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# Dr. S.

It

## control systems in the presence of uncertainty.

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Obtain a mathematical model of the system Use a control design method together with the system model to come up with a controller with certain parameters and structure. Simulate the closed loop system to verify that specifications are met. Implement the controller in the real system and tweak the controller parameters if necessary.
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The

quality of the model and the quality of the design determines success using this approach. models are never perfect and often inaccurate. This is why the study of robust control is important.
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However,

Signal uncertainty.
Eg. noise. Unknown disturbances, measurement

Model uncertainty.
Eg. Unknown parameters, unmodelled high frequency dynamics, ignored nonlinearities.

## Uncertainty cannot be avoided, but it can be managed.

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Identify and quantify uncertainty Analyse the impact of uncertainty on control system performance (Analyse the robustness of the control system) Design control systems that provide good performance in the presence of uncertainty (Design robust control systems)

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## The term complementary follows from the identity S +T = I

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Stability is one of the main issues in control design. Two methods commonly used to determine closed loop stability are: Evaluate the poles of the closed loop system (1+L(s) = 0). Plot the frequency response of L(s) in the complex plane and use Nyquist's stability criterion.

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## Typically, we require GM > 2 and PM > 300

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The concept of bandwidth is important in understanding the benefits and trade-offs involved with feedback. The closed loop bandwidth, B, is the frequency where S( j) first crosses 1 / 2 0.707( 3dB)
from below.

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Loop shaping

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e = y - r = -Sr +SGdd - Tn where S = 1/(1+L) and T = L/(1+L). The following trade-offs exist: Good command following L large. Good disturbance rejection L large Good noise attenuation L small. Small input u K,L small. Nominal stability (stable plant) L small Robust stability (stable plant) L small

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