text Chances are the readers of a journal called Variants already know what the uid text might mean, but by and large the rest of the interpretive community is bound to think that the term suggests that texts are uid because they are susceptible to multiple interpretation; that is, MobyDick is a uid text because different readers will read it differently. Or perhaps they might think that because Moby-Dick takes place at sea and that the uidity of Ishmaels (not Ahabs) famous polysensuum of ideas partakes of the literal uidity of the sea, it is therefore, punningly, a uid text. But neither of these explains what I mean by uid text, nor am I suggesting that the uid text is a panacea phrase that will ease the frustration and anxiety inherent in the act of interpretation itself. In fact, I suspect it will make things worse. A uid text is any literary work that exists in multiple versions. For textual scholars and textual editors (the researchers and managers of the dimly understood eld of textual criticism), textual uidity is a wellknown phenomenon of the material condition of textuality. That is, the wording of texts changes physically, and meaningfully, over time due to various acts of revision, intended or otherwise. Much of the energy of modern textual criticism has been focused on, rst, the search for nal intentions amidst the seeming chaos of versions clustered around any given literary work and, then, the editing of works to represent a single, imaginable, intended version. But from the beginning and most vociferously in recent years, this effort to reduce the various versions of a uid text to one edited version has been seriously questioned. Postmodern editing seeks to accommodate the multiple versions of a literary work by registering more adeptly than in previous critical and editorial approaches the shifting intentions, from rst to last, in the evolution of the work (not only as the writer conceives it but also as editors and other readers transform it); it seeks to showcase the acts of writing, publication, translation, and adaptation, even editing itself, that create versions. Indeed, far from easing the pain of interpretation, the notion of the uid text simply raises the stakes of the interpretive crisis to a higher level. For if we recognize that the writing process inevitably generates versions (not xed texts), and if we can establish the existence of the verJohn Bryant Versions of Moby-Dick 259

sions of a particular work and thereby acknowledge their validity, and if we want to construct meanings from each version, we must also ask what constructable meanings we can attribute to the differences between sequential versions. And with our focus on the invisible distance between one quite visible version and the next, we can further apply our critical skills to assessing the cultural meaning of the pressures (both authorial and social) that created that distance between versions. This, it seems to me, compounds the crisis of interpretation enormously; it is interpretation squared. The interpretive consequences of a uid text approach to textuality are many, and as yet somewhat amorphous, if only because a community of critics devoted to the study of uid texts has yet to settle upon a critical vocabulary, or even recognize the need for one. Moreover, mainstream critics remain skeptical of the relevance of the uid text; it is, one assumes, the exceptional case. And yet examples of textual uidity, from the Bible to Ulysses, abound; indeed, they are the rule, not the exception, in literary culture. Moby-Dick is actually a simple case; it has existed from the moment of publication in the fall of 1851 in two materially and signicantly different versions: American and British. And this is not because the British accidentally dropped the novels Epilogue, which importantly establishes narrator Ishmael as the only survivor of the Pequod debacle British readers naturally concluded that Melvilles tale was told by a dead man rather, it is because Melvilles British publisher, Richard Bentley, expurgated numerous sexual, religious, and political passages. But nally, the challenge to the study of uid texts is not any presumed exceptionalism of the condition of textual uidity or presumed inconsequentiality of the variants uid texts of substantial signicance abound the challenge is in gaining access to the versions. Textual scholars (who labor with, over and through textual variants) are intimately aware of multiple versions; less so literary critics, who most often focus on single versions alone, ignoring the distance between variants and the meaning of the revision strategies that create that distance. Naturally enough, scholars and critics take the restrictive, single-version focus of their analytical work with them into the classroom, and rarely do they question the assumption that a given literary work is anything
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but the one version made available at the bookstore. Indeed, the assumption that literary works are represented by single, xed texts is so endemic that most readers, many critics, and even some scholars ask, what else could there be? Because the interpretive community rarely acknowledges the reality that literary works exist fundamentally as uid texts, publishers nd no market for variant versions, and without access in the marketplace to versions (or editorial guidance through the variants), an awareness of the uid text is fated to remain low. This vicious circle in the constrained economy of uid texts only compounds the crisis of interpretation inherent in literary analysis, for the moment some inkling of a works textual uidity does emerge, the critical community simply lacks a critical vocabulary that can promote discourse.1 In The Fluid Text, I offer some observations about versions as well as a critical vocabulary for discussing and editing various forms of revision, all in an attempt to bring the still-increasingly separate spheres of textual scholarship and literary criticism together.2 The idea is to help put criticism back into textual criticism and textuality back into historicism. Solutions for this re-integration cannot happen, of course, unless editors create uid text editions for libraries, classrooms, and the general marketplace, and I offer some suggestions in my book along those lines as well. But at the same time and in a larger sense regarding the eld of
1 Generally speaking, uid text analysis builds upon the notion of writing as a process, and textual editing should in all ways possible showcase that revisionary process. While I extend the range of the process itself to include manuscript drafts, at one end, and post-publication adaptation on the other, my ideas here grow out of a discourse on textual editing well articulated by a number of theorists before me focusing, in one way or another, on the writing process. Among them are Paul Eggert, Document and Text: The Life of the Literary Work and the Capacities of Editing, Text 7 (1994): 124; Hans Walter Gabler, The Text as Process and the Problem of Intentionality, Text 3 (1987): 107116; D. C. Greetham, [Textual] Criticism and Deconstruction, Studies in Bibliography 44 (1991): 130; Jerome J. McGann, Social Values and Poetic Texts: The Historical Judgment of Literary Work (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1988); D. F. McKenzie, Bibliography and the Sociology of Texts (London: British Library, 1986); Donald Reiman, Versioning: The Presentation of Multiple Texts, in Romantic Texts and Contexts (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1987); Peter Shillingsburg, Resisting Texts: Authority and Submission in Constructions of Meaning (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1997); Jack Stillinger, Multiple Authorship and the Myth of Solitary Genius (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991); G. Thomas Tanselle, A Rationale of Textual Criticism (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1989). 2 John Bryant, The Fluid Text: A Theory of Revision and Editing for Book and Screen (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2002.

John Bryant Versions of Moby-Dick


interpretation and its many crises, a paradigm shift is upon us as criticism drifts away from the seas of theory (rich and useful as they are) toward new as yet uncharted archipelagoes of literary analysis. As we drift, critics need now to reassess the nature of texts and explore ways in which versions can be used to tell us more about the intersections of creative process, literary culture, and society. Fluid text analysis offers an integrative vision of the individual writer at work within a collaborative culture. It seeks to clarify both the authorially idiosyncratic and the socially patterned in the material production of literary works and to illuminate the ways in which individual writers dance along with and in resistance to a culture. Since the primary cause of textual uidity is revision, the kind of interpretive analysis of uid texts I propose draws directly from three arenas: authorial creation, editorial intervention, and what I call cultural revision. In all three instances, we nd readers altering texts. In the authorial arena, writers themselves become their own rst readers as they revise an initial draft. Soon enough, second readers in the form of friends, family, and professional editors exert inuence and suggest or actually make changes. More problematic but no less valid is the post-publication evolution of a work in which third readers (readers acting as writers) substantially alter the text through abridgment, translation, and adaptation. Normally, a uid text analysis focuses on selected patterns of meaningful revision, compares their lexical differences, assesses the strategies apparent in those differences, and creates an analytical narrative that places the revisions in a larger cultural context; and I elaborate on that methodology elsewhere.3 With Moby-Dick, I want to establish the idea that plagiarism and censorship are a kind of textual version. This critical step may seem dangerous: given that we generally take plagiarism and censorship to be literary crimes, our classication of them as merely acts of revision might open us to the charge of postmodern relativism. Rather than dismiss or embrace this added interpretive anxiety, I want instead to consider what the groundwork for an ethics of uid texts might be, especially as it might relate to plagiarism

See, in particular, The Fluid Text, chs. 46.



and censorship.4 Indeed, the problems that plagiarism and censorship pose for ethics, literary analysis, and editing are complex, but they require us to wrestle more intelligently with the larger condition of textual uidity. In what follows, I argue that texts as material objects call into question the difference between possession and property, or to put it more directly, the difference between language shared and language owned. In this regard, Moby-Dick is useful both as a statement about the uidity of texts and as a uid text itself. Moby-Dick and the Fluid Text Part of the postmodernity of Moby-Dick is that the novel is very much about itself: It is a text obsessively aware of itself as a text struggling to be written. First, in the facetious but quite serious chapter entitled Cetology (ch. 32), where we learn that whales are classiable as books (folio, octavo, and duodecimo; but not quarto), Ishmael nally argues that his comic cetological System is fated to be incomplete. It is like any other constructed thing the Cologne Cathedral, for example it remains unnished and requires posterity to add its copestone.5 God keep me, Ishmael famously laments (although in the British version the text read Heaven keep me), from ever completing anything. This whole book is but a draught nay, but the draught of a draught. Not only is Moby-Dick a sequence of draughts or versions, but like Cologne Cathedrals latter-day masons, we readers are obliged to nish off the writers inherently unnished (because unnishable) text; we animate the written words through the process of reading itself, and thus supply the meanings (the copestone) that make the text
4 My focus here is limited to plagiarism and censorship because my interest in Moby-Dick requires that focus. Other scholars have addressed ethical matters within the range of their own special eld of interest. Donald Reiman, for instance, suggests protocols for editors working on various kinds of manuscripts. Although ethics in textual scholarship is often discussed, it is rarely codied, and perhaps for good reason. I offer no codes here, only one or two principles that hopefully clarify literary analysis. 5 Herman Melville, Moby-Dick, or The Whale, ed. Harrison Hayford, Hershel Parker, and G. Thomas Tanselle (Evanston and Chicago: Northwestern University Press and The Newberry Library, 1988), 145.

John Bryant Versions of Moby-Dick


seem whole. Thus, writing and reading are inseparable, and the writer Ishmael can do little more than hope his readers will read his words and, through that process, make his ideas swim and in a sense nish off what he had started. In trying to interpret Moby-Dick, we soon realize that before we can assess the novels structure, or voice, or metaphysics, we must asknowledge that Moby-Dick gives us a set of instructions on how to read the novel: that things (including whales) exist only to the extent that they are rendered to us as texts, that our world is therefore shaped by textuality, that to know the world we have no recourse but to create texts; and that since readers are essentially co-builders of texts, their reading is fundamentally a part of our writing process. Furthermore, a text is necessarily a possession shared by writer and reader, and insofar as readers alter texts to facilitate their construction of a meaning about the text, their alterations constitute versions of the text made in collaboration. To bring this to a head: texts are ineluctably uid texts. And this nal point is made explicit in Chapter 89 of MobyDick, called Fast-Fish and Loose-Fish. In this chapter, Ishmael argues that on the high seas, property is a matter of possession. You own what you can hold fast to. If you stick your harpoon in a whale, it is a Fast-Fish, and it is yours. But if your harpoon falls out and that dead whale oats away, it is a LooseFish and fair game for others to harpoon and make their own. Of course, Ishmael soon enough expands this rather simple-minded matter of maritime jurisprudence into a larger political and aesthetic doctrine of Loose-Fish. He says:

What was America in 1492 but a Loose-Fish, in which Columbus struck the Spanish standard? What was Poland to the Czar? What Greece to the Turk? What India to England? What at last will Mexico be to the United States? All Loose-Fish. What are the Rights of Man and the Liberties of the World but Loose-Fish? What all mens minds and opinions but Loose-Fish? What is the principle of religious belief in them but a Loose-Fish? What to the ostentatious smuggling verbalists are the thoughts of thinkers but Loose-Fish? What is the great globe itself but a Loose-Fish? And what are you, reader, but a Loose-Fish and a Fast-Fish, too? (NN Moby-Dick 398)



To extend Melville, let me add this: And what is a uid text but a Loose-Fish, and a Loose-Fish we vainly desire to make Fast. Fluid texts are loose-sh in the following sense. To begin with, a writer, editor, and various readerships endeavor to bring a literary work into being, and that endeavor can manifest itself in multiple versions: in physically different and textually differing manuscripts, in variant print editions, in expurgations, adaptations, abridgments, and translations. At one time or another, one or a set of individuals lays hands on each of these versions, making it for a time his, her, or their own, and hence valid and meaningful for a time. But at some point, a writer, or editor, or adaptor cuts loose a particular version, and lets it go. If the version survives, or even if its full materiality vanishes and yet through fragments or reports continues to be identiable, that version remains valid and meaningful as a witness to various events: a writers creative process, an editors collaboration, a readers insistence upon textual change, whether it be through censorship, expurgation, or benign (but altering) adaptation. These versions remain loose in the culture; they are loose-sh. That is, until editors, publishers, and readers claim ownership and turn them into fast-sh. In reality, making a loose-sh fast, or rather a uid text xed, is an illusory act. We can edit a text fully conscious of its variants, select those we want, closet the rest away in a textual apparatus, and issue the established text as something denitive or authoritative, and publishers will pass this xing along to readers none the wiser. But in reducing the loose-sh versions of a literary work down to one version only, or an eclectic assemblage of variants from separate versions, we are only creating, despite our intention to x and singularize, yet another version. We are just adding another sh to the sea. If truth be told, and that is not a bad thing, a xed text (like property) is a convenient ction. Like the Fast-Fish, it is fast or xed only because we force that identity upon it. In reality, a literary work is a uid text just as, in nature, all whales are loose-sh. To some extent this extension of Melvilles doctrine of Loose-sh into textuality resembles Marxian notions of property. A Fast-Fish is fast because we claim ownership of it. Our ownership is itself an articial construct based upon the contingencies of power and place. That is,
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I have a harpoon; its stuck in your back; I own you. A xed text is much the same. I, as editor, have established one text to represent a literary work, either by selecting one out of all versions to be The Text or by conating many versions into One Text. I make that fabrication of the work mine; my press will even charge you a licensing fee to reprint my text. This act of xing the text is like ownership: it is articial, contingent, powerful. And it should be no surprise that texts are owned. Copyright acknowledges claims of textual ownership, but signicantly only for a certain period of time. Unlike sh, fast or loose, words do not rot so quickly; they have a lifespan that far exceeds our own. While a text will evolve over time for one reason or another, it is far less perishable than a fast sh, and eventually a literary work known primarily in the form of one xed text will seem to revert to its real loose-sh or uid text status when a new editor comes along and re-edits the literary work in a new way for a new generation. Suddenly, readers are aware of options in the marketplace, and briey glimpse the reality of textual uidity. Who owns Moby-Dick? The deed (or title,as it were) changes hands: Melville gave it separately to Harpers and Bentley, who gave it up; then literary executor Arthur Stedman took it on, then British editor Michael Sadleir in the 1920s, then the Americans Manseld and Vincent in the 1950s, and now Hayford, Parker, and Tanselle from the 1960s on. Illustrators began interpreting Moby-Dick at the turn of the century; John Barrymore adapted the novel, twice, into lm in the late 1920s, then Ray Bradbury and John Huston in 1956, then Orson Welles, who put it on stage in 1960. Haskell Springer and I are planning an edition of Moby-Dick that will be different from these, and even though we shall call it a Fluid Text Edition in that it will attempt to showcase variants in side-bars and boxes, it will be, like the rest, a xed thing (like all print matter). Fixed and owned, but only for a while. So let us return to the problem of language possessed versus language owned as they are refracted through plagiarism and censorship to see how both of these crimes might be more fully understood through a uid text approach and how Moby-Dick might help demonstrate that approach.
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Language in general is surely the loosest of loose-sh, which Melvilles smuggling verbalists try to snare and convert through ownership into a text. A text, let us say for the moment, is owned language even though language itself is a shared possession. In actuality, we rarely think of The Language as something owned; it is the communal well of words and structures we draw upon to make texts. As such, we do not say that we steal from the language (plagiarize, borrow or appropriate) in order to make texts; the language is there for the taking. It is only someone elses text someones actual or potential claim of ownership of a bit of language that we can plagiarize. Clichs, common places, aphorisms, and idioms constitute a helpful case in point. These are bits of language dead as a doornail which at some point were the original creation of some genius but which are now, as Emerson would have it, fossilized poetry. They have become shared language texts, and no one feels compelled to put them in quotation marks to indicate the claims of an originating writer. In fact, no one considers Shakespeare the owner of leave her to heaven, a more venerated formulation than dead as a doornail, even though it is no less of a shared possession. But whereas I have no idea (or desire to know) who rst wrote the doornail poem, I am aware of a harpoon line that connects the well-worn phrase (none dare call it clich) leave her to heaven back to Shakespeare. I can use the clich and get away with it (to use an idiom, not a clich but all the more a shared text), and suffer only the casual disdain of listeners. But my use of Shakespeares line might receive blank expressions or knowing nods. Conceivably, in time, leave her to heaven might become just a usage like dead as a doornail (or perhaps enter the language as something debased like a lever to heaven). And when, it is fair to ask, does that point in time (to use a Watergate commonplace) occur? When all knowing nodders are gone? When the name Shakespeare is separated from his texts? When all current memory fails? These are likely enough conditions, and we may add to them the following: When the boundary between shared language and owned language dissolves, and When our awareness of the boundary is lost. Further questions now arise: Under what circumstances does a piece of the shared possession we call the language become an owned text: at
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the moment of inscription or only after publication? And when in the course of human events, does an owned text revert to a shared possession? The law surely has specic rules to guide us on these questions, but the law, sir, is an ass; and I hope to confront that muddle elsewhere. For the time being, I want to take the conversion of shared language into owned text a step further to ask when might your text be converted into my text; when, in short, is plagiarism permissible? Similarly, I want to ask the following related question: Once a text has been extracted from the language and a claim of the initial writers ownership established, to what extent can that text be altered to t a readerships needs? In short, when is censorship or expurgation permissible? Some clarity in addressing these problems derives from considering plagiarism and censorship as versions of a text created by readers. Readers take quotation as an unalienable right. It is an act they cant not perform. They read; they write about what they read; they quote. In the performance of this right, their quotations become small truncated versions of the initial text, meant in some way to be an essential or merely useful redaction of the full text. In this regard, they might be called synechdochal versions; they stand for the whole. Similarly, censorship and expurgation, whether self-imposed or socially coerced, give us reduced versions of the initial text presented as the full text itself, in some way representing the enactment of a societys expectation. Dening plagiarism and censorship as reader-induced versions (and hence a further instantiation of textual uidity) will not de-criminalize or relativize plagiarism and censorship, but it will help us know them better and provide a framework for measuring the degrees of appropriation each one entails. And this in turn may help us nd a grounding for an ethics of the uid text. Moby-Dick offers us several instances of plagiarism and censorship that clarify the versional perspective. Plagiarism: Melvilles Version of Beale Long ago, Howard Vincent showed that Melville borrowed signicantly from several source books on whales and whaling when he composed



Moby-Dick.6 Indeed, Melville routinely borrowed enough from sources throughout his writing career to make him repeatedly vulnerable to the charge of plagiarism. In his rst book, Typee (1846), he drew heavily upon David Porters Journal of a Cruise Made to the Pacic Ocean (1815, 1822)for details of Marquesan island life, so much so as to catch the eye of at least one contemporary reviewer.7 Of course, Charles Anderson exaggerated in his seminal 1939 study of Melvilles use of sources, Melville in the South Seas, when he claimed that Melville borrowed so much he could have written Typee without ever having seen the Marquesas.8 A more accurate construction of Melvilles compositional process is that his appropriations invariably involve a progression of modalities from direct, unacknowledged quotation to paraphrase to full transformation, each a kind of version of whatever source he might be using. We nd evidence of the same set of modalities in Chapter 24 of Moby-Dick, The Advocate, in which Ishmael argues that whaling was the vanguard of Pacic commerce, colonization, and missions. Vincent relates that Melville got this idea from Thomas Beales Natural History of the Sperm Whale.9 Melvilles direct plagiarisms by which I mean word for word thefts are neither extensive nor particularly shocking. For instance, Melville lifts Beales phrase So meanly jealous was Spain and tweaks it to read the jealous policy of the Spanish crown. Surely this revision comes close enough to its original to make any composition teacher rightly suspicious of plagiarism. Of course, the phrase would not be detected by todays Turnitin dot com, or any of the other plagiarism search engines currently found online, because no single word is actually repeated. However, the apparent intent of the revision to conceal the appropriation is itself incriminating, and few would argue that this is
6 Howard P. Vincent, The Trying out of Moby-Dick (1949; rpt. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1980). 7 Rev. of Typee by B, National Anti-slavery Standard [New York] 6 (2 April 1846): 175; rpt. in Herman Melville: The Contemporary Reviews, ed. Brian Higgins and Hershel Parker (Cambridge University Press, 1995), 37.

Charles Roberts Anderson, Melville in the South Seas (New York: Columbia University Press, 1939), 191.

Vincent, pp. 95100. Passages from Beale quoted here are from Vincent.

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essentially a direct quotation without source acknowledgment. But most of Melvilles appropriation in The Advocate is an artful paraphrase of Beale. Beale, for instance, states atly: It is a fact, that the original settlers of Botany Bay were more than once saved from starvation by the timely arrival of some whaling vessels. Melville revises Beale thusly: Moreover, in the infancy of the rst Australian settlement, the emigrants were several times saved from starvation by the benevolent biscuit of the whale-ship luckily dropping an anchor in their waters. Of course, the direct plagiarism of the phrase saved from starvation is undeniable, but Melvilles expansion of the sentence to include the sardonic image of a benevolent biscuit makes a difference. Even the sternest of composition teachers grabbing the plagiarist Melville by the ear would melt a bit in the discovery of the writers artful deation of the pretense of maritime benevolence through the agency of a mere biscuit. This is as much revision as it is theft. In this version of Beale, the undeniable plagiarism is mixed with Melvilles conscious irony which suggests an awareness on Melvilles part of a boundary between himself and Beale. (We can call the irony conscious and not ironic simply because we read it that way because Melvilles strategic repositioning and reapplication of the word suggests a conscious intent to use the word differently from Beale.) Readers of The Advocate as a xed text cannot witness any Beale, boundaries or transgression, but with Beale placed beside Melville, we immediately recognize that Melville is sharing something that Beale has every right to claim as being owned. A uid text analysis of both versions, however, reveals the exact extent of the boundaries between the two versions and a strategy behind Melvilles transgression. Most of Melvilles plagiarisms of Beale are strategic transformations. Melville alters Beale not simply to facilitate the blurring of voices (from Beales to Ishmaels) but with a political agenda in mind. And Melvilles revision strategies provide material evidence of a dialogue between Melville and not only Beale but his culture. Melvilles appropriations of Beale are his version of Beale, but more importantly, they are his version of the heroic cultural ideology Beale promotes. With regard to whaling as the vanguard of Christian missionaries, Beale writes that
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missionaries have been preceded by the whaler, who has opened a barter with the savage, and brought about a friendly regard towards us, by which he has secured a ready welcome to the missionaries.

Melvilles version is more succinct:

The whale-ship, cleared the way for the missionary and the merchant, and in many cases carried the primitive missionaries to their rst destination.

Melvilles paraphrase here seems innocuous enough, except for his inventive phrase the primitive missionaries. However, this phrasing is itself a borrowing from Beale and as a strategic revision of Beale, it requires some background. In 1846, ve years before the publication of Moby-Dick, and upon the publication of Typee, Americas religious press branded Melville the virulence of reviewers allows for such a term as a traducer of missions.10 At his American publishers urging, Melville issued a revised edition of Typee which added some new material but expurgated from the narrative (among other things) his fulsome anti-missionary attacks.11 . By the time he began writing Moby-Dick, Melville had long since learned his lesson about challenging Americas evangelic establishment, and in it he directs no venom at missionaries. Even so, his simple revision of Beale, especially the phrase the primitive missionaries, sticks in our throats like a not so benevolent biscuit. True, the word primitive here is not necessarily meant to suggest that missionaries are unsophisticated, but rather that these particular missionaries are simply the rst or primary ones to arrive: hence they are primitive in this specialized sense. But interestingly enough, Melvilles idea for calling these missionaries primitive was triggered by another little plagiarism he had made. In Melvilles source book, Beale refers to the original emigrants
10 Typee: The Traducer of Missions, Christian Parlor Magazine [New York] 3 (July 1846): 7483; rpt. in Higgins and Parker, 5257. See also New York Evangelist (9 April 1846).

Melville was complicit in these censorings which included the removal of political and sexual passages as well as the religious, and in a lengthy letter, he attempted to persuade his British publisher John Murray to adopt the American revised text, arguing that the expurgation imparts a unity to the book which it wanted before (NN Correspondence 56). Murray, however, did not accept the cuts. See Herman Melville, Correspondence, ed. Lynn Horth (Evanston and Chicago: Northwestern University Press and The Newberry Library, 1993), 5458.


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to Australia as primitive settlers, to suggest not only their early arrival but their status as less than civil members of the original penal colony. So precedent for the word primitive meaning early arrival and more a certain criminality is established in the very text Melville co-opts. But the purposeful shifting of the adjective to modify missionaries not settlers surely is not without meaning (to borrow a Melvillean phrase), and especially so in the context of Melvilles past quarrel with Pacic evangelism. Melville, it seems, has discovered a way to take Beales word primitive with its special usage and penal context, apply it to the missionaries with the full understanding that readers will take the word in its more common usage as a mild derogation (i.e. unsophisticated), and yet in some self-involved way, retain a private dig at the missionaries through the implication of criminality as found in Beales original usage. As with Melvilles addition of the benevolent biscuit, the repositioning of Beales particular usage of primivitve is not just a borrowing from Beale, for the full meaning of the word can only be ascertained when we recognize the word as a version of Beale. Of course, the primary (I wont say primitive) irony of Melvilles repositioning of the word that it is missionaries who seek to convert primitives is easy enough to grasp without any knowledge of Melvilles appropriation of the word. But the fact that he stole it from Beale to use it ironically adds a depth to the irony that only uid text analysis can extract. In The Advocate, the word primitive has its own peculiar genealogy, descending from Beales special usage and Melvilles special history with the missionaries. Because Melvilles version is so thickly ironized and so arguably strategic, it strikes us as less of a plagiarism and more as a highly self-conscious sharing of language possessed by both Beale and himself. And because Melville also uses the word to undercut rather than promote Beales position, it strikes us all the more that Melville has equal claim to the word. The shared word is carefully placed to give the lie to the larger argument in The Advocate that whaling is the vanguard of something noble in the Pacic. Because Melvilles ironic use of primitive has its own unique genealogy linked back to Beales more conventional usage of the word, Melvilles version also takes its own
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unique path of deconstruction. With missionaries being nothing more than the primitives they presume to convert, whaling is, therefore, little more than butchery comparable to warfare, and the Pacic imperialism seemingly advocated in The Advocate is subtly undermined. We can read the chapter and Melvilles use of primitive this way because we know it to be a version of Beale. What somehow differentiates this from mere plagiarism is that the word seems encrusted with meaning related to its theft; it is something strategically different and self-consciously so. And interestingly enough and perhaps unethically so the fact that Melville conceals his theft makes this version all the more valid. Had Melville announced his borrowing and placed his quotation marks in all the right places in short, had he done the right thing by the regular protocols of quotation he would have gotten an A from his composition instructor, but an F from reviewers for whom the quotation marks would signal further attacks on the missionaries. As it happened, Melville hid his appropriation, let the language deconstruct on its own, awaited readers to nd the borrowing, and now receives an A+. My point is not to augment our understanding of Melvilles critique of colonialism or even the complex intertextuality of Moby-Dick, but rather to argue that plagiarism (and let us for now avoid the euphemism of appropriation) is one writers version of another writers writing. Furthermore, I sense that if we are to get to the bottom of the ethics of the creation of this kind of version, we need to examine the strategies that are used to distinguish one writers claim to a bit of the shared language from another. I do not mean to cleanse the word plagiarism by suggesting that it is merely artful revision and that the plagiarist is less of a plagiarist for the artistry.. Later, I want to suggest that a fundamental of uid text analysis is useful in helping us understand our ethical obligation to know the distance between the version we create and the version we borrow from, and, further, to know that this critical distance is a function of our self-awareness. For the moment, however, lets turn to the expurgation of Moby-Dick.

