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Teaching Plan

SPECIAL CONTRACTS

BBA/BA LL.B III Semester (Batch: 2011-16)

BY

Dr. Madhuker S. (Asstt. Prof.) Symbiosis Law School, NOIDA Symbiosis International University, Pune

June 2012 October 2012


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1.

INTRODUCTION

The Law of Special Contracts deals with special kind of contracts, like, contract of sale of goods, contract with respect to negotiable instruments, contract of transfer of property, etc. The Law of Contract, namely Indian Contract Act, gives us very basic but essential principles that govern various kinds of contract, including special contracts; law of special contracts, namely Negotiable Instruments Act, Sale of Goods Act, etc., too are based on the principles governing the Indian Contract Act.

The Law of Contract in India is specie of common law of England. The English principles of law of contract are almost entirely the creation of the courts, the legislature later, played a relatively small role in its development. They are, for the most part, development of last 200 years, for contract law is a child of commerce, and has grown through agricultural to industrial nation. The growth of international trade further led to the creation of international commodity, shipping, insurance, and money market, many of which were centered in Europe. All of these commercial developments depended and still do depend for their successful operation upon contract.

The law of contracts touches equally upon the lives of ordinary persons and the activities of small and big business. This branch of law deals with law relating to promises, their formation, performance and enforceability. Apart from the General Principles of Contract contained in the Indian Contract Act, 1872, it is further scattered over several legislations. There are special legislations dealing with particular contractual relationships, e.g. The Sale of Goods Act, 1930, The Partnership Act, 1932, Negotiable Instruments Act, 1889 etc. This course may be divided into four parts. First part deals with kinds of special contracts, like, contract of indemnity, contract of guarantee, contract of agency, contract of bailment, and contract of pledge.

The second part of the course deals with the study of sale of goods. The only emphasis in this part is Sale of Goods Act, 1932. The third part of this course deals with law of partnership. Its a kind of special contract wherein the parties agree upon to carry a business on certain defined terms. The fourth part of this course deals with negotiable instruments. The whole emphasis in this part is on The Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881.

2.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES (Knowledge, Skills and Outcomes)

In the first part of Law of Contract, the learners have learnt the intricacies of general principles of Contract. This second part of the Law of Contract, i.e., Law of Special Contract, proceeds into the field of core commercial contracts. The objective of this course is to teach the learners the peculiarities of special contracts, including, law of sales of goods, and partnership act.

A. Knowledge The overall objective of this course is to enable learners to; Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the wide range of legal concepts, customs, principles, rules and procedures surrounding the law of special contracts. Demonstrate a comprehensive and accurate knowledge and understanding of the detail of the legislations, and the theoretical rationale involved and relationship to the relevant economic, social, commercial and political context in which the law of special contracts operate. After studying Law of contract, which required the learners to understand the broad patterns of essential principles and steps in the formation of valid contract and to identify the main policy reasons why the Courts or Parliament have developed the scope of contractual liability in particular ways, they have acquired a general understanding of the principles upon which contractual obligation is imposed, including the historical, political, social, economic and other factors, which may affect the development of such obligation. The specific objective of this course is to enable the learners to acquire a comprehensive knowledge and understanding of general principles of the Law of Special Contracts, namely, Sale of Goods Act, Partnership Act, Negotiable Instruments Act and some specified areas of Indian Contract Act (includes contract of indemnity, contract of guarantee, and contract of agency). It requires learners to be able, in the context of a given problem or essay question, to identify the relevant area(s) of the law of contract and to apply that law in detail and with precision and accuracy to provide an appropriate solution.

B. Skills The overall objective of this undergraduate course is to develop in the learners the following set of skills: general cognitive intellectual skills; general communicative/employability skills; and subject specific skills.

Cognitive The course demands that learners have the capacity to demonstrate insight in presenting materials drawn from a wide and sometimes contradictory range of primary and secondary sources and doctrinal commentary; and to demonstrate an ability to produce a synthesis of those materials that offers a personal and informed criticism.

Employability Law of special contract will demand that learners have the capacity to be able to write and use orally fluent and complex prose; using legal terminology with scrupulous care and accuracy.

