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Melt Spinning of Textile Fibers

Bengt Hagstrm Swerea IVF

+46 31 706 63 00
E-mail: bengt.hagstrom@swerea.se

Global fiber production 2009


(Mtons)
Synthetic fibers Polyester PP (Polypropylene) Polyamide (Nylon) Acrylics (PAN) Others (elastane, aramids, PVC, PTFE) Cellulosic (Viscose, CA) Lyocell (cellulosic) Cotton Wool Silk Total 43.6 32.0 5.8 3.3 1.95 0.64 3.5 0.2 22 1.17 0.14 70.5 Melt spun fibers

Structure of polymers (long molecules)


ex. PVC

Repeating unit in PVC

Manufacturing of polymers (polymerisation)


Poly addition: A+A = A-A, A-A+A = A-A-A ...
H H H H

C
H

C
H

C
H

C
H

Polyethylene

Low pressure process for polymerisation of ethylene gas into polyethylene (HDPE, LLDPE), similar for PP but propylene is monomer.

Manufacturing of polymers (polymerisation)


Poly condensation: A+B+A+B+A+B = C-C-C + 3H2O Example: PET, PC, PA

Sensitive fr hydrolysis = depolymerisation

Raw material must by dry before processing

Macromolecules
A polymer molecule is like a very long and thin chain consisting of many links (repeating units)

Example: In polyethylene the link is ethylene. The number of links can be 10.000-100.000 and the chain length 1-10 m (thickness of plastic bag 30 m)
JJ

(Semi) crystalline polymers


If the chain structure is regular and fairly symetrical crystallisation is possible when the temperature is lowered. In the crystalline region the chains are closely packed in a regular why. The crystallites are surrounded and connected by amorphous chains. That is, crystalline polymers are never 100 % crystalline. The crystalline blocks are hard and regide. The surrounding amophous layers are soft (melt) when the temperature is higher than Tg for the amophous phase. A single polymer chain may participate in several blocks and then ties the crystalline blocks toghether.

Cooling from melt

Crystalline lamellae structure

Stacked lamellae

Spherulites and cylindrites


(Superstructures) Fiber

From quiescent (non-oriented) melt

From deformed (oriented) melt

E-modulus/ hardness

Crystalline polymer

brittle

tough

Tg

Tm Temperature

Change of volume during cooling or heating Crystalline polymer


cm3/g
Some polymers hardly crystallise at all during fast cooling (PET)

Temperature
Tg Tc Tm

Bond strength within and between polymer chains


Very strong

Weak (but
increase with chain length)

High strength fibres

PE: Dyneema, Spectra

High strength fibres


Polymer Tensile strength (Mpa) oriented fibre PPTA (Kevlar) PA6 PEEK PPS PE 3000 600 700 500 500 (3000) Tensile strength (Mpa) injection moulded item 65 115 70 30

Deformation of crystalline polymer

Spinning fibers from a polymer melt


Overview
Melt spinning is the preferred method of manufacture for polymeric fibers. The polymer is melted and pumped through a spinneret (die) with numerous holes (one to thousands). The molten fibers are cooled, solidified, and collected on a take-up wheel. Stretching of the fibers in both the molten and solid states provides for orientation of the polymer chains along the fiber axis. Polymers such as poly(ethylene terephthalate) and nylon 6,6 are melt spun in high volumes.
An excellent general reference on fiber spinning is: A. Ziabicki, Fundamentals of Fiber Formation, Wiley, New York (1976). ISBN 0471982202. A classic article which emphasizes structure development during melt spinning is: J.R. Dees and J.E. Spruiell, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 18, pp. 10531078 (1974).

Process Schematic

Different fiber cross sections are possible


Examples

Hollow

Tri-lobal

Bi-component

Principle of melt spinning


Gear pump

The extruder

Gear pump for stable volumetric flow rate

Extruder

Spinneret

Spinneret

Melt spinning facility at Swerea IVF

Melt spinning facility at Swerea IVF

Spinneret
Top rollers

Melt draw
Middle rollers (heated) Bottom rollers (heated) Take off roller

Solid state draw

Drawing (stretching) in melt and solid states


Melt Drawing (T>Tm)
Extruder gear pump spinneret

MDR = V1 / V0 Solid State Drawing (Tm>T>Tg) SSDR = V2 / V1

V0

V2

V1

Task
Given: PP is fed from extruder at 230C. Gear pump speed is 10 rpm and its specific output is 2.4 cm3/revolution. Spinneret has 48 holes with exit diameter of 0.6 mm. Winding speed is 370 m/minute. Questions:
V1

V0

What is the filament linear density in units of dtex (=g/10000m)? What is the fiber diameter? What is the melt draw ratio?