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Censorship: Bentleys Version of Melville To reduce expenses and limit perhaps the kind of editorial meddling in America that led to the expurgation of Typee, Melville hired his own printer, R. Craighead, to set the book he called Moby-Dick into print so that he could hand the stereotype plates directly to his American publisher, Harper & Brothers. He felt relatively condent that in also sending the corrected and slightly augmented proofs from these plates to his more liberal-minded British publisher, Richard Bentley, Moby-Dick might escape the fate of Typee. But one of the ironies of Melvilles publishing career is that in resetting the text of Moby-Dick from the American sheets Bentley or his editorial staff, changed a good deal.12 As noted, he dropped Melvilles Epilogue, and critics of the day were quick to note the apparent ineptitude of the narratives conclusion, much to Melvilles chagrin. Heres another of Bentleys botches: In Chapter 44, The Chart, Ishmael describes how Ahabs mind has become separated from his soul, and refers to this separation as the minds unbidden and unfathered birth. This small but remarkable psychological analysis in a crucial chapter sets us up for Ahabs further anxieties over his orphaned status. But in Bentleys version, the line speaks of the minds unbidden and unfeathered birth, making Ahab less alienated and somewhat resembling a plucked chicken. Of course, these gaffes are inadvertent, but as textual uidities, such meaningful typos can have interpretive condequences. Unfeathered, though absurd in the context of unfathered, is nevertheless viable, and affects the British readers response to Melvilles novel, which for them transmitted a diminished but still meaningful view of Ahabs complex mentality. One can imagine a reader sensing that unfeathered might be somehow wrong, but since the word suggests something like not fully edged, readers were likely to go with that notion of immaturity and never guess at Melvilles oxymoronic and seemingly impossible but in fact psychologically challenging phrase unfathered birth. But there
12 Like the American revised edition of Typee, the British version of Moby-Dick contains several variants initiated by Melville himself as well as numerous expurgations imposed upon his text. Since Melvilles corrected page proofs do not survive, we can only speculate on which variants are likely to have been Melvilles and which Bentleys.



are other orders of textual uidity in Moby-Dick that matter much more. As it turns out, Bentley could not resist his own purposeful expurgation of Moby-Dick. Like his American counterpart, John Wiley, who severely reduced Typee, he chopped out a complete chapter (in addition to Epilogue), entire paragraphs, and numerous single lines. Also like Wiley, Bentley cut out what the publisher took to be religious blasphemies, tasteless joking and crudities, sexual innuendoes, and much of Melvilles anti-monarchical politics; basically many of the Melvillean lines modern readers thrill to read.13 Censorship is a prime cause of textual uidity, and thus the analysis of a works expurgation gives us signicant access to the historical readers mind and culture. What readers most fear, they will expurgate; hence, their cuts register cultural anxiety. A modern uid text edition designed to showcase the censorings of a work helps us discern, as we read, what a culture takes to be a texts hotspots. And in revealing a publishers revision strategies, such an edition can give concrete evidence of a cultures attempt to make a text over in its own image. Bentley admired Melville, keeping him on despite dwindling sales of previous books. He was keenly aware of his authors sensuality and knew that this was a powerful aspect of Melvilles talent because readers had enjoyed his poetic, sometimes excessive, even steamy prose from Typee on. Expecting small sales of what he called The Whale, he published the novel in a limited run (500 copies) of a lavishly designed triple decker selling at a guinea and a half.14 If Melvilles whaling text were to circulate in Britains domestic, mixed-gender market, his book required a cleansing. Like any publisher attuned to the economics and standards of the circulating li-

13 Probably, the worst case is Bentleys removal from The Whiteness of the Whale (ch. 42) the climactic line: so that all deied Nature absolutely paints like the harlot, whose allurements cover nothing but the charnel-house within (NN Moby-Dick 195). 14 Almost 300 copies of the rst run were sold in the rst year; the rest were issued in different bindings throughout the century. The earliest issues remain a high point for book collectors. The British title, The Whale, seems to have been Melvilles original title which was changed in the American edition to Moby-Dick, or The Whale some time after the American proofs were sent to Bentley.

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braries, Bentley censored Melville to save him.15 As a result, certain now-familiar lines, both heterosexual and homosexual, had to go. For instance, Ishmaels wake-up line in Bosom Friend (ch. 10) Thus, in our hearts honeymoon lay I and Queequeg becomes nothing more than Thus lay I and Queequeg. And what of other now cherished lines like Queequegs bridegroom clasp of Ishmael in The Counterpane (ch. 4)? Bentley chopped it out. The scene in which Queequeg affectionately throw[s] his brown tattooed leg over Ishmael? Gone as well. Although Bentleys censoring removed the provocative honeymoon and leg references, it nevertheless kept Ishmael and Queequeg in bed together still hugging a bit more comfortably than we might expect from otherwise innocent mates or buddies. What the editing seems to have accomplished is a rendering of the homosexual into the (still suggestive) homosocial. Bentleys apparent homophobia aside, his heterosexual expurgations were even more pronounced. Bildads wise words to Flask about safe sex ring true today if you touch at the islands, Mr. Flask, beware of fornication but apparently for Richard Bentley the mention of abstinence itself was too suggestive, so, in the rich tradition of British bowdlerization, this line had to go. Ishmaels comparison of the bawdy workers along the Erie Canal to Mark Anthony toying with his red-cheeked Cleopatra, ripening his apricot thigh, upon the sunny deck was not entirely cut (NN Moby-Dick 249). Red-cheeked Cleo remained in Bentleys edition, but you can imagine what happened to the young man ripening his apricot thigh. Oddly enough, however, in his sexual revisions Bentley was more inclined to let seemingly homosexual or homosocial references pass than to admit any heterosexual reference at all. Perhaps a love that dares not speak its name was simply harder for him to recognize. Or perhaps what passed as the idiom of homosocial behavior was able to survive as Bentley struck out Melvilles more pronounced and recognizable heterosexual imagery. Indeed Bentleys ability to seek and destroy Melvilles heterosexual
15 The now-classic, modern instance of this is the expurgation of sexual scenes from Richard Wrights Native Son in its Book of the Month Club version.



sensualities was hyperexact. Consider the following losses on Bentleys cutting room oor. In Cisterns and Buckets (ch. 78) when Queequeg famously rescues Tashtego, who has fallen into a Sperm whales decapitated and submerged head, by performing a kind of Caesarian operation, Melville makes repeated references to Queequegs midwifery and obstetrics. However, Bentley surgically removes this clever and moving imagery. And when Queequeg and Ishmael, in The Grand Armada (ch. 87) venture together into a circling pod of whales and witness in the calm depths below a wonder world of breeding and birthing whales, Bentley eviscerates the scene by removing one of the novels more memorable lines: We saw young Leviathan amours in the deep. Bentley did not abide a safely abstracted hint at cetological heterosexuality. In Chapter 132, The Symphony, Ishmael takes a paragraph to describe the sky and sea mating at the horizon. But Bentley cut the paragraph entirely, leaving the chapter bereft of its Ishmaelean sensuality and therefore as well its startling and climactic contrast to the sterility of Ahabs burntout crater of a mind appearing in a subsequent paragraph. If you are worried that removing the sexy sky-sea metaphor makes the burnt-out crater reference unbalanced, not to worry; Bentley removed Ahabs burnt-out crater of a mind, too. In these expurgations, we lose more than a few bawdy jokes, more than a melodic motif in Melvilles sensual symphony, more than the affections of men and women; we lose the vital link between that sensuality and Ishmael; and we also lose a deeper sense of Ahabs ruined mentality. Despite the thorough removal of heterosexual reference in Bentleys version of Melville, the only-partial elimination of the homoerotic and homosocial imagery offers a curious lesson concerning the survival of a text. A safely submerged male-male sensuality can outlast a no-less submerged male-female sensuality. And the lesson is for both writers and readers to examine, for the patterns in what the editorial agents of a culture decide to kill or let live in a literary work speak directly not only to that cultures ambivalences but also to how writers learn to translate themselves into viable, survivable language. The irony is that while Melville seems to have balanced homosexual and heterosexual imagery throughout the American Moby-Dick, British readers ofthe
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censored Whale would necessarily nd, on balance, a relatively gayer text for its censorings. More to the point, the censored text, ironically, is more conducive to gay readings, and to add irony upon irony it is not entirely surprising that this text appealed to British homosexual readers of the late nineteenth century, who in turn played a distinct role in forwarding the slow resurrection of the novel out of its mid-century obscurity.16 No wonder, either, that at the end of his career, with critical (if not popular) interest in England growing for the censored but more pronouncedly gay Whale version, Melville composed Billy Budd arguably Melvilles most modern work and most moving treatment of repressed homosexuality with the lessons of Moby-Dick in mind; to wit: completion is impossible, ction like life must have its ragged edges, and you must write indirectly about sexuality or be censored. Given its odd history and the dynamics of it as a uid text, it would not be too far-fetched to suggest that Moby-Dick survived the nineteenth century to become a cultural icon of modernism and postmodernism not in spite of censorship but because it was censored. Towards an Ethics of the Fluid Text Accessing Moby-Dick by means of Melvilles plagiarisms and Bentleys censorship allows us to see this whole book, as Ishmael puts it, for what it is: a pool of textual loose-sh. Which is as much as to say that not only is Moby-Dick about the uid text, but it is also a collocation of uid texts derived, in the particular instances we have focused on, from certain coerced collaborations, in which a reader (Melville of Beale and Bentley of Melville) alters a text without the writers consent (Beales or Melvilles) to create a new, collaborative version (Melville and Beale, Bentley and Melville). Melville borrows from Beale; Bentley expurgates Melville. These appropriations essentially coercive borrowings and expurgations constitute versions of separate works Melvilles version of Beale on the one hand, and Bentleys version of Melville which contribute to what we might call the Work of Moby-Dick. In this use of
16 For the reception of Moby-Dick among British homosexuals, see Historical Note, NN MobyDick 74142.



the word Work, I vary from the standard view articulated by Tanselle of an imagined or abstract conception of the writers intentions for the literary object itself (oeuvre). By Work, I mean the working (travaille) put into the making of the text, the energies expended to create the various versions (pre- and post- publication) throughout the life of a particular literary title.17 As dened, a literary working, such as Moby-Dick, is fundamentally represented by the collocation of its versions achieved through a writers initial creative process but also his or her numerous subsequent and sequential collaborative versions. I have demonstrated how this uid text approach has distinct interpretive consequences at both the authorial level (with Melvilles revision of Beale) and at a larger, cultural level (with the Bentley expurgations). At the same time, I argue that uid text analysis also has a certain ethical dimension, which if pursued might help us think through the ambivalences we have toward our two most problematic literary crimes of plagiarism and censorship. The ambivalence we have toward plagiarism is that while we revile it in our students, we recognize that no literary work is without borrowings, and we are invariably placed in the uncomfortable position of putting before our students exemplary literary texts, which if truth be told contain plagiarisms. We might attempt to distinguish the student crime from the authorial indiscretion by arguing for the writers right to recast his sources as a higher art form, but if we leave it at that (as some do) without deeper investigation, we seem to say that the author is simply more successful in his deception than the student, and ironically the message to the student is that his or her only crime was in failing to deceive more artfully. What is lost here is the understanding that both student and author are writers and that as writers, they make versions of the language that invariably incorporate versions of other texts. the problem for any seriously engaged writer is knowing where ones own
Cf. Work as Energy, The Fluid Text, ch. 3. This idea builds from and extends Shillingsburgs denition: a work is the imagined whole implied by all differing forms of a text that we conceive as representing a single literary creation. See Peter Shillingsburg, Scholarly Editing in the Computer Age: Theory and Practice (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996), 42. In my view, the imagined whole that constitutes literary creation is as much the energy of genesis and revision that moves the creative process as it is the collocation of the variant material forms.

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version begins and the version of anothers ends. Without this obligation to know the boundaries of our versions, we cut short our ability to understand a writers discourse with his or her predecessors. Taking plagiarism or source appropriations as versions of sources insists upon this deeper view, which is, I think, nally an ethical view. Censorship strikes us as less ambivalent: we take it to be atly wrong, even with the writers consent but especially if it is done without it and especially if it results in textual mutilation, as in the case of Bentleys Whale. And yet what are we to do with the massive American expurgations of Typee, which Melville not only condoned (because they enhanced the narrative) but, as noted, tried to get his British publisher, John Murray, to accept? Melvilles complicity is an announcement of his awareness of the version he is making, and this obviously undermines what otherwise might seem atly wrong about the expurgation. Revision in general, whether it is authorial or editorial, invariably involves some element of censoring, so that I dont want to say that is often tantamount to saying I cant say that or I should not say that. Determining the give and take of complicity inherent in self-censorship, and even in coerced censorship, reveals with startling clarity the struggles that writer and editor, at times together, endure to reach an audience; such censorings are fundamentally an act of translation. In short, despite the obvious negativity we impose upon plagiarism and censorship, we also recognize that they involve a kind of negotiation with readers or a projected readership, and the resulting versions of the texts derived from these acts bear the unavoidable imprint of the rhetorical conditions of the creative and printing processes. As coerced collaborative negotiations these special kinds of versions, lamentable perhaps in one context, are in the larger interpretive view quite valuable. Because we gain critical value from literary acts that in one way or another violate the boundaries we think we are making when we draw texts out from the shared possession called language, we are necessarily drawn to ask questions concerning ethics. Such questions will naturally involve matters of obligation and duty, right and wrong. I shall focus on obligation and shall avoid issues of right and wrong, especially as they may be grounded in principles of ownership that are nally articial
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rather than structural. The notion that language can be owned (not just shared), leads us into contradictions. On the one hand, it presumes that Beale has a deed to his words, that his text shall not be misquoted, or misused, or used against his own agenda, and that by extension Melville has no right to Beales word primitive. And if the question of right or wrong presupposes textual ownership, it takes, on the other hand, an equally unsettling tack with regard to Bentley: it presumes that Bentley can claim ownership of Melvilles text and can do with it as he wishes and do so for the benet of his market. Our attempt to take ownership as a principle in determining the ethics of uid texts is, it seems to me, nally untenable, for if it is our measuring stick, then Melville cannot (ethically) do what he did, and Bentley simply can. Loose-sh texts become fast, xed, and dead. Rather than offering an easy ownership formula for determining right and wrong, I want to propose some principles involving an individuals obligation in making versions. By dening the acts of plagiarism and censorship in terms of the versions they create, we will not, I trust, attempt to whitewash what is reprehensible but rather more clearly identify the factors and valencies of negotiation and collaboration inherent in each act. The initial question is not what right Bentley or Melville has to create their versions, for their right to revise (whether shamefully or responsibly) is inalienable in the writing and printing process. Rather, the larger question is how shall we raise our consciousness concerning the inevitability of revision and versions. Ultimately, an ethics of the uid text involves a two-step deepening of our textual awareness. But the two steps push in opposing directions to both expand and delimit freedom. One is the recognition that language is a shared possession and that textual ownership that is, the claim that these words are mine not yours is more like leasing than owning; hence, no one asserts full and independent ownership of a text without acknowledgment of that ownership by the reading community and through the articial constraints of law. But second is the understanding that the creation of a text out of the well of shared language this leasing or version of the language comes with the unique tagging of the writer (banal or brilliant; Beale or Melville), which remains a part of the text as long as memory allows the
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text and authorial tag to remain connected. Our Melvillean loose-sh metaphor is apt here: a text that loses its dening authorship (and, of course, anonymous shall here remain an author) drifts into the netherland of clich, common place, and aphorism and becomes, almost like language itself, a shared possession. But by and large, texts do not lose their authors, and, indeed, the very existence of a text presupposes an author of it. And further: a text is a version of the language because the writer makes it so. The writers precise selection and ordering of words bears the imprint of his or her intentions. When writers revise, they are shifting their intentions, and it is precisely at this moment of revision that the ethical dimension emerges. For even if the writer revises his own text to create a new version, the shift in intention that is implied reects the ethos of the rhetorical conditions surrounding the making of the text. What pressures are there on the writer as she projects her audience that inect that writers intentions? But when a writer borrows another writers text, he or she is not only revising, hence creating a version of that text, but also deecting the text away from the original authors intentions. And when a writer or an editor revises a text in a censorious manner, a new version also arises, based also on a shifting of intentions. In both cases, these coerced collaborations imply a negotiation of versions and intentions. Melvilles revision of Beale creates a version that fully inverts Beales intentions; Bentleys revision of Melville is intended to make Melvilles intentions more palatable to a British drawing room audience. With this dynamic of memory, authors, intentions, and versions in mind, we can begin to ask still more focused questions concerning the ethics of textual collaboration and negotiation. Here, our uid text ethics becomes largely a matter of measurement and begins with an awareness of the distance between versions and the direction one version takes away from its predecessor, but ultimately resides in the measure we make of our own self-knowing. Let me advert briey to a current event. When asked to explain the presence in her book of large chunks of plagiarized text, the popular historian Doris Godwin Kearns explained that the texts had been transcribed into her notes without clear attribution, and from thence made their way into her text. Quite regrettably, she had forgotten
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that the words transcribed in her notes were not hers. But in saying this much, she in effect is saying that she forgot the difference between herself and someone else. She would have us believe that she mistook the language of another writer for her own. And this may well in fact be true. But if so, the worst of her sins was not in the presumably inadvertent theft but in forgetting who she is, and mistaking herself for someone else. She felt ownership over the language in her notebook, and that sense of proprietary power made her blind to different identities contributing to the uid text of her history. She was obliged to know the boundaries of the versions of history she employed, just as she is obliged to know the difference between herself and others. Her failure is she did not know herself. If we can reduce a uid text ethics to a single Kantian imperative, it would be something like this: Know the distance between versions; know the difference between writer and revisers separate intentions; know the direction in which your revision takes your version. And to know this much means to know the difference between yourself and others. How self-cognizant were Melville and Bentley of the boundaries they trespassed between their versions and the versions they changed? The answer lies in the strategies we may construct out of shifts in intentions perceived based on the changes they made. How much text was taken and cut; but more importantly, how far away and in what direction did their new versions take the intentions of the initial version? In that perceived differential lives a calculus for change and a grounding for determining the ethics of their endeavor. Did Melville violate Beale by inverting his intention and using his word against him: I think most surely he did; that was his conscious intent; the irony in his text suggests he knew the word primitive was not his, and that he knew the difference between himself and Beale. Did Bentley violate Melville by shifting his intentions: again, most surely he did. His intention was to enhance Melvilles reputation, at the expense of Melvilles sexual and political imagery. The very fact that Bentley identied these passages for excision (despite any aesthetic mutilation) reveals a strategic awareness of the difference between himself, the culture he represents, and Melville. A fair response to my attempt at a uid text ethics is to dismiss it out
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of hand, for, after all, what relevance is ethics to the analysis of texts? I have taken on this problem because writers, readers, and editors are ambivalent about versions, to begin with, not to mention plagiarism and censorship as two isolated sources of versions, and, for good reasons discussed above, the notion of versions and the uid text adds to the anxiety of the crisis of interpretation. Writers will steal and editors censor; they will hide their acts or make false or insubstantial justications for them. And while these facts of literary history may represent the dirty linen of the literary enterprise and might be treated in our classrooms and criticism merely as such, they can be used more effectively to reveal the springs and motives of the dynamics of textuality and historicism. While I do not propose to de-criminalize plagiarism or censorship, and call it right, or do the opposite and call it wrong, under certain circumstances, I do want to nd out the boundaries we might draw and our obligation to know those boundaries when writers make versions. To do this necessarily means studying the nature of versions and how they are generated. Thus, ethics and analysis are complementary endeavors. By beginning with the idea that language can only be shared, that we take leases on it to create our versions of language, and that in revising, we ask ourselves to know the distance between versions and the direction of their shifting intentions, we have, it seems to me, a far better chance of calculating the meaning of change in texts. An ethics of uid texts as improbable as that may sound is essentially an ethics of change. It asks us to consider our involvement in the versions we make out of a language we think we can own but can only share. It asks us to consider how we shall be aware of boundaries. True, the study of Moby-Dick as a uid text will certainly add to the interpretive crises associated with the novel, which we surveyed at the outset. This approach is not likely to accommodate all interpretations regarding sex, metaphysics, and politics; Ishmael and Ahab. Even so, gaining access to the making of Moby-Dick and its evolvement through its different versions allows us to focus on the interpenetrations of the individual writer and his immediate and future audiences so that we can have a fuller understanding of the dynamics of and shifting intentions implied within texts as they change, in society, over time. For only by knowing that the existence of versions lies in acts
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of collaboration, negotiation, coercion, differentiation, and, as we have seen, self-awareness, can we become better prepared to study textuality, and by extension, culture itself. Culture, like ones self, is a uid text, and a loose-sh, too.

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Emily Dickinsons Futures

Unqualied to Scan
Marta L. Werner I come to you once again from the region of Emily Dickinsons late work, the writings of the 1870s and 1880s, and, more specically, from the remote precinct of Dickinsons fragments. Like the limit-texts of other writersKafkas Conversation Slips, Pascals Penses, and Wittgensteins Remarks on ColourDickinsons fragments are essentially private writings, belonging more to the space of creation than communication. Never prepared for publication, perhaps never intended to be read by any one other than the scriptor herself, they are not works so much as traces of thought-in-writing. If, at times, one or two or even several act as strange attractors drawing near to one another, forming a small constellation, at other times, each appears as a separate, antinomic text, far away from the others, unassimilated and unassimilatable to a totalizing gure. At last, it is as if the uncertainty of the fragments provenance commits them to the openness of an equally uncertain future. Freed from the forty bound manuscript volumes, those accumulated libraries of Dickinsons poetic production, they y outside the codex book to the lyrics many ends. In the close readings of three fragments drawn from the late archive that follow, the contingent, disjunctive nature of the fragments and their relationship to one another is reected in readings that are themselves often contingent, disjunctive, and necessarily piecemeal. Concerned with language and risk, these few fragments serve as my point of departure for a readingas yet only imaginedof the roughly one hundred surviving fragments in which I defer a denitive analysis of these texts in favor of the opportunity to describe their simultaneous falling together and apart. I. What a Hazard In her late writings Dickinson almost never speaks of language unaccompanied by alarm:

Figure 1: A 809. About 1885. Lines composed in pencil on a fragment of a torn book dust jacket now measuring 21.7 x 10 cm. Reproduced by permission of the publishers from The Letters of Emily Dickinson, Thomas H. Johnson, ed. Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press, Copyright 1958, 1986, The President and Fellows of Amherst College; 1914, 1924, 1932, 1942 by Martha Dickinson Bianchi; 1952 by Alfred Leete Hampson; 1960 by Mary L. Hampson; and by permission of the Amherst College Library Archives and Special Collections.
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What a | Hazard | a Letter | is When I think of | the Hearts | it has Cleft | or healed I | almost | wince to | lift my Hand | to so much | as as a | superscription | but then we | always Ex | cept | ourselves [overleaf] or | Scuttled and | Sunk (A 809).