Subject Specific Law of special contract will demand an ability to identify and select key relevant issues and to apply that knowledge with clarity to difficult situations of significant legal complexity; to analyse facts and to produce well-supported conclusions in relation to them.

C. Outcomes Two key skills will be highlighted by this course (a) case synthesis/problem solving and (b) independent research. These skills will be central to success in completing this course(s) scheme of assessment. i. Case synthesis/Problem solving In preparing for tutorials, learners will be asked to read, analyse and synthesize a number of cases. They will also be asked to use that knowledge to support their answer to a number of hypothetical, factual or problem scenarios. In preparing properly for tutorials, they will be preparing properly for the end of term assessment. ii. Independent research/group work In preparing for the coursework assignment, particular emphasis will be placed on independent learning i.e., the ability to take initiative in the design (individualized approach or plan of action) and research (external legal and non-legal sources) of the stated project. The coursework in question is deliberately broadly drawn, and is designed to challenge the learners in this regard. iii. Final Outcome Assessment is by compulsory coursework examination (100%) (Including Internal and External Assessment) by the Symbiosis International University, Pune.

3.

LECTURES
Times and Attendance Three lecture times per week have been set aside for this course for each division. Verify it from the time table assigned for each division. Lecture outlines, principally in the form of PowerPoint slides, will be made available in advance on the Symbiosis Law School, Noida Online/Offline (LAN) system. To facilitate understanding of these lectures, learners should always read at least the relevant pages of suggested readings in advance of each lecture. As per Symbiosis International University, Pune Regulations, please note that Students are expected to attend minimum 75% of all scheduled sessions and other forms of instruction as defined by the programme of study.

Note: The student having less than 75% attendance in the Semester will be declared with Term Not Granted, and he/she will not be permitted to appear in the Term End External Examination to be conducted by the Symbiosis International University.

4.

SCHEME AND STRUCTURE


(01)

Topic 1: Introduction to Law of Special Contract, including Law of Sale of Goods, and Law of Negotiable Instruments i. ii. Syllabus Preview Underlying principles and philosophy in Law of Special Contract, like, contract of guarantee & indemnity, law of sale of goods, and law of negotiable instruments

Topic 2: Brief History of the Sale of Goods Act & Negotiable Instruments Act i. ii.

(01)

History of Law of Contract, Law of Sale of Goods, and Law of Negotiable Instruments in India Preliminary of Indian Contract Act, Sale of Goods Act, and Negotiable Instruments Act

Topic 3: Contract of Indemnity i. ii. iii. Meaning, definition, and nature of contract of indemnity Liability of indemnity-holder Rights of indemnity-holder

(02)

Topic 4: Indemnity in case of international transactions, and indemnity by government during interstate transactions (01)

Topic 5: Contract of Guarantee i. ii. iii. iv. v. Meaning, definition, and nature of guarantee Element of consideration in contract of guarantee Extent of suretys liability Discharge of surety from liability & Discharge of principal debtor

(02)

Rights of Surety: against the co-sureties, against the principal debtor, and against the creditor

vi.

Continuing guarantee, and Bank guarantee

Topic 6: Difference between Contract of Indemnity & Contract of Guarantee

(01)

Topic 7: Contract of Bailment i. ii. iii. Meaning, definition, and nature of contract of bailment Rights, duties, and liabilities of the bailor Rights, duties, and liabilities of the bailee

(01)

Topic 8: Concept & Principles of Lien i. ii. iii. Meaning and nature of lien Particular lien General lien

(02)

Topic 9: Contract of Pledge i. ii. iii. iv. Meaning and nature of pledge Who can pledge Rights of pawnee, including right to redeem Commercial utility of transaction of pledge

(06)

Topic 10: Difference between Contract of Pledge, Mortgage, Bailment, and Hypothecation

(02)

Topic 11: Contract of Agency i. ii. iii. iv. Meaning, definition, and nature of contract of agency Creation of agency, and its various kinds Determination of agency Appointment of sub-agent, and his termination

(03)

Topic 12: Relations between Principal, Agent and the Third Person i. ii. iii. Relations between principal and agent Relations between principal and the third person Rights, duties, and liabilities of principal and agent, both

(01)

Topic 13: Law of Sale of Goods i. ii. iii. iv. v. Meaning, definition, and nature of the term goods Definition clause: goods, price, subject matter, seller, buyer, stipulations, etc. Difference between sale and agreement to sell Sale by sample

(06)

Implied conditions as to title of goods, descriptions of goods, quality & condition of goods, etc.

vi. vii. viii. ix. x.