Melt spinning of PET yarns


different processes

High speed spinning of PET

Stress-strain curves for PET

Tenacity and elongation at break vs. winding speed

Structure formation during high speed spinning of PET

Heat shrinkage and dyeability of PET fibers

Classical way to make a yarn


Cutting to staples (2-5cm)

Carding into a sliver

Stuffer box crimping

Spinning into a yarn

Texturing of filament yarns


Air texturing
Loops and a hairy morphology Softer and comfortable feel (hand)

Loops and a hairy morphology Softer and comfortable feel (hand)

False twist texturing

Melt spun multi-component fibers

Sheath-core

Sheath-sheath-core

Bi-component fiber extrusion technology


V0 V2

V1

Sheath polymer Core polymer

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Melt spun multi-component fibers

Islands-in-the-sea (micro / nano fibers)

Melt spun multi-component fibers

Sea polymer is dissolved producing submicron fibers

Melt spun multi-component fibers

Segmented pie

Mechanical agitation is freeing microfibers

Development of functional fibers at Swerea IVF


Techniques used for producing fibers are: Melt spinning Solvent spinning (wet spinning) Electrospinning

The fibers act as building blocks in refined textile materials, e.g. in clothing, technical textiles and medical applications, where they increase the technically added value.

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Laboratory scale fiber production


Melt spinning: 1-3 kg/h

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Laboratory scale fiber production


Wet spinning (with/without air gap): 0.2 kg/h

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Laboratory scale fiber production


Electrospinning of nanofibers: 0.1 kg/h
Swedish patent 0700403-9

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Active fiber developments


Melt spinning
Temperature regulating fibers Conductive fibers Piezoelectric fibers Electro spinning of nanofibers Technical textiles (filter media) Biomedical applications (wound care, TE) Solution spinning Biopolymers (cellulose)

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High latent heat upon phase change


(melting / crystallization)
Temperature T
Examples: Water: 333 J/g, Tm=0C Paraffin: 150-250 J/g, Tm = -3C 80C

Tm

Liquid
Solid

Heat energy Q
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PCM in cloths
How it is supposed to work

Ski booth with PCM

Hard work, PCM melts, energy is absorbed as latent heat Cooling effect

At rest, PCM solidifies, heat is given off Heating effect


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Bi-component PCM-fibers
WO/2009/031946

Sheath polymer PCM/Polymer alloy


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PCM-fibers in contact with the skin


Heat release (exo, warming)
Solidification

Comfortable skin temperature

25

30

35
H

Melting

Heat absorption (endo, cooling)


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PCM-fibers in intermediate layers (works as a thin insulation)

100 80 Fireman 60

40
20

Heat flow ~ dT/dx


Cold-storage work

0 -20 -40 Skin contact

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Effect of washing on thermal efficiency


5 dtex fibers with PET and PA6 sheaths (60J/g at 32 C)

Continous filaments

38 mm staples

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Heat flow from a body at 34 C into a PCM fiber wading


160 140

Heat flow, W/m2

120 100 80 60 40 20 Time, s 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000

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Electrically conductive fibres


Bi-component fibers with conductive material in the core Conductive material:
Carbon black Carbon nanotubes Graphene

100 nm

Scientific issues: Dispersion and percolation


Conductivity (log scale)

% Conductive filler
Source: R. B. Rosner, Compliance Engineering Magazine, (2001).

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Conductivity of CPCs
N-MWNT/PE () CB/PP ()

CB/PE (o)
H-MWNT/PE ( )

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Conductivity vs. melt drawing, CB


6% CB/PP ()

6% CB/PE ()
4% CB/PP () 4% CB/PE () 6% H-MWNT/PE ()

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Conductivity vs. melt drawing, MWNT


4% N-MWNT/PE ()
2% N-MWNT/PE () 6% H-MWNT/PE () 1.5% N-MWNT/PE ()

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Piezoelectric effect

Use: 3 1 Sensors Actuators Energy harvesting

G33 (V/m/Pa) G31 (V/m/Pa)


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-crystalline PVDF is piezoelectric

+ +

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Melt spinning and cold drawing produce -crystalline PVDF fibers

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Development strategies for piezoelectric textile fibers


Bi-component fibers embedded in conductive matrix/coating 3-component fibers or coated bi-component fibers

Conductive sheath/core

PVDF
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-phase PVDF bi-co fibers with conductive core

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Poling in radial direction (orientation of crystallite dipoles)


Silver paint or conductive polymer

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Response in tension
Measured characteristics:

3000 Volts per unit of tensile strain


Bi-component yarn (100-200 filaments)

g31 0.3 V/m/Pa (field strength in radial direction as result of axial stress) Commercial films: g31=0.2 V/m/Pa

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Woven heart beat sensor from piezoelectric PVDF yarn