Fragment A 809, found among Dickinsons papers after her death, has liations to two other documents, both letters written in 1885. In one, sent to an unidentied recipient, the lines of A 809 are slightly altered: What a | Hazard an | Accent is!| When I think | of the Hearts | it has scuttled | or sunk, I al- | most fear to | lift my Hand | to so much | as a punctua | tion E. Dickinson (A 802). In the other, sent to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, the lines conclude a letter seeking information about Helen Hunt Jackson, reported on the point of death by The Springeld Republican:
Dear friend - | I was | unspeakably | shocked to | see this in | the Morning | Paper - | She wrote me | in Spring | that she could | not walk, but | not that she | would die - | I was sure | you would know - | Please say it | is not so - | What a Hazard | a Letter is! | When I think | of the Hearts | it has scuttled | and sunk - | I almost fear | to lift my Hand | to so much | as a Super- |scription. | Trusting that | all is peace | in your loved | Abode - | With alarm - | Your Scholar - (BPL Higg 116)

In the nineteenth century, advances in the harnessing of electricity made communications swift as lightning, subtle as ether (Peters 5). Yet the letter, even before mechanical or electronic means allowed it to mimic the angels, has always arrived suddenly. How it seeks us out, how it aims at us! writes Hlne Cixous, and more often than joy, it is some death it brings us (11). The letter halts our breath. A superscription may be an address or direction for a letter written on the outside of an envelope. Yet the superscription of an address does not guarantee that a letter will reach its destination. The addressee may have moved away or exchanged worlds. I almost fear to lift my Hand. Six days after the news report, Hunt Jackson was dead. Beforeor was it after? no, it was certainly beforeDickinson wrote the fair-copy letter postmarked 6 August 1885 to Higginson she wrote the unaddressed, undated fragment A 809. Undated: Dateless. For the fragment does not belong to a relative timebefore, afterbut only to the hour or instant of its inscription. Quick, a pencil. As if bodily
Marta L. Werner Emily Dickinsons Futures 289

gesture were continuous with spiritual attitude, the handwriting of A 809 is unusually distorted. Large, recklessly formed letters suggest that Dickinson was writing under duress or in total darkness. In the second line the word H A Z A R D stretches across the manuscript. What a Hazard a Letter is In the late writings it is languagethe Word itselfthat is hazarded. Rather than pursue the genetic relations between the fragment and the letters in which it appears as a trace, I want to follow Dickinson to the place where all such relations break off. To the fragment. To language on its edge. Like the late Hlderlin of whom Zimmer reported, he writes as soon as he has something to write, whether on a piece of paper or a scrap of wood, in the 1880s Dickinson seems to have written immediately and on whatever was near to hand (Froment-Meurice 49). A 809 is inscribed vertically on the torn away ap of a books dust jacket. Here, language appears not along the horizontal plane of communication between human beings, but as the vertical join to the divine. The double play of Dickinsons variantssuperscription / salutation signies the fragments links to the mystical. Here the line of vision slants upward to the rightas in an annunciation: What a Hazard a Letter is When A 809 appears in the letter to Higginson, it reappears as a citation. A human hand writes it, quotes it in a human context. But the hand that scribbles the text in the dark is transxed only by words that wake her and that come from something outside her. The blur of the fragmentits illegibilityis the blur of a hand writing a voice it is hearing. What a Hazard a Letter is But this is not the end of the message. Right beside the peril of language is the joy of language. I almost [emphasis added] wince to lift my Hand to so much as a superscription, Dickinson says. I almost fear, I hardly dare, she repeats. And then the hand rises and she writes. In the very moment when the Heart is cleft or healed, in a single pencil stroke, she accepts the wager language is. A single | One thrill can | end a life or | open it | anew | forever (A 871v). The alarm that attends language is also arousal. The joy bursts out.
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Like Pascals famous wager, Dickinsons fragment A 809 describes an ontological situation in which there are in fact no options. Though language is a hazardthe most dangerous of goods, by Hlderlins claimit is nally the only connection we have to each other and to that which is beyond us. We must take our chances, we must hazard language. As in the Pascalian wager, moreover, in Dickinsons it is the inward space of the Heartcleft, scuttled, sunk, healedthat is the site of the risk. Found among her papers after her death, the fragment is evidence that she knew she could not both embrace the hazard language is and remain ex-cepted from it. In the end, Dickinson would wager everythingthe literally thousands of manuscripts scattered in her room, the thousands more scattered beyond itupon it. A superscription is a heading or a signature. What a Hazard a Letter is, written in pencil on a crumpled and torn scrap of paper, paradoxically serves as the only possible superscription to Dickinsons undated, unaddressed, and untitled uvre. II. We do not hear it coming Among Dickinsons fragments of the 1870s and 1880s are several that allude to the end of the world. A few, like the following fragment, look back on the end from such a great distance that the ended world looks innitesimal as tiny as the tiny scrap of paper on which Dickinson scribbled the lines: Pompeii All its occupations crystallized | Everybody gone | away (A 331). More often, however, Dickinson writes of the end of the worldthe paradiso terrestrein the present absolute:
The consciousness of | subsiding power is | too startling to be | admitted by men but | best comprehended by | the meadow over | which the Flood has | quivered, [quivered rumbled ] when the | waters return to | their kindred, and | the tillage [acre] is left | alone (A 444a). It is very still in the | world now Thronged | only with Music, like the | Decks of | Birds | and the Seasons | take their hushed | places like gures | in a Dream (A 822/A 822a).

Marta L. Werner Emily Dickinsons Futures


In these late, barely lyrical writings, the acceleration of all the trends pointing to the destruction of existing conditions ends in solitude and stillness. In the washed over landscape of these texts there are no longer any spatial or temporal reference points to orient us. It is not day or night or summer or fall or winter or spring. It is not anywhere or nowhere. It is only now. A present so dilated that it reminds us is this possible? of the conditions of eternity. Not surprisingly, these fragments alluding to the end of the world are not addressed to a person in particular and may not be to any person at all. They have no interlocutor. They take the grammatical form of hieratic statements. What speaks in them seems more like language speaking than the nearer sound of a human voice. At the end of the world, we ask, What happened? and the question brings us face to face with a paradox: it is only possible to ask, what happened? because the end of the world is never the end. In the following fragment, now called A 879, a call for vision is answered by the end of the world that is both recollected and still awaited at the texts close:
We must travel | abreast with | Nature if we | want to know | her, but where | shall be obtained | the Horse | A something | over takes the | mind we do | not hear it | coming (A 879).

As in the fragments cited above, all points of orientation, all traces of the local have been swept from the scene. From this abstract landscape, the I, too, has departed, replaced by a more anonymous witness, the we who is almost already no one. In the opening line of the fragment, Dickinson seeks the medium that will carry us through Nature at Natures own speed. The prerequisite for knowledgethe revelation of Natureis velocity. Yet just as the search is to begineven before it can beginthe we of the fragment is overtaken by a something that comes from the outside and that outpaces both language and Nature. While the literal ear never hears a sound of approach, the speculative ear has the feeling of opening in the uncanny quiet of a world lightyears from this one: And Nature is a Stranger yet (J P 1400). What happened when the world ended? In the wake of the end of the world where there is such tranquility another more disquieting doubt steals forth: Did it happen? Did anything happen? The exceptional beauty of the
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Figure 2: A 879. Last decade. Lines composed on a scissored fragment of off-white wrapping paper folded into uneven thirds and now measuring approximately 12.5 x 14.5 cm. Reproduced by permission of the publishers from The Letters of Emily Dickinson, Thomas H. Johnson, ed. Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press, Copyright 1958, 1986, The President and Fellows of Amherst College; 1914, 1924, 1932, 1942 by Martha Dickinson Bianchi; 1952 by Alfred Leete Hampson; 1960 by Mary L. Hampson; and by permission of the Amherst College Library Archives and Special Collections.

Marta L. Werner Emily Dickinsons Futures


fragment may be inseparable from its radical hesitation in the face of this question. What comes and overtakes? Come up hither and I will show thee things which must be hereafter. Come and see.Come and see.Come and see.Come and see(Revelation). To overtake means to cross a spaceto come upon something unexpectedly, suddenly, or violently (OED). The concordances to Dickinsons poems and letters that catalog her uses of the word overtakes along with its many cognates, overwhelmed, overturned, overpowered, overmastered, overowed, suggest that in the 1880s, the experience of being overtaken is most often associated with the experience of engulfmentby darkness, by the tide, by grace. Yet the something that comes and overtakes is never specically identied in A 879. It is the expectation of a name that is still missing, a pronoun that stands in for an absent noun. The fragment that neither names the something that comes nor offers a narrative of this coming reveals instead the structure of this event. The opening phraseWe must travel abreast with Nature if we want to know her, but where shall be obtained the Horse is at once enjambed with and estranged from the closing phrasea something overtakes the mind we do not hear it comingby a dash that initiates the braking action of caesura, what Hlderlin called the anti-rhythmic suspension of temporal progression, and creates the breach through which the unnamed something enters. The abrupt enjambment of the phrasal units coupled with the action of the caesura brings about a negative movement whereby the witness who seeks the divine horse on which to ride alongside Nature is suddenly carried to another world. While the opening cadence of the fragment is composed in the conditional mood, the closing cadence is cast in the present tense. The witness who seeks is overtaken in the course of the search. Here the abolition of timethe empty transport gured by the dashis alternately experienced as the loss of language and engulng parousia: In lieblicher Blaue/In lovely blue (Hlderlin 249). What comes? Come up hither and I will show thee things which must be hereafter. Come and see.Come and see. Come and see. At the end of Dickinsons work, in a fragment on the end of the world, we come
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to an austere denition of poetry. A 879so far misclassied by Dickinsons editors as a prose aphorismis in fact verse contracted to its most essential elements: caesura and enjambment. The strangeness audible in A 879, however, is not (only) the effect of its austerity but of its alliance with the outside and the yet to come. The something that comes and overtakes the mind also overtakes the measure of poetry itself. The tension between the semantic and metrical limits that initially structures the fragment at last gives way to an exact concordance of sense and sound. The nal line of the fragmentwe do not hear it comingbreaks off, opposed not with another line, but with the air of future itself. A 879 is a verse with neither more nor less but an impossible measure. The it of we do not hear it coming is also a sound we have never heard before. Enjambment degree zero. III. A Something Overtakes the Mind The impossible measure audible in poetrys enjambment with the future is also audible in the event of reading. Around the same time Dickinson inscribed the text on A 879it is not known whether before or aftershe jotted down the following lines on a jagged piece of wrapping paper:
Did you ever | read one of | her Poems back | ward, because | the plunge from | the front over | turned you? | I sometimes [often] [many times] have | A something | overtakes the | Mind (A 851).

The precise nature of the relationship between A 879 and A 851 is not known. Dickinson may have composed one as a variant of the other or they may have arisen independently and only encounteredrecognizedeach other in the collision of their nal lines. The relation between them, however, is rhythmically emphasized before this moment. The turnthe caesurathat structures A 879 is repeated in A 851 where the advent of the something that overtakes the mind breaks the fragment into two. To offset the dangers of readingthe headlong plunge into readings abyssDickinson employs the tacticsthe measuresof more prudent readers. Like the proofreader verifying his copy, or the prosodist scanning lines to locate missing feet, she tries reading from end to beginning. Perhaps it is this strategy that allows her, in A 851, to momenMarta L. Werner Emily Dickinsons Futures 295

Figure 3: A 851. Last decade. Lines composed in pencil on a fragment of a scissored brown wrapping paper now measuring 16.3 x 11.7 cm. Reproduced by permission of the publishers from The Letters of Emily Dickinson, Thomas H. Johnson, ed. Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press, Copyright 1958, 1986, The President and Fellows of Amherst College; 1914, 1924, 1932, 1942 by Martha Dickinson Bianchi; 1952 by Alfred Leete Hampson; 1960 by Mary L. Hampson; and by permission of the Amherst College Library Archives and Special Collections.



tarily recover the use of personal pronouns: the I initially addresses a youas if there were such a thing as a community of readers, as if reading might still be a shared experience.
Come and seeCome and seeCome and see

Yet even as the I addresses the you, intimately, condingly, they are about to be overtaken and partedfrom each other, from themselves. The mystical relationship with the book, writes Roger Chartier, can be understood as a trajectory in which several moments of reading succeed one another: the installation of an alterity that provides a basis for the subjective quest, the unfolding of a sense of joy, . . . and, at the end of process, cessation of reading, abandonment of the book, and absolute detachment (5). The reader who spends all her attention on the meter and measure of the poem is suddenly overtaken by the measurelessness of reading itself. Blessed is he that readeth, and they that hear the words of this prophecy, and keep those things which are written therein: for the time is at hand (Revelation). The reader who has given herself over to the poem suddenly has no place of her own but joy, no time of her own but the aporia of reading. As in A 879, the arrival of the something that overtakes the mind shifts the fragment from the past to present tense. Yet the enjambment of A 879 and A 851 complicates the temporality of both texts: Has the horse arrived before the poem is read from back to front? Has the plunge overturned the speaker only after the I has gone missing at the end of the world? Perhaps the poet in search of the divine horse to carry her through the Book of Nature is also the reader reading the Poem called the Book of Revelation. In the evacuated landscape, words stand alone and magnied. The author of the Poems to which the I refers is not named. Like the it that comes and overtakes the mind, She is the expectation of a name that is always missing, a pronoun that stands in for an absent noun. Only reading backwardsproofreadingwill reveal a proper name. The reading that overtakes the mind, by contrast, frees the [poem] from its author [and its interpreter].from all intention and
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allows it for the rst time to be what it is (Frey 264). What happened? Where are we? The experience of reading Dickinson describes in A 851disorientation, worldlessnessis also the experience of Dickinsons own readers more than a century after her death. While we work to classify and analyze her late writingsto put them in orderA something overtakes the mind
we do not hear it coming.

Works Cited Roger Chartier, The Order of Books: Readers, Authors, and Libraries in Europe between the Fourteenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Trans. Lydia G. Cochrane. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994. Hlne Cixous, Stigmata: Escaping Texts. London: Routledge, 1998. Jacques Derrida, Memoirs of the Blind: The Self-Portrait and Other Ruins. Trans. Pascale-Anne Brault and Michael Naas. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993. Emily Dickinson, The Poems of Emily Dickinson, 3 vols. Ed. Thomas H. Johnson. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1955. The Letters of Emily Dickinson, 3 vols. Ed. Thomas H. Johnson, with Theodora Ward. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1958. Hans-Jost Frey, The Last Man and the Reader, Yale French Studies 93 (1998): 252279. Studies in Poetic Discourse: Mallarm, Baudelaire, Rimbaud, Hlderlin. Trans. William Whobrey. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1996.
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Marc Froment-Meurice, Solitudes: From Rimbaud to Heidegger. Trans. Peter Walsh. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995. Friedrich Hlderlin, Hymns and Fragments by Friedrich Hlderlin. Trans. Richard Sieburth. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984. John Durham Peters, Speaking into the Air: A History of the Idea of Communication. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.

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Thomas Bein, Rdiger Nutt-Kofoth, Bodo Plachta, eds., Autor Autorisation Authentizitt. Beitrge der Internationalen Fachtagung der Arbeitsgemeinschaft fr germanistische Edition in Verbindung mit der Arbeitsgemeinschaft philosophischer Editionen und der Fachgruppe Freie Forschungsinstitute in der Gesellschaft fr Musikforschung, Aachen, 20.23. Februar 2002 (Beihefte zu editio, 21). Tbingen: Niemeyer, 2004. 378 pp. ISBN 3-484-29521-X. 108 EUR. The Arbeitsgemeinschaft fr germanistische Edition has existed now for twenty years as a forum of professional exchange among Medieval and Modern German-language scholarly edition projects. The society conducts biannual conferences, and these have not only become international gatherings, but have also developed into events arranged jointly with the German societies for philosophical and musicological editing. Each biannual conference was eventually given a focal theme. That of the meeting in Aachen in February 2002 was author authorization authenticity (Autor Autorisation Authentizitt). The societys annual, editio, and editios book series, Beihefte zu editio, have meanwhile published the conference proceedings. In actual fact, the documentation in print of the conference has been spread over two successive issues of editio (no. 16, 2002, and no. 17, 2003), and further, the Jahrbuch fr Computerphilologie no. 5, 2003, as well as, now, the 378-page Beiheft zu editio no. 21, published late in 2004. The volumes rst section bundles essays on denition and methodology. Erich Kleinschmidts re-discoursing of present-day discourses on author and authorship heads the group; his remarks, while billed on the occasion as the key-note lecture for the conference, remain general and hardly elicit much of urgent relevance for an editorial concern with the subject matter. Siegfried Scheibe takes the occasion to till the term authenticity into the eld of rigid denitions of authorisation that he has been tending for the past decades, noticably since the publication in

1971 of that watershed volume in German editorial theory, Texte und Varianten, that contained his rst contribution in the series. Its editors were Hans Zeller and Gunter Martens. Gunter Martens is rightly represented again in the present volume with survey historical reections on the conferences terminological triad author authorisation authenticity as fundamental concepts of editorial scholarship. They represent for him an orthodoxy as to terminology and method from which however he reaches out to explore their dynamic interdependence. In the course of the argument, interestingly, he gains a perspective on the authenticity of texts not only in relation to their authors and (authorised) transmission, but also in terms of the editions that mediate them. The question as to the (degree of) authenticity of a scholarly edition proves well worth posing. Rdiger Nutt-Kofoth, in his contribution on Der echte Text und sein Autor (The authentic text and its author), gives evidence of how, for the German editorial scholars of the younger generation, the legacy of their forebears in the profession may be fruitfully developed. While taking his lead from Gunter Martenss insistence, virulent too since Texte und Varianten, on the dynamics of textual processes, Nutt-Kofoth leaves behind the structuralist, and hence a-historical, implications of those initial conceptualisations and explores instead the notions of authorisation and authenticity in the historicity of their use. This leads him to considering (even though as yet tentatively) their functional interdependence, and to sketching out what he terms ein funktionaler Authentizittsbegriff (a functional notion of authenticity). The functionalities of authorisation and authenticity that Nutt-Kofoth is interested in are mapped out in terms both of text and of editing. For a reader familiar with the discussion of terminology and methods in Anglo-American editorial scholarship, his notion of functional authenticity would be called, simply: textual authority. By such re-coining, we may come to recognise that, on an Anglo-American editorial home ground, we have actually been operating much in terms of functionalities all along, even while our methodological awareness may have remained locked in terminological denitions. (That is: we said we knew what we were dening when we pronounced a text in a document of transmission to have authority, but did not at the same time necessarily take in that we were
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coining the term as a function of our perception of the transmissional materials, or of our intended strategies for editing the text in question.) The afnity between his notion of functional authenticity and the Anglo-American operative term of textual authority, if we thus correctly perceive it, does not, however, come within Rdiger Nutt-Kofoths ken. But then again, neither does Peter Shillingsburg see an opening to exploring afnities between the systems of editorial thought in the German-oriented world of editorial scholarship, on the one hand, and the Ango-American one, on the other hand; though to be fair, this is not a task he is setting himself. He entitles his contribution Authority and Authorization in American Editing. This is the only item in the volume written in English, and for this essay alone even an Englishlanguage monoglot textual scholar should nd it worthwhile to check out the book in the library. She or he will nd in Shillingsburgs reections the most lucid exposition available, perhaps, of these notions as held in Anglo-American editorial scholarship. For the German-language readers of the volume, who will mostly be sufciently capable of taking in the contribution in English, it should act as a welcome distancer to put in relief, and therefore bring to awareness, the terminology and its operative consequences, and so to test and validate even some basic assumptions of German editorial scholarship. Not unexpectedly, what Shillingsburg wants to get across adressing, as he is, a professional audience mainly beyond the pale of the Anglo-American editorial community is the pivotal notion of textual authority. This is where his conceptual argument culminates with a ve-fold categorization of how it may be determined, before winding up with some examples [to] demonstrate the results of applying the understanding of authority and authorization that the article expounds. This pragmatic conclusion does perhaps leave a few loose ends, the most intriguing of which is the unresolved juxtaposition of authority and intention. To have left it dangling, as Shillingsburg does, suggests to this reviewer that it might be enlightening to investigate just how compatible, or else perhaps radically incompatible, authority and intention as terms and concepts are with one another. What the reviewer also cant help noticing is that here are two essays,
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Nutt-Kofoths and Shillingsburgs, crying out to enter into dialogue yet the volume itself fails lamentably to correlate them. This effectively demonstrates the misery of much of todays conference activity, as well as of the passivity inherent in the run-of-the-mill publication of conference proceedings. The purpose of conferences, surely, is to bring together not just papers, but people, and to open up exchanges between them. Publishing conference papers after the event ought then, on the part of the authors, to be taken as the opportunity for integrating the dialogue gain (a task, to be fair, that is by no means always neglected). On the part of the editors of conference proceedings, a main responsibility ought to be seen in distinguishing between the conference input and output, that is: in making sure that, wherever a contribution gave rise to exchanges of opinion and thought, a papers published version does not remain identical with the paper as brought along to the conference in the rst place. With such a sense of their own function and the purpose of the publication they are signing their names to, the editors of conference proceedings would contribute to properly bringing out the advances in knowledge and insight of a meeting of scholars. Their introductions might be seen as the place to sketch out the intellectual prole of the event that the proceedings endeavour to put on permanent record; the editors of the present volume, however, have not seen, or attempted to full, such a task. In addition, and taken to proper depths of reection, the introductions to conference volumes might also draw attention to issues implied in the aggregate of presentations, perhaps, but never actualised in the conference exchanges. An interesting phenomenon implied in the present volumes bundling of methodological essays is that the medievalists who join in notably strive to make their views on medieval text materials and their transmissions compatible with the modern-period notions of author authorization authenticity. This is true for Thomas Beins intelligent schematization of the triad in terms of the medieval textual condition, as well as for Ulrich Mllers seriously playful analysis of the medieval lyrical mode from an understanding of literature under expressly post-modernist premises; and to some extent also for Martin Baischs contribution entitled Autorschaft und Intertextualitt
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(Authorship and Intertextuality), even where this in fact steers a very knowledgeable interdisciplinary and inter-period course in an argument that employs the distinctly post-medieval terminology (intertextuality, version, authorial intention, reception) heuristically to sharpen the perception of the differences that become evident when the modern terms and concepts are applied to the medieval material and conditions. Each of these contributions, too, is substantial, and one would feel stimulated to take them up and discuss them by way of questioning their very premises not with an intention to invalidate them, but to seek their help and that of their authors to truly advance our mutual understanding of the terms author authorization authenticity, as well as of the priciples and practices in textual criticism and scholarly editing that these are commonly claimed to control. Such, however, is not the thrust of the essays assembled in the present volume, and certainly not of the ones grouped in the second section, following the opening that we have here drawn attention to. The 27 essays bracketed as Autorund werkbezogene Beitrge are just that: they are, for the most part, case histories and reports on problems encountered and solved, and as such they fulll straightforward newsletter functions which, while by no means to be dismissed, cannot here be anatomized. Hans Walter Gabler

Jed Deppman, Daniel Ferrer, and Michael Groden, eds., Genetic Criticism: Texts and Avant-textes. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004. 259 pp. ISBN 0-8122-3777-3. 55 USD. This handsome volume gathers together eleven essays, none previously translated, of what is called la critique gntique (or genetic criticism) for an Anglo-American audience. As some of the most signicant pieces of genetic criticism have already been translated, few of the essays collected here could be called seminal moments in the evolution of this critical mode, although they are all strong and, when taken together, they form a representative sampling of the vitality and range of genetic criticism. In this way, this volume clearly surpasses its predecessor, Drafts, an issue
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of the Yale French Studies, which, while very good in many ways, failed to convey a sense of the overall state of genetic criticism (Michel Contat, Denis Hollier, and Jacques Neefs, eds., Drafts, Yale French Studies 89 [1996]). The volume begins with a brief introduction by Daniel Ferrer and Michael Groden that cogently denes the history and scope of genetic criticism, noting the role and importance of ITEM as a source of institutional support and a matrix for collaboration. As this volume is intended for an Anglo-American audience, the editors take some pains to distinguish genetic criticism from textual criticism. Although genetic criticism has exerted a strong inuence on literary criticism in France and Europe as a whole, it has remained somewhat misunderstood, if not marginalised, in the Anglo-American academic scene. In the U.S., genetic criticism is largely subsumed within the eld of textual studies. While their concerns are not incompatible in a broad sense, the textualists emphasis on the outcomes of editing is at least partially incompatible with the cardinal presuppositions of geneticists. Allowing for some generalisation, a textualist construes text fundamentally in terms of product (the writers product, a book, and the editors product, a critical edition); process is only important insofar as it yields product. Such an emphasis on production hardly trivialises process, but it does subordinate it. In distinction, and with some exaggeration, a geneticist is concerned primarily with process, with understanding how the writers product came to be, not necessarily with the aim of improving that product. Concomitantly, the geneticist deals with the process of how one can understand and cogently explain the dynamic of authorial processes. In a sense then, for the geneticist, process and product are mutually-engendering modes for the constitution and comprehension of a literary work. As the editors of this excellent volume write in their introduction, Rather than trying to establish texts, genetic criticism actually destabilizes the notion of text and shakes the exclusive hold of the textual model. [] there is nothing mystical in the activities of genetic criticism, which pursues an immaterial object (a process) through the concrete analysis of the material traces left by that process (11). Pierre-Marc de Biasi echoes this point in his description of a genetic edition: traditional procedures of presentation (and notably the apparatus of variants) are progressively
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being abandoned to the benet of a much more dynamic point of view that makes the logic of the avant-texte appear in its proper dimension (63). Likewise, Philippe Lejeune deploys a striking description of the task of the geneticist: bearing witness to a sort of primal scene of literature (195). Of course, this scene is necessarily plural, as the variety of approaches taken in this volume testies. Each of the collections essays offers an example of a specic topic of genetic investigation and when taken together the book provides an excellent overview of the range and methods of genetic criticism. The essays are all accompanied by brief and informative introductions and bibliographies. Overall, the editors have done a superb job of selecting, translating, and contextualising these essays. Inevitably, such a collection has to begin with an essay by Louis Hay. With a wealth of works to choose from, some already translated, the editors selected wisely by including Genetic Criticism: Origins and Perspectives. In this essay, Hay underlines the key presupposition for genetic criticism, a temporal unfolding a historical dimension of the text itself (21). For the geneticist, the text is thick with (the history of) its own textuality. To illustrate this, Hay performs a kind of genetic criticism on the history of genetic criticism by demarcating the evolving dynamics that have marked his eld. He ends his essay by discussing how genetic criticism is open to a plurality of critical approaches, a claim which is more than fullled by the other essays in this book. Next comes a seminal essay by Jean Bellemin-Nol that propounds a psychoanalytic frame for the reading of avant-textes (a term which he coined). Taken supercially, such a claim seems wrong, even silly, yet Bellemin-Nol makes an interesting and plausible argument. The avanttextes function as the other to the text and psychoanalysis, especially in its Freudian formulation, is nothing if not a forum for explicating the unsconscious rootedness in alterity. Thus, Bellemin-Nol denes psychoanalytic genetic criticism as locating those failures or distortions of discourse (gaps, forgettings, supplements, etc.) that reveal the pressure of an unconscious desire (33). His essay also introduces something that becomes a leitmotif for this book, the idea that genetic criticism, in investigating preliminary congurations of textuality, is an investigation
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into the actualisation of a text out of its (multiple, latent) gestational possibilities. This raises the interesting suggestion that psychoanalysis is, likewise, a study of the selves that might have been. Pierre-Marc de Biasis essay picks up some threads from Hay and Bellemin-Nol. He describes how genetic criticism emerged from structuralism which emphasised the closed, synchronic comportment of a textual system by opening up the exteriority of a diachronic unfolding (41). He thus brings together the idea of textual temporality, stressed by Hay, and the idea of textual possibilities, stressed by Bellemin-Nol. The bulk of his essay, originally written for the Encyclopaedia Universalis Symposium 1989, enumerates the practical difculties geneticists confront (such as deciphering nigh-illegible documents, classifying and codifying complex sequences of manuscripts, and so on). By denition, the geneticists work begins with documents and these need to be codied before they can be studied, but of course the distinction between these two activities can often be, as de Biasi points out, far from absolute. Because some of Hay and Bellemin-Nols key essays have already been translated, de Biasis essay in this volume is perhaps the single most important contribution in that it presents the strongest and most nuanced case for genetic criticism in general, as well as being a practical guide to how to actually go about it. The remainder of the essays in this volume are devoted to specic case-studies and deploy a variety of approaches, either with explicit or implicit nods towards the criteria articulated by de Biasi. Raymonde Debray Genette proffers a reading of the non-actualised possibilities inscribed within the avant-texte for Flauberts Un Cur simple. She concludes that the indeterminacy experienced by the reader of the nal text echoes the uncertainties that bedevilled Flaubert as he was writing this story, which can be teased out through examination of the manuscript dossier (93). Flauberts authorial irony is thus the result of an evolving and at times uncertain compositional strategy. In this way, her essay conrms a point Hay made in his essay: studies of the production of a text and its reception are complementary rather than concurrent approaches (22). Genetic criticism, whatever else it is and may be, is thus