Rule of caveat emptor, and its exceptions Transfer of property in r/o contract of sale goods Transfer of risk from seller to buyer with r/o generic goods and specific goods Performance of contract of sale of goods, Delivery of goods and rules relating to delivery

Topic 14: Conditions and Warranties

(01)

Topic 15: Legal Position of Unpaid Seller i. ii. Rights of unpaid seller Remedies for breach of contract

(02)

Topic 16: Auction Sales, and International Sales of Goods i. ii. Sale by auction International commercial transaction

(01)

Topic 17: Law of Partnership i. ii. iii. iv. v. Meaning, definition, and nature of partnership Advantages and disadvantages of partnership Mutual relations between partners: implied authority, duties, liabilities, and rights Relations of partners with the third parties Transfer of a partners interest

(02)

Topic 18: Position of Minor in a Contract of Partnership i. ii. Position of minor under law of contract Position of minor in a contract of partnership

(01)

Topic 19: Dissolution of Partnership i. ii. Mutual dissolution Compulsory dissolution

(02)

Topic 20: Law of Negotiable Instruments i.

(04)

Meaning, definition, and nature of negotiable instruments, including minimum requirements to make an instrument to be negotiable instrument

ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii.

Kinds of negotiable instruments, and the basic differences between & among them Acceptance of the instrument (meaning, essentials, rights and privileges) Payment in due course Rules regarding payment of cheque Dishonor of cheque and its consequences Dishonor of negotiable instruments Discharge of parties

Topic 21: Holder and Holder in Due Course i. ii. Meaning of holder and holder in due course Difference between holder and holder in due course

(02)

Lecture Outline: Week 01: June 25, 2012 Lecture-2 Topic 1: Introduction to Law of Special Contract, including Law of Sale of Goods, and Law of Negotiable Instruments Syllabus Preview Underlying principles and philosophy in Law of Special Contract, like, contract of guarantee & indemnity, law of sale of goods, and law of negotiable instruments Lecture-3 Topic 2: Brief History of the Sale of Goods Act & Negotiable Instruments Act Lecture-1 Teaching Plan

History of Law of Contract, Law of Sale of Goods, and Law of Negotiable Instruments in India Preliminary of Indian Contract Act, Sale of Goods Act, and Negotiable Instruments Act Week 02: July 02, 2012 Lecture-5 Lecture-4 Topic 3: Contract of Indemnity Meaning, definition, and nature of contract of indemnity Liability of indemnity-holder Rights of indemnity-holder Lecture-6 Topic 4: Indemnity in case of international transactions indemnity by government during inter-state transactions , and

Week 03: July 09, 2012

Lecture-7

Topic 5: Contract of Guarantee Meaning, definition, and nature of guarantee Element of consideration in contract of guarantee Extent of suretys liability Discharge of surety from liability

Lecture-8

Discharge of principal debtor Rights of Surety: against the co-sureties, against the principal debtor, and against the creditor Continuing guarantee, and Bank guarantee

Lecture-9

Topic 6: Difference between Contract of Indemnity & Contract of Guarantee

Week 04: July 16, 2012

Lecture-10

Topic 7: Contract of Bailment Meaning, definition, and nature of contract of bailment Rights, duties, and liabilities of the bailor Rights, duties, and liabilities of the bailee