a practice of reading, a reading of and with the temporality of textualisation (and all the concomitant ambiguities that this entails). Jacques Neefs provides a tantalising example of comparative genetics. Neefs compares the attitudes of Chateaubriand, Montaigne, and Stendhal towards the transmission of their respective texts. Chateaubriands insistence upon a painstakingly faithful (and legally certiable authentic) text coupled with his proigate tendency to revise led to precisely the situation he had hoped to avoid, an indenite text. Montaigne serves as a counter-example in that his text advertises the revisions made over time, thereby remarking its temporal composition and evolution. Neefs concludes that Montaignes text is constituted by time whereas Chateaubriands is undermined by time. With Stendhal, both these aspects converge. From this wide-ranging and erudite exercise in genetic specics, Neefs draws some astute questions concerning temporality in general, that time is (also) an author, thereby directly engaging with the presuppositions most basic to genetic criticism. Henri Mitterands essay follows from tendencies similar to Neefs but in an entirely different direction, cultural genetics. Mitterand begins from the proposition that the language one uses is always already inected by external forces over which one has little or no control (such as semantics). Therefore, an evolving text will, in some manner, register traces of these forces. In this way, an evolving text does not merely reect an evolving artistic dynamic but rather, also, it can show an engagement with (and/or against) its sociocultural space. While in the form of a general proposition Mitterands thesis is provocative, his discussion would benet from the kind of comparative study Neefs engages in because it seems that Zola, the author Mitterand uses, is too convenient an example. The next essay, a genial collaboration by Daniel Ferrer and JeanMichel Rabat, is a masterful dissection of the notion of the paragraph as an organisational unit both in general and in relation to Joyces compositional practices. In examining the revisions to Ulysses, they conclude that the different ways in which Joyce modied paragraphs correspond to his evolving linguistic experimentations. In turn, the kind of expansionist deviations Joyce twists his paragraphs into echoes the ambition
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of modernism [which] is to extend the very process of potentially limitless expansion that avant-textes display into the printed text. Finnegans Wake goes very far in this direction (149). In a sense, this essay itself parallels this kind of motion: by starting with a very specic and (supposedly) delimited topic, the paragraph, Ferrer and Rabat move to a very provocative, expansive, and general conclusion, which could continue even further on. Further on, the context of Almuth Grsillons paper provides an interesting moral. Needing an interesting example of a French avant-texte to show some students (at the time she was specialising in Heine), she turned to a colleague, Bernard Brun, for advice. He suggested a page from the dossier of Prousts Recherche, and Grsillons own rechercheinto this dossier yielded some interesting results. Thus, this paper illustrates the benets of a collaborative arrangement for geneticists, as can be found with ITEM. Genetic criticism works best when it is not hermetic. Through a patient analysis, Grsillon examines the evolution of Prousts deployment of temporal structure in the Recherchethrough the words encoreand dj. The temporality of Prousts work is thus itself a function of the time of its composition. With its focus on temporality and its chaotic skein of manuscripts, Prousts Rechercheseems ideal for genetic study. Proust is also the subject of the next essay, Catherine Viollets study of Prousts early stories Avant la nuit and La Confession dune jeune lle. Both stories have some thematic similarities and other congruities although they do also diverge in many places. Viollet reads these divergences in terms of Prousts strategies of encoding biographical references to his homosexuality into his texts. In the drafts of La Confession, Proust even varies the grammatical gender of his female protagonist. Proust, in effect, transformed his biography into literary ction and his drafts bear witness to the ambiguations he created over time. The next essay, by Philippe Lejeune, directly follows from Viollets discussion of the autobiographical resonances of genetic investigation. If genetic criticism is, in a sense, a biography of a text (bios-graph, the writing of a life), then how would a genetic critic deal with the genre of autobiography. Lejeune does not merely confront this question and its corollaries analytically, his essay is itself partially autobiographic in that
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it recounts the story of how and why he deals with these issues. While he discusses a range of authors (such as Sartre, Sarraute, and Perec) and also discusses the diary mode, many of the questions he deals with are pertinent to genetic studies in general. Lejeune makes a strong case for the passion of the literary critic: in order to fully convey the sense of what is uncovered by genetic research, the critic should not merely dryly explicate their philological excavations but also relate their sense of wonder and adventure (203). There is a sense of intimacy afforded by manuscript study that is distinct from whatever other intimacies a reader may enjoy with a writer, the sense of surprising the writer in the tinkers workshop (202). Genetic criticism has been an active eld in France for over thirty years and as Hay remarked in his essay in this volume, it has hardly remained static. While the essays in this volume tilt somewhat to the earlier years (which is appropriate for an introductory volume of this kind), more recent work has involved electronic media such as hypertext. The nal essay in the volume, by Jean-Louis Lebrave, discusses the implications of hypertextuality for genetic studies. Obviously the nonhierarchical modes offered by hypertext complement genetic theory and can be used, either metaphorically or as a means of representation, when dealing with a manuscript dossier. Lebrave uses two examples: Pascal, whose Penses are incomplete and indenite, and Stendhal. Returning to aspects of Stendhal discussed by Neefs, but in a different vector, Lebrave examines Stendhals marginalia as an adjunctive rewriting that functions as a kind of paper hypertext (232). Lebrave concludes that hypertext, which actualizes tendencies latent with many writers such as Stendhal, the act of reading, insofar as it pursues links at its own initiative, becomes a complement to the process of writing as it is represented genetically. Hypertext is thus an electronic or virtual literalisation of the possibilities of genetic criticism, of the possibilities revealed by genetic investigation. In his essay, Louis Hay cites Julien Greens description of the search for open forms as the novel that could have been (22). In opening up a text to its history of textualisation, genetic criticism is a study of potential literatures. Philippe Lejeune makes the point that auto-genetic attiReviews 311

tudes, such as those of Georges Perec and other writers associated with or inuenced by OULIPO, generally legitimizes genetic study at the same time as it pulls the rug out from underfoot (199). And for works that were not coordinated in advance by some pre-determining formula, genetic criticism can reveal a kind of Borgesian Garden of Forking Paths as possibilities not taken but, nonetheless, latent. Although a genetic investigation must begin with a proper philological reckoning of the disposition of the documents in a genetic dossier, as de Biasi explains, the work of genetic criticism, the work of the genetic critic, can take many paths, as is evinced by the essays in this collection. Genetic criticism is a genre with many modes. Sam Slote

Domenico Fiormonte, Scrittura e lologia nellera digitale. Torino: Bollati Boringhieri, 2003. 344 pp. ISBN 88-339-5713-6. 23 EUR. This book is a meeting point of diverse branches of knowledge, of various theoretical positions and of different texts in many languages. Fiormonte himself identies in his introduction the meeting of literature and information technology on the one hand and the contribution of communication studies and cognitive science to the study of writing as most crucial, but the books scope is much wider. It contains references to and insights from a great number of authorities, from Greek philosophers to German and Spanish writers. Although this study is written by an Italian scholar and though its rst frame of reference is Italian lologia, with its often very productive mixture of writer-theoreticians such as Umberto Eco and Maria Corti, Fiormonte makes use of advances in many elds of inquiry and in many different national contexts. His bibliography is impressive, almost fty pages long, with entries in ve different languages (of which the German seems to be the authors weakest). Refreshingly, Fiormonte often refers to poets and novelists and he takes what they have to say about literature and about the practice of writing quite as seriously as the contributions of cognitive scientists or other specialists. Only occasionally do these literary references give the
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impression of only being inserted to impress the readers rather than to inform them: there is a reference to a chapter in Ulysses that squarely belongs in that category and that should have been replaced, if at all, by a reference to Homer. The rst chapter discusses the link between writing and technology that in modern times has been explored by the so-called Toronto School of Harold Innis, Marshall McLuhan and Eric Havelock and has resulted in the Great Divide Theory about the major breaks in civilisation that are marked by major steps in the development of communication technologies (oral/written, invention of printing, television, etc). But Fiormonte also includes Andr Leroi-Gourhan and Roy Harris in the discussion and he broadens the discussion to include the question of technological determinism which surfaced in the work of Lewis Mumford and earlier in Oswald Spenglers essays. As the common source of these developments Fiormonte identies Hegels discussion of alphabetical writing in his Encyclopedia. Later theoreticians of these communicative technologies not all of them technological determinists are, next to the mostly Catholic writers of the Toronto School, Walter Benjamin and other Marxist theoreticians, a juxtaposition that surely needs more study. Most of these theoreticians base themselves like Hegel on the central role in this story of the alphabet, but Fiormonte also gives the ndings of recent specialists that seriously question this basic idea. In the discussion of the rst communicative revolution, the invention of written language, the theoreticians seem to have been misled by their study of writers such as Poe and Valry. The second great revolution, made famous by McLuhans bestselling The Gutenberg Galaxy, was the invention of the printing press, which led to the religious, political and economic revolutions that produced the modern world. The question is then: are we now living through a third revolution? The second chapter gives a history of electronic writing including the views of both the cyberprophets and that of the sceptics such as Kurt Vonnegut and Eugenio Montale, typically those of theoreticians and practitioners. Throughout this history, Fiormonte does not fail to point to those aspects of literary history that can be construed
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as prophetic of what hypertext is supposed to become, although a healthy scepticism keeps him from becoming too enthusiastic in the recuperation of literary history. The third chapter looks more in detail at the development of online writing and the web usability it is supposed to engender. He gives examples of the particularities of this new kind of writing and especially focuses on those aspects that differ from the kind of communication that characterised oral, written and printed communication. The conclusion of this section is that the discussion about the communicative revolutions boils down to the difference between those who see language as an innate and thus to a large extent neutral phenomenon and those who believe that human language for its very existence depends on the social conditions of its creation and development: Chomsky on one side and Stephen Jay Gould on the other. Here Fiormonte moves a bit too quickly and a careful reading of Steven Pinker might have convinced him that this presentation of the two sides in this particular debate is not quite fair. The rest of the book builds on the historical discussion of the rst half. First, Fiormonte sets out to carefully dene what a digital document really is and in what ways it differs from documents in the age of writing or printing. To my taste he gives a bit too much credit to the idealistically communal aspect of the internet, even defending hackers as the only people to take seriously the webs potential. Surely there are also hackers who have less idealistic motives and whose only ambition is to harm and destroy. In the fth chapter Filologia o postlologia the author moves closer to his goal, the exposition of his own contribution to this development, the digital environment of literary works which adds to the considerable advantages of electronic representation those of a theoretical sophistication with important implications for theories of writing and of communication in general. This is the place where the different strands of his argument and, without much ado, the different theoretical backgrounds (including the different theories of editing) meet. At the end of the seventh chapter we have a last discussion of where these steps towards a post-textuality may take us and the book closes with an especially useful set of appendices that offer a brief discussion of a number of forms
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of software instruments for textual criticism and for the analysis of texts and of a number of existing electronic editions. Domenico Fiormontes carefully structured and well-argued study of writing and literary study in the digital era is written from a background that is decidedly pan-European and international in concept and execution. It deserves a wider international audience. Geert Lernout

Louis Hay, La Littrature des crivains: questions de critique gntique. Paris: Jos Corti, 2002. 431 pp. ISBN 2-7143-0770-1. 25 EUR. Many readers of Variants will recognize the name of Louis Hay, for he has been an active force in genetic criticism and theory since the movements inception in the late 1960s. Founder of the inuential Institut des Textes et Manuscrits Modernes (ITEM) in Paris and a long-time spokesman for genetic studies, he has written scores of inuential essays, edited many volumes, and generally served as a thoughtful, erudite, and enthusiastic expositor. La Littrature des crivains: questions de critique gntique conrms his reputation: it is a wide-ranging and lucid discussion of the disciplines basic questions. While this book elucidates far too many genetic problems to name exhaustively, even a few will indicate why it is 25-euro reading material: What is genetic criticism, exactly, if not philology dressed up as a new science? Where did it come from, when, and why? What are its theoretical foundations, and what do they owe to la nouvelle critique, structuralism, post-structuralism, or other disciplines and theories? Can one really capture or model the temporal dimensions of literary creation and its physical, emotional, mental, social, and other sources? What vocabulary could hope to describe a writers alchemical algebra of inspiration, calculation, organization, chance, and spontaneity? Can one compare literary, musical, scientic, artistic and other kinds of creativity? What are the past results and future ambitions of genetic criticism? Is it expanding, contracting, or evolving? How? Honestly, what was and is the point of it? Do we not have enough of a job reading nished
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works? What makes it worth tracking down and studying manuscripts and other avant-textes? If we do nd and read them, then what are the best interpretive protocols? Do you read manuscripts differently from nal texts? How do you read them together? Those who are new to that last question about how to read avanttextes will love Le Manuscrit pluriel (111-148). Hay begins by noting how droutant it is to realize que nous ne savons toujours pas comment on crit and then shows how the external and material aspects that place a given writing inside a culture and history can be combined with attention to its internal workings to produce an archologie du mouvement (116; 115). Readers of all kinds will immediately start thinking of new projects for their own favorite authors. (Hays own reading list is eclectic and extensive but generally German and French: Goethe, Christa Wolf, the German Romantics, Mallarm, Zola, Valry, Aragon, Ponge, and many others.) In fact, this may actually be one of those rare books that look and smell utterly academic but are nonetheless satisfying to non-specialists. One can open it anywhere and nd an intriguing discussion; one can ip through and peruse the more than fty illustrations, fascinating glimpses into the creative process of some author or another. This perusability is related to the structure of the book, which is not immediately obvious. At rst blush, Hay appears to have compiled his greatest hits and given us a chronological volume of collected essays like those periodically released by other prominent and productive critics. Most of the pieces were in fact originally intended for journals, edited volumes, newspapers, public addresses, or other occasions. And most were written between 1967 and 2000, when genetic criticism ourished into a major academic industry in France. But this book is not exactly an essay collection, and those who are familiar with Hays work will nd signicant differences and new attempts at synthesis. However, it is not quite the other kind of book it resembles, either, i.e. a thesis-driven, up-to-date statement of the authors latest thinking on the contours of a eld that he helped found and foster. In fact it is a heterogeneous, both-and-neither blend of those two things. It is a defense, illustration, and interrogation of genetic criticism based entirely on Hays writings, with his current self, in italicized segments, as cicerone.
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Early on, Hay establishes let us hope permanently that of the four criteria we traditionally use to dene text (auteur, oeuvre, lecteur, socialit) none can be assigned an absolute value (51-2). In fact (and this statement reveals something of the impact of poststructuralism on genetic theory), aucun des critres de textualit noffre par lui-mme de certitude rectiligne et constante, et celle-ci ne peut davantage tre acquise en les runissant tous: lhistoire du texte, sa cohrence interne, la lecture, le dessein de lauteur ne font pas systme (53). Ultimately, these four criteria savrent opratoires pour peu que nous les traitons en paramtres dun champ variable o viennent sinscrire des ralisations toujours diverses de lacte dcrire (53-4). Hay thus encourages us to see writing as an innitely complex process that is not at all closed off by the printed or nal text. To make the point, he chooses examples that are compelling and easy to understand, e.g. the case of Aragons famous poem Libert in which the titular word was apparently discovered only at the end of a long process of writing. Can the original force of those many stanzas, composed at rst under the sway of a girlfriends name, really be erased at the last moment by an abstract, quasi-patriotic noun? No, says Hay, and concludes that it is very rare indeed that a nal text can annihilate, render irrelevant, or even subordinate the writing that preceded it. The book has certain infelicities that are natural consequences of Hays project. Different chapters repeat arguments or open with similar theoretical or historical gestures, e.g. the goal of treating a texts third dimension, time. The essays have clearly not all been melted into one synthesis. Many also refer to constraints of time and space that presumably no longer exist in a volume of over 400 pages: jaimerais pouvoir discuter ici certains exemples we read on page 406, but faute de temps, the author cannot allow himself. That was true for the original public presentation, but not for this book, which anyway does contain many examples. For many readers, however, those infelicities may prove to be a benet. Not only is this book perusable, but its constant return to the deepest problems, brought about by the compressed style necessary for occasional writing, will counter any remaining charges against genetic critReviews 317

icism that it is all micro-techno-busy work with no theoretical engagement. On the contrary, Hay has a most engaging and direct way of stating theoretical issues: il sagit de comprendre une oeuvre par son devenir et non par son seul aboutissement (118); if une critique veut embrasser gense et lecture la fois, elle doit souvrir une nouvelle ralit des phnomnes esthtiques, historiques ou sociaux (407). Disarmingly clear, open-ended, yet grounded in visible traces, genetic criticism still has much in store. Many more passages could be cited, but one last will serve to illustrate both the volumes own incredible genetic complexity and Hays amazingly blithe control over the theoretical and methodological issues involved in writing. It deals with a natural question for readers of this book: how exactly did this eminent geneticist treat all those essays he had written over the years? How did he combine them in the pages of a single book? Well, says Hay, those texts have been suivies, loccasion, rcrites, la plupart du temps, fondues parfois ensemble en une synthse et completes par quelques textes dactualit (413). What an appropriate celebration of the vagaries of textual transmission and transformation! Genetic analysis, anyone? Jed Deppman

Alexandra Braun-Rau, William Shakespeares King Lear in seinen Fassungen. Ein elektronisch-dialogisches Editionsmodell (Beihefte zu Editio 20). Tbingen: Niemeyer, 2004. xii + 173 pp. ISBN 3-484-29520-1. 52 EUR. No more. The text is foolish, a laconic Gonoril states in Shakespeares King Lear. But which text exactly, critics may ask: The First Quarto of 1608, or the Folio version of 1623? The issue is not easily settled. Even four centuries after King Lear was written, textual critics still discuss errors and variants in the different versions of the play. A list of Lear editions lls three pages. To make matters even more complex, scholarly debate is no longer conned to typesetters errors and misreadings. New Historicists have highlighted the possible political background of textual changes. Not to forget the fact that theatrical performance, too, may
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have inuenced the text. The intricacies of the plays textual history are likely to discourage young scholars, or to fascinate them. Luckily, Alexandra Braun-Rau has accepted the challenge. Her concise study, originally a German PhD thesis, develops a new editorial approach to the play and includes a preliminary prototype of a future electronic edition of King Lear. While the rst sections of her book recount the editorial history of the play, the major part contains methodological and practical reections on the editing of versions. The nal chapters describe the electronic prototype in detail. In the core section of her book, Braun-Rau analyzes several theories of editing and focuses particularly on concepts of authorial intention, variants, and textual errors. Her analysis rests on the basic assumption that King Lear requires a critical edition of versions (61). What BraunRau attempts in this section is a profound criticism of existing editorial models. This is not simply one Shakespeare editor counting the aws in other editors products. Braun-Raus objections extend to a more fundamental level. She argues against traditional, teleological concepts of work and authorial intention, and criticises Bowerss static concept of text for construing literary works as nal products of authorial creation. Braun-Rau nds traces of the same concept in more recent approaches, e.g. Shillingsburgs, who aims at the reconstruction of a historically non-existent, ideal authorial text (56). Braun-Rau accuses that concept of unhistorical idealism. While that criticism itself is not new, one is grateful to Braun-Rau for not basing it on well-worn clichs of French postmodernist provenance. Her point is rather one of historical accuracy. According to Braun-Rau, many editors tend to constitute texts that are without any actual foundation in historical reality, simply because Anglo-American editing lacks the systematic, historically oriented model (61) that Braun-Rau considers necessary for a Lear edition. Braun-Raus discussion of recent tendencies in German editing is more favorable. In fact, she borrows central paradigms and assumptions from German editorial theory and applies them to King Lear, e.g. a concept of version that is not based on authorial intention, but on documents, because deciencies in transmission (i.e. loss of authorial manuscripts) undermine the relevance of the actual author. Error is
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dened by Braun-Rau as a lack of meaning in a given textual context. As Braun-Rau argues, this semantic denition helps to avoid subjective editorial decisions that would privilege certain readings. Braun-Raus own ideal is a discursive reading text that should show different editorial options, retain textual ambiguities, and allow users to evaluate and change the editors decisions in an act of active participation in the constitution of the versional text (112). Thus, text becomes a multi-dimensional network based on interaction between reader and editor. As Braun-Rau points out, her concept of the discursive reading text cannot be realized in print, but requires an electronic interface in order to achieve a high level of interactivity. She has therefore developed a prototype of an electronic Lear edition. Its basic idea is to combine a rich set of options with a user-friendly, intuitive interface. In her edition, Braun-Rau wants to include the available Lear texts (in old and modern spelling), facsimiles, transcriptions, commentaries, lists of corrections and variants, essays, excerpts from dictionaries, historical sources, and video scenes from performances. This is certainly an impressive list of features, and numerous scholars would like to have them available at one mouse-click. But the more complex an electronic edition, the more important a convenient interface to access it. Fortunately, Braun-Rau has made the HTML-encoded prototype available for testing on the internet (, including a sample part of the rst act of the play. The primary interface of the prototype displays three permanent frames for the parallel visualization of different elements of the edition. Each frame offers several options from the above list, depending on what the user wants to view, e.g. the old spelling Quarto version, a facsimile of the 1623 Folio, or the edited text. Interaction between frames is very convenient. If you click on a hyperlinked word or phrase in the edited text in the main frame, the commentary option in the second frame will automatically display the commentary on your selected passage. Then you can use the facsimile option in the third frame to display the facsimile image of the same passage. In addition, a temporary pop-up window with a textual apparatus appears after selecting a hyperlink in the text. In some cases, you can open a third window with a textual or
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linguistic discussion of a certain variant. For some examples, Braun-Rau has activated an interactive replace function, which allows you to select your favourite variant from a drop-down menu. Image maps are a particularly interesting feature. This means the transformation of specied areas of an image into hyperlinks. BraunRaus prototype makes extensive use of this feature. If you select one of the facsimiles as your primary text, you can click on certain words in the image in order to see more information. It is also possible to compare facsimiles directly, i.e. to click on a line or word on a facsimile page and get a window with the same line or word in another facsimile. Despite the undeniable qualities of the electronic version, tests revealed some aws. The parallel scrolling between frames is not fully automatic you have to click on hyperlinked passages, as described above, to make the interface jump to the same passage in another frame. Several parts of the edition are still under construction, e.g. the modern spelling versions and the transcriptions, which makes any nal statement about the prototype difcult. One could also criticize the non-dynamic lists of variants, which are not really different from similar lists in printed editions. Furthermore, Braun-Rau has not included line numbers in the edited text, only in the facsimiles, which is slightly inconvenient. In our test conguration of Internet Explorer, some pop-up windows were much too small and not resizable. Apart from that, the prototype works well with different internet browsers. The greatest asset of Braun-Raus editorial prototype is its exibility, which fully acknowledges the broad scope of possible approaches to the play (literary, linguistic, dramatic). Although Braun-Raus prototype cannot yet fully compete with The Cambridge King Lear CD-ROM (2000), it has serious potential and a more than solid conceptual framework to offer. Its interactive integration of the reader is exemplary. For the time being, it is mainly the resolute methodological part of Braun-Raus study, with its rigid application of German editorial theory to Shakespeare philology, which makes the book an innovative addition to the body of Lear scholarship. Mike W. Malm
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Barbara Bordalejo, ed., Caxtons Canterbury Tales: The British Library Copies. Leicester: Scholarly Digital Editions, 2003. CD-ROM, Institutional licence ISBN 1-9046280-3-6. 50 GBP/85 USD; Individual licence ISBN 1-9046280-2-8. 23.50 GBP; 35 USD. Peter Robinson, ed., The Millers Tale on CD-ROM. Leicester: Scholarly Digital Editions, 2004. CD-ROM, Institutional licence ISBN 19539610-8-7. 120 GBP; 180 USD. Individual licence ISBN 1-95396102-8. 50 GBP; 75 USD. Scholarly Digital Editions is well known as an off-shoot of the Canterbury Tales Project, and its two most recent publications continue the tradition of well-researched, complex, critical editions of Chaucers work intended for scholarly research. The Caxtons Canterbury Tales: The British Library Copies CD-ROM, edited by Barbara Bordalejo, provides colour facsimiles of William Caxtons rst and second editions of Geoffrey Chaucers Canterbury Tales. In specic, this uses the Royal copy of the rst edition (167.c.26, IB. 55009) and the Grenville copy of the second edition (G.11586, IB. 55094). This is the rst electronic publication of the full text of Caxtons editions as well as the rst full-colour facsimiles. The enormity of their publication in this manner cannot be underestimated. The rst edition of Caxtons printing of the Canterbury Tales is thought to be the very rst book printed in England (c. 1476), and as such not only holds a special place in English literature, but also the history of printing generally. The second edition is important in the textual history of the Canterbury Tales because it uses readings from a manuscript that does not survive, but whose text is thought to be as faithful a copy as any which does. This electronic edition gives scholars the ability to see images of the original printing side-by-side with an extremely accurate transcript of the text. This view is likely to be that favoured by those simply reading the text who need assistance in reading the original or want to see it for aesthetic reasons. It is straightforward to switch between the text/image view for each of the two editions, or to have images from both witnesses beside each other. While some scholars may attempt to use the text/image to check the original printing against the transcribed text,
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most will nd the collation view more helpful for textual research. This places the two transcribed texts in parallel and marks with red font where the texts differ. Although one can switch and choose which of the texts is the base witness for this collation, with only two texts and both simultaneously displayed, this switching may be less useful than in similar publications with a greater number of witnesses. And yet, the ability to perform such collations highlights the benets of this CD-ROM as a comparative tool. Although this edition is limited by containing only the two Caxton witnesses, this is in reality one of its strengths. It presents these in full in a manner that allows the investigation of the relationship between Caxtons editions, and hence the editorial practices of Englands rst printer. The CD-ROM contains a number of helpful articles, including an introduction to the digital edition by the editor, an introduction to the Caxton editions by the British Library, as well as very detailed overall notes concerning the collation, the practices of the compositors, and the textual history of the editions. The long awaited digital edition of The Millers Tale on CD-ROM provides a facsimile publication of all fty-eight pre-1500 manuscripts and printed editions of Geoffrey Chaucers Millers Tale. It also contains full and complete transcripts of all the witnesses which have been given the same careful treatment as in all other Canterbury Tales Project publications. As in the Caxtons Canterbury Tales CD-ROM above, this provides views of Text/Image, which in this case allows display of any of the ftyeight different witnesses in parallel with that folios transcribed text. The text-only view, enables the second frame to be used for providing the textual variants in all the other manuscripts of any word clicked on. From here, a new variant map displays a graphic representation of the relationship of that word in the context of the readings of the other manuscripts. In addition, in this frame and the text frame of the Text/Image view, an option to show popups is also available. This causes javascript popups to appear containing the total frequencies for each variant spelling of whatever word the mouse is currently hovering above. While this is a quick way to gauge the frequency of that particular form, many scholars may nd it distracting, preferring the more detailed information available by clicking on any individual word they are interested in.
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The compare view allows the side by side collation of any two of the witnesses. It is strange that the features available for displaying popups of frequency information, or clicking on a particular word for a list of all the textual variants are not also exploited here as this would allow one to easily determine which of two witnesses was using the more common form of a word. The next two views provide either a word-by-word or line-by-line collation for any individual line from the currently selected manuscript against all the other witnesses. In addition to a particular manuscript, one can also view the collations of thirteen predetermined collation groups, or select a subset of manuscripts in order to attempt to nd new phylogenetic manuscript groups. The Millers Tale on CD-ROM provides a full and complete description for each manuscript. This includes separate sections for name and location, contents, binding, materials, page size, format, watermarks, collation, hands, progress of copying, illumination, tale order, date, provenance, bibliography and notes. In addition, for the Caxton, the Pynson and the Wynkyn de Worde incunabula, information concerning the location, page size, binding, collation and provenance is provided separately for each of the extant individual copies. There is also a useful all-witness spelling database for every word, but it does seem strange that there is not a link from the textual variants frame (in the text view) directly to the entry for that word. The secondary articles on the CD-ROM are preceded by an Editors Introduction which explains the length of time from the completion of the majority of the transcriptions (mostly by Elizabeth Solopova and Lorna Stevenson) in 1998 to its eventual publication. Some further technical details are provided in The Making of this CD-ROM, but this could benet from even further expansion. A rationale for the collation system explains the history and justication for the implementation of the parallel segmentation collation system. Other articles include those on witness relations and groups, details of a number of scribes, and the transcription guidelines. There is also a Stemmatic Commentary that analyses the variants at 134 points, understandably concentrating especially on the Ellesmere and Hengwrt manuscripts. Both of these editions have a number of technical aspects worthy of comment. As of June 2004, the Anastasia software, which was used
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to create these publications, has been made open-source and is available for free from under the GNU General Public License. Although Anastasia publishes XML (and SGML), its strength lies in allowing the extraction of portions of a document from any arbitrary element to another. This differs from most XML publishing frameworks in that they usually require published selections to be well-formed XML. And while this helps to make Anastasia an extremely powerful publishing system, it is also hoped that the creators will continue to improve the software now that it is freely available. While Caxtons Canterbury Tales allows viewing of the XML markup for an individual page from the text view, this is unfortunately not available for The Millers Tale edition. Although it is understandable that both the project and publisher want to protect their intellectual investment, it is a shame that the entire XML of either edition is not easily available for users to query or transform with other tools for personal research. The greatest limitation of these publications is inherent to the media of publication. The images for the Caxtons Canterbury Tales edition were created by the HUMI project of Keio University, Japan. The images provided are sufcient to zoom in and read individual words clearly. However, the resolution of the images was necessarily reduced through their conversion to JPEG format for display purposes and to t on the CD-ROM. Many of the images from a variety of sources for the The Millers Tale are of much lower quality and suffer by comparison. Partly, this is a result of the limitations of space imposed by CD-ROM publication. However, this will become less of an issue in the future as Scholarly Digital Editions intends to offer licences for access over the internet in the near future. The CD-ROMs are both very useful for well-trained Chaucerian scholars, but may be overly complex for those not already quite familiar with the manuscript tradition of the Canterbury Tales. If the publishers do continue with their plan to offer online access, then they could attract additional interest by making related resources available that would appeal to less scholarly markets. For example, allowing users to select what material is displayed in the popups. This means that if the editions were being used as undergraduate teaching materials, the text could be linked
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to a structured glossary. The CD-ROMs are both reasonably priced and will serve as extremely useful academic reference works well into the future. James Cummings