Lecture-11

Topic 8: Concept & Principles of Lien Meaning and nature of lien Particular lien

Lecture-12

General lien

Week 05: July 23, 2012

Lecture-13

Topic 9: Contract of Pledge Meaning and nature of pledge

Lecture-14

Meaning and nature of pledge

Who can pledge Lecture-15 Week 06: July 30, 2012 Lecture-18 Week 07: Aug. 06, 2012 Lecture-20 Lecture-19 Commercial utility of transaction of pledge Topic 10: Difference between Contract of Pledge, Mortgage, Bailment, and Hypothecation Difference between Contract of Pledge, Mortgage, Bailment, and Hypothecation Lecture-21 Topic 11: Contract of Agency Meaning, definition, and nature of contract of agency Week 08: Aug. 13, 2012 Lecture-23 Lecture-24 Lecture-22 Creation of agency, and its various kinds Determination of agency Appointment of sub-agent, and his termination Topic 12: Relations between Principal, Agent and the Third Persons Relations between principal and agent Relations between principal and the third person Rights, duties, and liabilities of principal and agent, both Week 09: Aug. 20, 2012 Lecture-26 Definition clause: goods, price, subject matter, seller, buyer, stipulations, etc. Difference between sale and agreement to sell Sale by sample Lecture-27 Implied conditions as to title of goods, descriptions of goods, quality & condition of goods, etc. Lecture-25 Topic 13: Law of Sale of Goods Meaning, definition, and nature of the term goods Lecture-16 Lecture-17 Rights of pawnee, including right to redeem Rights of pawnee, including right to redeem Commercial utility of transaction of pledge

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Week 10: Aug. 27, 2012

Lecture-28

Rule of caveat emptor, and its exceptions

Lecture-29

Transfer of property in r/o contract of sale goods Transfer of risk from seller to buyer with r/o generic goods and specific goods

Lecture-30

Performance of contract of sale of goods, Delivery of goods and rules relating to delivery

Week 11: Sep. 03, 2012

Lecture-31

Topic 14: Conditions and Warranties

Lecture-32

Topic 15: Legal Position of Unpaid Seller Rights of unpaid seller

Lecture-33

Remedies for breach of contract

Week 12: Sep. 10, 2012

Lecture-34

Topic 16: Auction Sales, and International Sales of Goods Sale by auction International commercial transaction

Lecture-35

Topic 17: Law of Partnership Meaning, definition, and nature of partnership Advantages and disadvantages of partnership

Lecture-36

Mutual relations between partners: implied authority, duties, liabilities, and rights Relations of partners with the third parties Transfer of a partners interest

Week 13: Sep. 17, 2012

Lecture-37

Topic 18: Position of Minor in a Contract of Partnership Position of minor under law of contract Position of minor in a contract of partnership

Lecture-38

Topic 19: Dissolution of Partnership Mutual dissolution

Lecture-39

Compulsory dissolution

Week 14: Sep. 24,

Lecture-40

Topic 20: Law of Negotiable Instruments Meaning, definition, and nature of negotiable instruments, 11

2012

including minimum requirements to make an instrument to be negotiable instrument Lecture-41 Kinds of negotiable instruments, and the basic differences between & among them Acceptance of the instrument (meaning, essentials, rights and privileges) Lecture-42 Payment in due course Rules regarding payment of cheque Dishonor of cheque and its consequences

Week 15 Oct. 01, 2012

Lecture-43

Dishonor of negotiable instruments Discharge of parties

Lecture-44

Topic 21: Holder and Holder in Due Course Meaning of holder and holder in due course

Lecture-45

Difference between holder and holder in due course

Week 16 Oct. 08, 2012

Lecture-46 Lecture-47 Lecture-48

Revision

5.
i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi.

READING AND MATERIALS


Case Book on Contract, Burrows, Andrew; Mohan Law House Short Commentary on Sale of Goods Act, Krishnamachari, D.; Gogia Publications The Indian Partnership Act, Pollock & Mulla, Lexis Nexis Publications The Indian Partnership Act, Bangia, R.K.; Law of Contract, Markanda, P C; Wadhawa & co. Indian contract Act, & Sale of Goods Act : With Notes based on English and Indian Cases, Desai, Trikamlal, Gandhi, B M; Lexis Nexis vii. viii. ix. Indian Contract Law, Bangia, R. K.; Allahabad Law Agency Anson's Law of Contract, Beatson, J; Oxford University Press Digest of Cases on Law of Contract, Soni, Ashok; Universal Law Publishing Co. 12

Textbook

x.