The Latin Chronicle of the Kings of Castile. Translated with an Introduction and Notes by Joseph F. OCallaghan. Tempe, Arizona: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2002. xlii + 150 pages. ISBN 88698-278-7. 24 USD. Dr. OCallaghans translation of the Latin Chronicle of the Kings of Castile (henceforth LC) is the rst into English of this important document (it has been twice translated into Spanish, as we shall see). This volume, to be sure, does not include the Latin, but in his notes OCallaghan refers frequently to the difcult original text, most often to propose some readings of his own. OCallaghan is, of course, a very distinguished historian of medieval Spain, and the apparatus with which he surrounds his translation, a valuable introduction and generous notes, mainly historical, as well as maps and genealogies, represent the work of a major scholar and Hispanist. There is, in fact, a respectable literature about the LC and OCallaghans work is an important new voice in this dialogue. The LC is known to us from a single source, a manuscript from the late fteenth century, a two-volume collection of historial texts, copied within the circle of Lorenzo Galndez Carvajal, a counsellor to the Catholic Monarchs and an historian. These texts are now in the collection of the Real Academia de la Historia; the volume containing LC is numbered 9/450, formerly G-1. Internal evidence makes it clear that the history itself was composed in the early 1200s. The Galndez manuscript was itself copied once in the late eighteenth century, by an Aragonese scholar, Manuel Abella; this version was never published. The text is in the British Lirary, Egerton 1125 (OCallaghan, xxvi-xxvii). Our chronicle has been edited several times since 1900; we shall review some of these versions presently.
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The Latin Chronicle begins with a rapid introductory narrative conveying the story of Castile from the times of Fernn Gonzlez, her rst Count, down through the reign of the Emperor, so called, Alfonso VII, to the death of Sancho III. These pages are followed by a much more detailed account of the long and eventful reign of Alfonso VIII, this, in turn, by an equally full narration of the reigns of the boy King Enrique I, king for only three years, and of his nephew, Fernando III, King rst of Castile and then of both Castile and Len. It is important to note that the LC is itself a valuable witness to the large and small happenings of those three reigns. The times of Alfonso and Fernando were, needless to say, extraordinary ones. Our history tells us of, among other things, the invasion of the Almohads into Christian territory, the humiliation of the Christian forces, and their spectacular recovery, capped by the great victory at the Navas de Tolosa and later by the capture of Cordoba. The conquest of Seville lies outside the time span of the chronicle. OCallaghan tells us that the LC is one of the three great narrative sources for the history of Castile for the later twelfth and early thirteenth centuries (OCallaghan, xix). The other two are Lucas of Tuys Chronicon mundi and Rodrigo Jimnez de Radas De rebus Hispaniae. These three works indeed offer a full account of events in the period in question; all three conclude with the conquest of Crdoba. Taken separately these three texts, the LC, the De rebus and the Chronicon are very different entities. The LC, complications aside, is a plain history of Castile. Lucas work, as its title suggests, is a universal chronicle; it becomes a history of Spain only in its later books. Rodrigos history is oddest of all; its alternate title is Historia Gothica, and in its texts the account of Spanish affairs, properly speaking, is grafted onto a history of the Goths indifferently, those that ruled in Spain and those who thrived elsewhere. Rodrigo writes in the conviction, shared by many, that the kings of the Reconquest and their successors were in the literal sense in the line of the Visigoths; thus Alfonso the Noble and Fernando III were every bit as Gothic as Recared or Witiza. The strictly Spanish history in Lucas and Rodrigo is meant to be pan-Iberian, while the LC, digressions aside, is strictly Castilian.



For the reigns of Alfonso, Enrique and Fernando, that is, for the period covered by the LC, the three texts divide, two against one; our text and the De rebus run parallel, and the Chronicon goes on its own. Lucas speaks much less about politics and civil strife in Castile and Len than do his two fellows. As I have said, LC leaves the Castilian orbit frequently. It is plainly impossible to tell the story of Castile without touching nonCastilian matters; there are wars, royal marriages, royal kinships, treaties the list is endless. But the LC ranges over the whole Mediterranean; we hear about affairs in Byzantium, about the Albigensian Crusade, about the fourth Lateran Council, about Moorish affairs and more. This sets it apart from Rodrigos work, which stays rather closer to home. Beyond this, the styles of the two authors are different; our chroniclers Latin in plainer and less literary than Rodrigos. These two matters aside, the LC and the later pages of the De rebus have in my own view a strange afnity. Frequently the same episodes are presented in the two texts in nearly the same order. One version may be more explicit than, or put its emphases in different places from, the other, but in general the parallelism stands. To my mind, indeed, it seems stronger than chance would allow; the plain sequence of events might indeed impel two witnesses to tell more or less the same story, but in the case of the LC and the De rebus there seems to be something more afoot. There is no space in a short review to compare in detail analogous narrative units in the two histories, though I do think this procedure might be interesting. Instead, I will concentrate on a single moment, a sort of rhetorical formula, that appears in the same spot in two parallel passages in a way I nd remarkable. After the death of Alfonso VIII Enrique I comes to the throne. He is a boy of eleven, and from the rst his sister Berenguela regards herself as his guardian. But within a very short time the King passes into the care of the treacherous Count lvaro Nez. A virtual civil war ensues between his forces and the queens. At one point, to discredit his rival lvaro forges a letter, supposedly from her, which orders that Enrique be poisoned. This narrative sequence appears in both histories. In both also God intervenes to preserve Berenguelas good name. Here is OCallaghans translation from LC: But the just Lord, who loves justice,
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whose face sees equity, who saves the blameless and the innocent, who delivered Susanna from the hands of wicked judges; He indeed freed from anxiety, and exalted in a time of tribulation the lady queen &c. (Ch. 32). De rebus in the parallel passage also gives us Susanna: He who saved Susanna from false witness declared the noble and innocent queen free from the lies of the imposter (IX, ch. 3; my translation, not literal: cf. ab imposture mendacio). Susanna at the same place and at the same time; I nd the parallelism remarkable. I must insist that this strange parallelism between the two histories is not unique. In particular, there are cases in which the same literary references, or the same moralizing turn, appear in analogous spots in the two histories. Are these coincidencies? One might say, for example, that lvaro was a wicked man, and that any chronicler would nd it natural to be severe with him, and that beyond that, a common literary or cultural inheritance could account for the parallel allusions to Susanna. What is more, the broad similarity of the two narratives of the period in question could be traced to the very sequence of the events on the ground. One would have to point out, however, that our third history, that of Lucas, generally narrates the events of the day very differently, and that in his lines on Enrique I (112) he has not so much as a word about the scandalous letter. If, indeed, there is some sort of dependence between the two histories, it seems to me likelier that it is De rebus that depends on LC. OCallaghan points out (xxx) that the anonymous chronicle shows signs of having been written as events unfolded; the author, for example, at one point writes as though he were ignorant of the imminent death of lvaro Nez (69), whose demise he actually reports in a later chapter. Similarly, at another point he appears not to know that Fernando III, King of Castile, was one day to become also King of Len (74). This odd set of circumstances would suggest that the LC was the older of the two texts and therefore that if one of them depended on the other, it would have to be Rodrigos on that of the anonymous author. LC has been edited no less than seven times, eight if we count the manuscript copy in the British Library. The rst modern edition is the one by Cirot, above mentioned, which dates from 1912-1913 (in two successive volumes of the Bulletin hispanique). Many years later it
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was edited no less than three times by Mara Desamparados Cabanes Pecourt, three times also by Luis Charlo Brea, the rst and the third of which include a translation. This very odd circumstance, a single scholar editing a text repeteadly, is testimony to the near illegibility of the Galndez manuscript. According to Charlo (1984: iv) the hand itself is very difcult, punctuation is rare, there are few marks of division in the text, at the beginning of paragraphs the initial letter is missing (as though illuminated capitals were planned for), and abbreviations, some of them very difcult, are numerous. Again, according to Charlo, the Abella manuscript replaces the original medieval spellings with humanistic (e.g., the nal es which correspond to the classical diphthongs ae and oe are changed to their standard form), abbreviations are realized, and capitals and punctuation are added. The Cirot edition cum apparatus is perhaps the masterpiece of the lot. The transcription is paleographic, but abbreviations appear realized at the foot of the page. The notes proper are mainly historical, and they are impressive. Cirot traces narrative motifs in the LC through dozens of old historical texts, dating from the time of the anonymous history down to the sixteenth century. He takes note of small and large variations in the story, and points out matter that is unique to the LC. We must add that he is perfectly aware of the patterns of liation among early Spanish histories; he knows exactly what history depends on what. We must remember that Cirot wrote long before Pidal and other worked systematically on these liations. We must add that the French Hispanist does not limit himself in his historical notes to narrative sources; many of his references are to non-narrative documents of other kinds. He cites, for example, a decree of the Fourth Lateran Council on degrees of kinship as bearing on legitimate and illegitimate marriages, and observes that the union of Enrique I to the Portuguese princess would have been considered invalid by both the rules in force before Lateran IV and those in force after (Bulletin hispanique 14: 21). Cirots transcription is prefaced by an introduction, which gives us the external history of the Galndez manuscript, the journey that brought it nally to the collection of the Real Academia de la Historia (Bulletin hispanique 13: 30-46). Mara Desamparados Cabanes Pecourt has made three editions of
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the LC. Charlo (Charlo et al., 1997: 27-28) and OCallaghan (xxvii) assure us that the later versions improve on the rst, but the two scholars are of one voice in saying that her work as a whole is unsatisfactory, and in particular that some of her readings are virtually unintelligible. In 1997 Charlo Brea published a critical edition of the LC. In his transcription he realizes all the abbreviations; he punctuates and capitalizes extensively and correctly, and so produces a fully readable and usable text. The readings in the Galndez manuscript appear at the foot of the pages as well as those of Abella and Cabanes. The notes proper identify sententiae and other fragments the author borrowed from Scripture and from classical auctores, Virgil, Lucan, Claudian, others, in general the ones typical of twelfth-century humanism (this valuable material is included by OCallaghan in the notes to his translation). Charlos introduction includes a close description of the Galndez and Abella manuscripts, as well as of the editions of Cirot and Cabanes (Charlo et al., 1997: 23-28). Controversial, perhaps, is his account of the structure, the ground-plan of the chronicle (Charlo et al., 1997: 18-23). He argues against Cirots division of the work into chapters (although he retains them in his text for conveniences sake); and he also rejects the major boundaries the older scholar marks out between the three large sections roughly preAlfonso VIII, Alfonso and nally, Fernando III. He proposes instead a twofold division based on what he considers to be the stages of the works composition, up to 1226 and between then and 1236; the rst boundary is set by the authors reference at one point to Louis VIII of France as still living (qui nunc regnat) and the date of the fall of Cordoba. This is not an unreasonable judgment. But he weds this division to what seems to me to be an entirely trivial division of the subject matter into Castile, extra-Castilian Spain and the world at large minus Spain. As I see it, this conception of Charlos goes nowhere; it is to my mind arbitrary and it belabours the obvious. Charlos editions of 1984 and 1999 include translations. In the 1984 version the descriptions of the Cirot and Cabanes editions are rather longer than the ones in the 1997 volume (xv-xix), and the earlier description of the Galndez manuscript includes an interesting section on the old authors Latinity; this is grafted onto a consideration of medieval
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Latin generally and of the formidable obstacles facing the editors of medieval Latin texts (xxv-xxviii). Charlo and OCallaghan alike speak at length about the problem of the authorship of the LC. The latter scholar tells us that the matter is virtually settled: the likeliest candidate by far is Juan, Bishop in turn of Osma and Burgos and Chancellor of Castile under Fernando III (xxx). The great source of wisdom in this matter is a short, but closely argued paper by Derek Lomax (1965). One may paraphrase this important article hastily by listing rst the evidence for Juans authorship offered by the chronicle itself and then the facts about Juans life that match this evidence. The author of the LC knows both Holy Scripture and the auctores; he is also informed about canon law, witness his attention to questions of the forbidden degrees of kinship in royal marriages. This decently learned person is surely a churchman. Indeed, he is almost certainly a great churchman, a bishop; he was present at the Fourth Lateran Council and was sent on several important royal missions. He is acquainted with the papal legate and reformer, Jean dAbbeville. The author of the LC is also almost certainly and Old Castilian. He is familiar with tiny details of the geography of Old Castile, and, distinctively, records local politics there, the violent rivalries of the great lords of the north of the kingdom. The author knows something about the technical language of the Chancery, and in one case he describes in detail a decree of Alfonso VIII on the royal succession. Perhaps most striking of all, he knows and has seen important bits of the royal correspondance. On the other side we know from independent sources that Juan knew Old Castile well. He may have been from Soria; his positions in the church were all in the North, Canon of Osma, Abbot rst of Santander, then of Valladolid it was most likely there that he met dAbbeville. Juan indeed became a Bishop, rst of Osma, then of Burgos. Finally and most important of all, he was Chancellor of the realm and therefore close to the royal family; he certainly had access to documents and correspondence of great moment. In a later article, Julio Gonzlez (1975) added details to Lomaxs argument, pointing out, for example, that Domingo Guzmn, founder of the Dominican order and major gure in the Albigensian Crusade, was Canon of Osma at the same time as Juan. This fact may well explain
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the lines the author of the LC devotes to this great campaign. As I have said, OCallaghans is the latest voice in the long dialogue about the Latin Chronicle. We must note that his translation, with his introduction and notes, makes up a volume that covers much the same material one would nd in an edition. The introduction, inevitably, replays much of the material we have been considering, about the history of the text of the chronicle, about its date of composition and about its authorship. But it also takes a large step forward, adding new evidence of all kinds, rethinking larger issues. First of all, as we have seen, OCallaghan presents us with a quite original view of how and when the LC was composed; most plausibly, as he says, it was put together in small bits, written as events unfolded. Then too, he has added a great deal that is new, about the question of authorship and separately, about the person of Juan, great churchman and Chancellor of the realm. As we have seen, the composer of LC is certainly a canonist. OCallaghan has actually been able to locate two passages in the LC which refer directly to Gratians Decretum (xxxii and 3, note). In chapter 35 the chronicle speaks of the confrontation between the young Prince Fernando, about to be acclaimed King of Castile, and his father, Alfonso IX of Len, who claims the neighbouring kingdom for himself. God intervenes, bringing order out of disorder: discordiam discordantium ad concordiam reuocauit. The phrase, as OCallaghan points out, is a clear echo of the formal title of Gratians great work, Concordia descordantium canonum. A still more striking reference to Gratian appears in chapter 2, which speaks of the intransigence of Sancho II before Fernando Is decision to divide his realm among his sons; Sancho, the eldest, believes that the kingdom should be his alone. The chronicle says of him that he is impatiens consortis, a clear reminiscence of a phrase from book I of Lucans Pharsalia: omnisque potestas / impatiens consortis erit (verses 92-93). A less than transparent expression follows: ut XXIII q. VII c. quod aut circa principium... erit. What can this strange string of signs possibly mean? Commentators have not done well with this utterance. But the darkness is nally dispelled. OCallaghan, assisted by a friendly specialist in canon law, tells us that Quod autem are the opening words of Decretum 23, question 7; and the circa principium means
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simply towards the beginning. The text in question is about the unjust possession of church property by heretics. Professor James Brundage, the friendly canonist, says that any informed reader of these lines in the LC would understand it to say that Sancho regarded his brothers claims as unjust. The author of the LC knew small details in the life of the royal family. OCallaghan points out that the history speaks easily of royal illnesses, and that it mentions the name of the royal physician, Master Arnaldo (xxxiii). More important, the old author is alert to matters a royal chancellor would know. He tells us, for example, of the circumstances that led Queen Berenguela to abdicate in favor of her son (xxxiv). Chief of these, surely, is the decree of Alfonso VIII concerning the royal succession, the very text Lomax cites as proof that the author knew the ways of the chancery and has access to chancery documents (chapter 33). It is also to be noted that the author of the LC is informed about the sums of money demanded in tribute by Fernando of various petty Muslim princes (xxxiv). It is hard to imagine anyone other than the Chancellor being privy to such information. OCallaghan also says that the author knew... the terms of the agreement between Fernando III and his sisters, settling the succession to the throne of Len (xxxiii-xxxiv). What is at issue is the following. The LC tells us that at the death of Alfonso IX of Len, his two daughters by his second wife traveled from city to city in the kingdom where with one exception they are badly received. The implication is, of course, that they regard themselves as the old kings heirs. When Fernando of Castile in fact assumes the kingship of Len, he settles large sums on his half sisters, but obliges them to abandon any claim to the throne and also to certain important bits of territory. OCallaghan is citing this passage with all its details as evidence to show that the anonymous author knew the inner working of events as only a chancellor would (chapters 60-61). I see a difculty here. The matter may be less arcane than it seems. Lucas of Tuy, who assuredly was not the chancellor, knows about the large settlements of money on the sisters (115). This is, I suppose, not very damning to OCallaghans view, since the Chronicon says not a word about the princesses claim to the throne. But Rodrigo does; the LC
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only implies that the sisters believe that they are, or might be, Alfonsos heirs, but the De rebus says all this plainly (IX, chapter 14). What is more, the severe conditions the sisters must accept, abandonment of claims to important bits of territory, are reported in De rebus (chapter 15) in only slightly less detail than in the LC. Perhaps this small difference is decisive. I am more than willing to believe that Juan, the chancellor of Castile, was the author of the LC, but it seems to me that for an argument in this sense to stick, the text of our chronicle has to be distinctive. In this case, as I think, this independence is not as obvious as it might be. I am sincerely hesitant to differ with Professor OCallaghan, distinguished historian that he is. In certain passages in the LC, as he points out, dates are given in the so-called Era Hispanica, our date plus 38, but in other parts the dating is of the Year of the Incarnation, which he equates simply with A.D. (xxxvi-xxxvii). He may be better informed about this matter than I am, but in medieval texts I have read, mainly Spanish, the Year of the Incarnation begins March 25, the Feast of the Annunciation, wich celebrates the moment when the Word was made esh. Dates in Y.I. therefore match ours from January 1 to March 24, and thereafter we must add one. OCallaghans volume includes a genealogy of the kings of Castile, Len and Portugal in the eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth centuries, and another of the kings of Aragon and the counts of Barcelona for the same period. There are also some valuable maps. His introduction includes a brief review of events in Castile and Len in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. The part of OCallaghans introduction which deals with the question of authorship could be said to present the whole case for Juan of Osma and Burgos, Chancellor of the realm. His own very striking argument for Juan goes hand in hand with those of Lomax and Gonzlez, and information from many sources about our churchman and statesman appear in the company of material that is OCallaghans own. The notes to his translation, in great part historical, are, as we have seen, very valuable. Many are based on secondary sources, but the selection is very judicious and responsible. Not least, many of these notes draw on the more specialized work of OCallaghan himself, no small ornament in this ne volume. The whole text, translation, introduction and notes, is
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a ne synthesis. But it is by no means lacking in original material. The introduction is in every sense the latest work on the Latin Chronicle, and no one interested in the history of Castile and indeed in medieval Spanish historiography should overlook it. Works cited Cabaas Pecourt, Mara Desamparados, ed., Crnica latina de los reyes de Castilla. Valencia: Anubar, 1964. Charlo Brea, Luis, ed., Crnica latina de los reyes de Castilla. Cdiz: Universidad de Cdiz, 1984. Charlo Brea, Luis, trans., Crnica latina de los reyes de Castilla. Madrid: Akal, 1999. Charlo Brea, Luis, Estvez Soila Juan A. and Carande Herrera, Roco, eds., Chronica latina regum Castellae. In Chronica Hispana Saeculi XIII. Corpues Christianorum. Continuatio Mediaevalis 73. Turnhout: Brepols, 1997. 9-118. Cirot, Georges, ed., Une chronique latine indite des rois de Castille jusquen 1236. Bulletin hispanique 14 (1912): 30-46, 109-118, 244-274, 353.374; 15 (1913): 18-37, 170-187, 268-283, 411-427. Gonzlez, Julio, La Crnica Latina de los Reyes de Castilla. Homenaje a don Agustn Millares Carlo. 2 vols. Palma: Caja Insular de Ahorros de Gran Canaria, 1975. 2:55-70. Lomax, Derek W., The Authorship of the Chronique latine des rois de Castille. Bulletin of Hispanic Studies 40 (1963): 205-211. Lucas of Tuy, Chronicon mundi. Ed. Andreas Schott. Hispania Illustrata. 4 vols. Frankfort: Claudisus Marnius et Heredes Joanni Aubrii, 1603-1608. 4:1-116. Rodrigo Jimnez de Rada, Historia de rebus Hispanie sive Historia Gothica. Ed. Juan Fernndez Valverde. Corpus



Christianorum Continuatio Medievalis 72. Turnhout: Brepols, 1987. Charles F. Fraker