Contracts for the Sale of Goods : A Comparison of U.S. and International Law, Gabriel, Henry Deeb; Oxford University Press

xi.

Concise Law of Government Contracts with Supplement, 1999: Sujan, M. A.; Universal Law Publishing Co.

xii.

International Jurisdiction and Commercial Litigation: Uniform Rules for Contract Disputes, Lith, Helen Van; Asser Press

Prescribed Legislations i. ii. iii. iv. v. Constitution of India, 1950 The Indian Contract Act, 1872 Sale of Goods Act, 1930 The Partnership Act, 1932 Limited Liability Partnership Act, 2008

Journals & Articles i. ii. iii. iv. v. Journal of Contract Law, Lexis Nexis Public Contract Law Journal, American Bar Association European Journal of Commercial Contract Law (EJCCL), Paris Legal Publishers International Journal of Electronic Commerce Australian Business Law Review

( A no. of good Articles on Law of Contract will be provided to the learners during semester)

Note: The above list is indicative and not exhaustive. Earlier editions of a number of the above texts might also be available and can be consulted once account is taken of their datedness, particularly as to applicable case law. These text were selected because they provide in one volume a combination of text, cases and materials, designed to be read as a whole i.e., a one-stop shop. Nevertheless, the text provides the basic reading for the course only. There is much more to the Tort law than this, and you will undoubtedly benefit from undertaking some reading and study of your own. It is creditable if you, in respect of the proper use of independent research and study, follow up in the Law Library some of the case references, periodical articles or other material referred to in the prime textbook or in class or even to do some research of your own. A good resource to use is the Law of Contract section of Symbiosis Law Library and online databases such as Westlaw International and LexisNexis available

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on campus network. Further, I will make available articles by eminent scholars in this field to be issued from the Library (suggestive list will be provided at the time of teaching) . If Copyright policy of the publisher of those articles permits, I will make the soft copy of the articles available in the open access computer lab of SLS through LAN. For supplementary reading, you could, for instance, begin by consulting the relevant sections of the alternative texts placed on loan in the law library. Thereafter you could engage in your own research, with particular reference to journals on online databases including SCC Online, Manupatra, Westlaw International, Emerald and Ebrary.

6.

ASSESSMENT: COURSEWORK = 100%

Learners will be examined in this course by Internal (40%) and External Assessment (60%) format. Internal examination will be conducted for 40 marks. It will include two tutorials (10 marks each) and a Research Project (20 marks). The Symbiosis International University for 60 marks will conduct external written examination at the end of semester. It consists of ten objectives, 2 mark each (20 marks) and 4 subjective questions 10 Marks each with an alternative (40 marks).

Project/Tutorial One research project will be undertaken by learners which will be evaluated out of 20 marks i.e. Written Submissions: 15 Marks and Oral Defense: 5 Marks. In addition, there will be two tutorials. Both the tutorials will be Problem-Solution based tests. Each tutorial will CARRY 10 marks each (Total=20 marks). Each student will attempt it on all the occasion. The timetable of the tutorials is as follows:

Date Tutorial First Test July 24, 2012 Result July 31, 2012 Topic Contract of Indemnity, Guarantee, and Principles of Lien

Second

August 24, 2012

September 2012

1, Contract of Bailment & Pledge, and Contract of Agency

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Project: Submission Assignment of topic to the students June 29, 2012 July 18, 2012 August 29, 2012 September 8, 2012 Interim Final Result

Project/Tutorial Skills The tutorials will give learners an opportunity for assessing their learning of Law of Special Contracts. It should be obvious that the better they are prepared to take part in such test, the more they will learn from it and excel in both examination as well as understanding of Law of Special Contracts. Tutorials also provide them with an opportunity to develop written skills of presentation and reasoned argument. Lack of preparation and a fortiori non-attendance will mean that they will fail to make the most of the learning opportunities provided by these tutorials. In order to achieve the two stated skills objectives presentation and problem solving skills; for all the five subjects, ten tutorials are scheduled in this semester.