Mats Dahlstrm, Espen S. Ore, and Edward Vanhoutte, eds., Literary and Linguistic Computing, vol. 19, no. 1, April 2004. 143 pp. ISSN 0268-1145. Online ISSN 1477-4615. 49 GBP; 80 USD. This issue of LLC, a special issue edited by Mats Dahlstrm, Espen S. Ore and Edward Vanhoutte, focuses on electronic scholarly editing in Northern Europe, here rather narrowly dened as the Nordic countries (although in fact only Norway, home to over half the contributors, and Sweden are represented) and Flanders. While this is in some ways simply a reection of where things are happening in electronic scholarly editing at the moment, one does feel that a number of other decidedly northern European countries might also have made valuable contributions. Still, anyone familiar with the current debate in electronic editing will immediately recognise most if not all of the names of the contributors to this volume, as this is very much a case of rounding up the usual suspects. The volume opens with a general introduction by the editors sketching the background to the volume and summarising the individual contributions. This is followed by a short introduction by Edward Vanhoutte to the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) in general. There are many such introductions to the TEI available both in print and on the web and this one is ne so far at it goes, but one may wonder about its appropriateness here, given that few readers of LLC are likely to be so unfamiliar with the TEI as to require such an introduction. There then follow nine articles, presenting an interesting mixture of case studies and reections of more theoretical nature, with most in fact managing to combine the two. The rst, Mats Dahlstrms How Reproductive is a Scholarly Edition?, is very much on the theoretical side. It is also, in my view, among the weakest of the contributions, being on the whole rather over-blown. His main point, that all editions, even digital facsimile and transcription archives, are historically determined and as such cannot be neutral,
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seems fair enough, self-evident even. But that their inherent situatedness means that they cannot be used as platforms for producing new critical editions seems somewhat less self-evident. There can be little doubt, however, that his conclusion, that we should recognise the limitations of digital archives so as not to expect the wrong things from them, is a valid point (albeit one which could be made of pretty much anything). In Monkey Businessor What is an Edition?, Espen S. Ore takes a slightly different view, arguing that both non-critical archival editions (Ores title refers to the suggestion that such archives could be produced by trained monkeys, as no critical judgement is required) and digital critical texts can and must exist side by side, and that former can, in fact, form the basis for the latter, as demonstrated by the Wittgenstein Archives in Bergen and in the project Henrik Ibsens Writings, based in Oslo. The next paper, Presentational and Representational Issues in Correspondence Reconstruction and Sorting by Edward Vanhoutte and Ron Van den Branden, is based on the experience of the DALF project (Digital Archive of Letters in Flanders) at the Centre for Scholarly Editing and Document Studies of the Royal Academy of Dutch Language and Literature; it attempts to dene an ontology for epistolary material, starting with simple denitions of the terms letter and correspondence, and shows how these denitions contribute to the development of a formal framework for the transcription of letters which in turn allows for various types of sorting and classication, thus providing an interesting example of the interaction of (textual) theory and (text-encoding) practice. The same is true of the next article, Philology Meets Text Encoding in the New Scholarly Edition of Henrik Ibsens Writings, by Hilde Be, Jon Gunnar Jrgensen and Stine Brenna Taugbl, which describes in detail the very impressive work of the project Henrik Ibsens Writings, which seeks to create a new critical-historical edition, both electronic and print, of the complete works of the Norwegian dramatist. The authors discuss both the positive and negative implications of utilising text encoding in the production of this edition, and show how decisions made in the two areas, philology and encoding, have inuenced each other.
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In his article Parallel Views: Multi-level Encoding of Medieval Nordic Primary Sources, Odd Einar Haugen, head of MENOTA (Medieval Nordic Text Archive), denes three principal types or levels of transcription, chiey on the basis of how much of the information in the original document, the accidentals, is included by the transcriber; he calls these levels facsimile (i.e. strictly diplomatic), diplomatic and normalized, and shows how all three can be accommodated in a single multi-level XML encoding, from which in turn a variety of alternative views of the text can be generated for different purposes or types of users. This is, indeed, part of the magic of electronic editing, that one is not forced at the outset to limit the amount of information one includes. One obvious criticism of the encoding scheme presented by Haugen is that it limits the number of possible views to precisely these three, whereas in reality a far greater number of levels might be distinguished (as Haugen, who has written on the subject, knows as well as anyone). In addition, actual practice varies considerably, and individual editors may normalise or regularise some features at one level while retaining others; it seems more useful, therefore, to identify the individual features and the possible ways in which they can be treated and allow each to be handled separately, toggled on and off as it were, according to the requirements of the user. This is in fact possible using existing TEI mark-up, and the result is considerably less verbose than that proposed here. In his article Computing Medieval Primary Sources from the Vadstena Monastery: Arguments for the Primary Source Text, Karl G. Johansson surveys two separate but closely related Swedish projects. The rst of these focuses on the transcription and encoding (using the MENOTA standard) of manuscript texts produced in the Vadstena Monastery in Sweden. In the other project, the theoretical framework for which is new or material philology and recent work in the development of literacy, the focus is on the evidence provided by the manuscripts themselves for the processes of production, transmission and reception. New philology is also the inspiration for what is, in my view, one of the more interesting articles in the issue, Jonas Carlquists Medieval Manuscripts, Hypertext and Reading: Visions of Digital Editions.
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Carlquist begins by drawing a comparison between a number of paratextual features commonly found in medieval manuscriptsrubrics, pointing hands, marginal notes and so onand modern notions of hypertextuality, and then goes on to argue that digital editions can give the modern reader a deeper understanding of manuscript culture by reproducing these medieval hyperlinks in a way traditional printed editions have been unable or unwilling to do. In the nal article, Editorial Theory and Practice in Flanders and the Centre for Scholarly Editing and Document Studies, Bert Van Raemdonck and Edward Vanhoutte provide a survey of the work of the Centre for Scholarly Editing and Document Studies (Centrum voor Teksteditie en BronnenstudieCTB), founded on 1 August 2000 as a research institute of the Royal Academy of Dutch Language and Literature in Ghent. It would be hard not to be impressed, and the indefatigable Edward Vanhoutte deserves every credit for what he has done there, and for taking the initiative to put together this very useful volume. I have one minor criticism: although the articles are generally written in a form of international scholarly English certainly well above average, the volume would have benetted from a thorough checking by a native speaker. Perhaps, having lived in Scandinavia for most of my adult life, I am over-sensitive to such things, but some of the Scandinavian contributions in particular seemed to me to abound in Scandinavisms which any copy-editor worth his salt would have corrected. It is true that, while numerous, these lapses do not generally compromise the intelligibility of the text, but one somehow feels that a journal published in Britain, by Oxford University Press no less, should be in correct and idiomatic English. M. J. Driscoll

James Moran, Wynkyn de Worde, Father of Fleet Street, with a chronological bibliography of works on Wynkyn de Worde compiled by Lotte Hellinga and Mary Erler and a preface by John Dreyfus. London: The British Library and Oak Knoll Press, in association with the Wynkyn de Worde
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Society, 2003. 70 pp. ISBN 0-7123-0667-6 (BL); 1-58456-104-1 (Oak Knoll). 12.95 GBP; 22.95 USD. Although described as a third revised edition (4), this seventy-page introduction to the early English printer Wynkyn de Worde is essentially a reprint of the second (revised) edition (1976) of Morans essay, rst published in 1960 and considered by many a classic. Morans text has been equipped with an introduction (9-11) and a chronological bibliography (53-67) by Lotte Hellinga and Mary Erler, two distinguished scholars of early English printing, and with a preface (7-8) by John Dreyfus. A close examination of the volume reveals that Moran himself is responsible for only twenty-nine pages of material, about forty percent of the total number of pages in the book. What we have, in effect, is an illustrated article between boards. In their introduction, Hellinga and Erler explain why Morans text has not been revised: To bring Morans work up to date, many of the details of what was so condently and elegantly written by him would now have to be changed, to the point that it is no longer possible to use his text as the basis for a new version (9). After briey surveying recent scholarship on de Worde (9-10), they proclaim: we can applaud the initiative of the Wynkyn de Worde Society in issuing James Morans text once again. After forty years it has to be understood as a historical document in its own right, written with the same appreciation of the creative energy of the City of London and Fleet Street that gave rise to the birth of the Wynkyn de Worde Society itself (10). In their proper context, such adulatory phrases as condently and elegantly written by him and creative energy are tinged with irony, for Moran draws heavily on the pioneering work of previous bibliographers, frequently repeating their very wordsand frequently without acknowledgment. The most egregious examples of this practice are found in Chapter Three (26-38), which is a demonstrable plagiarism of the 1899 and 1904 Sandars Lectures by E. Gordon Duff, with a smattering of material lifted directly from Frank Isaacs analysis of English and Scottish printing types, Henry R. Plomers 1925 volume on de Worde and his contemporaries, and Talbot Baines Reeds monumental history of the old English letter foundries.


(For a sample listing of the copied passages, see the Appendix. A complete list will be supplied upon request.) Perhaps Moran thought that listing these books in the bibliography gave him carte blanche to duplicate passages from them, but this abysmal standard of documentation does not excuse the scholarly misrepresentation that this book perpetrates. Indeed, if we exclude the attributed quotations on pages 28 and 37, I calculate that approximately forty-eight percent of the text in Chapter Three alone is reproduced verbatim (or nearly so) from unnamed sources. This gure rises to fty-eight percent if we disregard the long summary from Johnson on pages 26-27. Of course, these numbers are based on passages for which I have identied a source; I am condent that many more plagiarized sections could be found. Although Chapter Three is the most serious example of the borrowed learning that characterizes Morans portrait of de Worde, other chapters are no less derivative. Most of Chapter Five (43-47), for example, is based on Henry R. Plomer, An Inventory of Wynkyn de Wordes House The Sun in Fleet Street in 1553, The Library, 3rd series, 6 (1915), 22834, which was later incorporated into the authors popular account of de Worde and his contemporaries (99-101). To his credit, Moran is largely content to paraphrase Plomers text, but some of the deductions on page 46 are Plomers, even though Moran implies that they are his own. A more disturbing case of intellectual misappropriation concerns Morans discussion of de Worde as a binder (46-47). Moran properly credits Duff with a relatively trivial anecdote, but then goes on to lay claim to key observations about the identication of de Wordes early bindings and his business dealings with local bookbinders:
De Worde inherited Caxtons binding stamps with the rest of his printing material. Duff says he found in a college library in Oxford a book with these stamps, evidently bound by de Worde and the boards were lined with waste leaves of three books printed by him, one being unknown and one by Caxton. De Wordes bindings are the least easily Caxtons binding stamps passed with his printing material to his successor, Wynkyn de Worde. I found in a college library at Oxford a book with these stamps, evidently bound by De Worde, and the boards were lined with waste leaves of three books printed by him, one being unknown, and one by Caxton. De Wordes bindings are the least



identied of any of the fteenth century, for beyond these few dies of Caxtons there are none that can denitely be ascribed to him, and even the various bindings that might be ascribed to him from the fragments found in them, vary so much in style and decoration that it seems impossible that they could have all come from one shop. We know from de Wordes will that he employed several binders. He left bequests to Alard, bookbinder, his servant, to Nowell, the bookbinder in Shoe Lane, where bookbinders abounded, and James Gaver, who was one of his executors, was one of the large family of Gavere, binders in the Low Countries. (46-47)

easily identied of any in the fteenth century, for beyond these few dies of Caxtons there are none that can definitely be ascribed to him, and even the various bindings that might be ascribed to him from the fragments found in them vary so much in style and decoration that it seems impossible that they could have all come from one shop. [] Wynkyn de Worde, as we learn from his will, employed several binders. He left bequests to Alard, bookbinder, his servant, and to Nowel, the bookbinder in Shoe Lane. James Gaver, who was one of his executors, was one of the large family of Gavere, binders in the Low Countries (Duff, 107-08)

The most charitable thing that could be said about this excerpt is that it is very poorly synthesized. Equally noteworthy for its lack of originality is Chapter Two (23-25), whose content and wording are heavily indebted to Walter George Bell, Fleet Street in Seven Centuries, Being a History of the Growth of London beyond the Walls into the Western Liberty, and of Fleet Street to our Time, foreword by William Purdie Treloar (London: Pitman, 1912). Short sections of Chapter One (17-22) and Chapter Four (39-42) also derive from this source. The passages speak for themselves:
MORAN While Caxton was a scholarly man, de Worde was a craftsman but shrewd enough to realise that there was a wider market for cheap publications than that visualised by Caxton. His place in history is that of the rst publisher and printer to popularise the products of the printing press. (21) The Demaundes Joyous, a nursery book, printed in 1510, contained such riddles as: How many cows [sic] tails would it take to reach the moon?, with the BELL Caxton was a scholar [] De Worde was a simple craftsman. [] De Worde was shrewd to realise that there was a wider market for cheap productions, and his place in the history of bookselling is that of the rst printer and publisher to popularise literature. (185) None can tell what generations of children have been asked the riddle, How many cows tails would it take to reach the moon? with the answer, Oneif



answer: Oneif it were long enough! (22)

it were long enough! This and other riddles [] are to be found in the Demaundes Joyous, a nursery book printed by Wynkyn de Worde in Fleet Street in the year 1510. (185-86) What were the characteristics of the suburb thus early in medival London? Ecclesiastical, above all else. (51) Compared with the larger establishments, standing well back each in its own grounds, the mean houses which fringed the line of Fleet Street were very mean. (55) [] his reason, one may assume, partly because the Red Pale had become too small for a growing business, and partly to be near the centre of the book-selling trade, which at that time was settled about St. Pauls Churchyard. (183-84) In addition to his printing-house at the Sun, he had for a time a booksellers shop in St. Pauls Churchyard, with the sign of Our Lady of Pity (185) It is probable, too, as was the custom of the time, that he kept a stall in front of his place in Fleet Street (185) Across the street [] the Abbot of Peterborough had his hostel, with a large garden, which gave its name to Peterborough Court. The whole ground is now covered by the huge premises of The Daily Telegraph. (53) Opposite, also at the foot of the street, was an estate known as the Popinjay, the site and name of which are preserved in Poppins Court. This was the town hostel of the Abbot and Convent of Cirencester, in Gloucestershire. (52)

The main characteristic of the street was ecclesiastical. (23) These town houses of the clergy were the larger establishments standing well back in their own grounds, but the houses of the tradesmen, which fringed the street, were much smaller and often very mean. (23) [] but it is easy to conjecture that the Westminster ofce had become too small for a growing business and also that he wanted to be near the centre of the bookselling trade which then [] was settled about St Pauls churchyard. (23) Indeed, in addition to his printing house at the sign of the Sun, he had for a time, a booksellers shop in St Pauls churchyard with the sign of Our Lady of Pity. (23) It is probable, as was the custom of the time, that he kept a stall in front of his shop in Fleet Street. (23) Looking across the road de Worde would see the inns or town houses and gardens of various ecclesiastics, including that of the Abbot of Peterborough (giving its name to Peterborough Court now running under the Daily Telegraph building). (23-24) Also across the road was an estate known as the Popinjay, the site and name of which are preserved in Poppins Court. This was the town hostel of the Abbot and Convent of Cirencester, in Gloucestershire. (24)



The Fleet river dominated the locality. There was a little bridge carrying Fleet Street over the river, and from beyond this rose the smell of reeking tanneries. Water was an essential for the industry and the tanners crowded towards the river, making the slip of land lying at the foot of London wall the headquarters for the preparation of hides for boots and saddlery. They were the men, with the cappers, whose trade was established long before the printing press came to make Fleet Street famous. (25)

The Fleet River dominated the locality. [] and beyond the bridge carrying Fleet Street over the little watercourse, rose the smell of reeking tanneries. Water was an essential for the industry, and the tanners crowded towards the Fleet, making the slip of land lying at the foot of London wall a headquarters for the preparation of hides for boots and shoes and the leather accoutrements and saddlery then so much in use. [] These were the men, and these the trades, established hereabouts long before men dreamed of the printing press, which was destined to make Fleet Street worldfamous. (40) Richard Pynson was Norman [] Pynson made lamentable compleynt to Cardinal Morton [] of riotous assembly and assault committed upon him and his servants on the 21st April, 1500it was before he had moved to the greater security of Fleet Street, within the Mayors jurisdiction, probably in consequence of such attacks. (193-94)

For example, Richard Pynson, a Norman, de Wordes friendly rival, made lamentable compleynt to Cardinal Morton, in the Star Chamber, of riotous assembly and assault committed upon him and his servants on the 21st April 1500. This may have been the reason for his removal from St Clement Dames into Fleet Street and the comparatively greater security of the Mayors jurisdiction. (39)

With time and energy, one could probably sort out all the textual strata of this volume, which seems to be nothing more than a tissue of quotations and paraphrases from unidentied sources, all interlarded with mundane commentary by Moran (27: More likely, however, bearing in mind later printing errors of de Wordes, it was simply a mistake). That the book has been reissued in its present form is highly regrettable. Who is responsible for this unfortunate editorial event? Arguably not Moran, whose amateur essay, written for a social club more than forty years ago, should never have been published in the rst place. By the same token, I am inclined to forgive the British Library and the Oak Knoll Press, for they are surely the unwitting participants in this unhappy publication. As far as I can tell, the only individuals associReviews 345

ated with this project who should have known about Morans work are Hellinga and Erler; after all, they prepared the bibliography from which Moran cribbed most of his text. It is no credit to Hellinga and Erler, the Wynkyn de Worde Society, the British Library, the Oak Knoll Press, or the memory of James Moran, who passed away in 1978, that this book should continue to circulate. Professional ethics and due respect for the contributions of celebrated bibliographers like Duff, Isaac, Plomer, and Reed demand that the volume be withdrawn from the market. Perhaps the publishers could reissue the bibliography as a pamphlet, as it is the most useful contribution to the subject. Joseph J. Gwara Appendix Duff: E. Gordon Duff, The Printers, Stationers and Bookbinders of Westminster and London from 1476 to 1535. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1906; rpt. New York: Benjamin Blom, 1971. [The 1899 and 1904 Sandars Lectures.] Isaac: Frank Isaac, English & Scottish Printing Types 1501-35 * 1508-41, Facsimiles and Illustrations, No. 2. London: The Bibliographical Society, 1930. Plomer: Henry R. Plomer, Wynkyn de Worde & His Contemporaries from the Death of Caxton to 1535: A Chapter in English Printing. London: Grafton & Co., 1925. Reed: Talbot Baines Reed, A History of the Old English Letter Foundries, With Notes Historical and Bibliographical on the Rise and Progress of English Typography, rev. ed. by A.F. Johnson. London: Faber and Faber, 1952.



MORAN Wynkyn de Worde was the rst to use italic in England in Wakeelds Oratio de laude trium linguarum in 1528. It was also the rst book printed in England in which Hebrew and Arabic characters appear. These were cut in wood. The author complained that he was compelled to omit a third part because the printer had no Hebrew types. (27) The Caxton 114mm he used in a new edition of The Golden Legend. Although this book is dated 20th May 1493 (well after Caxtons death) it contains Caxtons name. De Worde printed it from an earlier edition, merely altering the date, or perhaps he meant the words By me William Caxton to refer to the translation rather than the printing. (27) The Chastising of Gods Children is interesting typographically as being the rst book printed at Westminster with a titlepage. (28) Up to this time de Worde had not put his name to any book, though most of them contain his rst device, a copy on a small scale of Caxtons. (28) The Scala Perfectionis is the rst book to which de Worde put his name. It was written and printed for Margaret Beaufort, the mother of the King (Henry VII). This information is given in a poem at the end of the book. (28-29) 1495 is the year usually given to the edition of the English translation of the De proprietatibus rerum, mentioned earlier. As well as the reference to Caxtons stay in Cologne, the verse epilogue makes the rst known mention of paper-

HIS SOURCES In 1524 [sic] the rst italic type used in England is seen in Robert Wakeelds Oratio de utilitate linguarum [] This work also contains the rst specimen of Hebrew printing in this country, the words being rudely cut on wood. The author complains that he has had to omit a third part because the printer had no Hebrew type. (Plomer, 90; cf. also Reed, 56-57) The imprint of the Golden Legend is curious, for though it is dated 1493 it contains Caxtons name. De Worde seems to have reprinted from an earlier edition, merely altering the date, or perhaps he meant the words By me William Caxton to refer to the translator rather than the printer. (Duff, 25) The Chastising of Gods Children [] is interesting typographically as being the rst book printed at Westminster with a title-page. (Duff, 25) It is curious that up to this time De Worde had not put his name to any book, though most of them contain his rst device, a copy on a small scale of Caxtons (Duff, 26) It was written and printed for Margaret Beaufort, the mother of the king [] The Scala Perfectionis is also the rst book to which Wynkyn de Worde put his name. All this information is given in a short poem of two stanzas, at the end of the book (Plomer, 51) 1496 is the year usually ascribed to the edition of Trevisas translation of the De proprietatibus rerum of Bartholomus Anglicus, and I quoted earlier four lines of verse saying that Caxton had printed the



making in England. After remembering Caxton the verse continues: And Iohn Tate the yonger Ioye mote he broke Whiche late hathe in Englond doo make this paper thynne That now in our englyssh this boke is printed Inne. The mark in this paper is an eightpointed star. (29) In 1496 de Worde also produced a reprint of the well-known Book of St Albans, a treatise on hunting, hawking and heraldry, with the addition in this issue of a chapter on shing with an angle, said to be the earliest printed treatise on the art. (29) The colophon of The Golden Legend has a line missing, and yet it was reprinted in exactly the same way in later editions issued by de Worde and Julian Notary. (31) While the dated books known to us never rise above four in the earlier years, in 1499 there are ten. (31) At the time of his move to Fleet Street he seems to have got rid of a considerable portion of his stock, for many of the cuts belonging to Caxton or de Worde are found afterwards in books printed by Julian Notary. (33) After 1500 de Worde used only two of his fteenth-century types. In the sixteenth century he had eight Texturas (blacks), one Rotunda or round text, two romans and two italics, and except for two Texturas, including the earlier of the two fteenth-century types, all can

book in Latin at Cologne. [] Having spoken of Caxton it continues: And John Tate the yonger joye mote he broke Whiche late hathe in Englond doo make this paper thynne That now in our englyssh this boke is prynted inne. The watermark of this paper is an eightpointed star in a circle. (Duff, 29) In 1496 also came out a reprint of the well-known Book of St Albans [] a treatise on hunting, hawking, and heraldry, with the addition in this issue of the delightful chapter on shing with an angle, our earliest printed treatise on the art. (Duff, 29) In this edition a line has been omitted [] it is reprinted exactly the same in the later editions issued by De Worde and Julian Notary. (Duff, 31) While the dated books in the other years of the fteenth century never rise above four, in this year there are ten (Duff, 32) At the time of his moving he seems to have got rid of a considerable portion of his stock [] for many cuts which had belonged to De Worde or to Caxton are found afterwards in books printed by Julian Notary. (Duff, 33) Wynkyn de Worde in 1500 moved into London from Westminster and after that date used only two of his fteenthcentury types. He had eight Texts (blacks), one Rotunda or Round Text, two romans, and two italics, and except for two Texts, including the earlier of the



be traced to a French or Low Countries source. He made some alterations in one of his Textura types, using three different ss and three ws in the course of time. These alterations may have been made in his own foundry, as English printers would nd no w in a French fount and were forced to cut their own. (33) De Worde made frequent use of Caxtons No 3 type (135mm) and this seems to point to the existence of the matrices as well as the types in this country. (33) Textura 95mm is the most frequently found of all de Wordes types in the sixteenth century. From time to time some of the letters were re-cut and the small differences form an approximate guide for the dating of undated books. (33) The year 1501 was mostly taken up with settling into his new premises. His output was small, and only one book is known to have been issued that yearMons Perfectionis. (33)

two fteenth-century types, all can be traced to a French or Low Countries source. [] De Worde made certain alterations in the type in the course of time, using, for instance, three different ss and three ws. Such alterations were no doubt made in his own foundry; in the case of w English printers would nd no such letter in a French fount and were forced to cut their own. (Reed, 84) [] the frequent use which De Worde made of the fount after his masters death seems to point to the existence of the matrices as well as the types in this country. (Reed, 79) Textura 95 (Duff 8) is the most frequently found of all de Wordes types in the sixteenth century. From time to time some of the letters were recut, and the small differences found form an approximate guide for the dating of the undated books. (Isaac, [2]) The year 1501 was apparently mostly taken up with settling into his new premises; for this year his output was the smallest during his whole career, and we know of but one dated book issued in it, a new edition of Bishop Alcocks Mons Perfectionis (Duff, 131-32) Wynkyn de Wordes output during the next thirty-ve years was to a great extent moulded by the foreign competition he had to meet. Popular taste also had a great deal to do with it. The man in the street preferred to buy tries, such as ballads or jest books, and those of the cheapest kind, to more solid literature. Many of the poetical satires, romances, and chap-books that came from his press are only known from fragments rescued from old bindings, and we cannot even guess at the number that have perished. (Plomer, 66)

Wynkyn de Wordes output during the following years was moulded by popular taste and by foreign competition. He produced ballads, jest books, romances and chap books, often only known from fragments, which have survived in old bindings. We cannot estimate the number which have perished. (33)



For example, de Worde would have known that the Book of St Albans appealed specially to the richer classes and struck off copies on vellum. Some of these have come down to us today. (33-35) The year 1509 was an important one for de Worde. The death of Henry VII was soon followed by that of his patroness, the Countess of Richmond. However, the output of books was the largest in any year of his life. The royal funerals and the following coronation would no doubt have attracted crowds to London and increased business. (35)

This book would naturally appeal especially to the richer class, and De Worde not only took especial pains with it, but struck off copies upon vellum, some of which have come down to our own day. (Duff, 30) The year 1509 was a very important one in De Wordes life. The death of Henry VII was very soon followed by that of Margaret, Countess of Richmond and Derby, De Wordes special patroness. However, the output of books this year was the largest of any year of his life. The royal funerals and the coronation would no doubt attract large crowds to London and so encourage business. (Duff, 134) In 1512 there appeared also the rst grammatical work by Whittinton, whose various books became so popular that De Worde sometimes issued as many as four editions of one work in a year. (Duff, 137) From this time onwards most of the printers work was conned to reprinting earlier editions, and only about one in twenty were new books; a good deal of his work was done by other printers [] and in the last few years we nd him printing books for other people. (Duff, 138) For his old apprentice John Byddell he printed four or ve books in 1533 and 1534 [] His last book was curiously enough a little poem, The Complaint of the too soon maryed. [] his own marriage had taken place more than 55 years before. (Duff, 138) Towards the end of 1508 when Pynson was appointed printer to the King, De Worde appears to have received some sort of ofcial appointment as printer to the Countess of Richmond and Derby,