Research Project: Research project is aimed at improving the writing, research, communication, and presentation skills to make learners learning academically more challenging and rigorous than standard lecture and test format courses. It also aims at promoting scholarship in this significant field of law, which has gained much momentum in practice but often lacks solid theoretical underpinnings due to lack or inadequacy of statutory provisions. It further aims to enhance learning capability by research amongst the learners, create a forum for enhancing a greater dialogue between the scholarly community, policymakers and practitioners. The learners will be assigned a Chapter from any book on Law of Special Contracts as topic of the research project. The learners will have to make a review of that chapter. It includes conducting a research on the said topic/chapter; making review of few other books on Law of Special Contracts; making review of few articles on said topic/chapter; searching case laws on said topic/chapter; etc. The details about the rules of submission are annexed with this document. (Refer to P. 16 to 21)

Tutorial Preparation & Viva-Voce Learners are asked to pay particular attention to the technique of the dealing with Law of Contract problems because the principal focus of each tutorial will be a written test on recent situations on 15

Law of Contract. This will require study, in advance of the tutorial, of the relevant sections of suggested readings and the relevant case law. Learners are obliged to write two page answers to the stated question in the given tutorial. These answers, written, will form the basis of the tutorial proceedings.

7. ADMINISTRATIVE ARRANGEMENTS The course chief faculty (tutor) for Law of Special Contract is Dr. Madhuker S. Should learner has any problems with his/her work, please see his/her tutor in the first instance. Notices relating to the course will be posted online (www.symlaw.edu.in) as well on the electronic notice board displayed in the foyer of the Symbiosis Law School, NOIDA (Ground Floor).

8. OFFICE HOURS AND CONTACT INFORMATION If few doubts remain, please contact Dr. Madhuker S. via his respective e-mail: madhuker@symlaw.edu.in . I would strongly recommend that no learner should call me after the college hours. Please do speak up during the class! We at Symbiosis want each of the learners to glean as much from these readings and our discussions as possible. That is why; we are not relying on the traditional method of testing. Remember that there is no such thing as a "stupid question", provided it is relevant to the subject matter. We welcome your questions and your comments.

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Format for Interim Submission Name :

Semester, Batch yr., & PRN No. : Title of the project Title of the book : :

1. Brief review of the book assigned in the project (in around 100 words) .. 2. Statutory provision of the project topic (statutory provision should be in verbatim, and with illustration, if illustration is given in the Bare Act) 3. Brief Review of topic of the project assigned .. 4. Cases referred in the book (with reference to the topic) & (write only complete citation of the cases) .. 5. Cases searched upon (other than the referred book, and the cases must be decided upon either by the High Court, or by the Supreme Court during the last five yrs.) & (write only complete citation of such searched cases) ..

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Format for Final Submission Besides giving front page, certificate, index, and bibliography, contents of the final submission must include following points:1 1. Extensive review of the book assigned in the project (in around 1000 words) .. 2. Brief review of at-least three books on Law of Special Contract 3. Brief review of at-least two articles (articles must be related to topic of the research)2 .. 4. Explain statutory provision of the project topic (statutory provision should be in verbatim, and with illustrations) 5. Extensive Review of the topic of the project assigned a. Discuss the topic in brief .. b. Discuss the cases referred in the book in brief (with reference to the topic)

Photo copy of the chapter (topic assigned) reviewed from the book assigned must be enclosed as Annexure with the final Project Report
1

Print out of the Articles reviewed must be enclosed as Annexure with the final Project Report
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c. Discuss the searched cases mentioned in interim submission in brief .. 6. Conclusion ..(it should tell about your views on how the assigned book helped you out in understanding the legal concept of the topic assigned in the project).