[] but in 1512 began the rst of the grammatical works of Whittinton, whose various works became so popular that de Worde sometimes issued as many as four editions of one work a year. (35) In fact, from this time on much of his work was conned to re-printing earlier editions and only about one in twenty were new books. A good deal of his work was done by other printers and in his last few years he began printing work for other people. (37) For his old apprentice, John Bydell, he printed four or ve books in 1533 and 1534. De Wordes last book was a little poem The Complaint of those too soon maryed. He had himself been married more than fty-ve years before (37) Towards the end of 1508 when Pynson was appointed printer to the King, de Worde appears to have received some sort of ofcial appointment as printer to the Countess of Richmond, the Kings



mother. He had printed several books before this time at her request but he had not called himself her printer. (41) [] but in 1507 de Worde and Pynson tried co-operation instead of competition and shared an edition of The Boke Royal which de Worde printed. (41) In 1524 he was one of those warned by Bishop Tunstall against importing Lutheran books into England. Any new books received by him from abroad were to be submitted for approval either to the Lord Cardinal, the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishop of London, or the Bishop of Rochester. A year later he was again summoned before the bishop with John Gough to answer a charge of having published a work called The Image of Love. De Worde confessed that he was one of those present in the previous year and that since that date he had printed The Image of Love, which was alleged to contain heresy, and had sent sixty copies to the nuns of Syon and had sold as many more. The two men were warned not to sell any more and to get back those they had already sold. (42)

the Kings mother. He had printed several books before this time at her request [] but he had not called himself specially her printer. (Duff, 133) In [1507] Pynson and de Worde resolved to try co-operation instead of unscrupulous competition, both sharing in an edition of The Royal Book which de Worde printed. (Isaac, [13]) Accordingly, on the 12th October in that year [1524], he [Bishop Tunstall] summoned the booksellers of London before him and solemnly warned them against importing Lutheran books into England [] and any new books received by them from abroad were to be submitted for approval either to the Lord Cardinal, the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishop of London, or the Bishop of Rochester. A year later he summoned before him Wynkyn de Worde and John Gough to answer a charge of having published a work called the Image of Love. De Worde confessed that he was one of those present on the 12th October 1524, and that since that date he had printed the Image of Love, which was alleged to contain heresy, and had sent sixty copies to the nuns of Syon, and had sold as many more. [] The vicar-general thereupon warned them not to sell any more, and to get back any that they had already sold. (Plomer, 93-94) He further instructed his executors to purchase land near London, the income from which was to be spent in an obit for his soul and in a yearly gift of 20s. to the poor of the parish of St Brides. (Plomer, 99) A month before Marys accession, foreseeing trouble ahead, he disposed of the printing-house to William and

He instructed his executors to purchase land near London, the income from which was to be spent in an obit for his soul and in a yearly gift of twenty shillings to the poor of the parish of St Brides. (43) Anticipating trouble in the new reign of the Catholic Queen Mary he disposed of the printing house to William and



Humphrey Powell. Apparently they failed to carry out their contract, and Whitchurch brought an action to recover the chattels. (45)

Humphrey Powell. They failed to carry out their contract, and an action was brought against them at the instance of Whitchurch to recover the goods and chattels (Plomer, 99-100)

Pedro M. Ctedra and Anastasio Rojo, Biblioteca y lecturas de mujeres Siglo XVI. Salamanca: Instituto del Libro y de la Lectura, 2004. 461 pp. ISBN 84-9335044-0-0. 35 EUR. This volume presents and discusses inventories from extensive archival research performed in Valladolid, Archivo Provincial, Seccin Protocolos. It publishes a corpus of two hundred and seventy eight inventories which contain books owned by women. The scarcity of information on inventories of womens libraries in Spain no inventories related to sixteenth century female book ownership had been published until now makes this research especially valuable. To a certain extent, the volume follows Dadsons pioneering studies published in 1998, on ve womens libraries in seventeenth-century Castile. More recently, Ctedras El lugar o el orden de los libros en las bibliotecas femeninas del siglo XVI (Vivir el siglo de oro. Poder, cultura e historia en la poca moderna. Estudios en homenaje al profesor ngel Rodrguez Snchez, Salamanca, Universidad, 2004) has partially summarized the present study by Ctedra and Rojo. The inventories are conned to a specic time period (1527 to 1599) and an urban space, the city where the court resided most frequently during the period surveyed; a city with an awareness that reading and writing could be a way to gain social and economic status. In addition to the inventories, an identication of most of the books mentioned, and statistical analyses and display of the information retrieved in synoptic tables and graphics, the authors offer a series of wide-ranging studies. Their aim, Ctedra and Rojo argue, is to contextualize in sixteenth-century Valladolid a corpus of documentation relevant to understanding female reading and book ownership. Beyond descriptive, positivistic analysis somewhat usual in this type of investigation, and resorting to cultural history approaches, the authors survey various general aspects of womens reading practices
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and their libraries. Indeed, the study engages in recounting anonymous womens daily routines, the intellectual, spiritual, liturgical and practical activities of urban women from a variety of social backgrounds, carried out mostly in secluded environments. Womens reading (Chapter II) and Female readings (Chapter IV) study womens reading and reading practices; Female libraries and books (Chapter III) and Space and order of books (Chapter V) review reading spaces, book ownership and libraries. The authors archival research and erudition are impressive. The study could have beneted, however, from a more coherent focus and clearer methodological framework. It begins (Space and people, Chapter I) by discussing general issues related to the consistency and shortcomings of inventorial sources, the common methodological problems of the use of this type of material. Among these are: only a small amount of inventories are extant; inventories from the nobility (20.2%) and artisans (22.3%) prevail; two types of inventories dominate: postmortem, which represents the majority of them (86.3%), and inventories done for dowry. Book owners are from diverse cultural or ethnic origins, and religious backgrounds. Inventories for the holding of widows, of merchants, printers, booksellers abound but inventories for marginal groups such as moriscas or morenas are scarce. Rojo and Ctedra identify the books when possible, and examine the contents mentioned in the inventories the authors scholarly erudition is the best asset of Biblioteca y lecturas de mujeres as well as aspects such as the value and number of books owned, the civil status of the owner, her profession or activity, social condition and family relationships, economic and family characteristics, identifying when possible close relatives. Rojo and Ctedra address the problem of reliability of inventories when they form the only source for a repertory of readings, by incorporating an array of relevant documentation from other sources. The general scope of Womens reading (Chapter II) does not rely on case studies; few aspects of the inventories are analyzed here. Instead, the chapter recounts well-known issues of womens literacy and education, domestic and primary formal instruction for girls, delineating womens reading conditions in Valladolid. The latter included trends
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in the society, the predominance of specic social models, the practical interests of the artisan class, etc. The authors recapitulate conclusions of previous studies on early modern literacy and on the debate on the moral convenience to educate women, relying on sources such as educational treatises and primers to learn to read and/or write. Referring to the iconographic models of Saint Anne educating the Virgin, Rojo and Ctedra comment on specic habits of womens education, such as a female course of instruction. The study is more innovative when addressing specic cases. More interesting are the observations about differences of opinion according to professions the artisan class perceived a practical dimension in female education or on collective uses of printed material, collective reading habits for girls and women. Female readings (Chapter IV) examines main trends in female readership, comments on the titles in the inventories, and offers a classication by topics: religion, philosophy, arts, law, miscellanea, etc... The authors survey female interests in selecting readings, elaborating types of book collections, accumulating titles arranged in a specic order. Through a corpus of titles frequently owned by women, such as spiritual books recommended by religious advisors as convenient for female readership, the study identies a list of books appropriate for women, attempting to dene a category of books for women (categora de libros de mujeres). It is the case of Luis de vilas Audi, lia, and works by Luis de Granada, which were considered more suitable for mainly female audiences. Rojo and Ctedra explore common prescriptions, and restrictions, on books for female spirituality, such as Diego Prez de Valdivias reections in Aviso de gente recogida (1585), recommending hagiographical readings, Flos sanctorum titles, books of hours, works by Luis de Granada, Francisco de Osuna, Luis de vila, Saint Catherine of Siena, ngela of Foligno, etc. The study engages in a detailed analysis of womens religious readings, emphasizing functions and uses of books of hours. A multiple presence of books of hours in a library indicate not only a desire for collecting but also collective devotional practices in womens domestic spaces, ritual readings of liturgical texts. The authors discuss how limits between reading and ritual practices could be blurred. The cases of womens interest in and ownership of books not considered suitable
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for female reading are especially appealing. In the Duchess of Bjars library, books of common use are shared by wife and husband. When the Duke died, the widow selected some of his books and discarded others of no interest to her. The Duchess did not seem attracted by books perceived as appropriate for female reading, traditional books of spirituality, liturgical volumes. She preferred instead manuscripts and printed histories, chorographical writings, Latin and Spanish humanistic texts, as well as a series of ctional books. The inventories also seem to suggest that women were more interested in ction than in poetry. Rojo and Ctedra speculate about a specic male audience, and womens lack of interest in writings reecting on female conditions and education, such as Cristbal de Castillejos Dilogo que habla de las condiciones de las mujeres or Vives Instruction of Christian Women. Female libraries and books (Chapter III) discusses difculties in differentiating between the simple ownership of one or two books and the maintenance of a larger collection, the deliberate organization of a library. A scarcity of documents related to female bibliophiles seems to imply that it was predominantly a masculine endeavor. In fact, no Spanish catalogue of sixteenth-century womens libraries is extant. The inventories reect womens role in the sixteenth-century fashion of incorporating into their libraries texts which survived mostly in manuscript forms, as is the case of writings dealing with national or local historiography, books of linajes. The study proposes quantitative as well as qualitative dimensions in what could be considered an early modern female library; the number of books, the type of relationships with the books, their uses and functions. Relying on several inventories, the authors raise issues concerning library ownership: suspected libraries, libraries that could have been part of the stock of a bookstore or printer; widows libraries, libraries that could have been gathered and owned by the husband; shared libraries, female use of male libraries, as in the well-known cases of the magnicent libraries belonging to the Countess of Monterrey, Mara Pimentel and to Luisa Enrquez, or in Luisa de Carvajals use of her uncle, the Marquis of Almazns library. Rojo and Ctedra examine patterns of womens library formation, channels available to gather books, such as acquisitions in bookstores, donations,
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books transmitted within the family. Generally, women purchased books through male intermediaries, mostly spiritual advisors. Only women not depending on a male relative widows, beatas acceded to bookstores to buy their books. The study identies some interesting cases of transmissions of books frequently as part of a dowry in private female libraries between mothers and daughters, such as in the case of Beatriz Bernal, author of the chivalry novel Don Cristalin de Espaa, and her daughter Juana de Gatos. As to patterns of womens book ownership, the study investigates social and spiritual functions of book donations. In the rst half of the sixteenth century, female patronage of spiritual books was signicant. Women were the dedicatees of writings such as Chaves La conversion de la Magdalena; Saint Augustines Confessions translated by Toscano; several of Luis de Granadas works: the rst part of Gua de pecadores is dedicated to Elvira de Mendoza, the second to Queen Catalina of Portugal; and, Luis de Avilas Audi, lia, originally dedicated to Sancha de Castilla. After several difculties with the Inquisitorial Index, in vilas revised version the dedicatee was no longer a female, but was changed to a male. The study discusses how various systems of book censorship such as the Inquisitor Valds Index, or new approaches to self-control and disciplining inuenced patterns of book ownership by women. They highlight a slight decrease in inventories of books owned by women in the decade following the publication of Valds Index, as well as a reduction in the diversication of readings or titles available. Rojo and Ctedra conclude their investigation (Space and order of books, Chapter V) by focusing on religious iconography of the fteenth and sixteen centuries, in order to examine book functions and arrangements in reading spaces such as the studiolo or the oratory. The study scrutinizes how books became part of furnishing of piety (mobiliario de la piedad). Several inventories mention books that were not likely used by women, such as missals and other liturgical books more appropriate for celebrant priests than womens pious readings, which probably belonged to oratory furnishings. Moreover, religious objects and instruments of penitence were kept together with the books, suggesting a trajectory from discipline to disciplinamiento, whereby reading was perceived as a practice of self-control. The authors
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comment on diverse physical arrangements of womens books. In some cases books had their own space, a studio or part of a room dedicated to them, a common display in libraries mostly owned by professionals or noblemen. Small libraries were kept in escritorios, together with reading glasses and other instruments for reading. But interestingly, the incorporation of the book into womens daily life is signicantly revealed through its anarchic presence in non-specialized domestic spaces. Any domestic space could become a space for books. Most of the books owned by women were kept in coffers or chests, in which they were mixed with an array of female furnishings, a panoply of womens paraphernalia such as pieces of silk, linen, bags with money, documents of the household, etc. In sum, the erudition and extensive archival research of Biblioteca y lecturas de mujeres makes it a necessary study of womens libraries and book ownership in early modern Spain. The authors efforts to develop a general foundation for understanding womens reading practices is not completely satisfying but is most effective when dealing with case studies concerning libraries. Carmen Peraita

Andrea Bozzi, Laura Cignoni, Jean-Louis Lebrave, eds., Digital Technology and Philological Disciplines. Linguistica Computazionale Vol. XX-XXI. Pisa-Roma: Istituti editoriali e poligraci internazionali, 2004. xiii + 527 pp. ISSN 0392-6907. ISBN 88-8147-318-6. 110 EUR. The widely differing contributions to this double issue of Linguistica Computazionale, the majority by speakers at a European Science Foundation conference, all address the same set of questions. As the introduction puts it: In the light of the digital revolution, what is the position of philological disciplines? How are critical editors reacting to this? Is it seen only as a tool for teaching and for research, or does it assume a more innovative role from a methodological point-of-view? Given these questions, the second part of the title of the book is the most problematic: we all know what digital technology is supposed to be, but for most of us that does not apply to such a decidedly old-fashioned discipline
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as philology. This is certainly true of the English-speaking world, of Germany, France and the Low Countries, where in the sixties of the previous century the old philology was replaced by two self-consciously different disciplines: linguistics on the one hand and on the other literary criticism, the science of literature, Literaturwissenschaft. In my own country the word philology disappeared from our students diplomas and philology has as much allure as astrology or phrenology. This was not the case in Italy where, to some extent at least, lologia has remained the term for both literary and linguistic studies. As a result of this broad perspective, the issues addressed in the essays in this collection range from discussions of linguistic databases to editorial theory; the sense of diversity is strengthened by the fact that some of the authors seem to speak only to their peer-group, while others seriously attempt to create a dialogue across disciplinary borders. The result is that it is difcult to imagine an ideal reader for this collection; she has to be somebody who is interested in both the exact authorship of some of Platos dialogues and the nature of Samuel Becketts manuscripts, to mention only the rst and last of these essays. Some of the most interesting set of articles demonstrate (for those who still need to be convinced) the usefulness of Information Technology in the rapid management of large sets of data that allow the researcher to study the authenticity of individual works attributed to a given author or to compare the variants in a given manuscript. At the same time the authors stress the fact that this kind of work is not just meaningless number-crunching but that it needs sound philological judgement, on the level of the input of data, on that of the procedures that need to be developed and on the level of the interpretation of the ndings. Peter Robinson is the most eloquent in his defence of the usage of IT against those humanists who feel that they ought to defend their discipline in the name of A.E. Housman. A number of articles present local, national and international initiatives in the eld of the digitisation of the holdings of libraries or of other cultural artefacts: the Fondi e Archivi Digitali at Pisa, which links and makes accessible the holdings of four different institutes, one of them the Istituto Papirologico G. Vitelli in Florence; the digital editing of medieval
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diplomas of the Maramures region in northern Rumania; an on-line catalogue of Castilian and Catalan translations of Italian literary texts from 1300 to 1939; a bibliography of troubadour literature; a Czech digitization project; a Bulgarian initiative to present and preserve a diversity of cultural artefacts; a Leibniz website and one devoted to early Greek philosophy. Most of these projects, for the most part nationally funded, are either well under way or have already been nished and the results are available on the web. Some of the authors go into detail, such as Andrea Bozzi and Maria Soa Corradini who look at the ways that a study of Greek papyri, medieval manuscripts and early printed books can benet from the much less rigid digital management of texts and images. Some articles are fairly technical such as Pietro Beltramis description of the on-line Italian historical dictionary or the manner in which non-alphabetical Egyptian texts can be digitised. For some of the more theoretical contributions it is sometimes difcult to see the point, especially when claims are made or repeated that the electronic medium will not fail to bring about a revolution that will be just as radical as that of Gutenberg. Apocalyptic statements about the end of the book have been made in the past and will probably continue to be made in the future as long as books exits, but they will also fail to convince many people who, as is the case here, read about the revolution in the pages of a very old-fashioned and decidedly non-digital book. Ivn Horvth is one of these cyber-prophets who seem unable to offer arguments but instead speak in apodictic statements that proclaim that texts are plural by denition and that this nding solves the problem of variants by introducing a random generator into the process (or, as the author helpfully adds in more complicated cases a weighted random generator) which results in any case, the author assures us, in providing the readers with the most reliable text possible. As Mallarm used to put it: Un coup de ds jamais nabolira le hasard. With great tact the editors have followed his article with a thoughtful contribution by Claus Huitfeldt that does not fail to address the issue of the relationship between text technology and textual criticism in an intelligent and helpful manner



Auriel Bnel and Silvie Calabretto theorise the ontology of information models and come to a conclusion that to them at least seems quite shocking: three different aims of IT that are assumed by what they call the information technology community but these three aims belong to different and even opposite philosophical trends (the French original has the adjective incompatibles). A technical and theoretical article on the role of contamination in Lachmannian stemmatics is followed by an equally technical comparison of the linguistic peculiarities of English and Russian web texts. This is a useful collection of essays, but unfortunately it is occasionally marred by somewhat sloppy copy-editing and layout. The English in some of the contributions belongs to the international European kind with lexical and syntactic variants that too often betray the nationality of the author or that of the translator. Whereas the reading is sometimes hampered by these linguistic peculiarities, they never manage to make the text impossible to understand. These misgivings do not take away the fact that most of the authors in this volume offer clear and concise answers to the questions posed by the editors at the outset, showing once more the continued power and efcacy of paper-based information containers. Geert Lernout

Carlos Alvar and Jos Manuel Luca Megas, eds., Diccionario lolgico de literatura medieval espaola. Textos y transmission. Madrid: Castalia, 2002 (Nueva biblioteca de erudicin y crtica). 1178 pp. ISBN 84-9740-0186. 93 EUR. Classical Greek and Latin texts have been submitted to a constant barrage of textual criticism. The same cannot be said of medieval Spanish texts, which philologists have made only timid and rather limited or onesided attempts to study. When Alberto Blecuas Manual de crtica textual was published in 1983, it was the rst theoretical and practical endeavour to regulate the application of philological criteria to the study of Spanish texts. His book was the sequel to an initiative undertaken two years
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earlier by Incipit, which was then the only journal entirely devoted to questions concerning critical editions and textual transmission in Spanish. But despite the importance of these two publications, which set the foundations for textual criticism in Spanish, Hispanists were at rst reluctant to apply these concepts. In fact, the concepts were not widely employed until the 1990s, when a whole series of handbooks, scholarly articles and critical studies on specic texts were nally published, in a sudden burst of critical activity. These publications included work by Blecua himself, Orduna, Prez Priego and Snchez Prieto, among others. The Diccionario lolgico de literatura medieval espaola puts together the results of research published in the numerous manuals and critical studies that have appeared over the intervening years. But in addition to gathering together the philological expertise of those working in the eld, the book presents exhaustive and fully documented data of its own. The volume in fact gives an account of the textual tradition of almost three hundred medieval literary texts, chronicles and historiographical works, as testied by approximately one thousand ve hundred witnesses. That is to say, the Diccionario brings to fullment all the individual contributions previously published on questions concerning the study of medieval texts. In this monumental task, editors Carlos Alvar and Jos Manuel Luca Megas have been assisted by seventy international specialists in the eld of Spanish medieval literature. The Diccionario is made up of preliminary texts (general index to the volume, foreword and general bibliography), the dictionary itself and, nally, documentary material and indices included in appendices. The introduction tells the reader how to use the Diccionario and explains the fastest ways to nd information. It details the structure of the entries and the sort of data to be found in each part of each entry. In their introduction, the editors sketch out the slow development evident in Spanish textual criticism up until the last decade. They stress the absence of this sort of analysis in introductory handbooks, in collections of essays and in the proceedings of conferences specically focused on textual transmission (see, for example, Arnold Steigers book of 1964 or the proceedings edited by Ch. Kleinhenz in 1976). Alvar and Luca
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Megas believe that this absence was basically due to the variety of methods used and also to the dispersal of efforts, factors which in turn made it difcult for philologists to apply the new concepts to medieval literature. And hence the need for this Diccionario, which serves precisely to unify the large number of diverse criteria systematically applied to the study of a vast number of medieval texts. The introduction is followed by a general bibliography which lists catalogues and inventories of Spanish manuscripts and printed texts extant in Spanish and foreign libraries. The bulk of the volume, made up of 153 chapters, comes under the title Los textos y su transmisin (Texts and their transmission), which appears to be a tribute to the classic work by L. D. Reynolds, Texts and Transmission: A Survey of the Latin Classics (Oxford, 1983). This section deals with the transmission of Spanish medieval texts, although it should perhaps be noted that no account is made of works in translation or of texts written in languages other than Castilian (in Catalan or GalicianPortuguese). At the end of the volume the reader is presented with six appendices. These offer texts which, according to the editors, exemplify una compleja y particular tradicin (a complex and specic tradition). The appendices are as follows: Literatura aljamiada (Aljamiado literature), Compilacin de los cancioneros medievales (Medieval cancioneros or songbook collections), Poesas del xv en un centenar de manuscritos del Siglo de Oro (15th century poems preserved in a hundred Golden Age manuscripts), El cancionero tradicional medieval (Collections of traditional medieval songs), El romancero medieval (Collections of medieval ballads) and El teatro medieval (Medieval theatre). In their attempt to treat these complex subjects correctly, the authors have written in-depth studies, that are quite different in nature from the other chapters of the Diccionario, which offer information in a more schematic way, being devoted simply to an author or to an individual piece of work; however, the sort of information, as well as the way it is ordered, are practically the same as those that gure in the other chapters included in Los textos y su transmisin. The Diccionario ends with some very useful indices compiled by Beln Almeida and Cristina Castillo. They list authors, works, libraries and manuscripts,
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dated codices, copyists, previous owners and illustrated codices. Indices, chapters and appendices are all usefully cross-referenced. Chapters in the main section of the book (Los textos y su transmisin) are arranged alphabetically: by the authors rst name (rather than surname); by the title, if the text is anonymous; and, exceptionally, by content. The chapters vary in length, depending on the number of witnesses and the amount of bibliography available. Whereas some entries deal with the textual transmission of just one single work, others examine several, as is the case when different works are known to have been written by the same person (Alfonso X, Juan Fernndez de Heredia or Enrique de Villena among others) or when chapters are thematically arranged (under the heading of the Rhymed chronicles, for example, or that of the Medieval Castilian debates) and more than one title is examined. The information gathered about each work is organized in sections previously determined by the editors: Introduccin (Introduction), testimonios (witnesses), descripciones (descriptions), estudio lolgico (philological study), apndice (appendix) and bibliografa (bibliography). The Introduccin summarizes the most important information about the author, when the author has been identied, or about the work (if there are different works, each one has its own introductory paragraph). The second section identies the Testimonios conservados (extant witnesses) in different libraries and archives. Current and previous class-marks are listed (sometimes lost witnesses are also reported). Whenever printed editions of a work have been carried out during the Golden Age, these are all enumerated; if the editions happen to have their own class-mark and location, both are also noted down in the Apndice. A brief Descripcin codicolgica (codicological description) is then presented: type of manuscript, date, copyists name*, size of paper and number of sheets, writing material, type of handwriting, illuminations*, contents index, marginalia* and the history of the manuscript*. (Characteristics marked with an asterisk are rarely found.) As the editors point out in their foreword, the section devoted to the Estudio lolgico (philological study) was initially intended to examine textual relationships between the different witnesses and to
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review the most important editions published so far. However, in most cases, it came down to a matter of simply analysing a previous edition or of recognizing that a scientic study of the textual relationships had still to be made (see page xxii). The Apndice reports in detail on the features of the extant copies kept of printed texts, identifying the library, the town or city and, occasionally, the class-mark. The Bibliografa at the end of each chapter lists, whenever possible, modern editions that are available. Occasionally, details are also given of monographs, journal articles and bibliographies in which witnesses have been collected (although this information is absent from the majority of the entries). In the case of a work of this importance and scope, which gathers nearly all that has been achieved over the years in the eld of medieval Hispanic studies, the reader would perhaps have welcomed a clearer way of presenting the information. The editors give preference to an alphabetical ordering of entries over a chronological one, arguing that in this way they intend to avoid the distortions deriving from differing interpretations of the extant data (see page xxi). However, I would suggest that this preference is not helpful when a reader comes to look up information. On the contrary, readers may well nd it rather surprising, and confusing, to encounter the entry Jarchas, for example, just before Jorge Manrique and a long way after La Celestina after all, these entries are no only different in kind, they also belong to very different periods of history. The editors admit that at one point they considered arranging the texts by genre or content. And this is, in fact, the order which Carlos Alvar chose to follow in the paper which laid the foundation of the project that has led to this Diccionario (Manuscritos y tradicin textual, Revista de Filologa Espaola, 77, 1997, 33-68). Except in a few cases this solution was nally rejected. The exceptions listed by the editors are the following: Biblias romanceadas (Romance translations of the Bible), Debates medievales castellanos (Castilian medieval debates) and Lapidarios castellanos (Castilian lapidaries). I would add to these the entries for the Crnicas rimadas and the Jarchas, which are omitted by the editors. All these special entries seem to be closer in content and kind to the texts included in the appendix than to all the other texts collected in the main body of the Diccionario. In view
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of this, perhaps it would have been better, rst of all, to have listed the authors and texts chronologically, and then, afterwards, to have ordered the materials by genres or themes (among the latter would gure the many texts for which there is no known author and which, having developed over an undened period of time, are difcult to date). Perhaps a twin structure of this sort would have provided the reader with a quicker way of nding the material he or she was looking for. The vast wealth of materials and information contained in this Diccionario provides an overview of the textual transmission of medieval texts, highlighting the texts which are still awaiting critical and literary study. As such, it is an indispensable work of reference, and not only for all those studying medieval Castilian literature, but for any philologist. It is an example worth following if we are to carry out a co-ordinated critical study of the transmission of Spanish texts, from whatever period. Needless to say, such a coordinated study is of crucial importance for the correct understanding of many of our texts. Nuria Martnez de Castilla Muoz