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General Guidelines for Project Law of Special Contract The Maximum Marks for the project are 20 (15-Written Work, 5-Viva) The final copy of the project should be presented in accordance with the following specifications: 1. The paper used for printing shall be of A4 size. 2. Printing shall be in a standardized form, on both sides of the paper and in one-and-ahalf spacing. Font: Verdana Font Size: Main Heading 16(Bold), Sub Heading 14(Bold) and text 12 Text should be Justified MS Word: 2003-7 Version, Page layout: left-1.5 cm, top-right-bottom-1 cm.

3. A margin of one-and-a-half inches shall be left on the left hand side. 4. The title of the project, name of the candidate, degree, faculty, university, month and year of submission, and the name of the research guide with his/her designation and full official address shall be printed on the first page and on the front cover as given in. 5. A certificate affirming that the research work of the candidate is original, and that the material, if any, borrowed from other sources and incorporated in the thesis has been duly acknowledged should be signed by the candidate and counter signed by the research guide. It should also state that the candidate himself/herself will be held responsible and accountable for plagiarism, if any, detected later. The candidate and research guide should further certify that research papers, if any, published based on the research conducted out of and in the course of the study leading to Ph.D. are also appended. 6. Bibliography should be given at last page of the project report, and should be written alphabetically. (please see the rules of citation/bibliography)

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RULES OF CITATION/BIBLIOGRAPHY The Bibliography should contain a list of all the books, journals, articles and pamphlets that the researcher has consulted during the course of the study. It should be arranged alphabetically. The entries in the bibliography should be made adopting the following order: For books the order should be as under: 1. Name of author, last name first, followed by initials 2. Title of book in italics 3. Place, publisher and year of publication 4. Number of edition/volume. 5. The pagination E.g., Kothari, CR. Quantitative Techniques, New Delhi, Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., 1978, pp 43-46. In case you use book by two or more authors then citation should be written in the following way: Kothari, CR., & Kothari, RC Quantitative Techniques, New Delhi, Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., 1978, pp 43-46. Kothari, CR., Kothari, RC &Patil, CR, Quantitative Techniques, New Delhi, Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., 1978, pp 43-46. For journals, articles and pamphlets the order should be as under: 1. Name of author, last name first followed by initials 2. Title of article, in quotation marks 3. Name of periodical, in italics 4. The volume and number of journal or periodical 5. Place, publisher and year of publication 6. The pagination Robert, VR. Coping with Short-term International Money Flows, the Banker, London, Vol VII, No 4, Sept 1991, p 995 In case you use an article by two or more authors then citation should be written in the following way:

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Robert, VR, & Robert, RV, Coping with Short-term International Money Flows, the Banker, London, Vol VII, No 4, Sept 1991, p 995. Robert, VR., Robert, RV & Michael, VR, Coping with Short-term International Money Flows, the Banker, London, VII, No 4, Sept 1991, p 995. For Online Contents including Databases, Website ARTICLE FROM A DATABASE Schredl, M., Brenner, C., &Faul, C. (2002), Positive Attitude towards Dreams: Reliability and Stability of Ten-item Scale, North American Journal of Psychology, 4, 343 -346. Retrieved on December 16, 2004 from Academic Search Premier Database. NON-PERIODICAL DOCUMENTS ON THE INTERNET Library and Archives Canada (2002), Celebrating Womens Achievements: Women Artists in Canada, Retrieved on December 16, 2004, from http://www.collectionscanada.ca/women/h12-500-e.html ARTICLE IN A NEWSPAPER OR MAGAZINE Semenak, S. (1995, December 28), Feeling right at home: Government residence eschews traditional rules. Montreal Gazette, p. A4. Driedger, S. D. (1998, April 20), After Divorce, Macleans, 111(16), 38-43 In place of the above rules of citation, if student feels to use Blue Book of Citation, it is authorised. Copy of the same is available in the Symbiosis Law School, NOIDA library on request. Please note: Learners are required to submit 1 bound copy of the Project and soft copy of the project by email to madhuker@symlaw.edu.in

Dr. Madhuker S. (Email: madhuker@symlaw.edu.in) Course in Charge, Law of Special Contracts Symbiosis Law School, NOIDA 201301 Website: www.symlaw.edu.in

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