Book Notices
Joep Leerssen and Marita Mathijsen, eds., Oerteksten. Nationalisme edities en canonvorming. Amsterdam: Instituut voor Cultuur en Geschiedenis, 2002. 158 pp. ISBN 90-807611-1-7. 15 EUR. In Oerteksten (Primal Texts, edited by Joep Leerssen and Marita Mathijsen) fteen members of the Department of literature at the University of Amsterdam have joined forces. They shed new light on the importance of nineteenth-century textual scholarship in contributing to building a national identity by revitalising medieval literary treasures. In her article, Marita Mathijsen argues that a growing national awareness, together with the need for a (constructed) high-level cultural history, were the

main reasons for late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century editions of medieval texts. Because the importance of these texts went beyond literature, they were edited and published with great care. At a certain point the publications of these works of great symbolic value were linked to classical philology. At that point modern textual scholarship was born. All fteen texts are grouped around this central thesis, which is found to be true for many different traditions and languages. All nations or peoples discussed in this book (the Dutch, the French, the Greek, the Norwegians, the Irish, the Jewish and the Slavic peoples) seem to have sought after and found their national epos in the nineteenth century (in some cases even earlier). In many cases, however, these founding myths were primarily used to prove an idea. Quite often their historical or literary importance was a minor issue. Although the idea of preserving textual cultural heritage emerged in that era, the nineteenth century did not provide us with scholarly edited texts only. The clean version of a text often just did not t the picture. For example, translations of religious Slavic texts offered many countries a sense of a national tradition, as William R. Veder argues, but they are in fact corrupted versions (due to translation problems) of one source. Providing a clean version of the liturgy would have implied a new translation of a version of that text that is closer to the source and would have diminished the illusion of national heritage. August den Hollander presents a similar scenario. For a very long period of time (in a way even up till now) the Dutch held on to the Bible translation of 1637, because of the fact that this rst integral translation into Dutch was believed to be authentic. Non-religious texts can be precious to the people as well, as Max Lauxtermann points out in his article. The need for a Byzantine Greek hero (to prove the continuity of ancient Greece through the Byzantine period to modern Greece) led to corrupted versions of the Digenis Akritis epos. It is typical of texts of national importance that these falsications could only be corrected after the saga had lost its importance. Jan Burgers takes this phenomenon a step further in his contribution on Melis Stokes Rijmkroniek (Rhyme-chronical). He argues that texts that play a central role in cultural life are not only subject to a (pseudo-)academic approach, they are subject to forgery and parody as well.
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These are only a few examples of the difcult and slow start of textual scholarship in nineteenth-century Europe. The rst signs of modern textual scholarship did in fact emerge in that era, but it took a long time before the theories of its father, Lachmann, were applied and discussed all over Europe. Several contributions in this collection therefore seem to tell a story that differs from the central thesis. It nevertheless seems to be a promising eld of research. In a more ambitious project, resulting in a perhaps more coherent book, the history of editing primal texts can provide us with an important story about the origin of textual editing, but also about the origin of national identity. This useful collection of articles will hopefully be a rst step toward a substantial work on this subject. Matthijs de Ridder Noah Wardrip-Fruin and Nick Montfort, eds., The New Media Reader. Cambridge and London: MIT Press, 2003. 823 pp. + CD-ROM. ISBN 0-262-23227-8. 29.95 GBP; 48 USD. This impressive collection of 54 texts on new media, with introductions by Janet H. Murray and Lev Manovich, is an important statement. The editors, Noah Wardrip-Fruin and Nick Montfort, present new media as a domain that is certainly not constrained to computer experts and that contributes to bridging the gap between science and the humanities. For instance, the rst text in this collection is Jorge Luis Borges story The Garden of Forking Paths. As the editors explain in a short introduction, many of new medias important ideas and inuence rst appeared in unexpected contexts (29). The collection is divided into four subdivisions. Apart from Borges, the rst part (I. The Complex, the Changing, and the Indeterminate) contains landmark articles by Vannevar Bush, AlanTuring, Theodor Nelson, but also William Burroughs explanation of The Cut-Up Method of Brion Gysin and a selection of articles by the Oulipo (Ouvroir de littrature potentielle). The second part (II. Collective Media, Personal Media) opens with two texts by Marshall McLuhan (from Understanding Media and The Gutenberg Galaxy), and gathers articles from the 1960s and 1970s, such as Hans Magnus Enzensbergers ConBook Notices 367

stituents of a Theory of the Media (1970), Jean Baudrillards Requiem for the Media (1972), and a selection from Gilles Deleuze and Flix Guattaris A Thousand Plateaus (1980). Two manifestoes mark the third part (III. Design, Activity, and Action), focusing on the early 1980s: Donna Haraways A Cyborg Manifesto (1985) and Richard Stallmans The GNU Manifesto (1985). Stallmans project (the acronym stands for GNUs Not Unix) is at the basis of the so-called copyleft system (as opposed to copyright), which is intended to guarantee that software that is created to be free remains free, instead of being integrated and distributed as part of proprietary software. The latter is especially relevant to scholarly editing in the computer age. The point of tangency between the elds of scholarly editing and new media becomes apparent in cases such as Peter Robinsons important decision to make the Anastasia software open-source. Another interesting text in this section is Theodor Nelsons Proposal for a Universal Electronic Publishing System and Archive, a chapter from Literary Machines (1981). Because in the early 1980s computers were still quite expensive, Nelson devised a plan to charge the user a small amount for each piece of information accessed as system of micropayment comparable to a utility charging for each amount of electricity or water used. The interesting aspect of this micropayment system is that most of the payment was intended for the owner of the viewed materials copyright. This idea is still valuable and may be relevant to scholarly editing, as is evidenced by Peter Shillingsburgs recent suggestion (in his opening lecture at the 2005 STS conference in New York) to create self-sustaining knowledge-sites, generating revenue with user fees instead of material sales or subscriptions. Royalties to copyright holders, publishers, libraries, and scholars could be based on the number of hits. With reference to scholarly editing, this use-fee mechanism could be of help in the negotiations with owners of manuscripts and copyright-holders. These copyright and copyleft systems may seem to exclude each other, but in reality they apply to different aspects of scholarly editing the development of software on the one hand and the payment of copyright holders on the other hand. The latter aspect touches on a legal tradition and mentality that will not be changed by
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scholarly editors alone. That is why it may be interesting for scholarly editors to take an interest in the ideas developed within the broader eld of new media. This eld is characterized by a distinct openness to innovation and vivid imagination, as this New Media Reader clearly demonstrates. As the title of the last part (IV. Revolution, Resistance, and the Launch of the Web) indicates, the World Wide Web is the culmination point of this collection. But implicitly, it also marks the end of the revolutionary rhetoric that characterizes the cyber-euphoria of many texts on new media from the rst half of the 1990s. With this New Media Reader, Wardrip-Fruin and Montfort have gathered a rst-rate selection of texts that articulate the developments of half a century in this new eld. The texts are appropriately completed by a chronologically and thematically organized CD-ROM that presents a representative outline of generic types whose development was enabled by new media. Apart from the exciting contents of this New Media Reader, its exemplary formal aspects from careful editing to a refreshing layout with edge markers and link lines must not go unrecorded. The editors briey introduce every single article, include all the original illustrations, and provide short, well-selected lists with suggestions for further reading. As an excellent introduction to the eld of new media, this anthology may already be considered a standard work. Dirk Van Hulle Raimonda Modiano, Leroy F. Searle, and Peter Shillingsburg, eds., Voice, Text, Hypertext: Emerging Practices in Textual Studies. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2004. 439 pp. ISBN 0-295-98306-X (Paperback). 35 USD; ISBN 0-295-98305-1 (Cloth). 60 USD. This volume is a result of the international conference Voice, Text, and Hypertext at the Millenium which was held in October 1997 to inaugurate the University of Washingtons program in textual studies. The list of contributors is long and impressive. The essays by eminent scholars such as Peter Shillingsburg, Paul Eggert, Jerome McGann, Susan Hockey, and David Greetham conrm the editors opening claim that
Book Notices 369

this collection offers a major contribution to scholarly debates in textual studies (vii). Each of the eighteen essays in this volume challenges contemporary editorial traditions by confronting them with the complexity of a particular textual source. The selection of discussed sources is extremely diverse: historically (from biblical and classical to medieval, Renaissance and modern), culturally (from ancient Near Eastern, Roman and Indian to South Slavic and Czech) and with regard to genres and types of texts (from religious songs, oral epics, and sonnets to legal statutes, drama, ction, and marginalia). As a result, the volume is not only important as a contribution to the theory of textual editing, but also as a rich historical journey that acquaints us with foundational systems of beliefs and textual practices in ancient and modern cultures (vii). Notwithstanding the diversity in subject matter, the editors ascertain a common theme in all of the contributions: they demonstrate the importance to any discipline of understanding the theoretical and practical problems involved in moving texts from their native times, places and formats into a modern scholarly and, increasingly, electronic space (ixx). A further thematic study of the essays has led to a division into six parts: Textual Space, Oral Text, Material Text, Subversive / Subverted Text, Electronic Text, and Textual Maintenance. As the word Voice in the title leads to assume, many of the contributions deal with scholarly editing of textual material with oral origins, and stress the importance of understanding what happens to oral works during the process of textualisation. In his essay The Text Between the Voice and the Book Roger Chartier discusses the insufciency of the fundamental notions of the literary institution in the study of the production and circulation of texts in antiquity. Conventional literary studies depart from a view on text as monument, whereas ancient texts should be approached as events. Martin S. Jaffee explores some ontological dimensions of the written and spoken word in early Rabbinic Judaism (from about the third to the sixth centuries C.E.). John Miles Foley tells the tale of how South Slavic epic was textualised (101) by two groups of editors, one from the nineteenth and one from the twentieth century. Winand M. Callewaert reports on his work on Bhakti litera370 VARIANTS 4 2005

ture, chiey on religious songs from between 1400 and 1700 A.D. that were never written down by the original composers. He sets out to describe a method that may enable the textual critic to go beyond the written archetype and approach the oral archetype (121) of the songs attributed to Kabir. He concludes that the current available editions can no longer be relied on and proposes that new critical editions should be prepared, using all the ancient manuscripts and applying the hypothesis about the oral variants in the manuscripts (130). In part III, Material Text, Paul Eggert makes a plea for editorial theory to pay more attention to the bibliographic features of texts. A textual theory that stresses the textual dimension of a work at the expense of its physical dimension, is inevitably to produce a awed and partial account (169). In his essay Gerald Hopkins and the Shapes of His Sonnets, Randall McLeod takes up this point by demonstrating how much of the body language of poems is lost through inattention to such spatial signiers as indentation and leading (viii). The part of the volume on Electronic Text consists of an essay by Susan Hockey on The Reality of Electronic Editions as it was in 1997, and of an overview by Jerome McGann of the theoretical goals of the Rossetti Archive. In the last essay of Voice, Text, Hypertext Peter Shillingsburg raises the fundamental question: Why do we create scholarly editions? Why do we spend our time and our lives in this way? (412) Shillingsburg dispels the myth that scholarly editions could ever be objective, complete and denitive. Editors should only harbour the ambition to give documentary evidence with as much clarity and accuracy as they can. He further makes an appeal to editors to communicate more and better about the results of their careful textual study, to write with passion about the effects that variant forms of texts have on understanding and interpretation. If the people who do the real work of examining texts closely will also write about the interpretative consequences of their hard-won knowledge, the difference between understanding texts and dancing around them or taking airy ights from them, as most critics do may become more evident in our profession (423). Vincent Neyt

Book Notices

Notes on Contributors
George Bornstein is C. A. Patrides Professor of Literature at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. He has edited several collections of essays on editorial theory and practice as well as several volumes of work by W. B. Yeats, including the forthcoming Early Essays for the Collected Works of W. B. Yeats project (Scribner/Palgrave 2006). His critical books include most recently Material Modernism: The Politics of the Page (Cambridge, 2001) and a current project on The Colors of Zion: Blacks, Jews, and Irish a Century Ago. Julia Briggs is Professor of English Literature at De Montfort University, Leicester and an Emeritus Fellow of Hertford College, Oxford. She has written a history of the ghost story, Night Visitors (1977), a study of renaissance literature in its historical context, This Stage-Play World (1983, revised 1997), a biography of the childrens writer E. Nesbit (1987) and a major new study, Virginia Woolf: An Inner Life (Penguin/Allen Lane, 2005). Her collection of essays, Reading Virginia Woolf, will be published by Edinburgh University Press in 2006, and her edition of Shakespeares Measure for Measure for Penguin came out in October 2005. John Bryant is a Professor of English at Hofstra University, and has published A Companion to Melville Studies, Melville and Repose: The Rhetoric of Humor in the American Renaissance, and The Fluid Text: A Theory of Revision and Editing for Book and Screen. He has also published editions of Melvilles Typee and a collection of Melvilles Tales, Poems, and Other Writings. As Editor of the Melville Society, he founded and publishes the journal Leviathan and publishes Extracts (the Melville Society Newsletter). His study of the Typee manuscript and his archival electronic edition of the manuscript are forthcoming in 2006 from the University of Michigan and University of Virginia presses.

James Cummings is the research ofcer for the Oxford Text Archive at the University of Oxford. His Ph.D. was on medieval English drama, and he is on the executive of the Digital Medievalist project. In addition, he is currently serving an elected term on the technical council of the Text Encoding Initiative. Jed Deppman is director of Comparative Literature at Oberlin College. He has published on 19th and 20th-century literature and philosophy in Qui Parle, Symploke, Style, European Joyce Studies, and elsewhere. He recently translated and, with Michael Groden and Daniel Ferrer, co-edited Genetic Criticism: Texts and Avant-Textes (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004) and is now at work on a book entitled A Dickinson for Our Time. Deppman is the Emily Dickinson International Societys 2005 Lindberg-Seyersted Scholar in Amherst. Matthijs de Ridder is afliated to the Louis Paul Boon Documentatiecentrum UA/ISLN (University of Antwerp) where he is writing a dissertation on the activist counter tradition in Flemish literature He studied Dutch Language and Culture in Groningen and Antwerp. He is author of articles on Gaston Burssens, Louis Paul Boon, and Kurt Khler, and editor of the collected poems of Gaston Burssens: Alles is mogelijk in een gedicht: de Verzamelde verzen (Meulenhoff/Manteau, 2005). Joo Dionsio is Professor of Portuguese Medieval Literature at the University of Lisbon, member of CLUL (Centro de Lingustica da Universidade de Lisboa), co-editor of Romnica, journal of the Department of Romance Literatures, Faculty of Letters, U. Lisbon. He is the editor of volumes of English Poetry and Portuguese Poetry by Fernando Pessoa, in the Critical Edition series directed by Ivo Castro. He is currently working on an electronic edition of the late medieval treatise Leal Conselheiro, by D. Duarte. M. J. Driscoll is lecturer in Old Norse philology (norrn lologi) at Den Arnamagnanske Samling, part of the University of Copenhagen. He is also head of department and curator of the Arnamagnan manuscript collection, and member of the TEI council. His research interests inNotes on Contributors 373

clude manuscript and textual studies, particularly in the area of Old and Early-Modern Icelandic. He is involved in a number of projects to do with the digitisation and text-encoding of medieval manuscripts. Paul Eggert is director of the Australian Scholarly Editions Centre at the University of New South Wales at ADFA in Canberra where he is professor of English. He has edited titles for the Cambridge Works of D. H. Lawrence and the Academy Editions of Australian Literature series, of which he is the founding general editor. He is also co-editing an edition of Conrads Under Western Eyes for Cambridge. He writes in the areas of print culture, editorial theories of the text, and the restoration of historic buildings and paintings. Charles F. Fraker was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He received his doctorate in Spanish literature at Harvard in 1963. The greater part of his teaching career was at the University of Michigan; he is now retired. His scholarly writings include works on the Cancionero de Baena, the Celestina, the Libro de Alexandre and most extensively, the historiography of Alfonso el Sabio. Hans Walter Gabler recently retired as Professor of English Literature at the University of Munich, Germany, where, from 1996 to 2002, he directed an interdisciplinary graduate programme on Textual Criticism as Foundation and Method of the Historical Disciplines. He was editorin-chief of the critical editions of James Joyces Ulysses (1984/1986), A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, and Dubliners (both 1993). Michael Groden is Professor of English at the University of Western Ontario. He is the author of Ulysses in Progress (1977), general editor of The James Joyce Archive (63 volumes, 1977-79), compiler of James Joyces Manuscripts: An Index (1980), and co-editor of The Johns Hopkins Guide to Literary Theory and Criticism (1994; 2nd edition, 2005) and Genetic Criticism: Texts and Avant-textes (2004). He is currently working on a biography of Ulysses based on the books manuscripts, including the newly acquired ones at the National Library of Ireland, and on a memoir of a life spent working with Ulysses.
374 VARIANTS 4 2005

Joseph J. Gwara is Associate Professor of Spanish at the U.S. Naval Academy. He has published extensively on Old Spanish literature and is currently engaged in a research project on sixteenth-century English printing. Anne Mette Hansen, Pd.D. in Philology, University of Copenhagen, 2005, is a philologist at the Sren Kierkegaard Research Centre where she works at the new edition Sren Kierkegaards Skrifter (Sren Kierkegaards Writings). Her Ph.D. dissertation deals with material philology and the editing of late medieval Danish prayer books. Geert Lernout teaches comparative literature at the University of Antwerp, where he is director of the James Joyce Center. He has published and edited books on Joyce and Friedrich Hlderlin, and a variety of articles on editorial theory and genetic criticism. With Daniel Ferrer and Vincent Deane he is editor of The Finnegans Wake Notebooks at Buffalo (Brepols, 2001). Roger Ldeke studied English, Comparative and Spanish Literature in Munich, Mexico-City, London and Paris, 1999 PhD (dissertation on: Henry James and Revision). Since 2003 he has been Academic Coordinator of the Doctoral Programme in Literature at the University of Munich. His publications include Wiederlesen. Revisionspraxis und Autorschaft bei Henry James, 2002 (Co-ed. Erika Greber); Intermedium Literatur, 2004 (Co-ed. J. Dnne, H. Doetsch); Von Pilgerwegen, Schriftspuren und Blickpunkten. Raumpraktiken in medienhistorischer Perspektive, 2004 (Co-ed. S. Kammer); Texte zur Theorie des Texts, 2005; articles on 18th20th Century Literature, History of Textual Scholarship, Film, Literary Theory. Mike Malm received his M.A. in English Literature from the University of Bonn in 2000. In 2001 he was awarded the Queens Prize of the University of Bonn. In 2003 he received a PhD from the University of Munich with a study and electronic edition of Ezra Pounds The Fifth Decad of Cantos. He works for a publishing house in Munich.

Notes on Contributors


John McCourt teaches at the University of Trieste where he is co-founder of the Trieste Joyce School. He is the author of The Years of Bloom: Joyce in Trieste 19041920 (Dublin: Lilliput Press 2000), of James Joyce: A Passionate Exile (London: Orion Books, 2000) and of numerous essays on nineteenth and twentieth century Irish writing. He is currently working on a volume of essays on Joyce as a Catholic Irish writer and on a book on Anthony Trollope as an Irish novelist. Jerome McGann is the John Stewart Bryan University Professor, University of Virginia. He is the principal coordinator of the NINES project and its tools development arm, ARP, which is designing and building digital software for the interpretive investigation of humanities materials, especially textual materials. His most recent book is to appear shortly: The Scholars Art. Literary Studies in an Administered World (U. of Chicago Press, 2006). Nuria Martnez de Castilla Muoz is Doctor of Romanic Philology at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Her doctoral thesis is a critical edition and study of an Aljamiat manuscript of the Real Academia de la Historia. She has published articles on Moriscoes, heterodoxy, textual criticism and the Aljamiat language. Ragnhei ur Msesdttir is librarian at the Arnamagnan Institute, and holds a Cand. mag. in history, an MA in archive studies, and a Diploma in research librarianship. Her earlier research has concentrated on the change in secular administration in Iceland after the Reformation; current research deals with the publication activities of the Arnamagnan Commission in the period 17721936. Vincent Neyt has a degree in Dutch and English literature and is currently working at the University of Antwerp with Dirk Van Hulle on an electronic genetic edition of Samuel Becketts late works. Eva Nilsson Nylander, l. lic., latinist and manuscript librarian, is responsible for the cataloguing of the medieval manuscripts at Lund University



Library (cf., and Swedish representative in CIPL (Confederation internationale de palographie latine). Carmen Peraita (Ph.D. University of California, Santa Babrara) is associate professor at Villanova University (Pennsylvania). She has published extensively on the political and historical work of Quevedo, including the book Quevedo y el joven Felipe IV: el prncipe cristiano y el arte del consejo (Reichenberger, 1997) and has published several articles on education in the Renaissance (Vives) and the history of reading. Fritz Senn, of the Zrich James Joyce Foundation, has been looking into, and writing about, Joyce for a long time. Some of the results have been assembled in Nichts gegen Joyce: Joyce versus Nothing, 1983; Joycean Dislocutions, 1985; Inductive Scrutinies: Focus on Joyce, 1995; and Nicht nur Nichts gegen Joyce, 1999. Peter L. Shillingsburg is Professor of English at De Montfort University. He is author of Scholarly Editing in the Computing Age, Resisting Texts, and two books on W. M. Thackeray. His most recent book, From Gutenberg to Google: Electronic Representations of Literary Texts will be published by Cambridge UP in 2006. Sam Slote is the author of The Silence in Progress of Dante, Mallarm, and Joyce and the co-editor of the forthcoming A Genetic Guide to Finnegans Wake. Wolfgang Streit teaches English and Comparative Literature at the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany. He writes and publishes in the areas of modern English literature, Irish studies, lm studies, and architecture. His book Joyce / Foucault: Sexual Confessions was published in 2004 (U of Michigan Press). His introduction to Postcolonial Studies is scheduled for publication in 2006. Dirk Van Hulle is associate professor of English literature at the University of Antwerp. He is author of Textual Awareness: A Genetic Study of Late Manuscripts by Joyce, Proust, and Mann (Michigan UP, 2004) and executive editor of the series of variorum editions of Samuel Becketts bilingual works.

Notes on Contributors


Marta Werner is the author of Emily Dickinsons Open Folios: Scenes of Reading, Surfaces of Writing and Radical Scatters: An Electronic Archive of Emily Dickinsons Late Fragments and Related Texts. She is co-editor, with Paul Voss, of a special issue of Studies in the Literary Imagination on the poetics of the archive. Most recently, she has co-edited, with Nicholas Lawrence, an edition of Nathaniel and Sophia Hawthornes Common Journal. She teaches in the Department of Liberal Arts, DYouville College.



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A new edition revised and enlarged.

Petrarchs Canzoniere in the English Renaissance.

Edited with Introduction and Notes by Anthony Mortimer.
Amsterdam/New York, NY 2005. 196 pp.
(Internationale Forschungen zur Allgemeinen und Vergleichenden Literaturwissenschaft 88)

ISBN: 90-420-1676-0

44,-/ US $ 55.-

Seven centuries after the birth of Petrarch (1304-74) the nature and extent of his influence loom ever larger in the study of renaissance literature. In this revised and expanded edition of Petrarch's Canzoniere in the English Renaissance Anthony Mortimer presents a unique anthology of 136 English poems together with the specific Italian texts that they translate, adapt or exploit. The result, with its revealing juxtapositions of major and minor figures, makes fascinating reading for anyone who wants to get beyond broad generalizations about Petrarchism and see exactly what English poets made of Petrarch's celebrated sequence.

Reviewing the first edition, Professor Brian Vickers wrote: "An ideal text-book for university courses in English or Comparative Literature. The critical introduction is a fresh, independent and accurate survey of the role of Petrarchism in the English Renaissance . . . our literary history is being rewritten, more accurately".
ANTHONY MORTIMER is Professor of English Literature at the University of Fribourg, Switzerland, and also taught for many years at the University of Geneva. His major interests are in renaissance poetry and in the practice of verse translation. Among his recent publications are: Variable Passions: A Reading of Shakespeare's 'Venus and Adonis' (New York, 2000); Petrarch: Canzoniere (verse translations for Penguin Classics, London, 2002) and, as editor, The Authentic Cadence: Centennial Essays on Gerard Manley Hopkins (Fribourg, 1992) and From Wordsworth to Stevens : Essays in Honour of Robert Rehder (Bern and New York, 2005).

USA/Canada: 906 Madison Avenue, UNION, NJ 07083, USA. Call toll-free (USA only)1-800-225-3998, Tel. 908 206 1166, Fax 908-206-0820 All other countries: Tijnmuiden 7, 1046 AK Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Tel. ++ 31 (0)20 611 48 21, Fax ++ 31 (0)20 447 29 79 Please note that the exchange rate is subject to fluctuations

Beckett, Joyce and the Art of the Negative.

Edited by Colleen Jaurretche.

Amsterdam/New York, NY 2005. 246 pp. (European Joyce Studies 16)

ISBN: 90-420-1617-5 Bound 50,-/ US $ 63.-

This collection presents articles that examine Joyce and Becketts mutual interest in and use of the negative for artistic purposes. The essays range from philological to psychoanalytic approaches to the literature, and they examine writing from all stages of the authors careers. The essays do not seek a direct comparison of author to author; rather they lay out the intellectual and philosophical foundations of their work, and are of interest to the beginning student as well as to the specialist.

USA/Canada: 906 Madison Avenue, UNION, NJ 07083, USA. Call toll-free (USA only)1-800-225-3998, Tel. 908 206 1166, Fax 908-206-0820 All other countries: Tijnmuiden 7, 1046 AK Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Tel. ++ 31 (0)20 611 48 21, Fax ++ 31 (0)20 447 29 79 Please note that the exchange rate is subject to fluctuations

Essays on Music and the Spoken Word and on Surveying the Field.
Edited by Suzanne M. Lodato and David Francis Urrows.
Amsterdam/New York, NY 2005. XII, 200 pp. (Word and Music Studies 7)
ISBN: 90-420-1897-6 44,-/ US$ 55.-

Word and Music Studies.

The nine interdisciplinary essays in this volume were presented in 2003 in Berlin at the Fourth International Conference on Word and Music Studies, which was sponsored by The International Association for Word and Music Studies (WMA). The nine articles in this volume cover two areas: Surveying the Field and Music and the Spoken Word. Topics include postmodernism, philosophy, German literary modernism, opera, film, the Lied, radio plays, and verbal counterpoint. They cover the works of such philosophers, critics, literary figures, and composers as Argento, Beckett, Deleuze, Guattari, Feldman, Glenn Gould, Nietzsche, Schubert, Strauss, Wagner, and Wolfram.. Three films are discussed: Casablanca, The Fisher King, and Thirty Two Short Films About Glenn Gould.

USA/Canada: 906 Madison Avenue, UNION, NJ 07083, USA. Call toll-free (USA only)1-800-225-3998, Tel. 908 206 1166, Fax 908-206-0820 All other countries: Tijnmuiden 7, 1046 AK Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Tel. ++ 31 (0)20 611 48 21, Fax ++ 31 (0)20 447 29 79 Please note that the exchange rate is subject to fluctuations